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The Scientific Method

Science is a approach to problem solving that uses the scientific method.

Lecture 2 The Scientific Method The Basic Characteristics of Life Intro to the Six Nutrients

The Scientific Method

The scientific method is an approach to problem solving it is circular. Each experiment tests a hypothesis and produces data that leads to new questions.

I wonder why Coffee keeps me awake.

2. Hypothesis
Maybe coffee keeps me awake because of a chemical thats found in the beans.

3. Prediction
If I isolate various chemicals from coffee beans, one of those chemicals will keep me awake, even if I dont drink coffee.

4. Controlled Experiment
Isolate and drink various chemicals that are found in coffee beans. After drinking each chemical, determine whether it does or does not prevent sleep.

5. Results
After drinking pure water (control), I have no problems falling asleep. After drinking one of the chemicals that was isolated from the coffee beans, I stay awake for several hours.
Time to Sleep





em ica lD
Pur eW ate r

em ica lA

em ica lB

Experimental Group Control Group Variable Confounding Variables

em ica lC

6. Conclusions
My hypothesis is supported. There is evidence that a chemical in coffee keeps me awake. After Multiple

Plant Growth Experiment


Importantly, no hypothesis or theory is ever proven. They are supported by evidence.

-Was the experiment controlled correctly? -Were the results interpreted correctly? -What are the alternative explanations? -Has the experiment been reproduced?

Identify the confounding variable?

A. Plants grow in the control plot only, and not in the experimental plot. B. Lemon tree extract is added to the experimental plot, but not the control plot. C. Both the experimental plot and the control plot are always watered in the morning. D. The control plot is sown in February, and the experimental plot is sown in March.
Adds a 3rd Variable

Medical Research and Clinical Trials

Animal Research
Rodents, Primates. Safety/Effectiveness Testing.

Phase 1 Trial
Safety Testing. Small sample size.

Phase 2 Trial
Effectiveness Testing. Medium sample size.

Tested on Thousands Marketing of Drug to Millions

Phase 3 Trial
Placebo-controlled Testing. Large sample size.

Find out if it's working and safe Small Human Testing(10-20), Determine if Drug is Safe Med=Hundreds Testing on Terminal Patients to check Effectiveness

Phase 4 - FDA Approval

Continued monitoring for safety.

Basic Characteristics of All Living Things

Basic Characteristics of All Living Things (7)

1. All living things are composed of cells

What is the denition of life?

*Non-living things might exibit some of but not all of these characteristics.

Cells are the smallest units of life All cells arise from preexisting cells

Basic Characteristics of All Living Things (7)

2. All living things contain
DNA Proteins -Structural Carbohydrates -Energy Lipids-Structual and Energy

Basic Characteristics of All Living Things (7)

3. All living things consume energy

Basic Characteristics of All Living Things (7)

4. All living things respond to their environment

Basic Characteristics of All Living Things (7)

5. All living things maintain homeostasis*

1.Being able to sense the environment 2.Being able to react to the environment


of a constant internal environment

Basic Characteristics of All Living Things (7)

6. All living things reproduce. 7. Populations of living things adapt and evolve.

Basic Characteristics of Life

Cells DNA, Protein, Carbohydrates, and Lipids Energy Consumption Detection/Reaction to the Environment Homeostasis Reproduction Adaptation and Evolution