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# CSE 362 Design of Steel Structures

Section properties, section capacities, combined bending and shear, combined compression and bending

## Professor K.F. Chung

Department of Civil and Structural Engineering The Hong Kong Polytechnic University Hong Kong SAR, China

## Design of steel structures

Design strengths Section properties Section capacities
Shear capacity Moment capacity Section classification Interaction of forces and moments Moment capacity under high shear Moment capacity under axial force

Member resistances
Column Beam Combined compression and bending

Connection design

Design strengths
Steel grade Flange thickness smaller than or equal to (mm) 16 40 63 16 40 63 Design strength py (N/mm2) 275 265 255 355 345 335

S275

S355

Section properties
Area, A Second moment of area, I Elastic modulus, Z Plastic modulus, S

Section properties
Cross-sectional area, A UB 457 x 152 x 52
D = 449.8mm t = 7.6mm r = 10.2mm B T d = 152.4mm = 10.9mm = 407.6mm

## Cross sectional area A = (D 2T) x t + 2 B x T 123

D = 449.8

14243 A
w

= (449.8 2 x 10.9) x 7.6 + 2 x 152.4 x 10.9 + 3322mm2 = 3253mm2 2 = 6575mm (c.f. 66.6cm2 or 6660mm2 from tabulated data) As Afillet = = 4 x 10.22 x 1 6664.3mm2

= 89.3mm2

A = 6575 + 89.3

## In general, fillets are neglected in most design.

Section properties
Second moment of area, I B = 152.4 10.9 203.8 D = 449.8 219.45 d = 428 t = 7.6

## 152.4 x 10.93 4283 x 7.6 2 Ix = 2 + 152.4 x 10.9 x 219.45 + 12 12

= 2 [16.45 x 103 + 80.0 x 106] + 49.66 x 106 = 160.03 x 106 + 49.66 x 106 = 209.69 x 106 mm4 or 20969 cm4
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Section properties
Elastic modulus, Z

Z Zx = Zw

I D/2

20969 x 10 4 449.8/2

Zf = 932 232
Zw = Zx

## = 700cm3 = 0.249 = 0.751

232 932

Zf = 1 0.249 Zx

Section properties
Plastic modulus, S

S
Sx = 2 x [152.4 x 10.9 x 219.45] + = 729 x 103mm3 + 348 x 103mm3 = 1077 x 103mm3 or 1077cm3
Sf 729 = = 0.677 Sx 1077

4282 x 7.6 4

Sw 348 = Sx 1077

Shape factor =

## Typical section properties in an I-section

Elements (cm2) Area A ratio Second moment of area, I (cm4) ratio

0.498 0.488 -

0.749 0.232 -

Elements

0.751 0.249 -

## 729 348 1077

0.677 0.323 -

Section capacities
Tension capacity, PT

PT = Ae x py
where P Ae

is the applied load is the effect area allowing for bolt holes, if any

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Section capacities
Compression capacity, Pc

Pc = Ag x py
where P Ag

## is the applied load is the gross area

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Section capacities
Shear capacity, Pv

Pv = Av x pv
where pv = 0.577 py Av is the shear area =Dxt rolled section =dxt fabricated section

Rolled section

Fabricated section

The shear stress distribution of the I-section under an applied shear force shows that a large proportion of the shear force is taken up by the web, but by the flanges.
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Section capacities
Shear strength, pv

py = pv =

3p2 v

## for pure shear = 0.577py

where py = 275.0 N/mm2 = 158.7 N/mm2

1 py 3

= 0.577 x 275

## where py = 355.0 N/mm2 = 204.8 N/mm2

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= 0.577 x 355

Section capacities
Moment capacities and section classification Mc = 1.2 Z py or S py = Z py Z py
B b

for class 1 plastic or class 2 compact section for class 3 semi-compact section for class 4 slender section The slenderness of the plate elements, b/T or d/t controls the local buckling behaviour. The section class of a steel section is always assigned to be the worst classification of its plate elements, i.e. either its compressive flange or its web.

T d t D

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Section capacities
Moment capacities and section classification

py

S py Z py Mc

## Class 1 and 2 sections

py

Class 3 sections

py

Class 4 sections 15

Section capacities
Moment capacities and section classification

## Limiting width to thickness ratio

Compression element Outstand element under compression due to bending Web with neutral axis at mid-depth Class of element (1) Plastic
b 8 T
b 80 t

(2) Compact
b 9 T
b 100 t

(3) Semi-compact

b 13 T
b 120 t

b T d t
= 275 py

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Section capacities
Moment capacities and section classification Worked Example 1 UB 457 x 152 x 52 S275 As T 16 mm, py = 275 N/mm2 and = 1.0
Plastic Compact Semi-compact 9 100 13 120

b = 6.99 T d = 53 .6 t

8 80

As both the compressive flange element and the web element are plastic, the section is also plastic.

## = 296.2 kNm = 307.6 kNm

Mc = 296.2 kNm
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Section capacities
Moment capacities and section classification Worked Example 2 UB 457 x 152 x 52 S355 As T 16 mm, py = 355 N/mm2 and = 0.88
Plastic Compact Semi-compact

b = 6.99 T d = 5 3 .6 t

7.0 70.4

7.9 88.0

11.4 105.6

As both the compressive flange element and the web element are plastic, the section is also plastic.

## = 382.3 kNm = 397.0 kNm

Mc = 382.3 kNm
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Section capacities
Moment capacities and section classification Worked Example 3 UB 406 x 178 x 54 S275 As T 16 mm, py = 275 N/mm2, and = 1.0
Plastic Compact Semi-compact

b = 8.15 T

8 80

9 100

13 120

d = 46.8 t

As the compressive flange element is compact while the web element is plastic, the section is hence compact.

Mc or

## = 290.1 kNm = 306.9 kNm M = 290.1 kNm

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Section capacities
Moment capacities and section classification Worked Example 4 UB 406 x 178 x 54 S355 As T 16 mm, py = 355 N/mm2 and = 0.88

Plastic Compac t
b = 8.15 T

## Semicompact 11.4 105.6

7.0 70.4

7.9 88.0

d = 46.8 t

As the compressive flange element is semi-compact while the web element is plastic, the section is semi-compact. Mc = py Z = 355 x 930 x 10-3

= 330.2 kNm

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Section capacities
Combined bending and shear

## F A L B At support A, the beam is under co-existing shear force and bending.

P SFD PL BMD

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Section capacities
Combined bending and shear

SFD ? BMD ?

SFD ? BMD ?

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Section capacities
Moment capacity under shear force
Low shear force Shear area to resist shear force Section to resist bending moment

reduced section modulus due to the presence of shear force in the shear area

## for class 1 and 2 sections

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Section capacities
Moment capacity under shear force UB 457 x 152 x 52 S275
Mcv where Sv Sx Fv 1 = 2 Pv 449.82 x7.6 = 4 = py(Sx Sv) 1.2 py (Z Sv/1.5)
2

Sv Sx

## = 384.4 x 103 mm3 384.4 = = 0.357 1077 = 296.2 kNm

Moment capacities of the top and the bottom flanges Mf = 275 x 729 x 103 x 10-6 = 200.5 kNm

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Section capacities
Moment capacity under shear force UB 457 x 152 x 52 S275
Fv/Pv 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 0.04 0.16 0.36 0.64 1.00 1 Sv/Sx 0.986 0.943 0.871 0.771 0.643 Mcv (kNm) 292.1 279.3 258.1 228.5 190.5 Mcv/Mcx 0.986 0.943 0.871 0.771 0.643

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Section capacities
Moment capacity under shear force UB 457 x 152 x 52 S275
1.2

## Moment ratio, Mcv / Mcx

1.0 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2

## Equation A Equation B Equation C

Fv M cv + =1 Pv M cx

## Shear force ratio, Fv / Pv

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Section capacities
Moment capacity under shear force UB 457 x 152 x 52 S275 For simplicity, assume linear reduction

0.8 0.6 Mcv = 190.5 + (296.2 190.5) x 1.0 0.6 = 190.5 + 52.85 = 243.4 kNm 6% (c.f. 258.1kNm from non-linear reduction)
Linear reduction is always conservative. Equation A - simple but too conservative (max. stress for shear and bending does not coincide) Equation B Equation C - reduction due to shear force only when Fv/Pv > 0.6 but yet very conservative - reduction due to shear force only applied to the web while the flanges are always effective, i.e. Mf
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Section capacities
Combined compression and bending
F

AFD ? BMD ?

## F AFD ? SFD ? BMD ?

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Section capacities
Combined compression and bending

## AFD ? SFD ? BMD ?

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Section capacities
Moment capacity under axial force

## Low axial force

Fc h n t = =n Pc A

hn

## Compression / tension area

h 2 t 2 = n 2A 2 n

Mcn

h2t = py S x n 4 = py ( K1 K2 n2 )

whereK1 = Sx
2 K2 = A 4t

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Section capacities
Moment capacity under axial force
High axial force

Fc A (D h n )B = =n Pc A
A n = A DB + hnB A(n 1) A n A + DB = hnB h n = +D

hn

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Section capacities
Moment capacity under axial force
D High axial force hn

Mcn Sxr

= py Sxr
B 2 D h2 n 4 B 2 A2 2 2 2AD = 4 D B 2 (n - 1) - D - B (n 1) A2 2BD = (n 1) (n 1) + 4B A 2 = A (1 - n) 2BD 1 + n 4B A

Mcn

py K3 (1 - n) (K4 + n)
A2 4B

where K3 =

and

K4 =

2BD 1 A
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Section capacities
Moment capacity under axial force for UB 457 x 152 x 52 S275
Low axial force Mcn
2 and K2 = A 4t 2 As K1 = 1077 cm3 and K2 = 6664 = 1460.8cm3 4 x 7.6 Mcn = 275 x (1077 1460.8 n2) x 10-3 kNm

= py ( K1 K2 n2 )

where

K1 = Sx

As the maximum value of hn is 428 mm, the limiting value of n is given by 428 x 7.6 n = = 0.488 6664 High axial force Mcn = py K3 (1 - n) (K4 + n) 66642 A2 = As K3 = 4 x 152.4 4B 2 x 152.4 x 449.8 2BD 1 1 = K4 = 6664 A Mcn

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## = 275 x 72.85 (1 n) (19.57 + n) x 10-3 kNm

Section capacities
Moment capacity under axial force UB 457 x 152 x 52 S275
1.2

Mcx
cn /

Moment ratio M

## Axial force ratio, n c c / Pc) (F

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Section capacities
Moment capacity under axial force UB 457 x 152 x 52 S275
Linear reduction is always conservative but simple

Fc M cn + =1 Pc M cx Fc Mcn b) + P M =1 c cx
a)

## where and = 1 ~ 3 depending on the types of the steel sections

What happens in a section under combined action of axial force, shear force and bending moment?

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Section capacities
Axially loaded members under bi-axial moments

## Tension members under bi-axial moments

Mx My Fc + + 1 M cx M cy Pc
Mx Mrx

## Alternatively, for greater economy in plastic or compact cross sections:

where Mrx or Mcn is the reduced moment capacity about the major axis in the presence of axial load Mrx = py Sxr where Sxr = K1 K2 n2 K1 = Sx K2 = A2 / 4 t for low axial force = K3 (1 - n) (K4 + n) K3 = A2 / 4 B K4 = (2 BD / A) - 1 for high axial force
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Section capacities
Axially loaded members under bi-axial moments

For plastic or compact cross sections under bi-axial moments in the presence of axial forces
My Mx 1 M + M rx ry
Z Z2

Z1 I and H sections Solid and hollow circular sections Solid and hollow rectangular sections All other cases 2.0 2.0 5/3 1.0

## Z2 1.0 2.0 5/3 1.0

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Section capacities
Axially loaded members under bi-axial moments Compression members under bi-axial moments

In general

Fc Mx My + + 1 Pc M cx M cy
For plastic and compact sections

M Mx 1 + y M M ry rx

Z2

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