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Classical Mechanics - Homework Assignment 4

Alejandro G´omez Espinosa October 18, 2012

Goldstein, Ch.3, 18 At perigee of an elliptic gravitational orbit a particle experiences an impulse S in the radial direction, sending the particle intro another elliptic orbit. Determine the new semimajor axis, eccentricity, and orientation in terms of the old.

Figure 1: Sketch of a particle moving in an elliptic gravitational orbit experience an impulse S in the perigee.

This exercise is described in the Figure 1. Here, in the perigee the particle experiences an impulse S, then:

S = ∆p = p f p i

p f = p i + S r

where p i is perpendicular to r and S is in the direction of r . To determine the new semimayor axis and the eccentricity, we must calculate ﬁrst the angular momentum (l) and the energy (E):

l f = r × p f = r × (p i + S r ) = r × p i + 0 = l i

This means that ∆l = 0, that makes sense since ∆p is in the radial direction. In the case of the energy after the impulse:

r˙ f = f ·

= p f

m

r

E f =

1

2 µr˙

2

f

· r = p i + S r

m

· r = S

m

=

µS 2

2m 2

=

µm

S 2

2m

since p i is perpendicular to r. Now, the eccentricity is:

e f 2 = 1 + 2El mk 2 2

2

= 1 + mk 2l 2 (E i + E f ) = e

2

i

gomez@physics.rutgers.edu

1

+ 2E

mk 2

f

l

2
i mk 2

= e

2

i

+ lS

where, in the case of a graviational potential, k = GmM . Then, the new semimayor axis is:

a =

l

1

mk (1 e 2 )

the new semimayor in terms of the initial one must be:

a

f

a

i

2

i

= 1 e

1 e 2

f

=

1 e

2

i

1 e

2

i

l 2 S 2 m 2 k 2

=

1

1 l 2 S 2

m 2 k 2

1

(1e

2

i

)

a f =

a i

1 a i S 2

mk

=

1

1 a i S 2

mk

Finally, for the orientation, let’s write the initial orbit as:

and the ﬁnal as:

r i (φ) =

l

2

1

mk 1 e i cos φ

r f (φ) =

l

2

1

mk 1 e f cos(φ + φ 0 )

in the perigee, both orbits must be equal and φ = π:

r i (φ = π)

=

r f (φ = π)

1 1

=

1 + e i

+ e i

cos φ

1

1 1 + e f cos(φ 0 ) e i

+ e f cos(φ 0 )

=

=

e f

Goldstein, Ch.3, 29 If all the momentum vectors of a particle along its trajectory are translated so as to start from the center of force, then the heads of the vectors trace out the particle’s hodograph, a locus curve of considerable antiquity in the history of mechanics, with something of a revival in connection with space vehicle dynamics. By taking the cross product of L with the Laplace-Runge-Lenz vector A. Show that the hodograph for elliptical Kepler motion is a circle of radius mk/l with origin on the y axis displaced a distance A/l from the center of force.

The Laplace-Runge-Lenz vector is given by:

A = p × L mkr

r

where p is the momentum of the particle of mass m in a central force potential. Deﬁne the unit vector

r

r

= cos θ x + sin θ y

In addition, we know that the angular momentum vector is in the z direction: L = lz , thus:

A

= p × L mk (cos θx + sin θy )

= l(p × z ) mk cos θx mk sin θy

2

Taking the cross product:

L × A = l 2 z × (p × z ) mkl cos θy + mkl sin θx

here, taking p = p x x + p y y , the product:

z × (p × z ) = z × (p x y + p y x

) = p x x + p y y = p

then:

L × A = l 2 p mkl cos θy + mkl sin θx

Now, from equation (3.86) of Goldstein, we know that the value of the Laplace- Runge-Lenz vector in the perihelion is A = mkex , where e is the eccentricity. If we start the hodograph in the perihelion, we can match:

 L × (mkex ) = mkely = mkey = p = p =

l 2 p mkl cos θy + mkl sin θx

l 2 p mkl cos θy + mkl sin θx

lp mk cos θy + mk sin θx

mk

l

mk

l

sin θx + mke

l

+ mk

l

cos θ y

sin θx + A

l

+ mk

l

cos θ y ⇐⇒ A = mke

where we can conﬁrm that r = mk/l and the center is in the origin, displaced in the direction of y a distance A/l.

Goldstein, Ch.3, 31 Examine the scattering produced by a repulsive central force f = kr 3 . Show that the diﬀerential cross section is given by

k

(1 x)dx

σ(Θ)dΘ =

2E x 2 (2 x) 2 sin πx

where x is the ratio of Θand E is the energy.

Starting with the diﬀerential equation of the orbit:

d 2 u dθ 2

+ u = m l 2 du V u

d

1

where u = 1/r . We must express the repulsive central force in terms of a potential V (1/u):

f = −∇V

then, the orbit equation is:

d 2 u

2

+ u = m ku

l

2

that has the solutions when α 2 = 1 + mk :

l

2

V =

k 2 = ku 2

2r

2

d 2 u + 1 + mk u = 0

2

l

2

u = A cos(αθ) + B sin(αθ)

3

Then, let’s use boundary conditions. In the case where r → −∞, i.e., the particle is moving in the direction of the potential but is very far away, the variable u 0 and the angle θ = π:

 u(θ = π) = 0 A cos(απ) + B sin(απ) = 0 A = −B tan(απ) (1)

On the other hand, once the particle experienced scattering, it moves in an angle

θ = Θ when r → ∞, then

u 0:

 u(θ = Θ) = 0 A cos(αΘ) + B sin(αΘ) = 0 (2) Replacing (1) in (2): −B tan(απ) cos(αΘ) + B sin(αΘ) = 0 B(sin(αΘ) − tan(απ) cos(αΘ)) = 0 sin(αΘ) − tan(απ) cos(αΘ) = 0 cos(απ) sin(αΘ) − sin(απ) cos(αΘ) = 0 sin(αΘ − απ) = 0 α(Θ − π) = π α(x − 1) = 1 ⇐⇒ x = Θ π 1 α =

x 1

Replacing α in the expression above:

α

2

=

x 1 2

1

=

1 + mk

l

2

1 + mk

l

2

In terms of the impact parameter s, l = mv 0 s = s 2mE. Thus,

1 k

=

(x 1) 2

1 +

2Es 2

k 1 (x 1) 2

2Es 2

1 2

s

=

=

s 2 =

(x 1) 2

2E

x(2 x)

1) 2

k

(x

2

2E x(2 x)

k

(x

1)

Derivating both sides:

2sds =

k

2(x 1)

2) 2 dx = k

(1 x)

E x 2 (2 x) 2 dx

2E x 2 (x

4

Finally, the diﬀerential cross section is:

σ(Θ)dΩ =

|sds|

sin Θ =

k

(1 x)

2E x 2 (2 x) 2 sin() dx

Goldstein, Ch.3, 35 Another version of the truncated Coulomb potential has the form

V

V

k k a

r

=

= 0

r < a r > a

Obtain closed-form expressions for the scattering angle and the diﬀerential scatter- ing cross section. These are most conveniently expressed in terms of a parameter

What is the total cross

measuring the distance of closest approach in units of a. section?.

Figure 2: Sketch of the problem 35. Here, θ is the angle

xob, γ =

.

φ = doc = cob and Θ = xoe

xod, ξ =

aob =

eod,

We have two cases, consider the case where the potential vanishes:

where

1

2

mr˙ 2 + 1

2 mr 2 θ 2

˙

1

2

mr˙ 2 +

l 2

2mr 2

dr

dt

˙

mr 2 θ

dt

5

=

=

=

=

=

E

E

m E

2

2

2mr 2

l

l

l

mr 2

(3)

(4)

Dividing (3) by (4):

 dr m E − 2 2mr 2 l 2 dθ = l mr 2 1 dr dθ = r 2 2Em l 2 − 1 r 2

Replacing α

thus,

0 2 = 2Em

l

2

and making the change in the variable:

u = 1 r

du = d 1

r = 1 2 dr

r

=

du

α 0 u 2

2

changing the variable one more time:

then,

u = α 0 cos x

du = α 0 sin xdx

α 0 sin xdx α 1 cos 2

x =

dx =

x = θ θ 0

where we can take θ 0 = π/2 just to have our coordinates in the regular form. Going back to our original variable:

1 r = u = α 0 cos x = 2Rm cos(θ π )

l

2

2

1

r = 2Rm

l

2

cos(θ π )

2

For the second part of the exercise, when r < a:

1

2 mr˙ 2 +

l

2

2mr 2 + k

r

k

a

1

2 mr˙ 2 +

2

2mr 2 k

l

r

=

=

 (5) E E (6)

where k = k and E = E+ k a . Equation (5) is the regular central potential equation, where the solution, in terms of the angles described in Figure 2 are:

1

r = β 1 + 1 +

2 cos γ π β = k m ,

α

β

2

l

2

α = 2E m

l

2

(7)

here, according with the angles introduced in Figure 2, the angle γ = Θ + ξ. Then, (6) and (7) must be equal when the particle start experiencing the potential:

2Em

l

2

cos θ π = β 1 + 1 +

2

α

β

2

6

cos γ π

2

(8)

Then, from the Figure 2, we can see that γ = Θ + ξ therefore:

cos γ π = cos Θ + ξ π = sin (Θ + ξ) = sin Θ cos ξ + cos Θ sin ξ

2

2

= a 2 s 2

a

s

sin Θ + a cos Θ

(9)

For the angle θ, we can probe that ξ = π θ, thus:

cos θ π = cos π ξ π = sin ξ =

2

2

s

a

(10)

Replacing (9) and (10) in (8) and, the values of β and α:

2Em

s

a

l

2

2Em

s

a

l

2

sl 2Em

a

=

=

=

β 1 + 1 +

α 2 a 2 s 2
β

a

sin Θ + a cos Θ

s

k m + k 2 m 2 + 2E ml 2 a 2 s 2

l

2

l

2

a

sin Θ + a cos Θ

s

k m + k 2 m 2 + 2E ml 2 a 2 s 2 sin Θ + a cos Θ

a

s

(11)

where we have a function s(Θ). Once we derivate both sides, we will found an expression for s ds that we can replace in:

σ(Θ)dΩ = sin |sds| Θ

to ﬁnd the diﬀerential cross section and for the total cross section, we have to derivate in the solid angle dΩ.

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