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INSTRUMENT TRANSFORMERS

CURRENT & VOLTAGE TRANSFORMERS (CT / PT)

INSTRUMENT TRANSFORMERS

CURRENT / VOLTAGE TRANSFORMER

Produce a scaled down replica of the Primary System Quantities (Current or voltage) to the accuracy expected for the particular measurement. Performance depends upon ability to transform Primary Quantity in the presence of transient D.C. Off-sets, non-sinusoidal wave forms etc, particularly for protection application. CT Primary loading is independant of secondary loading, unlike in case of Power / Potential Transformers.

INSTRUMENT TRANSFORMERS
CURRNT TRANSFORMERS 3 BASIC TYPES of CTs 1. MEASURING CURRENT TRANSFORMER
 

Used to supply indicating / integrating Instruments. Operating Range : 5% - 120% of Rated Current.

2. PROTECTIVE CURRENT TRANSFORMER


 

Used with Protective Relays and similar Apparatus. Operation specified over a wide range of Current ( Accuracy specified at rated to ALF times rated current).

3 DUAL PURPOSE CURRENT TRANSFORMER


 

Intended for Metering and Protection. Complies with the requirement of both Measuring / Protective CT in terms of Range / Accuracy.

INSTRUMENT TRANSFORMERS
MEASURING CURRENT TRANSFORMER (IS 2705- 1992 Part II)


Specified in terms of Accuracy Class , VA Rating and Instrument Security Factor ( e.g. Class 1.0, VA = 15, ISF = 3.0) Standard Accuracy Class= 0.1, 0.2, 0.5, 1.0, 3.0, 5.0. Error specified at 5 120% of Rated Current. Higher errors permitted at lower currents. For example, Class 1.0 CT has a ratio error of: (+/-) 1 % at 100-120% of Rated Current (+/-) 1.5% at 20% of Rated current (+/-) 3% at 5 % of rated current.

Error specified with 25-100% of Rated Burden connected.

INSTRUMENT TRANSFORMERS
PROTECTIVE CURRENT TRANSFORMER (IS2705, 1992, PART III)


Specified in terms of Accuracy Class, VA Burden & Accuracy Limit Factor (ALF) e.g. 5P10, 15 VA. Standard Accuracy Class : 5P, 10P, 15P Standard VA Ratings : 5, 10, 15, 30. Standard ALF : 5, 10, 15, 20, 30. For economical design VA x ALF should not exceed 150. Error specified at Rated Current & ALF times Rated Current e.g. 5P10, 15 VA CT has a composite error of : (+/-) 5% at ALF times Rated Current with rated burden connected (+/-) 1% at Rated Current with rated burden connected.

For a given CT, burden & ALF are inversely related i.e. If connected burden is less than rated, ALF is up.

INSTRUMENT TRANSFORMER
PROTECTIVE CURRENT TRANSFORMER CO-RELATION BETWEEN BURDEN & ALF

RATED BURDEN (15VA) CONNECTED.




ALF Times Rated current = 10 x 5 = 50A Total Burden = 0.60 + 0.15 = 0.75 Ohms. Voltage developed by CT at ALF (V) = 50 x 0.75 = 37.5 V

INSTRUMENT TRANSFORMER
PROTECTIVE CURRENT TRANSFORMER

REDUCED BURDEN (5VA) CONNECTED.




Total Burden = 0.20 + 0.15 = 0.35 Ohm. Max. Secondary current developed by CT at limiting voltage of 37.5V = 37.5 / 0.35 = 108A (21.5 times Rated Current) Thus, at reduced burden of 5 VA, ALF increases to 21.5.

INSTRUMENT TRANSFORMER
PROTECTION CT FOR SPECIAL PURPOSE APPLICATIONS (IS 2705, 1992, PART IV)


Designated as Class PS CT(Class X as per BS). Used for balanced protections like Differential, REF where required characteristic can not be conveniently expressed in terms of Accuracy Class, VA and ALF. Specified in terms of : Knee Point Voltage (Vk) CT Secondary Winding Resistance(Rct) Magnetising Current (Im)

Typical Specification : Ratio=200/1A, Vk= 200V, Rct = 2 Ohms, Im = 30 mA at Vk/2. Low reactance type, Turns ratio error limited to 0.25%.

INSTRUMENT TRANSFORMER
CLASS PS CT KNEE POINT VOLTAGE

KNEE POINT Point on the Magnetisation Characteristic where 10% increase in secondary voltage causes > 50% increase in the Magnetising current.

INSTRUMENT TRANSFORMER
CURRENT TRANSFORMER 5A CT SECONDARY


Used where lead burden insignificant (e.g. CTs used in in-door metal-clad switch-gear or with high Prim. Rating say10,000/5A). Fine turns ratio adjustment not possible for Bar Prim CT with low primary ratings (say 25/5A). Comparatively low peak voltage on CT secondary open-circuit. Preferred where Cts are Out-door and lead resistance high. Fine turns ratio adjustment possible. Comparatively high peak voltage when CT secondary is opencircuited.

1A CT SECONDARY


INSTRUMENT TRANSFORMER
CURRENT TRANSFORMER (CBCT)

Used for Sensitive Earth Fault / Earth Leakage Protection. Excited by Primary residual current. Hence no out put due to balanced / unbalanced load.

INSTRUMENT TRANSFORMER
CURRENT TRANSFORMER (CBCT) CBCT SPECIFICATIONS- Following parameters to be specified.


Min. Primary Earth Fault Current to be detected (say 1A or 2A) Min. Setting of the Sensitive E/F relay (e.g. 10 mA) Ohmic burden of relay at Min. Setting. (say 1 ohm) To and fro lead burden between CBCT & Relay (say 1 ohm) Outer diameter of cable on which CBCT to be mounted.

Note Source end earthing of Armour to be routed through the window of CBCT and earthed on load side as shown, to prevent earth return current through armour affecting sensitivity.

INSTRUMENT TRANSFORMER
VOLTAGE TRANSFORMER (VT) TYPES
   

Metering VT Protection VT Dual Purpose VT Residual VT Voltage Ratio Accuracy Class Rated VA Burden Rated Voltage Factor

SPECIFICATIONS
   

ANOTHER CLASSIFICATION Electro-magnetic Voltage Transformer Capacitor Voltage Transformer (CVT)

INSTRUMENT TRANSFORMER

VOLTAGE TRANSFORMER (IS 3156 PART II 1992)


ERROR CLASS 0.1 0.2 0.5 1.0 3.0 Voltage 80 120% Burden 25 100% Power factor 0.8 Lag Frequency - Rated. % RATIO ERROR (+/-) 0.1% (+/-) 0.2% (+/-) 0.5% (+/-) 1.0% (+/-) 3.0% PHASE ANGLE ERROR (Min) (+/-) 5 (+/-) 10 (+/-) 15 (+/-) 20 ----

REFERENCE CONDITIONS
   

INSTRUMENT TRANSFORMER
PROTECTION VT
CLASS 3P 6P % RATIO ERROR (+/-) 3% (+/-) 6% (+/-) 5% (+/-) 10% PHASE ANGLE ERROR (Min) 120 240 200 -----

RESIDUAL VT
5 PR 10 PR

REFERENCE CONDITIONS  Voltage 5% to Voltage Factor times rated voltage  Burden 25 100%  P.F. 0.8 Lag  Frequency - Rated.

INSTRUMENT TRANSFORMER
VOLTAGE TRANSFORMER (VT) RATED VOLTAGE FACTOR (IS 3156- PART I 1992)
SYSTEM EARTHING


RATED V.F. 1.2 1.5 1.2 1.9

RATED TIME Continuous 30 Seconds Continuous 30 Seconds

Effectively Earthed Non-effectively Earthed (With Automatic E/F trip)

Non-effectively 1.2 Continuous Earthed (W/O Automatic E/F trip) 1.9 8 Hours In non-effectively earthed system, healthy phase voltage rises to phase to phase value, in the event of an earth fault. Thus, considering 10% , permissible over voltage, V (Healthy Phase) = 1.1 x 1.732 = 1.9

INSTRUMENT TRANSFORMER
VOLTAGE TRANSFORMER STAR / STAR CONNECTION


Both Prim / Secondary neutrals to be solidly grounded. Requires 3 x 1Phase or 3 Phase, 3 Core VT.

V- CONNECTION


Requires 2 x 1Phase PTs (Phase Phase connected). Used where Phase Neutral Voltage not required (e.g. 3 Phase , 3 Wire Meters)

INSTRUMENT TRANSFORMER
VOLTAGE TRANSFORMER
RESIDUAL CONNECTION (STAR / OPN DELTA)

 

Primary neutral solidly grounded, secondary connected in open delta. Used for polarising directional E/F relay or detection of earth fault in noneffectively grounded systems using Neutral Displacement Relay. PTs should be 3 Phase, 5 Limb or 3 x Single Phase.