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vey, IEEE Trans. Power App. Syst., vol. 96, pp. 841-854, 1977.

[5] A.J. Wood and B.F. Wollenberg, Power Generation, Operation

and Control. New York: Wiley, 1984, pp. 92-95.

Appendix: Calculation of Penalty Factors Using Reference Bus

Penalty Factor[5]

In a power systemwith several generator buses and a reference-gen-

erator bus (where the slack bus is termed reference bus here), suppose

we change the generation on bus i byP

i

(where i=2,3,4,...). We assume

that to compensate for the increase in P

i

the generation on reference

bus just drop off by P

ref

. If nothing else changed, P

ref

would be the

negative of P

i

plus the increment of system loss, that is,

P P P

i ref loss

= + . (A1)

We define

i

as the ratio of P

ref

to P

i

i

i

i

i i

P

P

P P

P

P

P

=

=

=

1 .

(A2)

The following equation is obtained when all generators are in economic

dispatch

( ) ( ) 1

i

i i

i

df P

dP

df P

dP

=

ref ref

ref (A3)

where f

i

, f

ref

and P

i

, P

ref

are the cost functions and generator outputs for

i-th generator and the reference bus.

i

is calculated by following equation

P P

P P

P P

P Q

P Q

P

ref

ref

ref

ref

ref

re

/

/

/

:

/

/

2

3

4

2

3

[ ]

f

ref

ref

/

:

/

/

Q

J

P

P

T

4

1

2

3

4

2

3

4

P

P V

P V

P V

ref

ref

ref

ref

/

:

/

/

/

:

.

(A4)

Equations (A3) and (A4) show that the penalty factor at generator i

is a direct function of the slack bus. A special concept for the slack bus

is required. Since

i

of slack bus is not included in (A4), the penalty fac-

tor of the slack bus is not directly calculated but is determined at the

value of 1.0 p.u. as the result of ELD computation in (A3).

Nevertheless, the above conventional Jacobian-based method is a

good method, by which the optimal solution can be obtained.

Copyright Statement: ISSN 0282-1724/02/$17.00 2002 IEEE.

Manuscript submitted 23 October 2000; accepted 3 September 2001.

Modeling Transformers with Off-Nominal

Ratios for Unbalanced Conditions

Stavros A. Papathanassiou

Author Affiliation: Electric Power Division, Department of Elec-

trical and Computer Engineering, National Technical University of

Athens, Greece.

Abstract: This letter presents the positive, negative, and zero se-

quence equivalent circuits of transformers with off-nominal ratios

(ONRs). Such are transformers equipped with load tap changers (LTC),

or fixed off-load tap positions. In the zero sequence equivalent the pres-

ence of neutral grounding impedances is also taken into account. The

circuits presented are identical in form to the well-known sequence

equivalents, but the series and grounding impedances are properly

modified by the off-nominal ratios.

Keywords: Transformer, off-nominal ratio, load tap changer, un-

balanced conditions, sequence equivalent circuits.

Introduction: Certain aspects of power system modeling are often

not given adequate attention for the sole reason that they are long estab-

lished and present no apparent research interest. Such is the case of

transformers equipped with LTC mechanisms or fixed (selectable

off-load) tap positions, which are extremely common in practically any

power system. In a recent paper [1], the correct form of the equivalent

circuit and the related equations of the LTC transformer was reminded

and a possible source of error in the application of its equations was

pointed out and clarified. In this paper, this line of thought is extended

to include the sequence equivalent circuits of the transformer with

ONR, which are required for the simulation of unsymmetrical operat-

ing conditions and unbalanced fault calculations, but are not readily

available in the power system literature. The positive, negative, and

zero sequence circuits are presented for the most general case, with

off-nominal turns in both windings (primary and secondary). The rep-

resentation of neutral grounding impedances in the zero-sequence

equivalent circuit is also given proper consideration.

This investigation was prompted by the need to correctly model and

simulate the unbalanced operation of wind turbines and wind farms.

Single turbines or relatively small wind farms are connected to the MV

distribution network via MV/LV transformers equipped with off-load

selectable taps, whereas large wind farms are interfaced directly to the

HV system via HV/MV transformers equipped with LTCs. In both

cases, the secondary winding is typically star connected, with its neu-

tral grounded to the substation (or wind park) grounding mat, for

earth-fault detection and safety purposes, which are beyond the scope

of this letter to analyze. Nevertheless, proper equivalent circuits are re-

quired for the transformer operating with off-nominal ratios, both in

symmetrical and unsymmetrical conditions.

ONR Transformer Equivalent Circuit: The equations of a trans-

former with off-nominal turns in both windings are the following [2],

expressed in p.u. of the transformer rated power and nominal winding

voltages

U n Z I

n

n

U

n

n

n Z I

U n Z I

n

n

U

p p pN p

p

s

s

p

s

s sN s

s s sN s

s

p

p

= +

= +

2 2

2

n

n

n Z I

s

p

p pN p

2

.

(1)

50 0272-1724/02/$17.002002 IEEE IEEE Power Engineering Review, February 2002

Figure 1. Equivalent circuit of a two-winding transformer with off-nominal

turns in both windings

2002 Transmission and Distribution

Latin America Conference

18-22 March 2002, Sao Paulo, Brazil

The IEEE PES Transmission and Distribution (T&D) Latin

America Conference will be held 18-22 March 2002 in Sao Paulo,

Brazil. This event will coincide with ABINEE TEC 2002, a forum

and seminar sponsored by the Brazilian Association of Electrical

and Electronic Industries and the 21st FIE Electrical, The Interna-

tional Fair of the Energy and Automation Electrical Industries. It

emphasizes themes such as deregulation experience, power qual-

ity, automation, control and supervision of electrical systems,

transmission and distribution planning, evolution of materials

and equipment, etc. More information is available on the Web,

http://www.ieee.org.br/t-d2002lamerica.

Subscripts p and s in (1) denote primary and secondary winding

variables, whereas subscript N denotes nominal values. n

p

and n

s

are

the winding turns, expressed in p.u. of the nominal turns, n

pN

and n

sN

.

Hence n

p

/n

s

= n is the off-nominal (if n 1) ratio of the transformer

(i.e., the actual ratio referred to the nominal transformation ratio). Z

pN

and Z

sN

are the primary and secondary winding impedances (resistance

plus leakage reactance) for the nominal number of turns. Equations (1)

are derived on the hypothesis that the winding impedances vary in pro-

portion to the square of number of turns. Hence, n Z

p pN

2

and n Z

s sN

2

are the

impedances for the actual, off-nominal turns.

The transformer equivalent circuit is readily derived from (1) and it

is shown in Figure 1. Variations of this equivalent are obtained by trans-

ferring the impedances to the same winding, as shown in Figure 2,

where Z is the actual transformer series impedance (for the off-nominal

turns) referred to the secondary and Z ZpN Z

N sN

+ is the transformer

nominal series impedance. Transferring Z to the primary, it becomes

n Z n Z

p N

2 2

.

The corresponding -equivalent of the transformer is shown in

Figure 3. The admittances are given by

Y

nZ n n Z

A

p s N

1 1

(2a)

Y

n

n

Y

n

n Z

n n

n n n Z

B A

s p

p p s N

1 1 1 1

2

(2b)

Y n Y

n

Y

n

n Z

n n

n n n Z

C A B

p s

s p s N

( ) 1

1 1 1 1

.

(2c)

The equivalents of Figures 1 to 3 hold irrespectively of the tap changer

winding. For instance, if the tap changer is located at the primary wind-

ing and the secondary turns are the nominal, then n

s

1 and n n

p

is

the p.u. tap position.

Sequence Equivalent Circuits: The equivalents presented in the

previous section are valid both for positive and negative sequence com-

ponents. In case of wye-delta transformers, however (as well as star -

zig-zag connections), a 30 phase shift is introduced in the line voltages

and currents of the delta side with respect to the star side, which has to

be properly accounted for. For this purpose, the complex transforma-

tion ratio n e n n

ja

p s

/ must be used in the equivalent circuits of Fig-

ures 1 and 2, where a is the lead angle of the primary voltages and

currents with respect to the secondary (30, depending on the winding

arrangement). For the negative sequence, the sign of angle a must be re-

versed, i.e., e

ja

must be used, since negative sequence phasors are

shifted in the opposite direction. This representation is also valid for

phase-shifting transformers, in which case a is the shift angle intro-

duced. Hence, the positive and negative sequence equivalent with the

impedance referred to the secondary is shown in Figure 4. Note that im-

pedances are transferred from one side to the other using the squared

magnitude of the off-nominal ratio, | | n

2

. Therefore, referring Z to the

primary, it becomes | | n Z n Z

p N

2 2

. If the phase shift angle a is nonzero,

then the -equivalent cannot be derived. The two-port element equa-

tions for the positive sequence are

I

n Z

U

e n n Z

U

I

e

p

p N

p ja

p s N

s

p ja

j

(

,

,

\

,

(

(

j

(

,

,

\

,

(

(

+

1 1

1

2

n n Z

U

n Z

U

p s N

p

s N

s

j

(

,

,

\

,

(

(

+

j

(

,

\

,

(

1

2

.

(3)

For the negative sequence, the same equations hold, but the sign of

phase angle a is reversed. For wye-wye or delta-delta connections, an-

gle a is set to zero and the two sequence equivalents and equations are

identical.

For the zero-sequence equivalent, the case of a grounded

wye-grounded wye connection is first considered, as shown in Figure 5.

Z

Gp

and Z

Gs

are the neutral grounding impedances of the primary and

secondary winding and Z

G

is the effective impedance of the substation

grounding mat. The 0 subscript denotes zero-sequence quantities.

Writing the voltage equations for the two loops of Figure 5 in bold line,

per-unitizing and rearranging terms, it is eventually obtained:

( ) U n U Z I U n Z I nU

p s s p p s 0 0 0 0 0

2

0 0 0

+ (4)

where

( )

Z Z Z n Z

Z

n

Z

n

Z

n

N

N

G f s N

Gp

p

Gs

s

G

s

0

2

2 2 2

2

2

3

1

+ + + +

,

,

,

]

]

, ef

]

]

.

(5)

In (5), Z

G

has been per-unitized using the secondary winding base

impedance. N is the effective ratio of the transformer (primary turns :

secondary turns), which can be expressed as

N

n

n

n

n

n

n

U

U

n

U

U

p

s

pN

sN

p

s

pN

sN

pN

sN

.

(6)

From (4) and (5) the zero-sequence equivalent of Figure 6 is de-

rived, where all impedances are referred to the secondary winding. The

zero-sequence impedance, Z

0

, is transferred to primary by multiplying

with n

2

. Equations (4)-(6) show that, not only the winding impedances,

but also the effective grounding impedance of the equivalent circuit is

affected by the off-nominal winding turns.

For the zero sequence -equivalent, the admittances in Figure 2 are

given again by (2), provided that Z

0

is used instead of Z and Z n

s 0

2

/ in-

stead of Z

N

.

IEEE Power Engineering Review, February 2002 51

Figure 2. Equivalent circuit with the impedance referred to the secondary

winding

Figure 3. -equivalent of a two-winding ONR transformer

Figure 4. Positive/negative sequence equivalent (+ and - exponent signs,

respectively) when a phase shift a exists between primary and secondary

quantities (e.g., 30 for delta-wye connections)

Following a similar approach, it can be easily shown that the zero

sequence equivalent of a delta-grounded wye transformer is as shown

in Figure 7 (the ideal transformer has been omitted), where Z is the se-

ries impedance referred to the secondary. No 30 phase shift is required

for zero sequence quantities.

In the case of phase shifting transformers, (3) provide the positive

and negative sequence equivalent. The zero sequence impedance de-

pends on the particular type and configuration of the transformer, how-

ever [3], and cannot be determined in general.

Conclusion: Transformers equipped with LTC or off-nominal

winding turns are extremely common in any power system and suitable

positive, negative, and zero sequence equivalent circuits are required

for their representation in fault current calculations and simulation of

unbalanced operating conditions. In this letter, the sequence equiva-

lents are presented for the general case of transformers with

off-nominal turns in both windings, taking into account the presence of

neutral grounding impedances. It is shown that off-nominal turns affect

not only the winding series impedances, but also the effective

zero-sequence grounding impedance used in the equivalent circuits.

References:

[1] L.V. Barbosa, H.H. Zurn, and R. Salgado, Load tap change

transformers: A modeling reminder, IEEE Power Eng. Rev., vol. 21,

pp. 51-52, Feb. 2001.

[2] P. Kundur, Power System Stability and Control. New York:

McGraw-Hill, 1994.

[3] Electrical Transmission and Distribution Reference Book. West-

inghouse Electric Corporation, 1964.

Copyright Statement: ISSN 0282-1724/02/$17.00 2002 IEEE.

Manuscript received 18 June 2001; accepted 3 September 2001. This

paper is published herein in its entirety.

Evaluating Unavailability

of Equipment Aging Failures

Wenyuan Li, Steven Pai

Author Affiliation: Grid Operations, BC Hydro, Vancouver, BC,

Canada.

Abstract: Unavailability is an essential data and index in power

system reliability assessment. The traditional definition for unavail-

ability is only associated with repairable failures, but does not cover the

aging failure mode. This letter presents a definition and a calculation

approach for the unavailability of aging failures. An example is given to

demonstrate the numerical results, significance, and general character-

istics of unavailability of aging failures.

Keywords: Repairable failure, nonrepairable failure, aging failure,

unavailability, reliability, power system reliability.

Introduction: Equipment unavailability is a basic and essential

data and index in power system reliability assessment. Many widely

used methods, such as the enumeration technique and the Monte Carlo

state sampling approach, directly use equipment unavailability as input

data. The equipment unavailability itself, combined with the impact on

the system, is often used as an index to identify and rank equipment im-

portance.

As well-known [1]-[3] unavailability of a system component is de-

fined by one of the following three definitions:

U

f

=

+

=

+

=

MTTR

MTTF MTTR

MTTR *

8760

(1)

where is the failure rate (failures/year), is the repair rate (re-

pairs/year), MTTR is the mean time to repair (hours), MTTF is the

mean time to failure (hours/failure), and f is the average failure fre-

quency (failures/year).

The three definitions are essentially the same. Obviously, these defi-

nitions are only related to repairable failures and do not cover aging

failures. First, the aging failure is a nonrepairable failure and there is no

concept of repair time. If a component fails due to aging, it fails forever.

Although there is a replacement concept for aging failures, it cannot be

used as a repairable time in (1). Second, an aging failure is a conditional

failure event that depends on history, i.e., how many years a system

component has survived. Clearly, this condition cannot be modeled by

(1). Thirdly, an aging failure is associated with an increasing failure

rate with time but not a constant failure rate that is used in (1).

As a matter of fact, there has not been a definition nor a calculation

approach yet for unavailability of aging failures although we have

known how to calculate the probability of transition to aging failure,

which is different from unavailability. Because of this and other rea-

sons, unavailability of aging failures has not been considered in exist-

ing methods and tools for generation, transmission, or distribution

reliability evaluation [2]-[5]. Aging failures have become a major and

urgent concern in many utilities since many power system components

are approaching the turning point to the end of life. Not including aging

failures in system reliability evaluation will definitely result in signifi-

cant underestimation of power systemrisk and quite likely a misleading

conclusion.

This letter presents a definition and a calculation approach for un-

availability of equipment aging failures. Such unavailability can be used

in the same way as the unavailability of repairable failures and thus be

easily incorporated into existing methods and tools for power system re-

liability assessment. An example is given to demonstrate the numerical

results and general characteristics of unavailability of aging failures.

Definition of Unavailability of Aging Failures: The probability to

aging failure of a component is a conditional probability. As shown in

Figure 1, T is the age and t is a specified subsequent period to consider.

The probability to aging failure is defined as the probability that the

component will fail within t given that it has survived until T. The sur-

vival probability is defined as the probability that the component will

still survive by the end of T+t given that it has survived until T. The

52 0272-1724/02/$17.002002 IEEE IEEE Power Engineering Review, February 2002

Figure 5. Wye-wye connected transformer with impedance grounded neutrals,

zero sequence currents and voltages

Figure 6. Zero sequence equivalent of a grounded wye-grounded wye ONR

transformer

Figure 7. Zero sequence equivalent of a delta-grounded wye ONR trans-

former

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