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Dated - 12th October 2012




Introduction (2)





Worldwide(5) 3.0 Process




A 3D scanner is a device that analyzes a real-world object or environment to collect data on its shape and possibly its appearance (i.e. color). The collected data can then be used to construct digital, three dimensional models. Many different technologies can be used to build these 3D scanning devices; each technology comes with its own limitations, advantages and costs. Many limitations in the kind of objects that can be digitized are still present, for example, optical technologies encounter many difficulties with shiny, mirroring or transparent objects. Collected 3D data is useful for a wide variety of applications. These devices are used extensively by the entertainment industry in the production of movies and video games. Other common applications of this technology include industrial design, orthotics and prosthetics, reverse engineering and prototyping, quality control/inspection and documentation of cultural artifacts. 3D laser scanning- 3D laser scanning is a surveying instrument integrated with various kinds of new high technologies, which operates by non-contact high speed laser measurement. The whole process includes data capturing, noise reduction, sub-sampling and surface reconstruction. Modeling accuracy is analyzed afterwards and finally comes to a conclusion that modeling from 3D laser scanning has a great value in virtual reproduction of the objects. Nowadays there are some papers concerned on 3D reconstruction of objects. Some reconstruction methods were based on photogrammetry, some exploited 3d modeling software such as CAD, 3D MAX etc and some applied laser scanning technology. Laser scanning technology has the advantage compared with other such as photogrammetry in the aspect of protection, documentation and visualization of ancient architecture in digital form.

Hand-held laser scanners Hand-held laser scanners create a 3D image through the triangulation mechanism; a laser dot or line is projected onto an object from a hand-held device and a sensor (typically a charge-coupled

device or position sensitive device) measures the distance to the surface. Data is collected in relation to an internal coordinate system and therefore to collect data where the scanner is in motion the position of the scanner must be determined. The position can be determined by the scanner using reference features on the surface being scanned or by using an external tracking method. External tracking often takes the form of a laser tracker (to provide the sensor position) with integrated camera (to determine the orientation of the scanner) or a photogrammetric solution using 3 or more cameras providing the complete Six degrees of freedom of the scanner. Both techniques tend to use infrared Light-emitting diodes attached to the scanner which are seen by the camera(s) through filters providing resilience to ambient lighting.

A hand-held 3D laser scanner. The scanner has a camera to accurately texture map the object.

Data is collected by a computer and recorded as data points within Three-dimensional space, with processing this can be converted into a triangulated mesh and then a Computer-aided design model, often as Non uniform rational B-spline surfaces. Hand-held laser scanners can combine this data with passive, visible-light sensorswhich capture surface textures and colorsto build (or "reverse engineer") a full 3D model.

Laser Scanners


Laser scanners measure the distances between the scanner and the points on surface of measured object by measuring the return time of laser beam emitted from the sensor. At the same time, horizontal and vertical angles of the laser beam are measured. As the result of combining the angles of the laser beam and the distances, 3D coordinates of the object surface are computed. Immediate outcomes of the laser scanners are point cloud data with 3D coordinates. The former scanners were mainly used to determine the location of individual remains or structures, while the latter scanner was used to record the details of the monuments and remains. By combining both scanners, larger areas were covered efficiently, while recording the details of important monuments and remains.

2.0 LITERATURE SURVEY Development Worldwide

2.1 LASER SCANNING DATA POINT PLOUD TO STREAMLINE METHODS A. Point cloud to streamline methods for commonly used data Usually referred to as the set of data points obtained in three-dimensional space of the threedimensional coordinate measuring point cloud, the smallest point cloud contains only one point the point cloud of the high density of up to several million data points. According to the principle of data reduction and the effect of different commonly used data point cloud streamline method can be divided into the following three categories: (1) Simplification method based on distance. Such methods are actually the size of the distance between adjacent data points with a little rain as a basis to determine whether to delete the store. The characteristics of this method is relatively simple algorithms and mathematical expression, little change in curvature of the data point cloud streamlining better, but the change in curvature, a mutation in the data point cloud streamline effect is poor. (2) Curvature class streamlines method. Class method is based on the removal of a point to change the size of the surface curvature as the basis to determine whether or not to remove the

Class. Delete the point at the change of curvature large than small curvature change less, because the change in curvature large to delete little after causing curvature change is larger than the curvature of the small, so the law can change in curvature large remained relatively better results. (3) Uniform classes streamlining method. The type of method is to remove the excess point within a predetermined space (quadrilateral, square or spherical) to retain only one point, like the principle of "median filtering". Class method streamlining speed fast, simple algorithm, streamline in gentle curvature change Annex characteristics cases better, faster change in curvature when the error is larger.

B. 3D laser scanning data point cloud characteristics The basic principle is that of the non-contact laser triangulation method (three-dimensional laser scanning method) having a regular geometric shape of the laser light source (such as: a point source, line source) projected onto the surface of the measured object, the three-dimensional object plane type spatial modulation of the beam production, changing the angle of the imaging beam, and forming the diffuse reflection points of light (or light band) is placed in a position in space of the image sensor (CCD) imaging, the imaging point position is immediately changed, in accordance with the triangular principle to calculate the measured point space coordinates. This method of measurement has a measurement speed, high efficiency; a method is currently the most widely used the most mature technology. The actual three-dimensional data measurement process, the gridded data point cloud is generally difficult or too few to several non-contact laser scanner obtained data from gridded data point cloud, most of the laser scanner measurements the data obtained are often scan line data point cloud. Scan-line data on the appearance of the point cloud is rendered as one of the scan lines, a sweep surface lines by the laser probe head to move in a straight line on the prime minister, because

each point in the process of moving are sequentially generated, therefore, each of the scanning line point in accordance with its spatial position are arranged in a linked list of stored data, in addition, the movement characteristics of the laser probe head along a linear direction so that these points are located within the same plane, make full use of the above two important characteristics of the data point cloud of laser scanning can be effectively achieved streamlining processing.

3D Laser Scanning Systems

Laser scanning technology consists of using lasers to project onto the human body one or more thin and sharp stripes. Simultaneously, light sensors acquire the scene and by applying simple geometrical rules, the surface of the human body is measured. To assure the inoffensiveness of the light beam, only eye-safe lasers are used. Special optical systems and mirrors are used for the generation of stripes from a single laser light beam. The laser scanner unit, which is composed of the laser, the optical system and the light sensor, is moved across the human body to digitize its surface. The type of movement, the number of employed units and their disposition can vary depending on the system. For example, the full body scanner displayed in Figure 2 consists of three scanner


units that move vertically synchronously along three pillars and directed toward the center where the person stand.

The result of the scanning process is in this case a complete 3D surface model of the person. More sophisticated laser scanning solutions are also able to acquire texture and/or color information, thus resulting in a true-looking colored 3D surface model of the person. The high costs for production of hardware components for the laser scanning technology have to be considered as disadvantage. Additionally to the laser, the light sensor and the optical system, also precise electric motors have to be used for the displacement of the scanner units. Moreover, the complete scanning system has to be calibrated so that the geometrical disposition of all the elements can be determined exactly. A second disadvantage of this method is the time required for the digitization of large surfaces. There is no problem for the measurement of extremities as feet and hands, since these body parts can be kept immobile for some seconds. However, in the case of the measurements or full body, it is practical impossible to stay immobile for several seconds. Uncontrolled movements as breathing or muscle contraction can therefore generate errors.


RECONSTRUCTION FROM POINT CLOUDS The point clouds produced by 3D scanners can be used directly for measurement and visualization in the architecture and construction world. Most applications, however, use instead polygonal 3D models, NURBS surface models, or editable feature-based CAD models (aka Solid models). Polygon mesh models: In a polygonal representation of a shape, a curved surface is modeled as many small faceted flat surfaces (think of a sphere modeled as a disco ball). Polygon models also called Mesh models, are useful for visualization, for some CAM (i.e., machining), but are generally "heavy" (i.e., very large data sets), and are relatively un-editable in this form. Surface models: The next level of sophistication in modeling involves using a quilt of curved surface patches to model our shape. These might be NURBS, TSplines or other curved representations of curved topology. Using NURBS, our sphere is a true mathematical sphere. Some applications offer patch layout by hand but the best in class offer both automated patch layout and manual layout. These patches have the advantage of being lighter and more manipulable when exported to CAD. Surface models are somewhat editable, but only in a sculptural sense of pushing and pulling to deform the surface. This representation lends itself well to modeling organic and artistic shapes. Providers of surface modelers include Rapidform, Geomagic, Rhino, Maya, T Splines etc. Solid CAD models: From an engineering/manufacturing perspective, the ultimate representation of a digitized shape is the editable, parametric CAD model. After all, CAD is the common "language" of industry to describe, edit and maintain the shape of the enterprise's assets. In CAD, our sphere is described by parametric features which are easily edited by changing a value (e.g., centerpoint and radius).



Data Acquisition via Laser scanning: An object that is to be laser scanned is placed on the bed of digitizer. Specialized software drives the laser probe above the surface of the object.
The laser probe projects a line of laser light onto the surface while 2 sensor cameras continuously record the changing distance and shape of the laser line in three dimensions (XYZ) as it sweeps along the object.

Resulting Data: The shape of the object appears as millions of points called a point cloud on the
computer monitor as the laser moves around capturing the entire surface shape of the object. The process is very fast, gathering upto 750,000 points per second and very precise(to +.0005).

Modeling Choice Depends on Application: After the huge point cloud data files are created,
they are registered and merged into one three-dimensional representation of the object and post processed with various software packages suitable for various application.

Point cloud data for inspection: If the data is to be used for inspection, the scanned object can be
compared to the designers CAD nominal data. The result of this comparison process is delivered in the form of a color map deviation report, in PDF format, which pictorially describes the differences between the scan data and the CAD data.

CAD Model for Reverse Engineering:

Laser scanning is the fastest, most accurate, and automated way to acquire 3D digital data for reverse engineering. Again, using specialized software, the point cloud data is used to create a 3D CAD model of the parts geometry. The CAD model enables the precise reproduction of the scanned object, or the object can be modified in the CAD model to correct imperfections. GKS can provide a surface model or the more complex solid model, whichever results are needed for the application.

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