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MD/AY2011-2012

ME304
KDM.1
Indian Institute of Technology Gandhinagar
Dept. of Mechanical Engineering
L09: POSITION ANALYSIS OF
MECHANISMS



Dr. Murali Damodaran
murali@iitgn.ac.in

Spring Semester of AY2011-2012
ME304: KINEMATICS AND DYNAMICS
OF MACHINES
MD/AY2011-2012
ME304
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LECTURE 09
23 January 2012
ME304: Kinematics and Dynamics of Machines

Introduction to Mechanisms.
..continuing with Kinematic Fundamentals
Position, Velocity and Acceleration Analysis. (Kinematics)
Analytical Method for Position Synthesis
(The basis for computer modeling and synthesis of linkages)
Design of Cam Follower Mechanisms.
Gear tooth profiles, Spur gears and Helical gears,Epicyclic Gear Trains
Belt drives
Dynamic Analysis of Mechanisms (Dynamics)
Balancing
Analysis and Applications of Discrete and Continuous System Vibration


Course Website @ https://sites.google.com/a/iitgn.ac.in/me304/

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POSITION ANALYSIS
OF MECHANISMS
Coordinate Systems for Analysis of
Planar Mechanism


Converting between the two




Position Difference, Relative position
Difference (one point, two times)
relative (two points, same time)
R
BA
=R
B
-R
A


X
Y
R
B
R
A
A

B

R
BA
( )
2 2
arctan
A X Y
Y X
R R R
R R u
= +
=
cos
sin
X A
Y A
R R
R R
u
u
=
=
( )
,
Cartesian:
Polar: ( , )
X Y
A
R R
R u
o
o
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POSITION ANALYSIS
OF MECHANISMS
Position Analysis of Fourbar
Linkage Mechanism
2 4
2
3 4
Given :
The lengths of links
, , and
position of the ground link O O
and the angle
Objective: Find and
a b c d
u
u u
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POSITION ANALYSIS
OF MECHANISMS
Graphical Analysis of Fourbar
Linkage
Draw an arc of radius b, centered
at A

Draw an arc of radius c, centered
at O
4

The intersections are the two
possible positions for the linkage,
open and crossed

a
d
u
2

b
c
u
3

u
4

A
O
2

O
4

B
1

B
2

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POSITION ANALYSIS
OF MECHANISMS
Algebraic Position Analysis of
Fourbar Linkage
2
2
Coordinates of Point
cos
sin
A:
x
y
A a
A a
u
u
=
=
( ) ( )
( )
2
2
2
2
2 2
Solve these equations to
Coordinates of Point B
See Page 17
fin
7-1
d
a
78 for solution
nd
x x y y
x y
x y
b B A B A
c B d B
B B
= +
= +
MD/AY2011-2012
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POSITION ANALYSIS
OF MECHANISMS
Coordinate Systems for Analysis of
Planar Mechanism
Coordinate Systems:
GCS = Global Coordinate System, (X, Y)
LNCS = Local Non-Rotating Coordinate System , (x, y)
LRCS = Local Rotating Coordinate System , (x, y)
x
y
MD/AY2011-2012
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POSITION ANALYSIS
OF MECHANISMS
Coordinate Systems for Airplane
Fight Dynamics
MD/AY2011-2012
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POSITION ANALYSIS
OF MECHANISMS
Non-planar Linkages-3D
Spherical Linkages
http://synthetica.eng.uci.edu/~mcca
rthy/Linkages.html
MD/AY2011-2012
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POSITION ANALYSIS
OF MECHANISMS
Representation of Position
Vectors
For planar motion complex numbers on the real-imaginary plane
can be used to model position vectors

Euler identity e
i
=cos i sin (Note-Norton uses j instead of i in
his text book i.e. e
j
=cos j sin )

Cartesian form: R
A
cos + i R
A
sin

Polar form: R
A
e
i




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POSITION ANALYSIS
OF MECHANISMS
Representation of Position
Vectors
Multiplying a vector by e
iu
corresponds
to rotating the vector through u
2 i i i
A A
R e e R e
u u u
=
2
For a rotation
through 90 degrees
cos sin
2 2
i
e i i
t
t t
= + =
cos sin
i
A
Re
R iR
R R
u
u u +
=
B
R iR =
2
C
R i R R = =
3
D
R i R iR = =
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POSITION ANALYSIS
OF MECHANISMS
Algebraic Position Analysis of
Fourbar Linkage
Write the vector loop equation:

(Positive from tail to tip)
Substitute with complex vectors


Split the knowns on one side and the unknowns on the other.
Call the knowns Z


2 3 4 1
0 R R R R + =
3 2 4 1
0
i i i i
ae be ce de
u u u u
+ =
2 1
3 4 2 1
known
i i i
i i
i
be ce ae de Z
Z ae de
u u
u
u u
u
= + =
= +
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POSITION ANALYSIS
OF MECHANISMS
Algebraic Position Analysis of
Fourbar Linkage
3 4 2 1
i i i i
be ce ae de Z
u u u u
= + =
3 4
3 4
Define and
i i
i i
s e t e
be c bs c Z e t
u u
u u
= =
= =
3 4
1 1
Define = and i.e. conjugates
and a conjugate based on known link lengths
1
noting that
i i
b c
Z
s
s e t e
s t
bs ct Z
Z
t Z
u u
= = =
=
= =
MD/AY2011-2012
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POSITION ANALYSIS
OF MECHANISMS
Algebraic Position Analysis of
Fourbar Linkage
1
no ting that
bs ct Z
b c
Z
s Z t
Z
=
= =
bs ct Z
b c
Z
s t
= +
= +
( )
2
2 2
2 2 2
c
b ct Z Z
t
c
b c ctZ Z ZZ
t
b t c t ct Z cZ tZZ
| |
= + +
|
\ .
= + + +
= + + +
MD/AY2011-2012
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POSITION ANALYSIS
OF MECHANISMS
Algebraic Position Analysis of
Fourbar Linkage
( )
2 2 2 2
0 c t ct Z t c b ZZ cZ + + + + =
( )
( ) ( )
2
2 2 2 2
2 2
2
2
Solve 0 for
4
2
c b ZZ
ct Z t c b ZZ cZ
c b ZZ c ZZ
t
t
cZ
+
+
+ +
+
=

=
ct Z
s
b
+
=
MD/AY2011-2012
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POSITION ANALYSIS
OF MECHANISMS
Algebraic Position Analysis of
Fourbar Linkage
3 4
3 4
3 4
and
conjugate of
1
noting that
i i
i i
i i
s e t e
Z be ce
Z be ce Z
Z
Z
u u
u u
u u
= =
=
=
=
( ) ( )
2
2 2 2 2 2
4

2
c b ZZ c b ZZ c ZZ
t
cZ
+ +
=
ct Z
s
b
+
=
( )
2 2 2
Solve 0 ct Z t c b ZZ cZ + + + =
Solve this in Matlab/Octave
MD/AY2011-2012
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POSITION ANALYSIS
OF MECHANISMS
Algebraic Position Analysis of
Fourbar Linkage in Octave
MD/AY2011-2012
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KINEMATICS
OF MECHANISMS
Algebraic Position Analysis of
Fourbar Linkage
MD/AY2011-2012
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POSITION ANALYSIS
OF MECHANISMS
Software Systems for
Analysis of Various Linkages
R L NORTONs SUITE OF PROGRAMS
ACCOMPANYING THE TEXTBOOK
Kinematics and Dynamics of Machinery

FOURBAR
FIVEBAR
SIXBAR
SLIDER
DYNACAM
ENGINE

All are student SI editions
COMMERCIAL SOFTWARES FOR
LINKAGE MECHANISMS

WORKING MODEL 2D

SAM
(Synthesis and Analysis of Mechanisms)

MATLAB Simechanics Toolbox

Ch MECHANISMS Toolkit

AutoDesk Inventor
In-Motion Module
MD/AY2011-2012
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POSITION ANALYSIS
OF MECHANISMS
Algebraic Position Analysis of
Fourbar Linkage
FOURBAR
Program
MD/AY2011-2012
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POSITION ANALYSIS
OF MECHANISMS
Algebraic Position Analysis of
Fourbar Linkage
FOURBAR
Program
MD/AY2011-2012
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POSITION ANALYSIS
OF MECHANISMS
Algebraic Position Analysis of
Fourbar Linkage
MD/AY2011-2012
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POSITION ANALYSIS
OF MECHANISMS
Algebraic Position Analysis
Crank-Slider Linkage
Given: link lengths a, b
and c,
1
,
2
(the motor
position)
Find: the unknown angle

3
and length d


2 3 4 1
0 R R R R =
3 2 4 1
0
i i i i
ae be ce de
u u u u
=
MD/AY2011-2012
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POSITION ANALYSIS
OF MECHANISMS
Algebraic Position Analysis
Crank-Slider Linkage
3 2 4 1
2 3 4 1
2 3 4 1
1
Using Euler Equivalents, collecting
real and imaginary terms and setting
each to zero results in:
cos cos cos cos 0
sin sin sin sin 0
As 0, these eq a io
0
u t
i i i i
ae be ce
a b c d
de
a b c d
u u u u
u u u u
u u u u
u
=

=
=

2 3 4
2 3 4
cos cos c
ns simplify to
os 0
si
:
n sin sin 0
a b c d
a b c
u u u
u u u
=
=
1
2 4
3
sin sin
sin
a c
b
u u
u

| |
=
|
\ .
MD/AY2011-2012
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POSITION ANALYSIS
OF MECHANISMS
Algebraic Position Analysis of
Linkages with more than 4 bars
1
1
2 4
3
1
2
3
4
2 3
Here is the offset.
Initial set up of coordinate system
for slider block such that
0 and 90
Hence one solution i
sin sin
sin
sin
sin
cos c
s:
os
a c
b
a c
c
b
d a b
u u
u
u
u
u
u
u
u

| |
=
|
\ .

|
= =
|
=
|
\ .
=
1
2
3
2 3
The next valid solution taking into
account the multi-valued
sin
sin
cos
ness of arcsin
i
c
s
os
a c
b
d a b
u
u t
u u


| |
= +
|
\ .
=
MD/AY2011-2012
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POSITION ANALYSIS
OF MECHANISMS
Algebraic Position Analysis of
Linkages with more than 4 bars
1 2
3
2 3
Hence one solution i
sin
sin
:
cos
s
cos
a c
b
d a b
u
u
u u


| |
=
|
\ .
=
MD/AY2011-2012
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POSITION ANALYSIS
OF MECHANISMS
Algebraic Position Analysis of
Linkages with more than 4 bars
1 2
3
2 3
sin
sin
cos cos
a c
b
d a b
u
u t
u u


| |
= +
|
\ .
=
MD/AY2011-2012
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POSITION ANALYSIS
OF MECHANISMS
Algebraic Position Analysis of
Inverted Crank-Slider Linkage
Given: link lengths a, c and d,
u
1
, u
2
(the motor position),
and

the angle between the
slider and rod

Find: the unknown angles u
3

and u
4
and length b



u
2

MD/AY2011-2012
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POSITION ANALYSIS
OF MECHANISMS
Algebraic Position Analysis of
Inverted Crank-Slider Linkage
Write the vector loop equation:

(Positive from tail to tip)

Substitute with complex vectors






2 3 4 1
0 R R R R =
( )
3 2 4 1
4
2 4 1
3 4
0
Since
0
i i i i
i
i i i
ae be ce de
ae be ce de
u u u u
u
u u u
u u
+
=
= +
=
u
2

MD/AY2011-2012
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POSITION ANALYSIS
OF MECHANISMS
Algebraic Position Analysis of
Inverted Crank-Slider Linkage
u
2

Grouping knowns and unknowns



Denoting



Taking the conjugate to get the
second equation



( )
4
2 4 1
0
i
i i i
ae be ce de
u
u u u
+
=
( )
4
4 2 1
2 1
known
i
i i i
i i
be ce ae de Z
Z ae de
u
u u u
u u
+
+ = =
=
4
,
i i
s e t e
u
= =
( )
4
4
4 4
i
i
i i i
Z be ce
Z be e ce bst cs
u
u
u u
+
= +
= + = +
1 b
Z bst cs c
s t
| |
= + = +
|
\ .
MD/AY2011-2012
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POSITION ANALYSIS
OF MECHANISMS
Algebraic Position Analysis of
Inverted Crank-Slider Linkage
u
2

2 2
Multiply and to g
1
et:
1
Z Z
Z bst cs
b
Z bst cs c
s t
ZZ b bc t c
t
= +
| |
=
| |
= + + +
|
\
+
|
\
.
= +

.
2 2
1
Solve 0 for b c t b c ZZ b
t
| |
+ + + =
|
\ .
( )
2
2 2
1 1
4
2
c t c t c ZZ
t t
b
| | | |
+ +
| |
\ . \ .
=
MD/AY2011-2012
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POSITION ANALYSIS
OF MECHANISMS
Algebraic Position Analysis of
Inverted Crank-Slider Linkage
2 2
1
Solve 0 for b c t b c ZZ b
t
| |
+ + + =
|
\ .
( )
2
2 2
1 1
4
2
c t c t c ZZ
t t
b
| | | |
+ +
| |
\ . \ .
=
u
2

From Z bst cs
Z
s
bt c
= +
=
+
MD/AY2011-2012
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POSITION ANALYSIS
OF MECHANISMS
Algebraic Position Analysis of
Inverted Crank-Slider Linkage
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POSITION ANALYSIS
OF MECHANISMS
Algebraic Position Analysis of
Geared Fivebar Linkage
Consider Geared fivebar linkage
Write vector loop equation

Apply complex number representation







2 3 4 5 1
0 R R R R R + =
3 5 2 4 1
0
i i i i i
ae be ce de fe
u u u u u
+ =
5 2
5 2
Gear Ratio: will relate and v
via a phase angle as follows:

u u
|
u u | = +
3 2 4 2 1
( )
0
i i i i i
ae be ce de fe
u u u u | u +
+ =
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POSITION ANALYSIS
OF MECHANISMS
Algebraic Position Analysis of
Geared Fivebar Linkage


3 2 4 2 1
3 4 2 2 1
3 4
( )
( )
Separate unknowns and know
Denot
n
e
s
0
i i i i i
i i i i i
i i
Z
ae be ce de fe
be ce ae de fe Z
be ce
u u u u | u
u u u u | u
u u
+
+
+ =
= =
=
3 4
3 4
Form Conjugate
Define and
i i
i i
s be t
bs
c
ct Z
b c
Z bs ct
e
be ce
s t
u u
u u
= =
= =
= =
The remaining analysis follows exactly
the same way as shown for the fourbar linkage
MD/AY2011-2012
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POSITION ANALYSIS
OF MECHANISMS
Algebraic Position Analysis of
Geared Fivebar Linkage
MD/AY2011-2012
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POSITION ANALYSIS
OF MECHANISMS
Algebraic Position Analysis of
Geared Fivebar Linkage
MD/AY2011-2012
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POSITION ANALYSIS
OF MECHANISMS
Algebraic Position Analysis of
Watts Sixbar Linkage
Watts sixbar can be solved as 2 fourbar linkages
R
1
R
2
R
3
R
4
, then R
5
R
6
R
7
R
8
R
4
and R
5
have a constant angle between them
MD/AY2011-2012
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POSITION ANALYSIS
OF MECHANISMS
Algebraic Position Analysis of
Watts Sixbar Linkage
MD/AY2011-2012
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POSITION ANALYSIS
OF MECHANISMS
Algebraic Position Analysis of
Watts Sixbar Linkage
MD/AY2011-2012
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POSITION ANALYSIS
OF MECHANISMS
Algebraic Position Analysis of
Stephensons Sixbar Linkage
Stephensons sixbar can sometimes be solved as a fourbar and
then a fivebar linkage
R
1
R
2
R
3
R
4
, then R
4
R
5
R
6
R
7
R
8
R
3
and R
5
have a constant angle between them
If motor is at O
6
you have to solve eqns. simultaneously
MD/AY2011-2012
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POSITION ANALYSIS
OF MECHANISMS
Finding the position of any
point on a linkage
Once the unknown angles have been found it is easy to
find any position on the linkage (relative to pivot O
2
)
For point S
R
s
=se
i(u
2
+o
2
)

For point P
R
P
=ae
i u
2

+pe
i (u
3
+o
3
)
For point U
R
U
=d

+ue
i (u
4
+o
4
)

a
b
d
c
MD/AY2011-2012
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POSITION ANALYSIS
OF MECHANISMS
Algebraic Position Analysis of
Fourbar Linkage
x
y
R
p
R
A
MD/AY2011-2012
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POSITION ANALYSIS
OF MECHANISMS
Analysis of Transmission
Angles of Fourbar Linkage
Extreme value of transmission angle when links 1 and 2
are aligned.



( )
2
2 2
1
arccos
2
b c d a
bc

(
+
= (
(

( )
2
2 2
2
arccos
2
b c d a
bc
t
(
+ +
= (
(

MD/AY2011-2012
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POSITION ANALYSIS
OF MECHANISMS
Analysis of Toggle Positions
of Fourbar Linkage
Caused by the collinearity of links 3 and 4.



2 2 2 2
1
2 2
cos 0
2
toggle toggle
a d b c bc
ad ad
u u t

| | +
= s s
|
\ .
u
2

u
2

2
3
4
4
3
2
Overlapped
Extended
MD/AY2011-2012
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POSITION ANALYSIS
OF MECHANISMS
Analysis of Toggle Positions
of a Fourbar Linkage
Caused by the collinearity of links 3 and 4.



For a non-Grashof linkage, only one of the values of



will be between 1 and 1
2 2 2 2
1
2 2
cos 0
2
toggle toggle
a d b c bc
ad ad
u u t

| | +
= s s
|
\ .
2 2 2 2
2
a d b c bc
ad ad
| | +

|
\ .
MD/AY2011-2012
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