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[4] H.H.

Happ, Optimal power dispatchA comprehensive sur-


vey, IEEE Trans. Power App. Syst., vol. 96, pp. 841-854, 1977.
[5] A.J. Wood and B.F. Wollenberg, Power Generation, Operation
and Control. New York: Wiley, 1984, pp. 92-95.
Appendix: Calculation of Penalty Factors Using Reference Bus
Penalty Factor[5]
In a power systemwith several generator buses and a reference-gen-
erator bus (where the slack bus is termed reference bus here), suppose
we change the generation on bus i byP
i
(where i=2,3,4,...). We assume
that to compensate for the increase in P
i
the generation on reference
bus just drop off by P
ref
. If nothing else changed, P
ref
would be the
negative of P
i
plus the increment of system loss, that is,
P P P
i ref loss
= + . (A1)
We define
i
as the ratio of P
ref
to P
i

i
i
i
i i
P
P
P P
P
P
P
=

=

=

ref loss loss


1 .
(A2)
The following equation is obtained when all generators are in economic
dispatch
( ) ( ) 1

i
i i
i
df P
dP
df P
dP
=
ref ref
ref (A3)
where f
i
, f
ref
and P
i
, P
ref
are the cost functions and generator outputs for
i-th generator and the reference bus.
i
is calculated by following equation




P P
P P
P P
P Q
P Q
P
ref
ref
ref
ref
ref
re
/
/
/
:
/
/
2
3
4
2
3
[ ]
f
ref
ref
/
:
/
/

Q
J
P
P
T
4
1
2

3
4
2
3
4
P
P V
P V
P V
ref
ref
ref
ref
/
:
/
/
/
:

.
(A4)
Equations (A3) and (A4) show that the penalty factor at generator i
is a direct function of the slack bus. A special concept for the slack bus
is required. Since
i
of slack bus is not included in (A4), the penalty fac-
tor of the slack bus is not directly calculated but is determined at the
value of 1.0 p.u. as the result of ELD computation in (A3).
Nevertheless, the above conventional Jacobian-based method is a
good method, by which the optimal solution can be obtained.
Copyright Statement: ISSN 0282-1724/02/$17.00 2002 IEEE.
Manuscript submitted 23 October 2000; accepted 3 September 2001.
Modeling Transformers with Off-Nominal
Ratios for Unbalanced Conditions
Stavros A. Papathanassiou
Author Affiliation: Electric Power Division, Department of Elec-
trical and Computer Engineering, National Technical University of
Athens, Greece.
Abstract: This letter presents the positive, negative, and zero se-
quence equivalent circuits of transformers with off-nominal ratios
(ONRs). Such are transformers equipped with load tap changers (LTC),
or fixed off-load tap positions. In the zero sequence equivalent the pres-
ence of neutral grounding impedances is also taken into account. The
circuits presented are identical in form to the well-known sequence
equivalents, but the series and grounding impedances are properly
modified by the off-nominal ratios.
Keywords: Transformer, off-nominal ratio, load tap changer, un-
balanced conditions, sequence equivalent circuits.
Introduction: Certain aspects of power system modeling are often
not given adequate attention for the sole reason that they are long estab-
lished and present no apparent research interest. Such is the case of
transformers equipped with LTC mechanisms or fixed (selectable
off-load) tap positions, which are extremely common in practically any
power system. In a recent paper [1], the correct form of the equivalent
circuit and the related equations of the LTC transformer was reminded
and a possible source of error in the application of its equations was
pointed out and clarified. In this paper, this line of thought is extended
to include the sequence equivalent circuits of the transformer with
ONR, which are required for the simulation of unsymmetrical operat-
ing conditions and unbalanced fault calculations, but are not readily
available in the power system literature. The positive, negative, and
zero sequence circuits are presented for the most general case, with
off-nominal turns in both windings (primary and secondary). The rep-
resentation of neutral grounding impedances in the zero-sequence
equivalent circuit is also given proper consideration.
This investigation was prompted by the need to correctly model and
simulate the unbalanced operation of wind turbines and wind farms.
Single turbines or relatively small wind farms are connected to the MV
distribution network via MV/LV transformers equipped with off-load
selectable taps, whereas large wind farms are interfaced directly to the
HV system via HV/MV transformers equipped with LTCs. In both
cases, the secondary winding is typically star connected, with its neu-
tral grounded to the substation (or wind park) grounding mat, for
earth-fault detection and safety purposes, which are beyond the scope
of this letter to analyze. Nevertheless, proper equivalent circuits are re-
quired for the transformer operating with off-nominal ratios, both in
symmetrical and unsymmetrical conditions.
ONR Transformer Equivalent Circuit: The equations of a trans-
former with off-nominal turns in both windings are the following [2],
expressed in p.u. of the transformer rated power and nominal winding
voltages
U n Z I
n
n
U
n
n
n Z I
U n Z I
n
n
U
p p pN p
p
s
s
p
s
s sN s
s s sN s
s
p
p
= +
= +
2 2
2
n
n
n Z I
s
p
p pN p
2
.
(1)
50 0272-1724/02/$17.002002 IEEE IEEE Power Engineering Review, February 2002
Figure 1. Equivalent circuit of a two-winding transformer with off-nominal
turns in both windings
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The IEEE PES Transmission and Distribution (T&D) Latin
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Brazil. This event will coincide with ABINEE TEC 2002, a forum
and seminar sponsored by the Brazilian Association of Electrical
and Electronic Industries and the 21st FIE Electrical, The Interna-
tional Fair of the Energy and Automation Electrical Industries. It
emphasizes themes such as deregulation experience, power qual-
ity, automation, control and supervision of electrical systems,
transmission and distribution planning, evolution of materials
and equipment, etc. More information is available on the Web,
http://www.ieee.org.br/t-d2002lamerica.
Subscripts p and s in (1) denote primary and secondary winding
variables, whereas subscript N denotes nominal values. n
p
and n
s
are
the winding turns, expressed in p.u. of the nominal turns, n
pN
and n
sN
.
Hence n
p
/n
s
= n is the off-nominal (if n 1) ratio of the transformer
(i.e., the actual ratio referred to the nominal transformation ratio). Z
pN
and Z
sN
are the primary and secondary winding impedances (resistance
plus leakage reactance) for the nominal number of turns. Equations (1)
are derived on the hypothesis that the winding impedances vary in pro-
portion to the square of number of turns. Hence, n Z
p pN
2
and n Z
s sN
2
are the
impedances for the actual, off-nominal turns.
The transformer equivalent circuit is readily derived from (1) and it
is shown in Figure 1. Variations of this equivalent are obtained by trans-
ferring the impedances to the same winding, as shown in Figure 2,
where Z is the actual transformer series impedance (for the off-nominal
turns) referred to the secondary and Z ZpN Z
N sN
+ is the transformer
nominal series impedance. Transferring Z to the primary, it becomes
n Z n Z
p N
2 2
.
The corresponding -equivalent of the transformer is shown in
Figure 3. The admittances are given by
Y
nZ n n Z
A
p s N

1 1
(2a)
Y
n
n
Y
n
n Z
n n
n n n Z
B A
s p
p p s N

1 1 1 1
2
(2b)
Y n Y
n
Y
n
n Z
n n
n n n Z
C A B
p s
s p s N




( ) 1
1 1 1 1
.
(2c)
The equivalents of Figures 1 to 3 hold irrespectively of the tap changer
winding. For instance, if the tap changer is located at the primary wind-
ing and the secondary turns are the nominal, then n
s
1 and n n
p
is
the p.u. tap position.
Sequence Equivalent Circuits: The equivalents presented in the
previous section are valid both for positive and negative sequence com-
ponents. In case of wye-delta transformers, however (as well as star -
zig-zag connections), a 30 phase shift is introduced in the line voltages
and currents of the delta side with respect to the star side, which has to
be properly accounted for. For this purpose, the complex transforma-
tion ratio n e n n
ja
p s
/ must be used in the equivalent circuits of Fig-
ures 1 and 2, where a is the lead angle of the primary voltages and
currents with respect to the secondary (30, depending on the winding
arrangement). For the negative sequence, the sign of angle a must be re-
versed, i.e., e
ja
must be used, since negative sequence phasors are
shifted in the opposite direction. This representation is also valid for
phase-shifting transformers, in which case a is the shift angle intro-
duced. Hence, the positive and negative sequence equivalent with the
impedance referred to the secondary is shown in Figure 4. Note that im-
pedances are transferred from one side to the other using the squared
magnitude of the off-nominal ratio, | | n
2
. Therefore, referring Z to the
primary, it becomes | | n Z n Z
p N
2 2
. If the phase shift angle a is nonzero,
then the -equivalent cannot be derived. The two-port element equa-
tions for the positive sequence are
I
n Z
U
e n n Z
U
I
e
p
p N
p ja
p s N
s
p ja

j
(
,
,
\
,
(
(

j
(
,
,
\
,
(
(

+

1 1
1
2
n n Z
U
n Z
U
p s N
p
s N
s
j
(
,
,
\
,
(
(
+
j
(
,
\
,
(
1
2
.
(3)
For the negative sequence, the same equations hold, but the sign of
phase angle a is reversed. For wye-wye or delta-delta connections, an-
gle a is set to zero and the two sequence equivalents and equations are
identical.
For the zero-sequence equivalent, the case of a grounded
wye-grounded wye connection is first considered, as shown in Figure 5.
Z
Gp
and Z
Gs
are the neutral grounding impedances of the primary and
secondary winding and Z
G
is the effective impedance of the substation
grounding mat. The 0 subscript denotes zero-sequence quantities.
Writing the voltage equations for the two loops of Figure 5 in bold line,
per-unitizing and rearranging terms, it is eventually obtained:
( ) U n U Z I U n Z I nU
p s s p p s 0 0 0 0 0
2
0 0 0
+ (4)
where
( )
Z Z Z n Z
Z
n
Z
n
Z
n
N
N
G f s N
Gp
p
Gs
s
G
s
0
2
2 2 2
2
2
3
1
+ + + +

,

,
,
]
]
, ef
]
]

.
(5)
In (5), Z
G
has been per-unitized using the secondary winding base
impedance. N is the effective ratio of the transformer (primary turns :
secondary turns), which can be expressed as
N
n
n
n
n
n
n
U
U
n
U
U
p
s
pN
sN
p
s
pN
sN
pN
sN
.
(6)
From (4) and (5) the zero-sequence equivalent of Figure 6 is de-
rived, where all impedances are referred to the secondary winding. The
zero-sequence impedance, Z
0
, is transferred to primary by multiplying
with n
2
. Equations (4)-(6) show that, not only the winding impedances,
but also the effective grounding impedance of the equivalent circuit is
affected by the off-nominal winding turns.
For the zero sequence -equivalent, the admittances in Figure 2 are
given again by (2), provided that Z
0
is used instead of Z and Z n
s 0
2
/ in-
stead of Z
N
.
IEEE Power Engineering Review, February 2002 51
Figure 2. Equivalent circuit with the impedance referred to the secondary
winding
Figure 3. -equivalent of a two-winding ONR transformer
Figure 4. Positive/negative sequence equivalent (+ and - exponent signs,
respectively) when a phase shift a exists between primary and secondary
quantities (e.g., 30 for delta-wye connections)
Following a similar approach, it can be easily shown that the zero
sequence equivalent of a delta-grounded wye transformer is as shown
in Figure 7 (the ideal transformer has been omitted), where Z is the se-
ries impedance referred to the secondary. No 30 phase shift is required
for zero sequence quantities.
In the case of phase shifting transformers, (3) provide the positive
and negative sequence equivalent. The zero sequence impedance de-
pends on the particular type and configuration of the transformer, how-
ever [3], and cannot be determined in general.
Conclusion: Transformers equipped with LTC or off-nominal
winding turns are extremely common in any power system and suitable
positive, negative, and zero sequence equivalent circuits are required
for their representation in fault current calculations and simulation of
unbalanced operating conditions. In this letter, the sequence equiva-
lents are presented for the general case of transformers with
off-nominal turns in both windings, taking into account the presence of
neutral grounding impedances. It is shown that off-nominal turns affect
not only the winding series impedances, but also the effective
zero-sequence grounding impedance used in the equivalent circuits.
References:
[1] L.V. Barbosa, H.H. Zurn, and R. Salgado, Load tap change
transformers: A modeling reminder, IEEE Power Eng. Rev., vol. 21,
pp. 51-52, Feb. 2001.
[2] P. Kundur, Power System Stability and Control. New York:
McGraw-Hill, 1994.
[3] Electrical Transmission and Distribution Reference Book. West-
inghouse Electric Corporation, 1964.
Copyright Statement: ISSN 0282-1724/02/$17.00 2002 IEEE.
Manuscript received 18 June 2001; accepted 3 September 2001. This
paper is published herein in its entirety.
Evaluating Unavailability
of Equipment Aging Failures
Wenyuan Li, Steven Pai
Author Affiliation: Grid Operations, BC Hydro, Vancouver, BC,
Canada.
Abstract: Unavailability is an essential data and index in power
system reliability assessment. The traditional definition for unavail-
ability is only associated with repairable failures, but does not cover the
aging failure mode. This letter presents a definition and a calculation
approach for the unavailability of aging failures. An example is given to
demonstrate the numerical results, significance, and general character-
istics of unavailability of aging failures.
Keywords: Repairable failure, nonrepairable failure, aging failure,
unavailability, reliability, power system reliability.
Introduction: Equipment unavailability is a basic and essential
data and index in power system reliability assessment. Many widely
used methods, such as the enumeration technique and the Monte Carlo
state sampling approach, directly use equipment unavailability as input
data. The equipment unavailability itself, combined with the impact on
the system, is often used as an index to identify and rank equipment im-
portance.
As well-known [1]-[3] unavailability of a system component is de-
fined by one of the following three definitions:
U
f
=
+
=
+
=


MTTR
MTTF MTTR
MTTR *
8760
(1)
where is the failure rate (failures/year), is the repair rate (re-
pairs/year), MTTR is the mean time to repair (hours), MTTF is the
mean time to failure (hours/failure), and f is the average failure fre-
quency (failures/year).
The three definitions are essentially the same. Obviously, these defi-
nitions are only related to repairable failures and do not cover aging
failures. First, the aging failure is a nonrepairable failure and there is no
concept of repair time. If a component fails due to aging, it fails forever.
Although there is a replacement concept for aging failures, it cannot be
used as a repairable time in (1). Second, an aging failure is a conditional
failure event that depends on history, i.e., how many years a system
component has survived. Clearly, this condition cannot be modeled by
(1). Thirdly, an aging failure is associated with an increasing failure
rate with time but not a constant failure rate that is used in (1).
As a matter of fact, there has not been a definition nor a calculation
approach yet for unavailability of aging failures although we have
known how to calculate the probability of transition to aging failure,
which is different from unavailability. Because of this and other rea-
sons, unavailability of aging failures has not been considered in exist-
ing methods and tools for generation, transmission, or distribution
reliability evaluation [2]-[5]. Aging failures have become a major and
urgent concern in many utilities since many power system components
are approaching the turning point to the end of life. Not including aging
failures in system reliability evaluation will definitely result in signifi-
cant underestimation of power systemrisk and quite likely a misleading
conclusion.
This letter presents a definition and a calculation approach for un-
availability of equipment aging failures. Such unavailability can be used
in the same way as the unavailability of repairable failures and thus be
easily incorporated into existing methods and tools for power system re-
liability assessment. An example is given to demonstrate the numerical
results and general characteristics of unavailability of aging failures.
Definition of Unavailability of Aging Failures: The probability to
aging failure of a component is a conditional probability. As shown in
Figure 1, T is the age and t is a specified subsequent period to consider.
The probability to aging failure is defined as the probability that the
component will fail within t given that it has survived until T. The sur-
vival probability is defined as the probability that the component will
still survive by the end of T+t given that it has survived until T. The
52 0272-1724/02/$17.002002 IEEE IEEE Power Engineering Review, February 2002
Figure 5. Wye-wye connected transformer with impedance grounded neutrals,
zero sequence currents and voltages
Figure 6. Zero sequence equivalent of a grounded wye-grounded wye ONR
transformer
Figure 7. Zero sequence equivalent of a delta-grounded wye ONR trans-
former