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CERTIFICATE

Certified that this is a bonafide record of the seminar entitled 4G Broadband

done by the following student

MANISHA NAIN of VIIIth semester, Information Technology in the year 2012 in partial fulfillment of the requirements of the award of Degree of Bachelor of Technology in Information Technology of Swami Devi Dayal Institute Of Engineering.

Ms. Meenakshi Pawar Seminar Guide Date:02/05/2012

Mr. Rasmeet Bali Head of the Department

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I thank my seminar guide Ms. Meenakshi Pawar, Lecturer, for her proper guidance, and valuable suggestions. I am indebted to Mr. Rasmeet Bali, the HOD, Computer Science division & other faculty members for giving me an opportunity to learn and do this seminar. If not for the above mentioned people my seminar would never have been completed successfully. I once again extend my sincere thanks to all of them.

MANISHA NAIN 5508410

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ABSTRACT
The early days of home Internet access required using a modem connected to a computer to dial a number and maintain a connection. It was cumbersome and slow. The faster modems became, the more people realized how painfully sluggish data transmission had been in the days of 300 baud. Eventually, home users who could afford a jump in price could get Broadband access via digital subscriber lines (DSL), cable and satellite. Technology changes from day-to-day; this is also happening in case of networking So many breakthroughs in the realm of science forced the way of networking from wired to wireless, which is very inexpensive and efficient. A new technology that provides dynamic connectivity to a network through wireless which is called as Wi-Fi (Wireless Fidelity), works on the principle of Radio transmission, but Wi-Fi is accessible only to a limited area, In this paper we are going to present about a technology which breaks the problems like limited area connectivity and also ECO Friendly, this can be possible with the help of WiMax(Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access), which supports the concept of Internet everywhere. However people are connected by opening up the Internet to create a more spontaneous and empowering broadband experience. 4G refers to the fourth generation of cellular wireless standards. It is a successor to 3G and 2G standards. The nomenclature of the generations generally refers to a change in the fundamental nature of the service. The first was the move from analogue to digital(2G), which was followed by multi-media support (3G) and now 4G, which refers to all IP packet switched networks and increases in data speeds.4G is being developed to accommodate the QoS and rate requirements set by further development of existing 3G applications like wireless broadband access, Multimedia Messaging Service(MMS),video chat, mobile TV, but also new services like: HDTV c o n t e n t , m i n i m a l s e r v i c e s l i k e v o i c e a n d d a t a , a n d o t h e r s e r v i c e s t h a t u t i l i z e bandwi dt h. It m a y b e a l l o wed roam i n g wi t h wi rel ess l ocal area n et works, a nd be combined with digital video broadcasting systems. The 4G working group has defined the following as objectives of the 4G wireless communication standard: Flexible channel bandwidth, between 5 and 20 MHz, optionally up to 40 MHz. A nominal data rate of 100 Mbit/s while the client physically moves at high s peeds rel at i ve t o t he st at i on, and 1 G bi t / s whi l e cl i ent and st at i on are i n relatively fixed positions as defined by the ITU-R , A data rate of at least 100 Mbit/s between any two points in the world, Peak link spectral efficiency of 15 bit/s/Hz in the downlink, and 6.75 bit/s/Hz in the uplink (meaning that 1000 Mbit/s in the downlink should be possible over less than 67 MHz bandwidth) System spectral efficiency of up to 3 bit/s/Hz/cell in the downlink and 2.25 bit/s/Hz/cell for indoor usage. Smooth handoff across heterogeneous networks, Seamless connectivity and global roaming across multiple networks, Hi gh qual i t y of serv i ce for nex t gener at i on m ul t i m edi a support (rea l t i m e audio, high speed data, HDTV video content, mobile TV, etc) Interoperability with existing wireless standards, and An all IP, packet switched network.
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TABLE OF CONTENTS

NO.

TITLE

PAGE NO.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT......................................................2 ABSTRACT..............3 1. Introduction..........................................................................5-6 2. About Wi-Fi...........................................................................7-8 3. Need for WiMax....................................................................9 3.1. WiMax transmission......................................................9-10 3.2. Implementation..............................................................11-12 3.2.1. non-line-of-sight service........................................11 3.2.2. line-of-sight service...............................................12 4. WiMax Scenario...................................................................13 5. XOHM...................................................................................14-16 6. Everything you need to know about 4G Mobile Broadbnd..........................................................17-24 7. Advantages............................................................................25 8. Issues......................................................................................26-27 9. Future.....................................................................................28 10. Conclusion.............................................................................29 11. References..............................................................................30
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1. INTRODUCTION
If we have been in an airport, coffee shop, library or hotel recently, chances that we been right in the middle of a wireless network. Many people also use wireless networking, also called Wi-Fi or 802.11 networking. In the near future, wireless networking may become so widespread that you can access the Internet just about anywhere at any time, without using wires, wireless networks are easy to set up and inexpensive. Wireless network uses radio waves, just like cell phones, televisions and radios do. In fact, communication across a wireless network is a lot like two-way radio communication. 1. A computer's wireless adapter translates data into a radio signal and transmits it using an antenna. 2. A wireless router receives the signal and decodes it. It sends the information to the Internet using a physical, wired Ethernet connection. The process also works in reverse, with the router receiving information from the Internet, translating it into a radio signal and sending it to the computer's wireless adapter.

Think about how you access the Internet today. There are basically three different options:

Broadband access - In your home, you have either a DSL or cable modem. At the office, your company may be using a T1 or a T3 line.

Wi-Fi access - In your home, you may have set up a Wi-Fi router that lets you surf the Web while you lounge with your laptop. On the road, you can find Wi-Fi hot spots in restaurants, hotels, coffee shops and libraries.

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Dial-up access - If you are still using dial-up, chances are that either broadband access is not available, or nyou think that broadband access is too expensive.

The main problems with broadband access are that it is pretty expensive and it doesn't reach all areas. The main problem with Wi-Fi access is that hot spots are very small, so coverage is sparse. What if there was a new technology that solved all of these problems? This new technology would provide:

The high speed of broadband service Wireless rather than wired access, so it would be a lot less expensive than cable or DSL and much easier to extend to suburban and rural areas

Broad coverage like the cell phone network instead of small Wi-Fi hotspots

In this paper, we'll look at the technology that allows information to travel over the air. We'll also review what it takes to create a wireless network in your home.

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2. ABOUT Wi-Fi
Wi-Fi has a lot of advantages, Wi-Fi means Wireless Fidelity can also be referred as Wi-Fi or 802.11 networking. The 802.11 designation comes from the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE). The IEEE sets standards for a range of technological protocols, and it uses a numbering system to classify these standards.

One wireless router can allow multiple devices to connect to the Internet. It works on the principle of radio transmission. The radios used for Wi-Fi communication are very similar to the radios used for walkie-talkies, cell phones and other devices. They can transmit and receive radio waves, and they can convert 1s and 0s into radio waves and convert the radio waves back into 1s and 0s. But Wi-Fi radios have a few notable differences from other radios.

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They transmit at frequencies of 2.4 GHz or 5GHz. This frequency is considerably higher than the frequencies used for cell phones, walkie-talkies and televisions. The higher frequency allows the signal to carry more data.

They use 802.11 networking standards, which come in several flavors: 802.11a transmits at 5GHz and can move up to 54 megabits of data per second. It also uses orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM), a more efficient coding technique that splits that radio signals into several subsignals before they reach a receiver. This greatly reduces interference.

802.11b is the slowest and least expensive standard. For a while, its cost made it popular, but now it's becoming less common as faster standards become less expensive. 802.11b transmits in the 2.4 GHz frequency band of the radio spectrum. It can handle up to 11 megabits of data per second, and it uses complimentary code keying (CCK) coding.

802.11g transmits at 2.4 GHz like 802.11b, but it's a lot faster -- it can handle up to 54 megabits of data per second. 802.11g is faster because it uses the same OFDM coding as 802.11a.

802.11n is the newest standard that is widely available. This standard significantly improves speed and range. For instance, although 802.11g theoretically moves 54 megabits of data per second, it only achieves realworld speeds of about 24 megabits of data per second because of network congestion. 802.11n, however, reportedly can achieve speeds as high as 140 megabits per second.

Wi-Fi radios can transmit on any of three frequency bands. Or, they can "frequency hop" rapidly between the different bands. Frequency hopping helps reduce interference and lets multiple devices use the same wireless connection simultaneously. Wi-Fi transmission is limited up to certain distance, suppose we have to construct a wireless network through a longer distance, which is not possible with this, so there is a need for another technology.

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3. NEED FOR WiMax


WiMAX outdistances Wi-Fi by miles, WiMAX is short for Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access, and it also goes by the IEEE name 802.16, WiMAX would receive data from the WiMAX transmitting station, probably using encrypted data keys to prevent unauthorized users from stealing access this is the main advantage. In this way network security is also embedded. WiMAX has the potential to do to broadband Internet access what cell phones have done to phone access. In the same way that many people have given up their "land lines" in favor of cell phones, WiMAX could replace cable and DSL services, providing universal Internet access just about anywhere you go. WiMAX will also be as painless as Wi-Fi -- turning your computer on will automatically connect you to the closest available WiMAX antenna.

3.1 WiMax Transmission (3G):


A WiMAX system consists of two parts: 1. A WiMAX tower, similar in concept to a cell-phone tower - A single WiMAX tower can provide coverage to a very large area -- as big as 3,000 square miles (~8,000 square km).

WiMax Tower 2. A WiMAX receiver - The receiver and antenna could be a small box or PCMCIA card, or they could be built into a laptop the way Wi-Fi access is today.
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A WiMAX tower station can connect directly to the Internet using a high-bandwidth, wired connection (for example, a T3 line). It can also connect to another WiMAX tower using a line-of-sight, microwave link. This connection to a second tower (often referred to as a backhaul), along with the ability of a single tower to cover up to 3,000 square miles, is what allows WiMAX to provide coverage to remote rural areas.

Way of transmission:
The propagation path of a signal includes the direct wave, a reflected wave, a surface wave

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3.2 Implementation:
Wi-Fi-style access will be limited to a 4-to-6 mile radius (perhaps 25 square miles or 65 square km of coverage, which is similar in range to a cell-phone zone). Through the stronger line-of-sight antennas, the WiMAX transmitting station would send data to WiMAX-enabled computers or routers set up within the transmitter's 30-mile radius (2,800 square miles or 9,300 square km of coverage). This is what allows WiMAX to achieve its maximum range.

WiMax provides two types of wireless services

3.2.1 Non-line-of-sight service:


A small antenna on your computer connects to the tower. In this mode, WiMAX uses a lower frequency range of 2 GHz to 11 GHz (similar to Wi-Fi). Lower-wavelength transmissions are not as easily disrupted by physical obstructions they are better able to diffract, or bend, around obstacles.

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3.2.2 Line-of-sight service:


A fixed dish antenna points straight at the WiMAX tower from a rooftop. The line-of-sight Connection is stronger and more stable, so it's able to send a lot of data. This transmission uses higher frequencies, with ranges reaching a possible 66 GHz. At higher frequencies, there is less interference and lots more bandwidth. The fastest Wi-Fi connection can transmit up to 54 Mbps under optimal conditions. WiMAX should be able to handle up to 70 Mbps. Even once those 70Mb is split up between several dozen businesses or a few hundred home users, it will provide at least the equivalent of cablemodem transfer rates to each user. IEEE 802.16 Specifications:

Range - 30-mile (50-km) radius from base station Speed - 70 megabits per second Line-of-sight not needed between user and base station Frequency bands - 2 to 11 GHz and 10 to 66 GHz

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4. WiMax SCENARIO
Internet service provider sets up a WiMAX base station 10 miles from our home. we would buy a WiMAX-enabled computer or upgrade our old computer to add WiMAX capability. we would receive a special encryption code that would give you access to the base station. The base station would beam data from the Internet to our computer (at speeds potentially higher than today's cable modems), for which we would pay the provider a monthly fee. The cost for this service could be much lower than current high-speed Internet-subscription fees because the provider never had to run cables.

The WiMAX protocol is designed to accommodate several different methods of data transmission, one of which is Voice Over. Internet Protocol (VoIP). VoIP allows people to make local, long-distance and even international calls through a broadband Internet connection, bypassing phone companies entirely. If WiMAX-compatible computers become very common, the use of VoIP could increase dramatically. Almost anyone with a laptop could make VoIP calls.

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5. XOHM (4G Technology)

History of 4G Technology:

XOHM:
XOHM is coming providing next-generation mobile broadband across your city. With XOHM, you no longer need to find a hotspot for a broadband internet experience the hotspot comes with you. There are no compromises here even if its streaming fullscreen video. And with XOHM, you have one account and its always available. No long-term contracts you can pay by the day, the month or the year.

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XOHM wont just connect WiMAX-enabled products to the internet itll allow them to connect across the network to each other. We expect this to open exciting new experiences beyond just getting online with the potential to change how we communicate, enjoy, and achieve - for example:

Health: a mobile health monitor could track and transmit a users vitals and alert a hospital or caregiver in case of an emergency. Sports: a runners performance could be monitored by WiMAX-enabled chips built into her shoes to be shared with coaches, peers or spectators. Home Entertainment: While youre out of town, your WiMAX-enabled DVR could send a reminder to your phone that your favorite TV show is about to start - command it to record the show to watch later via your WiMAX-enabled portable video player.

Broadband Speed:
XOHM's WiMAX network allows you to experience mobile internet at broadband speeds. XOHM will let you enjoy the most bandwidth-intensive applications like games, streaming movies, sharing photos and video, music and other entertainment, even on the go.

Next Generation Internet:


Get ready to experience how spontaneous the internet can be. With XOHM mobile broadband, youll be able to:

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Stream movies Watch a video Download music

Share photos Play games Instant Message E-mail Surf the web Or whatever you want - around your home, office or on the go, wherever theres XOHM coverage - all on the same connection.

Plug and Play:


Getting started with XOHM is a snap: no wires means no service calls, drilling, or digging just plug and play.

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6. EVERYRHING YOU NEED TO KNOW ABOUT 4G MOBILE BROADBAND


WHAT EXACTLY IS 4G?
The idea of mobile data has always been easy enough to grasp because data speeds were slow enough that differentiating between networks and options was pretty straightforward. Data speeds would mainly depend on the amount of coverage in a given area as well as available bandwidth on the network. 3G speeds jumped around in the 500kbps to the 2Mbps range, so you could go out and buy a 3G USB modem or mobile hotspot that would meet your expectations. The only real points of comparison with 3G networks had to do with coverage and speed, so we managedeven when the technology was newto understand it. We now have 4G data, which is a lot less clear cut. With Verizon's launch of their 4G LTE network, three out of the four major US carriersVerizon, Sprint, and T-Mobileboast 4G data networks. Each company's definition of "4G" is quite a bit different, however, and not a single one actually meets the International Telecommunication Union's (ITU) official definition. The ITU defines 4G as a connection capable of 100Mbps with high mobility (wherever you go) and up to 1Gbps with low mobility (Wi-Fi range). The cellular data network's 4G speeds don't even come close, and the only definition each network seems to be able to agree upon is that 4G is just what comes after 3G. While the title of "4G" isn't necessarily accurate and, in many ways, meaningless, we nonetheless have to live by the terminology these cellular data providers are using. For the purposes of this article, 4G will simply mean the 4th Generation of each provider's data network and nothing else.

A Quick Look at "4G" Technologies:


Before we dive in, let's take a quick look at the different technologies that are currently being labeled as "4G" in the United States. We'll be throwing around these terms as we take a deep dive, so here's a quick refresher if you're not fully caught up on your next-generation wireless technologies: Mobile WiMax- WiMax is the "4G" technology that Sprint uses, and it offers peak data rates of 128Mbps downstream and 56Mbps upstream. Long Term Evolution (LTE) - LTE is Verizon's choice for "4G" mobile broadband, providing theoretical peak data rates of 100Mbps downstream and 50Mbps upstream.
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While LTE (or, specifically, 3GPP LTE) isn't technically 4G, LTE Advanced is expected to actually meet 4G requirements with a peak download speed of 1gbps (yes, one gigabit). The upgrade path from 3GPP LTE to LTE Advanced is supposed to be easier and more cost-effective than most upgrades, so this could bode well for Verizon in the near future. HSPA+ (Evolved High-Speed Packet Access) - T-Mobile's opted to use HSPA+ for its 4G network, even though HSPA is what Sprint and Verizon use for its 3G data. While HSPA+ definitely offers faster speeds, those peak speeds are about half of what LTE and WiMax offer56Mbps downstream and 22Mbps upstream.

Your Options: Sprint, Verizon, and T-Mobile:


Sprint, Verizon, and T-Mobile have all taken fairly different approaches to what they're calling their 4G networks. These choices make for very different strengths and weaknesses in each, primarily in the categories of coverage, speed, device options, and operating system support. Below is a comparison chart for a quick overview, but we'll take a closer look at each network's offerings as well, then give you our bottom line take on what's best.

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Sprint:

Coverage Sprint got a head start on their 4G network and so it's not surprising their coverage is pretty decent. On the map to the left, the blue areas indicate 4G coverage and the orange areas indicate other data coverage. Sprint provides a 4G coverage checker if you want to see if your area is painted blue. If you live in a major city, or near one, chances are you can use Sprint's 4G network.

Speed

In terms of speed, Sprint rates itself the lowest of the three networks and tests show those speeds to be fairly accurate. That said, Sprint is the only of the three carriers to directly advertise average speeds and not just peak data rates. T-Mobile advertises their 4G speeds go up to 21Mbps (and they probably do for somebody, somewhere) but real world tests fall short. In reality, Sprint's 4G WiMax network performs better in real-world speed tests than TMobile's 4G HSPA+ network, so kudos to Sprint for actually advertising their network speeds accurately.
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Devices Options and OS Support Sprint also has the best device support of the three networks. Smartphones aside, Sprint offers USB modems, 4G-equipped netbooks, and the Sprint Overdrive Mobile Hotspot. Sprint is currently the only carrier with a 4G mobile hotspot, which makes them particularly attractive to anyone with multiple devices. It also makes it much more simple to connect to Sprint's network since you can do so over Wi-Fi without the need for any proprietary connectivity software. Cost and Data Caps When it comes to cost, however, Sprint is the most expensive at $60 per month. On paper this is $10 higher than Verizon and $20 higher than T-Mobile, but while Verizon and T-Mobile offer only 5GB of data for their respective prices ($50 and $40 per month), Sprint offers unlimited 4G data (and 5GB of 3G data). If you only plan to use 5GB of data per month, Sprint is definitely the most expensive option available to you. If you exceed 5GB of data per month, however, Sprint could turn out to be your cheapest option.

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Verizon:

Speed Verizon's taken a little more time to bring its 4G network to market, but as Gizmodo noted, its speeds are exceptional. Several tech blogs and news outlets tested Verizon's new 4G LTE network before launch and the lowest speed test ranked at 7.14Mbps down and 1.12Mbps up. MSNBC came in with an insanely fast 32.8Mbps down and 11.99Mbps up. Because these tests were performed before Sunday's official launch, it's possible that these speeds are not indicative of the performance we should expect once more people are actually using Verizon's 4G network. On the other hand, if the low end of the speed tests is any indication of what to expect in every day use, Verizon's 4G network is still the fastest. Only time will tell if that holds true. Coverage Verizon's coverage is currently pretty sparse, but if you live in and travel to major cities it may not matter all that much. Currently Verizon covers 38 markets and 60 major airports with plans to match its current 3G coverage by 2013. If you travel often and want 4G coverage right now, Verizon may not be the best choice. You can check Verizon's 4G LTE coverage here. Cost and Data Caps

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Unsurprisingly, Verizon is one of the more expensive networks when it comes to data plans. While its 5GB/month plan comes in at $50, which is $10 cheaper than Sprint's only plan, you pay $10/GB in overages. While 1GB is a lot with 3G data, when you can download at speeds similar to your home broadband connection you can easily rack up a few GB without a thought. If your data usage is a bit heavier, Verizon offers a 10GB/month plan for $80. This awards Verizon the most expensive 4G plan of any of the networks, but Verizon is also the only network offering an option. Of course, Sprint's 4G data usage isn't limited and costs only $60 per month, so it's not as though you're limited to 10GB on every network. Device Options and OS Support In addition to Verizon's coverage limitations, you don't have too many options when it comes to 4G devices. Verizon currently offers two USB modems that, when compared on their web site, are spec-for-spec identical. One of the USB modems looks notably larger, like a miniature satellite for your laptop, but all in all there doesn't seem to be much differentiating these two offerings. Currently both USB modems only work on various flavors of the Windows operating system, so Mac users will have to wait until Verizon adds support. Currently there is no news regarding Linux support or the addition of a 4G LTE mobile hotspot.

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T-Mobile:

Speed If anybody's stretching the definition of "4G" it's T-Mobile. HSPA+, or Evolved HSPA, is essentially an upgrade version of what Verizon's and Sprint's 3G networks are made of. To be fair, though, HSPA+ is capable of notably faster speeds. In real world tests, T-Mobile's HSPA+ came out the slowest, but that's nothing new for T-Mobile. T-Mobile's 4G is definitely faster than its 3G speeds, especially if it ever manages to achieve the insanely high peak speed of 21Mbps downstream (as advertised). If you've got a T-Mobile contract and want to stick around, it's definitely a decent upgrade. Cost and Data Caps Cost is what really makes T-Mobile's 4G particularly attractive. You can get a 250MB plan for only $25 per month, although why you'd want high-speed mobile broadband to only use 250MB is hard to understand. A 5GB plan costs only $40 per month, which makes T-Mobile the cheapest by $10. T-Mobile also doesn't charge overage fees if you exceed 5GB. Instead, they simple cripple your speeds. If your budget is the most important consideration, T-Mobile might be your best option. Coverage T-Mobile's network also has pretty wide 4G coverage, and you can check if you're covered here. While they advertise themselves as "America's Largest 4G Network," their coverage seems about on par with Sprint's. Like all the 4G networks, they're expanding, so you can expect better coverage over the next couple of years. One nice thing T-Mobile's done is mark their "coming soon" areas on the map. While a Google search can often turn up planned 4G rollout information for any network, it's particularly nice to see a company actually making an effort to clearly provide the customer with that information. Device Options and OS Support

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T-Mobile is similar to Verizon in terms of device options, although in addition to two USB modems T-Mobile also offers a 4G-equipped Dell Mini netbook. While T-Mobile does not provide a mobile hotspot option, they do support both Windows and Mac OS X with their USB modems so you're not limited to Windows as you (currently) are with Verizon. Nonetheless, without a mobile hotspot option, T-Mobile really only excels at providing the lowest-cost service.

The Bottom Line


With all these options, how do you decide what will work best for you? It really depends on what you consider most important. Here's where we felt each network ranked the best: Speed: Verizon Cost: T-Mobile Coverage: T-Mobile and Sprint Best Device Options: Sprint Best Value: Sprint

When 2013 rolls around and all three networks have much wider coverage, hopefully "4G" offerings will be as easy to compare as 3G. If you want to be an early adopter and start taking advantage of what each network considers its 4th generation speeds, now you know what you're in for. With coverage still fairly sparse across all networks, however, you may be better offer waiting another year for 4G to mature. Maybe then we'll even get a proper definition.

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7. ADVANTAGES
1. Low cost : To make broadband services available to the user to exchange various kinds of information, it is necessary to lower charges considerably in order to keep the cost at or below the cost of existing service. 2. Coverage of Wide Area : One feature of mobile communications is that it's availability and omnipresent. That advantage is important for future mobile communication as well. In particular, it is important to maintain the service area in which the terminals of the new system can be used during the transition from the existing system to a new system. 3. Wide Variety of Services Capability : Mobile communication is for various types of users. In the future, we expect to make the advanced system performance and functionality to introduce a variety of services not only the ordinary telephone service. Those services must be made easier for anyone to use.

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8. ISSUES
1. The first issue deals with optimal choice of access technology, or how to be best connected. Given that a user may be offered connectivity from more than one technology at any one time, one has to consider how the terminal and an overlay network choose the radio access technology suitable for services the user is accessing. There are several network technologies available today, which can be viewed as complementary. For example, WLAN is best suited for high data rate indoor coverage. GPRS or UMTS, on the other hand, are best suited for nation wide coverage and can be regarded as wide area networks, providing a higher degree of mobility. Thus a user of the mobile terminal or the network needs to make the optimal choice of radio access technology among all those available. A handover algorithm should both determine which network to connect to as well as when to perform a handover between the different networks. Ideally, the handover algorithm would assure that the best overall wireless link is chosen. The network selection strategy should take into consideration the type of application being run by the user at the time of handover. This ensures stability as well as optimal bandwidth for interactive and background services. 2. The second issue regards the design of a mobility enabled IP networking architecture, which contains the functionality to deal with mobility between access technologies. This includes fast, seamless vertical (between heterogeneous technologies) handovers (IP micro mobility), quality of service (QoS), security and accounting. Real time applications in the future will require fast/seamless handovers for smooth operation. Mobility in IPv6 is not optimized to take advantage of specific mechanisms that may be deployed in different administrative domains. Instead, IPv6 provides mobility in a manner that resembles only simple portability. To enhance Mobility inIPv6, micro mobility protocols (such as Hawaii[5], Cellular IP[6] and Hierarchical Mobile IPv6[7]) have been developed for seamless handovers i.e. handovers that result in minimal handover delay, minimal packet loss, and minimal loss of communication state. 3. The third issue concerns the adaptation of multimedia transmission across 4Gnetworks. Indeed multimedia will be a main service feature of 4G networks, and
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changing radio access networks may in particular result in drastic changes in the network condition. Thus the framework for multimedia transmission must be adaptive. In cellular networks such as UMTS, users compete for scarce and expensive bandwidth. Variable bit rate services provide a way to ensure service provisioning at lower costs. In addition the radio environment has dynamics that renders it difficult to provide a guaranteed network service. This requires that the services are adaptive and robust against varying radio conditions. High variations in the network Quality of Service (QoS) leads to significant variations of the multimedia quality. The result could sometimes be unacceptable to the users. Avoiding this requires choosing an adaptive encoding framework for multimedia transmission. The network should signal QoS variations to allow the application to be aware in real time of the network conditions. User interactions will help to ensure personalized adaptation of the multimedia presentation.

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9. FUTURE
We do have are good reasons for 4G development and a variety of current and evolving technologies to make 4G a reality. Highlighting the primary drivers for 4Gwireless systems are cost, speed, flexibility, and universal access. Both service providers and users want to reduce the cost of wireless systems and the cost of wireless services. The less expensive the cost of the system, the more people who will want to own it. The high bandwidth requirements of upcoming streaming video necessitates a change in the business model the service providers usefrom the dedicated channel per user model to one of a shared use, as packets are needed model. This will most likely be the model service providers use when 4G systems are commonplace (if not before).Increased speed is a critical requirement for 4G communications systems. Data rate increases of 10 50X over 3G systems will place streaming audio and video access into the hands of consumers who, with each wireless generation, demand a much richer set of wireless system features. Power control will be critical since some services (such as streaming video) require much more power than do others(such as voice).4Gs flexibility will allow the integration of several different LAN and WAN technologies. This will let the user apply one 4G appliance, most likely a cell phone/PDA hybrid, for many different taskstelephony, Internet access, gaming, real time information, and personal networking control, to name a few. A 4G appliance would be as important in home networking applications as it would as a device to communicate with family, friends, and co workers. Finally, a 4G wireless technology would give a user the capability of global roaming and accessthe ability to use a cell phone anywhere worldwide. At this point, the 4G wireless system would truly go into a one size fits all category, having a feature set that meets the needs of just about everyone.

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10. CONCLUSION
It is to be concluded that among all communication interfaces wireless is better one, in that going to WiMax is the better solution in all aspects, now some of the companies are trying to establish their networks using this technology. It is always dangerous to predict too far ahead in a fast- moving field such as mobile communications. Almost by definition the eventual 2010 scene will not match exactly that depicted in the 4G vision described herein. However, the key elements fully converged services, ubiquitous mobile access, diverse user devices, autonomous networks and software dependency will persist. The 4G Vision is a living document which intends to update and amend as time and knowledge progress. It will act as the umbrella vision to a large research programme and place in context the detailed research work that will take place in the various areas. In this respect it will help to continuously steer the research as it progresses and, therefore, to make it more relevant and beneficial. The mobile technology though reached only at 2.5G now, 4G offers us to provide with a very efficient and reliable wireless communication system for seamless roaming over various network including internet which uses IP network. The 4Gsystem will be implemented in the coming years which are a miracle in the field of communication engineering technology

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11. REFERENCES

http://www.howstuffworks.com http://ieee802.org/16/pub/backgrounder.html http://www.xohm.com/about-overview.html http://www.intel.com/technology/wimax/index.html http://www.lifehacker.com

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