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Zome system in rational trigonometry and rational projective trigonometry

M M Almanjumi School of Maths UNSW Sydney 2052 Australia

Abstract

The work is devoted to the study of The Zome System in rational trigonometry and projective rational trigonom- etry. By using The Zome System no more the Öfteen triangles and nineteen tetrahedrons have been found. Major results also include six new theorems which have been developed using rational trigonometry.

1 Introduction

Geometry continues to fascinate us over time with the patterns of sizes, angles and shapes using the universal language of mathematics to reveal those patterns. The Zome system is an exceptional ball-and-strut system,

designed for children but also appeals to professionals in both Öeld of science and art. The system consists of geometric holes in sphere-shaped connectors and each ball is linked to another by means of sticks with di§erent shapes and colours to make the construction simple.

A new theory of trigonometry, called rational trigonometry, was developed in 2005 by N. J. wildberger (UNSW)

in Divine Proportions: Rational Trigonometry to Universal Geometry, Wild Egg Books, Sydney, 2005. Rational trigonometry is a new framework that replaces distance and angle with quadratic concepts called quadrance and spread . The projective plane inherits a rich metrical structure which extends to higher dimensions and arbitrary Öelds, a fact which has major implications for algebraic geometry, and possibly also for di§erential geometry.

Thalesítheorem and Pythagorasítheorem are particularly important here with the wide variety of classical spherical formulas being replaced by simpler, polynomial relations.

In this project we are going to Örstly look at the background of the Zome system. Secondly we will then give basic

deÖnitions and facts of rational trigonometry covering four theorems proposed by N. J. Wildberger. We used these to establish 6 new theorems. This is done by constructing Öfteen possible triangles using the Zome system derived from a regular pentagon. Finally we give main deÖnitions and laws of projective trigonometry covering twelve theorems given by N. J. Wildberger. We then construct nineteen possible tetrahedrons using the Öfteen triangles that we found by using the Zome system. After determining the projective quadrances for each tetrahedron, we then used the Projective Cross Law Theorem in order to determine the projective spreads for each tetrahedron.

2 The Zome System

In structural design or construction, a Zome is a large family of geometric shapes that can be built and gives self-supporting volumes without the need for internal support and in which one can live and enjoy all the space, cosmetics lines, the roundness of the dome, polygonal and no right angles. The structure is like a skeleton, and the organization of the balanced facets is of an amazing strength. As it is easy to construct, one can direct what he wants: from the niche of a dog, a bird aviary, a workshop, shelter with tools or materials, greenhouse as extra room and of course as a full habitat for the largest. The mathematics set of the Zome system is a plastic construction composed of balls and sticks called respectively nodes and struts. When assembled together they form an amazing mathematically and creatively fascinating structures. The Zome tool struts colours are usually red, yellow, blue, and green. They have respectively pentagon, tri- angular, rectangle and rhombus end shapes. They come in small, medium and large sizes. However, we will not use the green ones in this project. Green struts are those generally necessary for building regular tetrahedrons, octahedrons and are a little harder to work with.

1

Figure 1: White node and struts h t t p : / / w w

Figure 1: White node and struts

h t t p : / / w w w . g e o r g e h a r t . c o m / v i r t u a l - p o l y h e d r a / z o m e t o o l. h t m l

2.1 Possible constructions

Below are some possible constructions that be made from using the Zome system.

2.1.1 Tetrahedron This has four faces, four vertexes and six edges.

from using the Zome system. 2.1.1 Tetrahedron This has four faces, four vertexes and six edges.

Figure 2: Tetrahedron

2

2.1.2

Cube

This has six faces, eight vertexes and twelve edges.

Cube This has six faces, eight vertexes and twelve edges. Figure 3: Cube h t t

Figure 3: Cube h t t p : / / w w w . g e o r g e h a r t . c o m / v i r t u a l -

p o l y h e d r a / z o m e t o o l. h t m l

2.1.3 Octahedron

This has eight faces, six vertexes and twelve edges.

This has eight faces, six vertexes and twelve edges. Figure 4: Terahedron and Octahedron h t

Figure 4: Terahedron and Octahedron

h t t p : / / w w w . g e o r g e h a r t . c o m / v i r t u a l - p o l y h e d r a / z o m e t o o l. h t m l

3

2.1.4

Dodecahedron

This has twelve faces, twenty vertexes and thirty edges.

This has twelve faces, twenty vertexes and thirty edges. Figure 5: Dodecahedron h t t p

Figure 5: Dodecahedron

h t t p :/ / w w w . g e o r g e h a r t . c o m / v i r t u a l -

p o l y h e d r a / z o m e t o o l. h t m l

2.1.5 Building Icosahedron

This has twenty faces, twelve vertexes and thirty edges. This can be done by Örst connecting twelve red (pentagon) struts to a white node and connecting twelve white nodes to each of the ends of those struts. This gives the foundation for the main structure, where each of twelve external white nodes are connected to the neighboring Öve white nodes using blue (rectangle) struts. After removing the internal white node and connected twelve struts it gives the Icosahedron.

node and connected twelve struts it gives the Icosahedron. Figure 6: Icosahedron h t t p

Figure 6: Icosahedron

h t t p : / / w w w . g e o r g e h a r t . c o m / v i r t u a l - p o l y h e d r a / z o m e t o o l. h t m l

4

3

Rational trigonometry

It is a new framework for planar trigonometry and been proposed [N J Wildberger]). Rational trigonometry replaces distance and angle with quadratic concepts called quadrance and spread. The usual laws are replaced by purely algebraic analogs, with the consequence that they hold in much wider generality, allow more accurate calculations, and are much easier to learn. The usual menagerie of transcendental circular functions and their inverses play no role.

3.1 Basic deÖnitions and facts of rational trigonometry

DeÖnition 1 The quadrance Q(A 1 ;A 2 ) between the points A 1 [x 1 ;y 1 ] and A 2 [x 2 ;y 2 ] is the number

Q (A 1 ;A 2 ) (x 2 x 1 ) 2 + (y 2

y 1 ) 2 :

DeÖnition 2 The spread s (l 1 ;l 2 ) ,which is a number between 0 and 1, is the notion of angle between to lines l 1 and l 2

Theorem 3 The Triple quad formula suppose that A 1 ;A 2 and A 3 are points with Q 1 Q (A 1 ;A 2 ) ; Q 2

Q (A 1 ;A 3 ) and Q 3 Q (A 2 ;A 3 ) : Then

(Q 1 + Q 2 + Q 3 ) 2 = 2 Q 2 + Q 2

1

2

+ Q

2

3 :

precisely when A 1 ;A 2 and A 3 are collinear.

Theorem

4 Pythagorasí theorem

One of the fundamental theorems, in rational trigonometry becomes more general, extending to an arbitrary Öeld, not of characteristic two.

(A 1 ;A 3 ) and

(Pythagorasítheorem) Suppose that the triangle A 1 A 2 A 3 has qudrances Q 1 Q (A 2 ;A 3 ) ;Q 2 Q Q 3 Q (A 1 ;A 2 ) : Then

Q 1 + Q 2 = Q 3

precisely when A 1 A 3 and A 2 A 3 are perpendicular.

Theorem 5 The spread law

Suppose three

points A 1 ;A 2 and A 3 form non-zero quadrances Q 1 Q (A 2 ;A 3 ) ;Q 2 Q (A 1 ;A 2 ) and Q 3

Q (A 1 ;A 3 ) : DeÖne the spreads s 1

s (A 1 A 2 ;A 1 A 3 ) ;s 2 s (A 2 A 1 ;A 2 A 3 ) and

s 3 s (A 3 A 1 ;A 3 A 2 ) : Then

s 1

Q

1

= s 2 = s 3 :

Q

2

Q

3

Theorem 6 The cross law

Suppose three points

A 1 ;A 2 and A 3 form quadrances Q 1 Q (A 2 ;A 3 ) ;Q 2 Q (A 1 ;A 3 ) and Q 3 Q (A 1 ;A 2 ) ;

and deÖne the cross c 3 c (A 3 A 1 ;A 3 A 2 ) : Then

(Q 1 + Q 2 Q 3 ) 2 = 4Q 1 Q 2 c 3 :

5

3.2

Triangles, consisting of zome system

Using the zome system we can construct many triangle, each formed by 3 3 = 9 di§erent sticks: 3 blue called B 1 ;B 2 ;B 3 ( respectively small, medium and large), also 3 red called R 1 ;R 2 ;R 3 ( respectively small, medium and large), also 3 yellow called Y 1 ;Y 2 ;Y 3 ( respectively small, medium and large).

;Y 2 ;Y 3 ( respectively small, medium and large). Figure 7: Struts These can be

Figure 7: Struts

These can be used to create triangles, and we are going to study some of these triangles to determine the quadrances of each of the sticks above, and also the spreads formed by any two sticks intersecting from a vertex ( white ball ). Consider Örst the following pentagon.

6

Figure 8: Pentagon We will draw a line from A to C which will be

Figure 8: Pentagon

We will draw a line from A to C which will be B 2 :

We will draw a line from A to C which will be B 2 : We

We have a triangle ABC and we are going to study this triangle as a Örst triangle.

3.2.1 The First Triangle:

and we are going to study this triangle as a Örst triangle. 3.2.1 The First Triangle:

Figure 10: The Örst triangle

7

As you can see this triangle ABC , we take this triangle from the pentagon above. So, we have in this triangle

We assume that

s

s

1

2

=

=

s 3 = = 5 p 5

8

= 5 + p 5

8

Q(A; B) = Q(B; C) = B 1 = 1

Now, we want to Önd B 2 ; we can apply the spread law to Önd B 2 ; the spread law is

s 1

Q

1

= s 2 = s 3

Q

2

Q

3

By substituting the values that we have in the spread law

Hence,

Now, we have that

we can also infer that

s 1 = s 2 = s 3 B 1 B 2 B 1 =
s 1
= s 2 = s 3
B 1
B 2
B 1
=
1
B 2
5+ p 5
1
8
B 2 =
=
3 =
=
5 p 5
2 p 5 + 2

8

B 3 = 2

3.2.2 The Second Triangle:

We can construct the second triangle from three sticks of B 1 ; and we are also going to study this triangle.

triangle from three sticks of B 1 ; and we are also going to study this

Figure 11: The second triangle

8

we know in this triangle the three quadrances

Q(A; B) = Q(A; C) = Q(B; C) = B 1 = 1:

So, we can use the cross law to Önd one of the three spreads. The cross law is

(Q 1 + Q 2 Q 3 ) 2 = 4Q 1 Q 2 (1 s 3 )

By substituting the values in the cross law

Hence,

We will have that

Because the triangle is equilateral. Hence,

3.2.3 The third triangle:

(B 1 + B 1 B 1 ) 2 = 4B 1 B 1 (1 s 3 )

(1 + 1 1) 2 = 4 (1) (1) (1 s 3 )

s 3 = 3

4

s 2 = s 1 = s 3 = 3

4

we can construct the third triangle from two sticks of B 2 and one stick of B 1 :

We know in this triangle that

from two sticks of B 2 and one stick of B 1 : We know in

Figure 12: The third triangle

9

Q(A; B) = B 1 = 1

Q(A; C) = Q(B; C) = B 2 = = 1 2 p 5 + 3

2

C ) = Q ( B; C ) = B 2 = = 1 2 p

We know the three quadrances. So, we can use the cross law to Önd one of the three spreads.

(Q 1 + Q 2 Q 3 ) 2 = 4Q 1 Q 2 (1 s 3 )

By substituting the values in the cross law

 

(B 1

Hence,

 

(1

We have that

Thus,

 

1

+

s 3 =

4 3+ p 5

2

+ B 2 B 2 ) 2 = 4B 1 B 2 (1 s 3 )

) 2 = 4 (1) ( ) (1 s 3 )

s 3 = 1 (4 1)

4

4

3 + p 5

2

! 1 ! =

1 5 8 p 5 + 8
1
5
8 p 5 +
8

Because the triangle is isosceles Hence,

s 3 = 5 + p 5

8

= = s 1

Now, we can apply the spread law to Önd s 3 :

Hence,

s

3

B

s

= s 1

B

m

s

3

=

5+ p

5

8

= 5 p 5

1

3+ p

5

8

=

2

=

3.2.4 The fourth triangle:

We can construct the fourth triangle from two sticks of R 1 and one stick of B 1 :

construct the fourth triangle from two sticks of R 1 and one stick of B 1

Figure 13: The fourth triangle

10

we have that

Q(B; C) = R 1 = = 5 + p 5

8

Q(A; C) =

Q(A; B) = B 1 = 1

We know the three quadrances. So, we can use the cross law to Önd one of the three spreads.

(Q 1 + Q 2 + Q 3 ) 2 = 4Q 1 Q 2 (1 s 3 )

By substituting the values in the cross law

Hence,

We have that

(R s + R s B s ) 2 =

4R s R s (1 s 3 )

( + 1) 2 = 4 ( ) ( ) (1 s 3 )

s 3 =

1

4 2 (4 1) =

Now, we can apply the spread law to Önd s 1 .

By substituting the values.

Thus,

Because the triangle is isosceles. Hence,

1

2 4 5+ p 5 8 s 1 s 3 = R s B s
2
4 5+ p 5
8
s 1
s 3
=
R s
B s
4
s 1
5
=
1
s 1 = 4
5

4

s 1 = s 2 = 4

5

5 + p 5

8

! 1 ! = 4

5

3.2.5 The Öfth triangle:

We can construct the Öfth triangle from one stick of B 1 ; one stick of R 2 and one stick of Y 1 :

triangle from one stick of B 1 ; one stick of R 2 and one stick

Figure 14: The Öfth triangle

11

we have that

B 1 = 1;R 2 = 4

s 3

=

5

In this case we have two quadrances and one spread, so, by using the cross law we will Önd the third quadrance which is Y 1 :

(B 1 + R 2 Y 1 ) 2 = 4B 1 R 2 (1 s 3 )

Hence

 

(1

+ Y 1 ) 2 = 4

We have that

+ 1

Now, we have a quadratic equation.

(1 + ) 2 + Y

2 2 (1 + ) Y 1 = 2

1

2

Y

1

2 (1 + ) Y 1 + (1 + ) 2 2 = 0

By solving the quadratic equation, we have that

From this result we infer that

Y 2

Y 3

Y 1 = 3

4

=

=

3

4

3

4

2

Now, we can apply the spread law to Önd s 1 :

By substituting the values.

Hence,

s

1

B

1

=

s

3

Y

1

s

1

1

=

4

5

3

4

s 1 = 16 15

We can also apply the spread law to Önd s 2 :

By substituting the value.

s

2

R

2

=

12

s

3

Y

1

Hence,

3.2.6

The sixth triangle:

s 2

=

4

5

3

4

1

s 2 = 6 p 5 +

sixth triangle: s 2 = 4 5 3 4 1 s 2 = 6 p 5

1

2 = 3

We can construct the sixth triangle from one stick of R 1 ; one stick of R 2 and one stick of Y 2 :

R 1 ; one stick of R 2 and one stick of Y 2 : Figure

Figure 15: The sixth triangle

we know in this triangle (by comparing this triangle with the previous triangles which we previously solved them)

Q(A; C)

s 2

= Y 2 = 3 4 ; Q(B; C) = R 2 = ; Q(A; B) = R 1 =

=

4

5

Now, we can apply the spread law to Önd s 1 .

s

1

R

2

= s 2 = s 3

Y

2

R

1

By substituting the values in the spread law.

Hence,

s

R

1

m

= s 2

Y

m

s

1

=

4

5

3

4

13

We have that

s 1 = 16

15

We can also apply the spread law to Önd s 3 :

s 3 = s 2 R s Y m By substituting the values in the
s
3 = s 2
R s
Y m
By substituting the values in the spread law.
4
s
3 5
=
3
4
Hence,
5+ p 5
16
s 3 = 16
8
2
15 p 5 = 16
2
=
=
15
3+ p 5
3
15
15
2

3.2.7 The seventh triangle:

we can construct the seventh triangle from one sticks of medium blue (B 2 ) , one stick of medium red (R 2 ) and one stick of small yellow (Y 1 ) .

( R 2 ) and one stick of small yellow ( Y 1 ) . Figure

Figure 16: The seventh triangle

In this triangle we know the spreads s 2 and the three quadrances B 2 ;R 2 and Y 1 by comparing this triangle with the previous triangles.

Q(B; C) =

s 2

=

R 2 = ; Q(A; C) = B 2 = ; Q(A; B) = Y 1 = 3

4

16

15

14

Now, we want to Önd s 2 by applying the spread law we will have:

s 1 s 2 = R 2 B 2 Hence, 16 s 1 15 =
s 1
s 2
=
R 2
B 2
Hence,
16
s 1
15
=
we have that
s 1 = 16 2
15
Notice that
= 5 + p 5
; = 3 + p 5
8
2
Thus,
2
8
1 = 3 + p 5
s 1 = 16 5+ p 5
=
1 6 p 5 +
=
15
2
6
3
We can also apply the spread law to Önd s 3 :
s 3
s 2
=
Y s
B m
Hence,
16
s 3
15
=

We have that

Notice that

Thus,

3.2.8 The eighth triangle:

3 4

s 3 =

48

60

= 4

5

=

s 3 = 4

5

We can construct the eighth triangle from two sticks of Y 2 and one stick of B 1 :

15

Figure 17: The eighth triangle In this triangle we have the two spreads ( s

Figure 17: The eighth triangle

In this triangle we have the two spreads (s 1 , s 2 ) and the three quadrances by comparing this triangle with the previous triangle.

3

Q(A; C) = Q(B; C) = Y 2 = 4 ; Q(A; B) = B 1 = 1

s 1

=

16 2

=

15

1

6 p 5 + 1 2 = 3 = s 2

Now, by using the spread law, we can Önd s 3

Hence,

We have that

Notice that

we can substitute for and :

Thus,

s 3 = s 1 B 1 Y 2 16 2 15 s 3 =
s 3
= s 1
B 1
Y 2
16 2
15
s 3 =
3
4
s 3 = 64 2
45
3 + p 5
= 5 + p 5
; =
8
2
2
8
s 3 = 64 5+ p 5
= 4
45 3+ p 5
9
2

16

3.2.9

The ninth triangle:

We can construct the ninth triangle from two stick of Y 1 and one stick of B 1 :

from two stick of Y 1 and one stick of B 1 : Figure 18: The

Figure 18: The ninth triangle

We know in this triangle that

3

Q(A; C) = Q(B; C) = Y 1 = 4 ; Q(A; B) = B 1 = 1

We know the three quadrances. So, we can use the cross law to Önd one of the three spreads.

Hence,

We have that

Because the triangle is isosceles. Thus,

(B 1 + Y 1 + Y 1 ) 2 = 4B 1 Y 1 (1 s 1 )

1 +

3

4

3

4 2 = 4 (1) 4 (1 s 1 )

3

s 1 = 2

3

s 1 = s 2 = 2

3

Now, we can use the spread law to Önd s 3

s 3

= s 2

 

B

1

Y

1

Hence ;

 

2

 

s

3

3

 

=

 

1

 

3

4

We have that,

s 3 = 8

9

17

3.2.10

The tenth triangle:

3.2.10 The tenth triangle: Figure 19: The tenth triangle We know in this triangle the following,

Figure 19: The tenth triangle

We know in this triangle the following,

Q(A; B) = Y 2 = 3 4 ; Q(B; C) = Y 1 = 4 ; Q(A; C) = R 1 = = 5 + p 5

3

8

s 1

=

4

+ 3 = 16

15

3

s 2 =

64 2

64 2

45

= 4

9

In this case we know two spreads and the the three quadrances. So, we can use the spread law to Önd the third spread s 3 :

Thus ;

We have that,

we can substitute for

.

Hence ;

Notice that

s 3 =

s 3 = s 1 Y 2 Y 1 4 s 3 3 +3 3
s 3
= s 1
Y 2
Y 1
4
s 3
3 +3
3
4 =
3
4
4
s 3 =
3 + 3
= 3 + p 5
2
4 3+ p 5
3 = 16 5+ p 5
2
2
8
=
3 3+ p 5
15 p 5 + 2
15
+ 3
2
= 5 + p 5
8

18

Thus,

s 3 = 16

15

3.2.11 The eleventh triangle:

Thus, s 3 = 16 15 3.2.11 The eleventh triangle: Figure 20: The eleventh triangle We

Figure 20: The eleventh triangle

We know in this triangle that

Q(A; C) = Q(B; C) = Y 1 = 3

4

Q(A; B) = B 2 = = 3 + p 5

2

For this triangle we know the three quadrances. So, we can use the cross law to Önd s 1 :

Thus,

We have that

We will call

Thus,

Because the triangle is isosceles Hence,

B 2 +

3

4 4 2

3

=

4B 2 Y 1 (1 s 1 )

+

3

4 3

4 2 = 4( ) 4 (1 s 1 )

3

= 3 3+ p 5

2

3

s 1 = 3

3

3

p 5

2

3

=

3 p 5

2

=

s 1 =

3

s 1 = s 2 =

3

Now we know the three quadrances and two spreads. So, We can use the spread law to Önd the third spread s 3 :

s

3

s

1

=

B

m

Y

s

19

Hence ;

Notice that

Thus,

:

3.2.12

The twelfth triangle:

s 3

3

3

=

3

4

= 3 + p 5

2

s 3 = 4

9

triangle: s 3 3 3 = 3 4 = 3 + p 5 2 s 3

Figure 21: The twelfth triangle

We know in this triangle the following

R

B

s

1

2

1

=

=

=

s 2 =

+ 1 = 4

1

5

We know three quadrances and two spreads in this case we can apply the spread law to Önd the third spread s 3 :

Hence ;

We have that

Notice that

Thus,

s

3

B

2

= R s 1

1

s 3 =

s

3

=

4

5

4

5

= 5 4

= 1

s 3 =

4

5

20

3.2.13

The thirteenth triangle:

We can construct the thirteenth triangle from one stick of B 3 ; one stick of R 1 and one stick of Y 3 :

B 3 ; one stick of R 1 and one stick of Y 3 : Figure

Figure 22: The thirteenth triangle

when we compare this triangle with the previous triangles we would have the all three spreads which appear in the previous triangles and the three quadrances as well.

Q(A; C)

=

Y 3 = 3 4 2

Q(A:b)

=

B 3 =

2

Q(B; C) = R 1 =

s

1

=

s 2 =

s 3 =

= 3 3+ p 5

3

1

1

 

2

=

3

3

2

6 p 5 =

3

4

5

16

15

3.2.14 The fourteenth triangle:

We can construct the fourteenth triangle from one stick of B 2 ; one stick of R 1 and one stick of Y 3 :

from one stick of B 2 ; one stick of R 1 and one stick of

Figure 23: The fourteenth triangle

21

We know in this triangle the following:

s

s

1

2

=

=

Q(A; C) = B 2 = 3 Q(A:b) = Y 3 = 4 2 Q(B;
Q(A; C)
=
B 2 =
3
Q(A:b)
=
Y 3 =
4 2
Q(B; C) =
R 1 =
= 3 3+ p 5
3
2
1
1
=
=
3 3
2
6 p 5
3
4 4
2
2
8
= 16
=
15 p 5 = 16 5 p 5
3 + 3 =
3 3+ p 5
3
15
15
+ 3
2

Now, we know three quadrances and two spreads. So, we can use the spread law to Önd the third spread s 3 :

Hence,

we have that

Notice that

Thus,

We have that

s 3 =

s 3

s 3

Y b

= s 1 R s 1 2 1 6 p 5
= s 1
R s
1
2 1 6 p 5
3 4 2 = 1 s 3 = p 5 2 3 2 8 =
3
4 2 =
1
s 3 =
p 5 2 3 2
8
= 5 + p 5
= 3 + p 5
;
8
2
!
2 1
4 5+ p 5
1
3 + p 5
3 + p 5
1
1
8
0
@ p 5
! 2 3
A =
=
8 5+ p 5
2
2
10 p 5 + 2
5
8

s 3 = 4

5

3.2.15 The Öfteenth triangle:

We can construct the Öfteenth triangle from one stick of B 1 ; two stick of R 1 and one stick of B 2 :

22

Figure 24: The Öfteenth triangle when we compare this triangle with the previous triangles we

Figure 24: The Öfteenth triangle

when we compare this triangle with the previous triangles we would have the all three quadrances which appear in the previous triangles and the three spreads as well instead of s 2 which is equal to 1. The three quadrances are:

Q(A; B) = B 2 =

The three spreads are:

Q(A:C) = 2

Q(B; C) = B 1 = 1

s

s

s

1

2

3

=

=

=

4

5

1

4

5

3.3 Some theorems that we can get from the triangles above.

Theorem 7 The possible spreads between two blue sticks is

; ; 1 and

3

4 :

Theorem 8 The possible spreads between two red sticks is

4

5 :

Theorem 9 The possible spreads between two yellow sticks is

:

4

9

and 8

9

23

Theorem 10 The possible spreads between blue stick and red stick is

4

5

and 4 5

:

Theorem 11 The possible spreads between blue stick and yellow stick is

;

3

3

and

2

3 :

Theorem 12 The possible spreads between red stick and yellow stick is

16

and 16

15 15 :

In brief, this a catalog of ZOME triangles which is made by using ZOME system.

yellow stick is 16 and 1 6 15 15 : In brief, this a catalog of
yellow stick is 16 and 1 6 15 15 : In brief, this a catalog of
yellow stick is 16 and 1 6 15 15 : In brief, this a catalog of
yellow stick is 16 and 1 6 15 15 : In brief, this a catalog of
yellow stick is 16 and 1 6 15 15 : In brief, this a catalog of
yellow stick is 16 and 1 6 15 15 : In brief, this a catalog of
yellow stick is 16 and 1 6 15 15 : In brief, this a catalog of
yellow stick is 16 and 1 6 15 15 : In brief, this a catalog of

24

yellow stick is 16 and 1 6 15 15 : In brief, this a catalog of
yellow stick is 16 and 1 6 15 15 : In brief, this a catalog of
yellow stick is 16 and 1 6 15 15 : In brief, this a catalog of
yellow stick is 16 and 1 6 15 15 : In brief, this a catalog of
Figure 25: A catalog of ZOME triangles So far we have found no more than
Figure 25: A catalog of ZOME triangles So far we have found no more than

Figure 25: A catalog of ZOME triangles

Figure 25: A catalog of ZOME triangles So far we have found no more than Öfteen

So far we have found no more than Öfteen triangles by using The Zome System.

25

4

Rational projective trigonometry

As rotation of earth a§ects our view of sky and the objects in it. Though the longitudinal angle becomes an important and unavoidable concept but for many spherical geometrical applications, there is no uniform motion around a Öxed axis that plays such a distinguished role. For this kind of ëstationaryíspherical geometry there is a rational version of the classical theory which again is simpler, more elegant and accurate. This theory is developed in the more natural setting of projective trigonometry. The projective plane inherits a rich metrical structure which extends to higher dimensions and arbitrary Öelds. The sphere has equation x 2 +y 2 +z 2 = 1 and center O = [0; 0; 0] : Any two non-antipodal points A and B lying on it determine a unique spherical line, or great circle arc, which is the intersection of the sphere with the plane OBA . Any two such spherical lines intersect at a pair of antipodal points. In nineteen century, an alternative of Önding the antipodal points on the sphere is consider the associated line through the origin O passing through the antipodal points. Such a line will be called a projective point . Similarly a plane through O will be called a projective line . Figure below shows a spherical triangle formed by three spherical points A , B and C and three great circle arcs, and on the right the corresponding projective triangle, consisting of three projective points a , b and c , and the three projective lines that they form.

b and c , and the three projective lines that they form. Figure 25: Spherical and

Figure 25: Spherical and projective triangle h t t p : / / w il d e g g . c o m / p a p e r s / P r o j e c t i v e T r i g . p d f

26

4.1

Main deÖnitions and laws of Projective trigonometry

DeÖnition 13 A projective triangle a 1 a 2 a 3 is a set of three non-collinear projective points.

a 3 is a set of three non-collinear projective points. Figure 27: Three views of a

Figure 27: Three views of a projective triangle h ttp ://w ildegg .com /papers/P ro jec tiveTr ig .pd f

DeÖnition 14 The projective quadrance q(a 1 ;a 2 ) between two projective points a 1 and a 2 is deÖned to be the spread between them.

DeÖnition 15 The projective spread S(L 1 ;L 2 ) between two projective lines L 1 and L 2 is deÖned to be the spread between them.

4.1.1 Theorem 1 (projective Thalesítheorem)

suppose L 1 and L 2 are distance projective lines intersection at the projective point a and with a projective spread of S . Choose a projective point b 6= a on one of the lines, say L 1 ; and let c be the projective point which is the foot of the (or a ) perpendicular projective line N from b to L 2 as in Ögure . If q (b; c) = q and q (a; b) = r then

S = q

r

27

Figure 28: Projective Thalesítheoremñspherical and projective views h t t p : / / w

Figure 28: Projective Thalesítheoremñspherical and projective views h t t p : / / w il d e g g . c o m / p a p e r s / P r o j e c t i v e T r i g . p d f

4.1.2 Theorem 2 (Projective triple quad formula)

If the three projective points a 1 ;a 2 and a 3 are collinear, then

(q 1 + q 2 + q 3 ) 2 = 2 q

2

1

+ q

2

2

+

q

2

3

+ 4q 1 q 2 q 3 :

4.1.3 Theorem 3 (Dual projective triple quad formula)

If the three projective lines L 1 ;L 2 and L 3 are concurrent, then

(S 1 + S 2 + S 3 ) 2 = 2 S

2

1

+

S

2

2

+

S

2

3

+ 4S 1 S 2 S 3 :

4.1.4 Theorem 4 (Projective Pythagorasítheorem)

Suppose that a 1 a 2 a 3 is a projective triangle with projective quadrances q 1 ;q 2 and q 3 ; and projective spreads S 1 ;S 2 and S 3 : If S 3 = 1 then

q 3 = q 1 + q 2 q 1 q 2 :

28

4.1.5

Theorem 4 (Dual projective Pythagorasítheorem)

Suppose that a 1 a 2 a 3 is a projective triangle with projective quadrances q 1 ;q 2 and q 3 ; and projective spreads S 1 ;S 2 and S 3 : If q 3 = 1 then

S 3 = S 1 + S 2 S 1 S 2 :

= 1 then S 3 = S 1 + S 2 S 1 S 2 :

Figure 29: Pythagorasítheoremñspherical view

h t t p : / / w il d e g g . c o m / p a p e r s / P r o j e c t i v e T r i g . p d f

4.1.6 Theorem 6 (Projective spread law)

Suppose that a 1 a 2 a 3 is a projective triangle with projective quadrances q 1 ;q 2 and q 3 ; and projective spreads S 1 ;S 3 and S 3 : Then

S 1

= S 2 = S 3 :

q

1

q

2

q

3

4.1.7 Theorem 7 (Projective cross law)

Suppose that a 1 a 2 a 3 is a projective triangle with projective quadrances q 1 ;q 2 and q 3 ; and projective spreads S 1 ;S 2 and S 3 : Then

(S 3 q 1 q 2 q 1 q 2 q 3 + 2) 2 = 4 (1 q 1 ) (1 q 2 ) (1 q 3 ) :

4.1.8 Theorem 8 (Dual projective cross law)

Suppose that a 1 a 2 a 3 is a projective triangle with projective quadrances q 1 ;q 2 and q 3 ; and projective spreads S 1 ;S 2 and S 3 : Then

(S 1 S 2 q 3 S 1 S 2 S 3 + 2) 2 = 4 (1 S 1 ) (1 S 2 ) (1 S 3 ) :

4.1.9 Theorem 9

The projective quadrea A = A (a 1 ;a 2 ;a 3 ) of the projective points a 1 = [x 1 : y 1 : z 1 ] ;a 2 = [x 2 : y 2 : z 2 ] and a 3 = [x 3 : y 3 : z 3 ] i

A = (x 1 y 2 z 3 x 1 y 3 z 2 x 2 y 1 z 3 + x 2 z 1 y 3 + y 1 x 3 z 2 x 3 y 2 z 1 ) 2

(x 2 + y

1

2

1

+ z

2

1

) (x 2 2 + y

2

2

+ z

2

2

2

) (x 3 + y

2

3

+ z

2

3

)

29

4.1.10

Theorem 10 (Right projective triangle)

Suppose a right projective triangle has projective quadrances q 1 ;q 2 and q 3 ; and projective spreads S 1 ;S 2 and S 3 = 1:

Then any two of the Öve quantities fq 1 ;q 2 ;q 3 ;S 1 ;S 2 g determine the other three, solely through the three basic equation

q 3 = q 1 + q 2 q 1 q 2

S 1 = q 1

q

2

S 2 = q 2

q

3

q 1 q 2 S 1 = q 1 q 2 S 2 = q 2

Figure 30: Right projective triangle

h t t p : / / w il d e g g . c o m / p a p e r s / P r o j e c t i v e T r i g . p d f

4.1.11 Theorem 11 (Projective isosceles triangle)

Suppose a projective isosceles triangle has projective quadrances q 1 = q 2 = q and q 3 ; and projective spreads S 1 = S 2 = S and S 3 : Then

q 3 = 4q (1 S) (1 q)

(1 S q ) 2

and

30

S 3 = 4S (1 S) (1 q)

(1 S q ) 2

Figure 31: Projective isosceles triangle h t t p : / / w il d

Figure 31: Projective isosceles triangle

h t t p : / / w il d e g g . c o m / p a p e r s / P r o j e c t i v e T r i g . p d f

4.1.12 Theorem 12 (Equilateral projective triangles)

Suppose that a projective triangle is equilateral with common projective quadrance q 1 = q 2 = q 3 = q; and with common projective spread S 1 = S 2 = S 3 = S: Then

(1 S q ) 2 = 4 (1 S) (1 q) :

4.2 Tetrahedrons, consisting of ZOME triangles.

Using ZOME triangles we can construct many tetrahedrons based on the triangles that we have previously studied in subsection 3.2. This is made possible to achieve by projecting a line from each angle (ball) of the triangles previously built to a single point connected by another ball forming a tetrahedron and we are going to study some of these tetrahedrons to determine the projective spread and the projective quadrnace. In the following subsection 4 random tetrahedrons have been studied to determine the projective spread and the projective quadrance.

31

4.2.1

The Örst tetrahedron

4.2.1 The Örst tetrahedron Figure 32: The Örst tetrahedron Figure 33: The Örst tetrahedron 32

Figure 32: The Örst tetrahedron

4.2.1 The Örst tetrahedron Figure 32: The Örst tetrahedron Figure 33: The Örst tetrahedron 32

Figure 33: The Örst tetrahedron

32

Figure 34: The Örst tetrahedron consisting of four zome triangles 4.2.2 The main results of

Figure 34: The Örst tetrahedron consisting of four zome triangles

4.2.2 The main results of the Örst tetrahedron.

Projective spreads

S 1 = 5

6

S 2 = 5

6

S 3 = 5

6

S 4 = 15

16

S 5 = 15

16

S 6 = 15

16

Vertex

Projective quadrances

A

1

q 11 = 8

9

;q 12 = 9 8 and q 13 = 8

9

A

2

q 21 =

3 ;q 22 = 3 and q 23 = 3

2

2

4

A

3

q 31 =

4 ;q 32 = 3 and q 33 = 2

3

2

3

A

4

q 41 =

3 ;q 42 = 3 and q 43 = 3

2

2

4

There are 4 vertexes and each vertex has a projective triangle.

33

a) Projective triangle at vertex A 1 :

a) Projective triangle at vertex A 1 : Figure 35: Projective triangle at vertex A 1

Figure 35: Projective triangle at vertex A 1

Now, we know q 11 ;q 12 and q 13 :

q 11 = q 12 = q 13 = 8

9 :

So, we can use the projective cross law to Önd the three face spreads (Projective spreads).

Firstly , we want to compute the projective spread S 4 by using the projective cross law. This will lead to

(S 4 q 12 q 13 q 11 q 12 q 13 + 2) 2

=

4 (1 q 11 ) (1 q 12 ) (1 q 13 )

Therefore, susbtituting the values in the law we get:

The solution is:

S 4 8 8

9

9 9 8

8 8

9

9 + 2 2 = 4 1 8 1 8

9

9

4

6561

(32S 4 27) 2 =

4

729

S 4 =

15 3

16 or

4

1 8 9

Secondly , we want to compute the projective spread S 5 by using the projective cross law. This will lead to

(S 5 q 11 q 13 q 11 q 12 q 13 + 2) 2

=

4 (1 q 11 ) (1 q 12 ) (1 q 13 )

Therefore, susbtituting the values in the law we get:

S 5 8 8

9

9 9 8

8 8 9 + 2 2 = 4 1 8 1 8

9

9

9

4

6561

(32S 5 27) 2 =