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Abies pindrow (Fir / Silver fir / Tosh)

Introduction Abies pindrow, commonly known as fir, silver fir, lowlevel fir or tosh belonging to family Pinaceae, is a tall evergreen tree with dense conical crown, which frequently extend to almost ground level. Upper branches are usually horizontal while lower ones are slightly drooping with ends curving upwards. Leaves are 1 to 2.5" long, flat, narrow linear, dark green and shining on abaxial side with two whitish lines on adaxial surface, one on either side of the midrib and apex usually bifid. Bark is smooth, brown to silvery on young trees but greyish brown with vertical fissures on old trees. The tree can reach large dimensions of upto 75m height and 7.5m girth under exceptionally ideal conditions. Occurrence The species occurs throughout the western Himalayas from Afghanistan to Nepal between 2,300 to 3,350 m elevation, but can descend up to 2,100 m under cool ravines or ascend up to 3,650 m under warmer aspects. It is often mixed with various conifer and broad-leaved species in its natural habitat. Fir prefers cool, moist areas with deep, rich soil found most commonly on northern aspects, though at higher elevations, it is found on all aspects. The precipitation 1

in its range varies from 110 cm to 250 cm/yr including heavy snowfall from December to April. The maximum and minimum shade temperature for the species varies from 32oC to well below freezing point in the winters. Phenology The new shoot/needles appear between April to May, while old ones fall mostly during May to June. The needles persist from six to eight years. The trees are monoecious, male flowers are solitary arising in the axil of leaves of previous year shoots on lower sides. The pollen is shed from end of April to early May. Female flowers or cones are erect, borne on the upper side of branches, usually near the top of the tree. Pollination takes place between the end of April to first half of May after which the scales close. The growth of cone is quite rapid which ultimately ripen during October or early November and split on the tree itself, leaving behind the central axis. The cone ripening (after pollination) takes six to seven months, seed germination varies between 25 to 70 per cent, good seed years occurs after 10 to 11 yr (moderate 5 to 6 years), 12,000 to 16,500 seeds are present in one kilogram and can produce about 2,000 plantable seedlings. The cones should preferably be collected from moderate sized trees (12 m girth) for best results 2

Reproduction Cones collected by mid October should be placed in the sun till they open. Nearly 10 kg cones produce one kilogram of seeds. Seeds can be stored in gunny bags for one year, after which the seeds loose viability by the end of the year. Nursery and Planting Techniques The seeds should be sown in raised beds just before snowfall. Seedlings become ready for planting after 3.5 to 4.5 years when at least 20 cm tall. The nursery should preferably be located near the planting site to reduce injury and transportation cost. For raising nursery, the soil should be dug up to 30 cm depth, well pulverized, stones/stubbles removed and prepare raised beds of 1.2x2-3 m to 1.5x3 m size depending upon the site. Germination usually takes place when snow melts after March or April. The pricking out in transplant beds is done at 7.5x10 cm during the first rains, 10x15 cm in second rains and 15x22.5 cm during the first, second and third year, respectively. The beds should be irrigated regularly, especially during summer months. The transplants can also be pricked directly into polybags filled with fresh soils from nearby fir forests. Since fir is a shade loving species, it requires full/side shade in summer/other warm months. The study conducted under lab conditions revealed a maximum germination of 26.70 per cent when 3

freshly collected seeds (Kothitich-Kullu Forest Division) were stratified (moist sand) for 30 days at 01oC and soaked in 200 ppm GA3. Silver fir can also be rooted successfully when cuttings are struck in intermittent mist (10s on, 10 min. off and photo period 15 to 16 hr) under Nauni, Solan conditions. Girdled cuttings from young donors (4+0 yr) exhibit a maximum 69.79 per cent rooting when treated with 0.75 per cent IBA-talc formulation (+10% captan + 10% sucrose + 0.5% B-nine + 0.1% gallic acid) in rains (August). For 18year-old donors the highest success rate was however 39.58 per cent in spring (April) when girdled cuttings were treated with 0.75 per cent IBA talc formulation (as above). Lateral cuttings were found to be more effective in rooting as compared to the terminal ones. Pits of 30 to 45 cm3 should be dug well in advance after removing undecomposed raw humus and clearing the undergrowth. Planting should be done with the ball of earth during rainy season at 2 x 2 m or 3 x 3 m spacing. The chief requirements for successful planting of fir are well-drained and exposed mineral soil, absence of undecomposed raw humus and excessive soil moisture. Protection against desiccating effect of sun in early stages and provision of a fair amount of light after sapling stage is required. Regular shrub cutting/cleaning for proper growth and development of planted seedlings are necessary for six to seven years. 4

Protection against fire and grazing is also required for higher field survival. Plant Protection Cone and seed feeding insect (Dioryctria abietella) often attack fir in western Himalayas. The larvae of the insects bore into the cone and destroy seeds. The insect pests can be controlled by treating with chlorpyrifos (Durmet 20EC) at the rate of 4ml/l of water. Sheep, goat and cattle readily browse young, tender and succulent plants. Trampling by animal hooves cause considerable damage in natural and plantation areas. Controlled light grazing is beneficial for fir regeneration. The seedlings need protection against exposure, weed growth, summer drought and frost damage. Utilization and Economic Importance The wood of silver fir is white and not very durable. It is used for planking, match manufacture, wood pulp, shingles, etc., and to some extent for railway sleepers and building purpose when properly treated. The growth rate of fir is initially slow, but after the normal growth begins, it is maintained at about 30 to 40 cm/yr up to 100 to 120 yr, after which it again slows down.

Acacia catechu (Khair)


Introduction Acacia catechu commonly known as khair, belonging to family Leguminosae, sub-family Mimosaceae. It is a moderate sized, gregariously thorny and deciduous tree of 12 to 15 m height. Bark is dark brown or dark grey, nearly 12 to 15 mm thick, rough, exfoliating in long narrow rectangular flakes. Branchlets are with pseudo-stipular spines in pairs below the petiole. Spines are recurved. Leaves bipinnate and leaflets sessile. Flowers pale or creamy white borne in globose pedunculate heads. It yields good quality timber, which is very strong and hard. Sapwood is yellowish in colour and heartwood is dark or light red in colour. Occurrence Khair is widely distributed throughout India excepting the moist humid and dry regions. In drier regions, it ascends up to 900 m and in some areas, it is also found growing upto 1,200 m. Because of its adaptability to shallow soils with kankar, it forms almost pure stands on poor and hard soils. Drainage is an important factor which determines its establishment and growth, as the improper drainage results in poor growth.

Phenology In north India, leaf shedding occurs during February and March and new leaves appear in April and May. Flowers appear along with new leaves. The trees continue to flower until July or even August. Pods start developing after one month and attain full size by September or October. The colour of the pods changes from green to reddish green and finally to brown during November and December or early January and dehisce soon after ripening. Reproduction The seeds are very susceptible to insect attack, thus the pods should be collected before the seeds are fully ripe. The seeds collected from trees of 20 to 30 cm dbh during first fortnight of December give highest germination percentage. Seed rate of 0.5 kg for patch sowing and 2.0 kg for strip sowing is sufficient for one-hectare plantation. Cold water soaking at room temperature for 24 hr enhances germination percentage. Seeds immersed in boiling water and allowed to cool gradually for 12 hr, result in softening the hard seed coat, remove inhibitors and reduce germination time. Nursery and Planting Techniques Sowing of seed is done during February or March in nursery beds at 1.5 cm depth in rows at a distance of 4 to 5 cm between seeds and 20 cm between rows. Regular irrigation 7

and weeding is required for obtaining uniform and healthy seedlings. Germination is initiated in a weeks time and is completed in three weeks. Nursery can also be raised in polybags (4 x 4 cm) or root trainers (275 cc) and these should be filled with sieved soil and compost (2:1). Seedlings attain plantable size by July when they are three to four months old and attain a height of about 30 to 40 cm. For raising healthy nursery stock of khair, application of N (75 kg/ha) and P205 (37.5 kg/ha). is recommended. Strains of Rhizobium (Uhf 76+ Sln 20+Nhn 63) mixed with 30 kg N and 40 kg P2O5/ha result in better growth and development of seedlings. The most efficient isolates of Rhizobium and VAMfungi on Acacia catechu are Rhizobial isolate AC Deli-I and VAM fungus Gigaspora gilmorei which are best for commercial use. Seedlings are uprooted along with the ball of earth and taproot is cut at 25 to 30 cm. The uprooted plants should be bundled and wrapped in moist gunny bags for transportation to planting site and the interval between uprooting and planting out should be short to ensure higher survival percentage. Planting out is done either of the entire plants, or of stumps, or of the seedlings raised in polythene containers. Planting should start with the onset of monsoon in July and should be completed by mid August. Seedlings should be planted in pits of 30 cm3 dug about two months in advance to allow sufficient 8

time for weathering of soil with a spacing of 2.5 x 2.5 m. For row planting along the fields, spacing of 4 to 5 m should be adopted. Deep filled shelved trench for nursery raised seedlings and half filled pit for direct seeded plants prove economical with efficient soil working technique. Container raised seedlings give significantly higher rate of survival and plant growth. Nalagarh plus tree has been found best for growth and form. The progeny of Dilman plus tree gives the best seedling growth performance. The progeny raised from Nurpur provenance yields maximum katha and cutch content. Hence collection of seed from these trees is recommended. Plant Protection Ganoderma lucidum causes root rot disease, which occurs in areas where residual roots and stumps are not properly cleared. In order to control this problem, plantation must be raised along with Bombax ceiba and Ailanthus excelsa. Besides this, residual roots and stumps should be completely removed. Fomes badius, a wound parasite causes heart rot and the infection occurs through points of mechanical injuries and damage caused by animals. Preventing injury during the lopping of trees, removal of all infected trees (small or large) during felling and tending operations, can control heart rot. Leaflet rust caused by Ravenelia tendonii is quite common in north India and the infected pinnules are shed 9

prematurely. Prunning of infected branches is recommended in Witches broom disease. Larvae of Celosterna scabrator, Xystrocera globosa and Indarbela quadriontata bore the stem, root and sapwood green trees. Insert cotton soaked in methyl parathion (Metacid 50 EC) @ 2 ml/l of water into the hole and plug it with mud/ clay. If the hole is opened by larvae then retreat it. Utilization and Economic Importance Katha obtained from the heartwood is the main ingredient used in the preparation of pan/beetle leaf and pan masala. In addition, cutch is another product obtained from khair. Kheersal, a white crystalline product is also obtained sometimes, while cutting of fully mature trees of khair for katha extraction. It is used in Ayurvedic medicines. Catechin, the active ingredient of katha, which possesses vitamin P activity helps in prevention of certain types of diseases, related to blood capillaries. It is externally applied as astringent to ulcers, boils and skin eruptions and also used in ointments for itch, syphilis and burns. It has cooling and digestive properties and is used to cure problems of throat, mouth, gums, cough and diarrhoea. It is also used in sugar candy for bronchial infection along with turmeric. In breweries, it is used for colouring of alcoholic drinks and also as a food colourant.

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Albizia chinensis (Siris / Kala siris)


Introduction Albizia chinensis is a large deciduous tree, belonging to family Mimosoideae (Leguminosae). Its synonym is Albizia stipulata, trade name is siris and in Hindi it is called kala siris. The tree can grow up to 30 m in height with 100 cm in diameter. It is a very fast growing species with an ability to fix nitrogen. Occurrence It has a wide natural distribution in India, China and Southeast Asia and is cultivated in many tropical countries, particularly in Malaysia, Africa and Australia. In India, it is found in tropical semi evergreen and moist deciduous forest types. It occurs throughout the sub Himalayan tract up to an elevation of about 1,200 m right from Himachal Pradesh eastward, through Uttar Pradesh, northern West Bengal, Assam and eastern Hill States. It is also found in Naga, Garo and Khasi hills and in moist parts of the Deccan peninsula, Gujarat and Andamans. Phenology The leaves commence to fall in January. The trees are usually leafless in February or March and new ones appear 11

during March and April. Flowers appear from April to June. Pods ripen between November to January but continue to hang on the tree. Reproduction Natural regeneration is mainly from seeds. Seeds are produced profusely almost every year. Collection of pods is done in January by lopping branches. Seeds with brown colour extracted from gray-orange coloured pods having seed weight 30 mg or above give maximum germination. Pod length greater than 10 cm gives maximum values of germination. Nearly 32,000 seeds weigh one kilogram. Seeds collected from trees having diameter between 20 to 30 cm results in production of better quality seedlings. Seeds fumigated with aluminium phosphide and stored in polybags at 510C temperature maintain maximum viability for at least one year. The maturity indices of pods can be judged by the seed moisture content (15%), biochemical parameters like reducing sugars (1.2 mg/g), starch (70 mg/g) and total phenols (252 micro g/g) on dry weight basis. Nursery and Plantation Techniques Seeds are sown at a spacing of 20x20 cm apart, or broadcast in nursery beds. Seeds should be sown during second fortnight of March at a depth of 1.5 cm. Treatment of seeds with concentrated sulphuric acid (H2SO4) for five 12

minutes followed by washing and six hours soaking in water at room temperature for 36 to 48 hr hastens germination. Growing media of sand, soil and FYM (1:2:3) is recommended for raising the seedlings in root trainers and polybags. Nitrogen 60 kg/ha in two equal splits and phosphorus 40 kg/ha as a basal dose should be applied in the nursery. Polybag seedlings result in better growth than those raised in Hiko trays. Regular weeding and watering is necessary. Seedlings are fit for planting out with ball of earth during the following July when they are 20 to 30 cm tall. Artificial propagation is done either by direct sowing or planting out nursery raised entire plants or stumps. Direct sowing is done in lines 2 to 3 m apart in June-July. For planting out entire plants, one-year-old nursery raised seedlings may be out planted along with ball of earth in pits (30 cm3) during July with a spacing of 3x3 m or 2.5x2.5 m. The shoot pruned at 10 cm above collar diameter (stump) registers maximum survival in the forest area. Container plants with 3.5 to 4.5 mm collar diameter planted in trenches give maximum survival, plant height and mean plant diameter as compared to planting of bare root seedlings. In hills, continuous trench of 75 cm width with an inward slope and 45 cm3 pits is the best soil working technique, which gives 91 per cent survival and a mean growth height of 60 cm at the end of first year. Two to three weeding in the first year and one or two during the second year are required. Soil should

not be unduly exposed during weeding. Climber cutting is done as and when required. Plant Protection Seedlings are sensitive to frost, drought and dense shade. Some caterpillars defoliate the green standing trees. Fungi cause leaf spots, canker, root rot and heart rot. Fungi such as Fusarium oxysporum, Ravenelia sessilis were found to be associated with it. The beetle Bruchidius spp (Coleoptera, Bruchidae) infests the seed. The infestation is 16 per cent in nature and between 23 to 69 per cent in storage. Over 25 species of insects have been reported to attack this tree in Kerala, of which at least two species cause serious damage in plantations. This includes a defoliator Pteroma plagiophleps Hamp. (Lepidoptera, Psychidae) and the tree borer Indarbela quadrinotata (Lepidoptera, Metarbelidae). Utilization and Economic Importance Wood is used for packing cases, planking, dugouts, turnery articles, furniture, yokes, etc. It is suitable for manufacturing of bleached pulp for writing and printing paper. Leaves are used as cattle fodder. It has been extensively planted in tea plantations in Kangra and Chamba districts of Himachal Pradesh for soil improvement and for providing shade.

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Albizia lebbek (Siris / East Indian walnut)


Introduction Albizia lebbek is a deciduous tree of moderate size belonging to family Mimosoideae (Leguminosae). Although it is a strong light demander, but still the young plants can withstand moderate shade. It is frost tender, drought resistant, hardy and fast growing species. It is commonly called as siris or East Indian walnut with trade name as kokko. Bark is dark gray, rather rough with irregular cracks with inside colour of which is red or crimson. The species is widely planted as an avenue tree and in gardens. Occurrence It is a common Indian tree found throughout the country. It occurs in the Sub-Himalayan tract from the Indus eastwards to the Khasi Hills, West Bengal, Chhota Nagpur, Indian Peninsula and the Andamans, and ascends up to 1,500 m elevation in the western Himalayas. At low elevations, it grows wild in Tamil Nadu and Kerala. Deep soils with ample moisture supply give good growth, while stiff clay or dry gravel soils restrict its growth. It grows best on black cotton soils, can tolerate salt in the soils and can also thrive on calcareous soil.

Phenology It coppices freely well under north Indian condition, leaf shedding takes place in November and December, whereas under moist condition leaf fall may continue till January. The flowering time is from April to June. Pods ripen between December to February in north India, while in south, they ripen earlier. The colour of the pods change from yellow green to grayed-orange from first to last week of December and after that the colour of pods remain more or less constant till the last week of January. The mature pods continue to hang on the trees till April to May until blown away by wind and rain. Reproduction Under natural conditions, abundant seed crop is produced annually and seeds retain viability for a long time. However, natural regeneration is rather scanty because of heavy insect damage to seeds. Seeds collected from provenance Nauni (Solan) and Rajpura (Sirmour) excelled in morphological traits for seedling height, collar diameter, number of nodes, internodes length, number of leaves and biomass. Ideal conditions for regeneration is loose and fairly moist soil free from weeds. Nearly 8,000 seeds weigh one kilogram. Gray orange pods are collected from trees with diameter class between 21 to 40 cm during second fortnight of January. Pods are dried in the sun and seeds extracted by 16

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lightly beating them with a stick and then separated by winnowing. Pod length of 8 to 16 cm and seed weight of more than 12 g gives better germination. Seeds stored at 410C temperature in plastic jar containers with pre-storage treatment of Karathane are most effective for a storage period of 10 to 12 months. Nursery and Plantation Techniques Seedlings can be raised either by sowing the seed in nursery beds or in containers. Sunken nursery beds with 1 m width should be prepared. Well worked out earth should be mixed with rotten FYM (25 t/ha), phosphorus (50 kg/ha) and potassium (20 kg/ha) as a basal dose. Nitrogen (50 kg/ha) in two equal split doses should be added. Seed rate of 20kg/ha is recommended and sowing of seeds at a depth of 1.0 to 1.5 cm in nursery beds is done in the second half of March. Seeds should be pretreated with concentrated sulphuric acid for 6 to 10 minutes, followed by cold-water wash and soaking in cold water for three hours for obtaining maximum germination. Boiling water treatment for 5 to 7 minutes and cooling for 18 hr as presowing treatment also results in better germination. Nearly 4 to 5 cm tall seedlings are transplanted in the nursery bed at a spacing of 20x15 cm. To check the soil borne fungal diseases and insect pests, seeds should be treated with Brassicol or Dithane M-45 (5 g/kg of seed or 5%) and Aldrin dust (50 g/kg of seed or 10%) or BHC dust (100g/kg or 10% 17

of seed). Planting out is carried out during July in 30 cm3 pits, whereas under dry conditions in pit size of 60 cm3 with a spacing of 3x3 m. The planting material may consist of either entire plants or stumps or seedlings raised in containers. Entire plants are uprooted from the nursery along with ball of earth. For stump plantings, stumps with 4 to 6 cm shoot and 20 to 25 cm root be prepared from healthy seedlings and be properly wrapped in moist gunny bags to avoid desiccation. Planting should be carried out after the commencement of monsoon and should preferably be completed by July. Aldrex should be applied in the soil to prevent the damage caused by termites. The survival percentage is about 70 to 80 per cent depending upon the site and climatic conditions. Plant Protection The insect pests that attack siris are mainly defoliators like Bamra mundata, Enmonodia vespertilio, Polyderma umbricola, Rhesala impararata, Speiredonia retorta, Eriboera ahlamas Athamas and Eurema blanda Ailhetana. Common borers like Indarbela quadrinotata, Xystrocera festiva and X. globosa, and sap suckers namely Oxyrhachis tarandus also attack the species. Ganoderma lucidum and G. applanatum cause root rot and heart rot diseases, respectively, while Cercospora albizae and Phyllosticta albizzinae cause leaf spots. Fusarium solani causes grayish black canker and Ravenelia sessilis forms dark brown rust pustules on the pods. 18

Defoliators and leaf miners can be controlled in the nursery stage by spraying 0.05 per cent Fenitrothion or Methyl Parathion. For controlling root rot, soil drenching with 0.1 per cent carbendazim (Bavistin, Bistin, Agrogim) and 0.3 per cent Mancozeb is quite effective. Utilization and Economic Importance Leaves are good source of fodder for cattle, camel and are a suitable host for lack insect. A reddish brown gum is obtained from cracks in the bark, which is also adulterated with gum arabic and used for the same purpose. It is a suitable species for farm forestry, fuel wood plantations, roadside/ avenues, afforestation of coastal, dry and semi-arid areas, and its timber is good for carving and turnery.

Bauhinia variegata (Kachnar)


Introduction Bauhinia variegata commonly known as kachnar is a small or medium sized deciduous tree with elongated spreading crown. The genus has 300 species spread all over the world with 30 species in India. It commonly grows in the sub Himalayan tract and outer Himalayas. In Himachal Pradesh it grows almost in all the districts excepting the districts of Kinnaur and Lahaul and Spiti. Occurrence It is commonly found growing in sub Himalayan tract and the outer Himalayas right from Indus river eastwards, ascending to an altitude of 1,830 m. In Himachal Pradesh it grows scattered almost throughout the state up to 1,800 m except in Kinnaur and Lahaul and Spiti districts. Its natural habitat has maximum temperature in May, which varies from 30.5 to 42.50C and the minimum temperature in January, varying from 6.70C to 13.20C. The species possesses the ability to grow on variety of soils viz., gravel soil, on mountainous slopes to sandy loam and loamy soils in the valleys with proper drainage.

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Phenology The leaves commence falling during December to January and the tree remains leafless from February to April. Floral buds appear from mid February to mid April and burst from mid March to mid April. Flowering starts from mid March to end of April and fruiting from the first week of April to mid May. Seed dispersal mostly takes place during the end of May and rarely found to extend till the second week of June. Vegetative bud swell starts in the first week of May and continues till the last week of August. The flowers are creamish white in colour and fragrance. Bumble bee and Metacyphris confirator mostly help in cross-pollination. Reproduction Seeds are dispersed from the pod on the tree itself before the start of monsoon during May and June and germinate readily with the commencement of rains. Young seedlings are found in large numbers in the neighbourhood of mother trees. Germination takes place on bare surface of the ground and maximum mortality takes place due to dying up of the radical exposed to sun. In nature, establishment of seedlings is less due to drought, trampling, browsing and cutting along with the grasses. When the colour of the pods changes to dark brown, the shattering of the pods begin and the seed dispersal starts. Therefore, it is important to harvest the pods when the colour changes to light brown. The seeds 21

are sun dried on a mat/floor covered with muslin cloth. Pod burst open and releases the seeds. The seeds are usually creamish white with light brown in colour and with viability at least for a year with 80 to 85 per cent germination percentage under room temperature. Seeds stored under refrigerator conditions (4oC) in a tight plastic container gave 75 to 80 per cent germination even after two years. Nursery and Planting Techniques After land demarcation the soil is dug up to a depth of 30 to 45 cm to remove stones and unwanted roots. Add FYM at the rate of 10 to 15 kg/bed (2x1 m), which should be mixed well. If there is problem of white ants in the area, then add Aldrin dust (5%) at the rate of 100 to 150 g/bed along with 60 kg N/ha in two equal split doses and 40 kg/ha of P2O5. Phosphorus should be mixed as a basal dose to attain healthy and vigorous seedlings. To ensure quick and uniform germination the seeds should be soaked for 12 hours in cold water before sowing. After seed sowing, irrigation should be given twice a day with rose cane till the seedlings attain the height of 10 to 15 cm. If possible the nursery should be mulched so that proper moisture is retained in the nursery during the hot weather. At least three weeding be performed i.e., first weeding should be done after 15 days of germination, second after one to two months and the third and final after three months of growth. In the nursery the distance from plant 22

to plant and row to row are kept 10 to 15 cm and 30 cm, respectively. The seeds germinate within 6 to 10 days and the seedlings are planted out when they are 25 to 30 cm tall at the start of rainy season. If the seedlings are allowed to grow in the nursery for about a year, the plants attain suitable size for stump planting and give up to 98 per cent survival when out planted. The seedlings can also be raised in polybags (20x10 cm), which are mostly used for winter plantation. The plantto-plant and row-to-row distance is invariably kept 2x2 m or 2.5x2.5 m. The pit size should be 45 cm3 in the undulating areas with erratic rainfall. In the valley or plain areas the pit size can be of 30 cm3. Well rotten FYM (5 to 10 kg/pit) be well mixed with the soil when the pit is filled. After the seedling has established, nitrogen fertilizer (CAN) at the rate of 15 to 20 gm/seedling be applied. Rainy season planting does not require irrigation. However during winter months one to two irrigations be given to the plants and be mulched to retain soil moisture. Timely weeding, hoeing, irrigation and beating up operations are done till the plants are well established. For morphological characters, Solan and Kunihar plus tree progenies performed well by producing better nursery growth. Solan and Palampur seed sources are found best for morphological and nutritional traits. Plus tree progenies of Jaunaji excelled for quality fodder production.

Plant Protection In the nursery termites and white grubs attack the roots of the seedlings, which lead to seedling mortality. Drenching the nursery with chloropyriphos (4ml/l) eliminates the attack. Alternately, neem cake (40 to 50 kg/ha) can also be added in the nursery soil. To control the beetle attack Melathion or Ferutrothion 50 EC (1ml/l) should be sprayed. The attack of bark eating caterpillar can be controlled by spraying or swabbing with Endosulphan (Thiodon 35 EC) at the rate of 1.5 ml/l. Utilization and Economic Importance The species is an important fodder tree for winter lean period when the grasses enter senescence stage. It has lush green foliage and excels other tree fodder in nutritive value and is equally comparable to cultivated green leguminous fodder. Besides this, it is also used as fuel, fibre and small timber in addition to diverse medicinal uses. The bark is an alternative tonic, anti-inflammatory, astringent and used in skin diseases, ulcers and to remove intestinal worms. Dried buds are used as remedy for piles and dysentery. Flowers are light anti-dysenteric and cure diseases of bile and cough. The green flower buds are used as vegetables also.

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Cedrus deodara (Deodar / Himalayan cedar)


Introduction Cedrus deodara, commonly known as deodar, Himalayan cedar, devdar or diar, belonging to family Pinaceae, is a large evergreen tree with dark green or silvery foliage. Branches are horizontal or slightly ascending or descending, arising irregularly from main stem. When young, the crown is conical with a definite leading shoot but later, it becomes broad and flat topped especially under exposed conditions. Leaves are acicular, stiff, 1 to 1.5" long, spirally arranged on long shoots but in pseudo-whorls in short arrested shoots. Bark is grey-brown with more or less vertical cracks. The tree reaches large dimensions of upto 76 m height and 13.7 m girth. Occurrence Deodar occurs throughout the western Himalayas between 1,200 to 3,000 m altitude from Afghanistan to Garhwal (below Niti pass), being abundant between 1,850 to 2,600 m elevation. It grows best in cool situations on northern aspects in Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir and Uttarakhand states covering 69871, 113000 and 20391 ha forest area, respectively. However, the species occupy considerable area as it is often mixed with other conifers like 25

silver-fir, spruce, kail, etc. The best growth of deodar occurs on deep, porous and fertile soil in river valleys and mountainous area, avoiding badly drained shallow and rocky grounds. The precipitation (including snowfall) in its zone varies from 90 to 180 cm/yr while temperature ranges between -12oC in winter to 38oC in summer. Phenology The new shoots appear during March and April, while the old ones are shed in May and June. The needles persist from 2 to 6 years depending on the locality. The trees are monoecious. The male flowers/catkins appear in June and shed their pollen during mid September to mid October. The female flowers or cones appear in August and pollination takes place from mid September to mid October. These are solitary, erect and appearing at the ends of arrested branchlets. After pollination, there is no immediate growth until following May when they become quite visible to naked eye. They turn bluish green by July, fully grown chocolate-brown by August and then ripen fully during September end to November. The fully ripe cone is greyish orange, erect, ovoid or elliptical in shape. They break up on the tree; scales and seeds fall on ground, while persistent axis remains on the tree. The cone ripens in 12 to 13 months and the seed germination varies from 60 to 80 per cent. A good seed year occurs after four to five years (moderate 3 yr). Nearly 7,000 to 9,000 seeds weigh 26

one kilogram which can produce about 2,000 plantable seedlings. Reproduction Cones should be collected immediately after they turn greyish orange during September or early October. Cones should be placed in the sun for about a week till they open and break up, thrashed, cleaned and sieved to separate seeds. The seed is oily and loose viability with in six months. However, it can be stored in sealed containers till the following rains. Care should be taken to collect heavier cones as lighter ones bear infertile seeds. The cones should be collected from healthy, middle aged trees and not in any case from very old or too young trees. Nursery and Planting Techniques Deodar nursery can be successfully raised in temperate or sub-temperate areas of the state. The seeds should be sown in raised beds (1.2x3 m) during November and December before snowfall with a spacing of 5x10 cm. The bed should be covered with light thorny twigs or mulch to protect them against bird/rodent damage. The covering should be removed after germination has started in full swing. Germination of seed takes place after the snow melts from February till May, depending upon the altitude. Seedlings require first pricking in July to space the plants at 10x10 cm spacing; then again next year in July (if not plantable) at 15x15 27

cm and finally planted in July (monsoon) when they attain a height of 30 to 45 cm. The seedlings are very sensitive to weeds especially those growing in moist and fertile sites. At least two weeding cum hoeing before rains and two after rains during first and second year are necessary. Maximum germination (86.67%) was recorded when cold moist stratification (2 to 30C) was done for 60 days followed by treatment with 200 ppm GA3. The effect of seed size showed maximum germination (80.67%) and plant height (17.73 cm) when medium sized seeds (0.10 to 0.22 g/seeds) were treated in 200 ppm GA3 (24 hr soak) was used for sowing. Similarly, seedlings raised in 275 cc root trainers containing soil, moss and FYM (2:1:1) exhibited maximum plant height (14.43 cm), collar diameter (2.03 mm) and plant survival (67.78%). The species can also be propagated by vegetative means by cuttings as well as by air layering. High rooting of 70 per cent for young donors (4 yr) and 68.75 per cent for adult donors (18 to 20 yr) were obtained under intermittent mist when cuttings were treated with 1% IBA + 10% Captan + 10% sucrose talc in February and 1% NAA + 10% Captan + 10% sucrose activated charcoal during en February,, respectively. For air layering, a rooting success of 83.3 per cent was obtained when treated with IBA (0.75%) + NAA (25%) + sucrose (10%) + chlorogenic acid (05%). Use of ferulic acid in place of chlorogenic acid proved equally effective resulting in 80 per cent air layering success. 28

The nursery-raised seedlings of 20 to 32 month age should be dug out from the nursery beds, sorted/graded and packed in bundles of 50 for transporting to planting site. The naked roots of seedlings should be wrapped (along with moist soil) with moist gunny cloth to prevent root drying/water loss and kept preferably in erect position in the box/kilta during transportation. The seedlings should be dug/lifted in the morning and planted the same day. Pits of 30x45 cm3 size should be dug at least one month in advance and filled first with top half portion of the soil a few days before planting. While planting, keep the plant in the centre and start filling the remaining soil + surface soil + super phosphate (10 g) in the pit, occasionally pressing/firming the soil with feet in such a way that the collar portion of seedlings remains in level with ground. The spacing adopted depends upon site condition varying between 2x2 m or 3x3 m apart. Though, deodar requires some shade when young, but afterwards, it require complete overhead light for its best growth and development. Lopping and pruning of the lower branches should be done at later stage to ensure development of straight/cylindrical bole. Direct sowings are generally not preferred in deodar since it results in lot of wastage and mortality. Plant Protection Cockchafer grubs destroy roots, while cutworms (Agrostis spp) bite through roots and stems of young plants. 29

Grubs of defoliating beetles Granida albospara and Holotrichia species often damage seedlings in the nursery beds. Ectropis deodarae is a defoliator, which sometime occurs in epidemic forms in Himachal Pradesh. Larvae of brown moth (Euzophera cedrella and Dioryctria abietella) destroy seed in cone and hamper natural regeneration of the species. The insect pests can be controlled by treating with chlorpyrifos (Durmet 20EC) at the rate of 4ml/l of water. Among fungi, Fomes annosus attack roots while Peridermium cedri attack current year needles resulting in considerable damage to the plants. Dampling off due to poor drainage in nursery often result in huge mortality of deodar seedlings. For this drenching with Indofil M-45 (0.25%) or bavistin (0.1%) is recommended. Besides, shoestring root rot (Armillaria mellea), root rot (Phytophthora cinnamomi), brown cuboidal rot of heartwood (Peniophora luna), heart rot (Phellinus pini and Polyporus cuticularis) and needle cast (Ploioderma cedri) have also been recorded in natural stands, plantations and nurseries in Himachal Pradesh. The fungal diseases should be controlled by making isolation trenches or ring barking of trees in the infested areas. Birds also eat away seeds while monkey and bear do considerable damage to young and old plants. Being a shade bearing species, nursery beds have to be protected against excessive heat of the sun. Temporary shade/thatch of local grassy material that can be put on or removed as per 30

convenience should be arranged. The species is sensitive to drought, weeds, forest fire, hails and snow damage especially in young stage. Grazing and fires often result in huge mortality of young plants and therefore requires urgent protection measures. Utilization and Economic Importance The wood of deodar is hard and durable, scented, easy to work and highly valued for construction purpose. It is also used in furniture and joinery works. Cedar oil is used for ulcers, skin diseases and as an insect repellent. The height and diameter growth of quality II deodar forest in Himachal Pradesh have been recorded as 10 yr (2.13 m and 1.02 cm); 20 yr (5.49 m and 6.10 cm); 40 yr (14.02 m and 16.26 cm); 60 yr (21.34 m and 25.40 cm); 80 yr (25.91 m and 30.26 cm); 100 yr (29.26 m and 37.85 cm); 120 yr (32.16 m and 43.18 cm) and 140 yr (36.37 m and 48.51 cm), respectively. It is a slow growing species, but is comparatively faster as compared to fir and spruce.

Celtis australis (Khirak / Nettle tree)


Introduction Celtis australis Linn., commonly known as khirak, Nettle tree, is a moderate sized deciduous tree belonging to family Ulmaceae. It is found growing in the western Himalayas in Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh and Uttaranchal extending eastward to Nepal. It attains a height of nearly 25 m under favourable conditions. The species has a straight and smooth cylindrical stem. The bark of the tree is bluish-grey with horizontal wrinkles. Leaves are alternating coarsely serrated, coriaceous when fully grown, dark green with three strong basal nerves. Occurrence It is distributed between 500 m to 2,500 m elevation above sea level in Himalayan moist temperate forests. The maximum temperature in its natural habitat seldom exceeds 38o C while the minimum drops down to 8oC for few days during January-February. Average annual precipitation varies between 1,200 to 2,500 mm/yr and winter frost is common in the habitat area. Higher elevation of its distribution receives snow during winter months. It grows on a wide variety of soils provided sufficient moisture is available. Clayey loam soils with good moisture 32

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retention capacity are better, whereas, the growth is very much stunted on dry gravelly shallow soils, which commonly occurs along the stream banks and in other depressions. Phenology The trees shed old leaves during December and January and new leaves appear during March-April. Trees at lower elevation start flowering in early March, while those at higher elevation and cool localities do not flower till late April. The fruits are ovoid or nearly globose drupe, develop rapidly after flowering and attain full size by June or July. Fruits remain green till September to October and start turning yellow and ripen in October-November, which later on turn black in colour. All the fruits do not ripe at the same time. Reproduction Ripe red brown to black (purplish black) fruits should be collected during October and November in high hill areas. Fruits should be dried in sun and can be stored for one year without appreciable loss in viability. The fruits should be soaked in water for four to five days and macerated with hands to remove the fruit pulp. Seed stratification in pits with moist sand from December to March or seeds storage at 2 to 3o C in refrigerator for 25 to 50 days prior to sowing along with 100 ppm gibberellic acid application for 12 hours, improves seed germination and seedling growth. 33

Seedlings raised from seeds with heavy weight are more healthy and better in growth. Seeds extracted from red brown drupes in mid hill zone and purple black in higher hill zone give 71.3 and 51.3 per cent germination, respectively. The red brown drupes in mid hill stratified in out door pits for 75 to 100 days results in nearly 92 per cent germination capacity and 82 per cent of plant survival. Drought and grazing have adverse effect on seedling growth. The trees exhibit good coppicing capability. Nursery and Plantation Techniques Seedlings can be raised both in nursery beds and polybags. Sowing is done during March and April depending upon the climatic conditions. Sowing in nursery beds is done with a planting distance of 20 cm from line to line and 10 cm from seed to seed at a depth of 1.5 to 2.00 cm. Nursery beds should be irrigated after sowing and there after as and when required. Germination starts in about 10 days and takes about four weeks to complete. Regular weeding is necessary. A preemergence spray of Simazine (2 kg/ha) checks the weeds of nursery effectively. Fertilization of nursery in the form of N and P at the rate of 80 kg/ha and 40 kg/ha, respectively, prove effective in promoting growth of seedlings. The combination of conditioning treatments i.e., under cutting depth of 13 to 18 cm, wrenching frequency 8 times and topping at 3 to 6 cm at planting time, increases survival of bare root seedling during field planting. 34

Planting out is done during December-January or during rainy season. It can be carried out through stumps, entire transplants or by direct sowing. Normally, 3x3 m spacing is adopted. For high-density energy plantations, 1.2x1.2 m spacing is suitable. The seedlings are planted out in 30 cm3 pits to 45 cm3 pits. Small ridge/ditches are more efficient than gradoney or pit planting. Planting of naked root seedlings in trenches, ditches and inward sloping contour terraces were found superior to conventional pit planting. Seedlings below 5 mm in collar diameter should be rejected for out planting. Planting of stumps with 6 cm shoot portion above collar results in better growth and development of plants. Plant Protection Nursery pests viz., termites, white grubs and cutworms damage the seedlings by feeding on roots. To control these, mix methyl parathion dust at the rate of 20 to 25 kg/ha with the soil while preparing the nursery beds or mix 30 to 40 g/m2 of metacid dust while filling the polybags. The other alternative is to drench the soil beds or polybags with chlorpyriphos 20 EC (2 ml/l of water). Khirak defoliator (Diorhabda lusca), small greenish beetles and their grubs defoliate the plant during summer months. For controlling the defoliator, spray 0.1 per cent (1 g/l water) carbaryl (Sevin 50 WP) during April or May on young plantations.

Utilization and Economic Importance It is promising species for afforestation and is highly popular with the rural folk for fuel and fodder qualities and provides a highly palatable and nutritious leaf fodder. The wood is moderately hard and heavy, tough, elastic and fibrous, easy to seasoning and moderately durable. Wood is used for making tools, whip handles, cups and spoons, sports goods, sticks, ploughs and is also used for construction work.

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36

Emblica officinalis (Amla)


Introduction Emblica officinalis belongs to family Euphorbiaceae. Locally it is known as vrittaphala and amla (Hindi). It is a deciduous tree with feathery, light green foliage attaining average height of 5.5 m and girth of 70 cm. In most cases the main trunk is divided into 2 to 7 scaffolds near the base. Bark is smooth greenish gray, exfoliating in irregular rounded scales and inside is red in colour. Leaf length is 7 to 25 mm, width 2 to 4 mm, appearance pinnate fashion, thus making the branches feathery in general appearance. The leaves develop after fruit set. Flowers are pale-green, monoecious (both staminate and pistillate are born on the same branch) and are born in leaf axils in clusters of 6 to 10. Fruits are fleshy, globose, primrose and yellow. Stone of the fruit has six ribs splitting into three segments each containing usually two seed. Occurrence It is common in deciduous forest in the greater part of India except in arid regions. In outer Himalayas, it ascends up to an elevation of about 1,400 m. It is a characteristic tree in moist peninsular low level sal, moist sal, savannah and dry savannah forest. The temperature in its natural zone of occurrence ranges from 0 to 490C, rainfall from 70 to 1,500 37

mm/yr, which is received mostly during monsoon. It is found in variety of soils but it prefers deep moist loam soil and flourish in alluvial soils. Phenology New leaves appear in March and April, leaf shedding occurs between November to December. Flowers appear during March and May, which are (greenish-yellow in colour). Fruit ripens during November to February. It is light demander and sensitive to frost and drought. The seedling cannot tolerate shade and its growth is suppressed by tall weeds growth. Reproduction Fruits are collected during November to February. Fruits are dried under sun until they dehisce and releases the seeds. Seeds are small and one gram contains about 70 seeds. Before sowing seeds are soaked overnight in cold water. Nursery and Planting Techniques Amla can be raised as bare root plants, in containers as well as through vegetative methods. Sowing of the pretreated seeds in nursery is done during March where irrigation is available or in the third week of May where scarcity of water exists. For containerized nursery, sowing of the pretreated seeds is done in polybag (9x4 cm) containing growing medium of soil, sand and well rotten farmyard manure 38

in the ratio of 1:2:3, respectively or in case vermicompost is available then soil, sand and vermicompost in the ratio of 1:1:2, respectively may be used. Cover seed with soil and irrigate regularly. Germination starts within 10 days after sowing and completes within one month. Seedlings are protected for the first few months from the sun and heavy rain, as the seedlings are delicate and likely to be washed away or beaten by heavy rain. Shield budding is the commercial method of its propagation. One-year-old seedling with a girth of one centimeter should be shield budded in early June with healthy and plump buds. The stock attain a suitable height for planting in the first rainy season if regularly weeded and protected. Planting in second season is preferable as the roots become hardy. The best method of planting is along with the ball of earth. Planting is done in ordinary pits at the spacing of 7.5x7.5 m in July and August. Plant Protection White grubs and termite can be controlled by foliar application of Chloropyriphos (4ml/l). Fruit borer attack can be controlled by 2 to 4 sprays of monocrotophos (200 ml/ 200 l of water) or cypermethrin (200 ml/200 l of water), or Cyambush (80 ml/200 l of water) after every fortnight from mid June onwards. 39

Root rot can be controlled by drenching with 1g Bavistin + 2g Diathane M-45 /l of water. Utilization and Economic Importance Wood is used for agriculture implements. It is regarded as excellent firewood with calorific value of 5,200 kcal/kg and has ash content of about 2 per cent. Raw fruit is important source of vitamin C. It is one of the three constituents of ayurvedic preparation, triphala that is prescribed in many stomach disorders. It is also used in jams and pickles. Yield of fruit is 1.5 to 2.0 q/tree in natural forest. It is the principle constituent ingredient of ayurvadic tonic Chyavanprash. Dry fruits are used as detergent and for preparation of shampoo. The fruit and bark are rich in tannins and used for tanning leather.

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Grewia optiva (Biul)


Introduction Grewia optiva also known as biul is a popular tree among the farmers of the sub Himalayan tract. It is a frost and drought hardy moderate sized tree having good coppicing capacity and the coppice shoots make rapid growth. It is rarely found in forest and is mostly raised along agricultural fields as an agroforestry species. The leaves possess high digestibility and are preferred by livestock. Wood is hard, tough, elastic and yellowish white or gray in colour with an unpleasant odour, heavy with even and narrowly interlocked grained and fine texture. Occurrence It is a tree of subtropical climate distributed from the foothills of the western Himalayas from Jammu and Kashmir to Nepal up to an elevation of 2,000 m above msl. Though it grows on a variety of soils, sandy loam soil with adequate moisture supply supports good growth. The growth of trees along irrigated field bunds is much better than those growing under rain fed conditions. It is a strong light demander and requires complete overhead light for its optimum growth. The tree is frost hardy but young seedlings dieback due to severe frost during winter. 41

These seedlings are however not killed and resume their growth by throwing out new shoots in the next spring. Phenology The tree remains leafless for a short period during March and April. The flowers appear with the new flush of leaves in May. The fruits ripen from October to December. Flower buds are born on one-year-old shoots in the axil of the leaves. Flowering normally starts in the last week of March and continue till the end of June. It is a cross-pollinated species although self-pollination may be there. Honeybees, hover flies and dipterian flies are the main agents of pollination. Reproduction Fruits are eaten by birds which help in dispersal of seed. The seed disperses during December and January. Sufficient moisture supply determines the establishment and subsequent growth of young plants. Saplings on dry hill slopes generally get stunted on this account. The young seedlings are susceptible to damage by fire and browsing. Nursery and Planting Techniques As the seed testa is hard, thus pre-treatment of seed soaking in cooling boiled water for 12 hr gives the best results. Sowing should not be done on raised beds. Dibbling method of sowing with daily irrigation gives best germination percentage. 42

The seeds should be sown during April-May, about 2 cm deep in lines and 15 cm apart. Germination starts in about 10 days and takes almost a month to complete. About 65 to 80 per cent seed germination is achieved within 15 days of sowing, resulting in a uniform stock for planting. For stump planting the seedlings be spaced about 10 cm apart in lines. Left over seedlings can be maintained in the nursery for the next year. Weeding is done as and when required. Cuttings of juvenile stage under intermittent mist in rainy season can successfully propagate it by soaking the cuttings in IBA (250 mg/1) for 24 hours, which gives 80 per cent rooting. The species can also be propagated through air layering in pre-monsoon period. Planting is done on the onset of monsoon. Seedlings be uprooted with balls of earth and wrapped in moist gunny bags. Planting is done in 30 cm3 pits at a spacing of 3x3 m for block planting and 4 to 5 m for single row planting along the field bunds. Compost application at the rate of 1.5 kg/pit is also recommended for obtaining better height and diameter growth. Seed from Gharoh (Kangra), Daroh (Kangra), Rakhoh (Mandi), Barsar (Hamirpur) and Giankot (Sirmour) sources is superior with respect to high crude protein content and low fiber content. Plant Protection Protection of seedlings against defoliators attack 43

through the application of insecticides is necessary. Larvae of Diacrisia spp and Chasmina tibialis defoliate the tree while the larvae of family Cerambycidae bore into the dry and dead wood. The plantation areas need to be protected against grazing and browsing by cattle and also against fire. Utilization and Economic Importance The leaves are highly prized as green fodder for cattle especially during winter months. The wood is used for oar shafts, shoulder poles, cot frames, bows, paddles, tool and axe handles and for other purposes where strength and elasticity is required. It is reported to be suitable for papermaking. The bark yields fibre of inferior quality which is used for cordage and clothing. The elastic branches are used for making baskets. After removal of bark fibre, dry twigs make excellent torches.

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Hippophae species (Seabuckthorn / Chharma / Sutz)


Introduction Hippophae, commonly called seabuckthorn and locally known as chharma, sutz, sarla belongs to family Elaeagnaceae and occupies an important position as a valuable bioresource in the cold deserts of Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Uttaranchal, Sikkim and Arunachal Pradesh. It possesses outstanding qualities such as nitrogen fixing (60 to 180 kg/ha/yr), soil binder, reducing topsoil erosion by 30 per cent and retains soil moisture up to 80 per cent. It has extraordinary capability to grow under harsh environmental conditions, on problem soils (1.1 to 9.5 pH), transforms insoluble organic compounds to more absorbent state, improves physical and chemical properties of the soil and invades barren areas as pioneer species. Besides these, it is a rich source of vitamin C and its fodder, fruits and seeds are source for food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. Occurrence Three species, namely Hippophae tibetana, two subspecies of H. rhamnoides namely turkestanica and sinensis and H. salicifolia occur naturally between 1,500 to 5,500 m in cold deserts of Himachal Pradesh. Among the three species, H. rhamnoides ssp. turkestanica has the widest distribution 45

(2,500 to 4,000 m), followed by H. salicifolia. H. rhamnoides constitutes nearly 70 per cent of the total population, where as Hippophae tibetana is confined only to higher reaches (>4,000 m) and constitutes less than 10 per cent of the natural population in Himachal Pradesh. Hippophae species occupy more than 1,000 ha in Lahaul and Spiti valley. Besides this, it is also found growing in Kinnaur (Baspa valley), Chamba (Pangi area), Kullu (Shange and Parvati valleys), Kangra (Dhauladhar ranges) and Shimla (Dodrakwar). Its habitat is characterized by extreme climatic conditions, with atmospheric temperature ranging between 30 to 35 C, rainfall between 50 to 700 mm with winter snowfall of 100 to 400 cm. It is mostly found growing along the hill slopes, riverbeds, water logged and marshy areas and is planted as a biofence around agricultural fields and orchards. It also grows as dense stands in scattered patches on moist areas. Phenology It is a dioecious and wind pollinated plant. The bud break takes place during March and April, leaf emergence is between March and May (depending upon locality) and complete leaf flush is full by the end of May. Flowering period is during June, while the seed set takes place by July. Fruit and seed maturity is completed by October end. Fruit weight varies between 8 to 27 g/100 fruits in H. rhamnoides, 30 to 35 g/100 fruits in H. salicifolia and between 15 to 31 g/100 46

fruits in H. tibetana. Fruit colour is yellow in H. salicifolia, orange with green strips in H. tibetana and varies from red to reddish orange in H. rhamnoides. The seed colour is dull white in H. tibetana where as it varies from light to dark brown in other species. In general, seed weight varies between 0.718 to 1.142 g/100 seeds. Reproduction The seed disperse naturally along with the berries during November and December, before snowfall. The seed embedded in the fruits get buried in the snow and receive natural stratification and germinate after the snow melts during April to May. Natural regeneration through seed is scanty because of extensive mortality of the seedlings due to high temperature and shortage of soil moisture during June and July. The species also reproduces extensively through root suckers, but the plants are very slow growing due to over crowding. Nursery and Plantation Techniques The species can be raised easily through seed, stem cuttings and root suckers. Seed should be collected during October and November, when the fruits are ripe. Fruits should be dried in open shade and the seed separated from the pulp. Seed can be stored in dry muslin cloth bags or paper bags under Spiti conditions. Seed can also be stored under cold 47

storage conditions in paper or cotton bags at 4 C for one year. Freshly collected seed should be used for nursery production to obtain higher germination. H. rhamnoides seed should be soaked in cold water for six days (changing water daily) and sown at a depth of 1.5 cm in furrows during May in soil mixture of sand, soil and FYM (2:1:1) in well-prepared sunken nursery beds with grass mulch to obtain 94 per cent germination. Seed of H. tibetana treated with GA3 and IBA (100 ppm for 3 hr) give germination of 60 and 70 per cent, respectively. Seed of H. salicifolia soaked in luke warm water for 10 min result in 77 per cent germination. For all the species, line-to-line spacing of 20 cm and seed to seed spacing of 5 cm is kept in the nursery beds. Seedlings can also be raised in polybags containing sand, soil and FYM (5:3:1) with two to three seeds sown per bag. Irrigation should be done twice a week, preferably in early morning or evening hours through rose can. Damping off disease of seedlings in nursery (if any) can be avoided by drenching the soil with Bavistin (0.1%). Stem cuttings (93 long), collected during February and March from two year old shoots with top bud and planted in soil media of sand, soil and FYM (1:1:1), 20 cm apart give rooting of 68 per cent in H. rhamnoides and 72 per cent in H. salicifolia, respectively. Survival percentage goes down to nearly 60 per cent during the second year. Lower part of oneyear-old shoots and top part of three-year-old shoots can also 48

be used for propagation. Weeding be carried out after one month or as and when required. Nursery raised plants through cuttings are ready for plantation in the field after two years, while those raised from seeds after three years. Pits (30x30 cm) should be dug well in advance (September and October) and be filled with soil and FYM (2:1) while planting with immediate irrigation. Regular irrigation (once a week) should be provided for at least the first growing season. When saplings are planted out, the taproot should be cut and the lateral roots also be pruned as per the pit size. Root suckers (103 ) can be directly planted in the field, while smaller ones (up to 53 ) can be used to raise nursery plants. Grass mulching helps in retaining the soil moisture during summer months. Hippophae rhamnoides and H. salicifolia can be planted as single row plantation (160 plants/ ha) on the boundary with a spacing or 2.5 m; as multiple row plantation (4x2 m) having 1,250 plants/ha; and as close plantation with spacing of 2x2 m (2,500 plants/ha). Normal, agro-crops can be raised without any difficulty underneath the seabuckthorn plantation in single or multiple row plantations. Male and female plant ratio of 1:8 is maintained in plantation, so as to ensure optimum fruit set. Weeding in field should be done as and when required at least for three years to ensure healthy growth of the plants. Dead and malformed branches (if any) should be pruned at the time of plantation. Field application of FYM (1 kg/pit) + urea (20 g/ 49

pit) + super phosphate (10 g/pit) be done during the active growth period for healthy growth of plants. Seed and cuttings of H. salicifolia can be collected from Shego (Spiti), Sissu (Lahaul) and Kuppa (Kinnaur), while H. rhamnoides material can be collected from Tabo (Spiti), Sissu (Lahaul) and Chango (Kinnaur). Plant Protection Damping off of seedlings in nursery (if any) can be avoided by drenching the soil with Bavistin (0.1%). Utilization and Economic Importance Fruit yield varies between 100 to 950 g/plant with fruit juice ranging between 75 to 82 per cent in different species. Leaves form an excellent fodder for browsing animals during the lean period. The wood is used for the preparation of small agricultural implements and also used as fuel wood. The plant is used as a part of roofing in traditional houses. The species is also planted as bio-fence to protect crops and fruit trees. Ripe fruits are used in traditional medicines by local Amchi (vaids) and also for the preparation of chutney. Fruits, seed, leaves and bark are rich in vitamins (especially vitamin C) and many bioactive substances, which make this plant useful for food, cosmetics and pharmaceutical industries.

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Juniperus macropoda (Dhup / Padam)


Introduction Juniperus macropoda, commonly known as dhup, padam, chalai, lewar, shur belongs to family Pinaceae. The species is prized for its wood for making utensils, while the small twigs and leaves are used as incense. Dhup tree forms an evergreen shrub or a small tree attaining a height of nearly 10 to 12 m with 6 to 7 ft in girth. The main trunk is often with a crooked shape. The species grows in the inner arid ranges of the Himalayas and is both drought and frost hardy enduring low temperatures. The bark is reddish brown in colour and exfoliating in long fibrous strips. Wood is dull red to reddish brown with a purplish cast becoming brown after exposure, highly resinous with a cedary odour and taste. Occurrence The species occurs in the inner dry ranges of the Himalayas from Nepal westward to western Tibet, India, Afghanistan, Baluchistan and Arab region between 5,000 to 14,000 ft. In India, it is found in the dry and arid regions of Kashmir, Lahaul, Spiti, Kinnaur and Uttaranchal, occurring more or less gregariously in open crops. Sometimes, it also occurs scattered on dry rocky or stony ground in regions with scanty rainfall. The climatic statistics with in its region of 51

adoption depict that the rainfall hardly exceeds 30 cm while in winters the snowfall is considerable. It can withstand temperature ranges between 30 to 30 C. Phenology Leaves appear during the spring season (April to May), depending upon location, altitude and aspect. The leaves are dimorphus; while the acicular leaves are opposite or in whorls of three and the scale like leaves are usually opposite and oppressed. Flowers are monoecious and appear during spring. Male flowers are found growing on tips of branchlets, while the female flowers are found growing on terminating branchlets. Fruit is a compound berry (0.25 to 0.35 in dia), bluish black in colour, resinous with 2 to 5 seeds. Good seed year occurs at quite less frequent intervals. Reproduction Natural regeneration is not a problem. Seedlings appear naturally in the vicinity of mother trees, but there is great mortality, as majority of them perish probably from drought. Areas receiving heavy snowfall during winter have been found to assist reproduction by increasing soil moisture. Protection of young seedlings from fire and grazing is very essential for their establishment. Nursery and Plantation Techniques Seed collection/fruit harvesting should be done during 52

September to October, when the fruits are still attached. The fruits should be dried in partial shade and seeds separated manually by rubbing. Nursery can be raised in raised beds or in polybags under controlled conditions. The growing medium should consist of peat, soil and FYM (1:1:1) and surface sowing of seeds is done. Seeds should be soaked in water for 24 hr prior to sowing. Seeds take nearly 30 to 180 days to complete germination. Excess of irrigation should also be avoided. Seedlings should be retained in the nursery for at least two to three years before out planting. Rooting up to 20 per cent can be achieved when sub terminal cuttings are treated with NAA (0.5%) + captan (10%) + sucrose (10%) talc formulation and raised in sand filled polybags under partial shade (jute cloth cover) during April under Nauni conditions. Out planting should be done during December in pits (2x2 ft) dug previously in November and filled with soil and FYM (2 kg/pit). Planting should be carried out along with the nursery-growing medium to avoid root exposure. Irrigation during coming season is provided to overcome drought conditions. Plant Protection Wood rotting fungus Fomus juniperus attacks the bark and rats and porcupines damage young plants.

Utilization and Economic Importance It gives the best wood in India for pencil making. Wood is also used in house building, as fuel wood and for charcoal making. Utensils such as tea making jugs, cups, etc., can also be made from its wood. Bark is used in roofing of huts. Young twigs and leaves are used as incense. Fruits are used to flavour gin. The fruits also yield Oil of Juniper, which contains pinene and cadinene.

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Morus alba (Mulberry)


Introduction Morus alba, a member of family Moraceae, commonly called as white mulberry is small to medium sized monoecious and deciduous tree, and is an important fuel and fodder tree species with proven potential as suitable tree species for agroforestry systems. It grows to a height of 5 to 15 m. Trees are extensively grown on the farmland as agroforestry component, as block plantations, along roadsides and along fence rows. Sapwood is white to yellowish-white, whereas heartwood is golden brown, which turns dark after exposure. Wood is moderately durable, easy to work and finish and thus mainly used for hockey sticks, tennis and badminton rackets, cricket bats, house building materials, agriculture implements and furniture. Twigs are used as binding material and for making baskets. Occurrence White mulberry, native of China, is cultivated throughout the world wherever silkworms are reared. In India, it grows from the plains up to a considerable altitude in the Himalayas but Karnataka has the largest area mainly because of the demands from the silkworm rearing industries. There are mainly three species, namely Morus alba, M. nigra and M. rubra, which are grown in India. 55

Phenology Morus exhibits distinct phenological phases. The new leaf flush appears by middle of March, which is followed by growth and expansion of leaves till the end of July. Canopy becomes dense with foliage comprised of large, dark green, alternate, mostly unlobed, dentate and petiolated leaves. Canopy closes by mid of July. Partial leaf senescence creeps in between July end and mid of August, while tree becomes completely leafless (abscission) by December each year. Second leaf flush is not conspicuous in Morus alba. Flower initiation takes place by April end, whereas fruits ripe by June end. Fruits are deep red during unripe stage, which become black after full ripening. Seeds can be seen on the tree branches up to October. The total growth period of mulberry ranges between 240 to 245 days. Reproduction Mulberry can easily be propagated through hardwood stem cuttings and this method is preferred over the propagation through seeds or grafting. Plants raised by vegetative methods are true to type and grow uniformly. It is always useful to coincide pruning operations with planting of stem cuttings in the month of December and January. It can also be propagated easily through budding techniques and shield, ring and flute are the most commonly adopted methods. Grafted plants develop a better root system than those from seedlings, cuttings or air layering. 56

Nursery and Plantation Techniques Quality planting stocks can be produced through stem cuttings. Beds are prepared after deep ploughing. Cuttings should be planted in the sunken nursery beds during January with a spacing of 10 to 15 cm and row to row 20 to 25 cm. Beds need regular watering to avoid damage due to moisture stress. Weeding of nursery beds is advised to facilitate production of quality stock. Cuttings start sprouting by the month of March and are ready for planting during the ensuing rainy season. Production of Morus seedlings through seeds is neither a preferred practice nor beneficial, except for seed orchards, which are established by planting seedlings, raised from seeds. Seeds are sown in the nursery beds soon after collection in the month of June. Seeds may be mixed with ash or sawdust and sown in rows 20 to 25 cm apart. Germination takes about 8 to 12 days for completion. Watering and weeding of nursery beds at regular intervals improve nursery stock. The seedlings are ready for planting after 12 months, which should be out planted during rainy season (July-August). It grows well on wide variety of soils and once well established, withstands drought. Seven-month-old healthy and good quality nursery raised seedlings should be uprooted, wrapped in moist gunny bags and transported to the place of planting. Planting is done in pits of 30 cm 3 during the first week of July after the first 57

rain. Outplanting can also be done in the following rainy season, when plant is 15 to 16 months old. Plant spacing between 2x1m or 3x3 m is appropriate spacing for raising block plantation for sericulture purpose. Heading back of mulberry trees at 1.5 or 2.0 m has been found suitable canopy management option for maintaining vigour and biomass production. Beside this, 50 per cent crown removal is also suitable canopy management practice for minimizing negative effects of tree on the production ability of arable crops under agro-forestry conditions. Most important cultivar grown for commercial purpose is Morus alba M-5, which is fast growing, adapted to field culture and gives high yield of large, tender green leaves. Plant Protection Some defoliators, such as Diacrisia obliqua, Margaronia pylalis and Chloroedocus illustris usually attack the plant. Diacrisia obliqua and Margaronia pylalis are controlled by spraying Malathion 50 EC (1 ml/l of water) during April or May and August or September, while Chloroedocus illustris can be controlled by application of Lindane. Some species of leafhoppers and scales (sucking pests) sometimes cause serious damage. They can be controlled by 58

spraying Roger 30 EC or Metasystox 25 EC (1 ml/l of water) during April or May and August or September. Two borer species of longhorn beetles namely Batocera rufomaculata and Apriona gemari affect stems and branches of mulberry plants by laying eggs on the shoots during July or August and larvae bore into the main stem and branches by making tunnels. Pruning the affected branches/ parts during inactive growth period can easily control this problem. The spot treatment of the affected plants by putting a flexible wire into the living holes and rotating it kills the borers mechanically and inserting a cotton wick soaked in petrol, kerosene or dichlorvos and plugging all the holes with mud during August or September is equally effective. Utilization and Economic Importance Mulberry furnishes medium grade fuel wood, in addition to its value for sporting goods due to elasticity and flexibility. The leaves provide useful fodder round the year. The foliage yield of five-year-old tree is 5 to 8 kg/tree, which varies according to the soil, moisture availability and manuring and cultural practices. Fodder is nutritious and palatable, which consists of 15 per cent crude protein, 17.27 per cent crude fiber, 14.32 per cent total ash, 2.42 per cent calcium and 0.29 per cent phosphorus (dry weight basis). Sericulture is the most important commercial use for white mulberry. Young, fully developed leaves are best for feeding silkworm 59

larvae. The fruits are an ingredient of seductive drink known as Mulberry Wine. Fruit is juicy, tasty and rich in carbohydrates, protein, fiber, minerals, thiamine, riboflavin, nicotinic acid and ascorbic acid. Mature fruits are harvested in June and harvesting is over in 3 to 4 pickings. A fullygrown tree can yield 10 to 15 kg of fruits.

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Picea smithiana (Himalayan spruce / Rai)


Introduction Picea smithiana commonly known as spruce, Himalayan spruce or rai, is a tall, evergreen tree with conical crown, horizontal or drooping branches and slender pendulous tassel like branchlets upto 5 ft in length. The tree reaches large dimensions of up to 60 to 65 m height with 6 to 7 m girth under ideal conditions Occurrence Spruce occurs throughout the western Himalayas right from Afghanistan to Nepal between 2,200 to 3,600 m elevations. It is often found mixed with silver-fir and kharsu oak at higher altitudes and deodar, kail and mohru oak at lower elevations. Other broad leaved species found associated with spruce are maples, horse chestnut, walnut, bird cherry, yew, elm, poplar, etc. When in fir forest, it often occupies drier and warmer sites, but when mixed with deodar and kail, it prefers to occupy cooler and moist situations. Like fir, it is associated with heavy snowfall, especially during December to March. The precipitation in its zone varies from 100 to 240 cm/yr. The minimum temperate in its zone goes well below freezing point while maximum temperature can reach up to 32o C. 61

Phenology The new shoot/needles starts appearing in April, while the old ones are shed during hot season from May to June. The needles persist up to 7 to 8 yr. Male flowers or catkins are solitary, arising in the axis of leaves of previous years shoot. Female flowers or cones are also solitary, erect and terminal, which also appear on previous years shoot. The cone ripens during October to November and is nearly 3 to 7.5 in long, 1.5 to 2 in diameter, pendulous and brown in colour. Ripening of cones takes about 6 to 7 months, the seed germination varies from 25 to 80 per cent, while a good seed year occurs after 5 to 6 yr (moderate 3 to 4 yr). Moderate sized trees of 1 to 2.5 m girth have been found to produce larger quantity of seed bearing cones. Reproduction Ripe brown cones should be collected from forest floor or manually from the trees. Cones should be dried in the sun, which splits and then seeds can be extracted easily and dried. Number of seeds varies from 50,000 to 63,000/kg, while approximate number of plantable seedlings/kg of seeds are 20,000 only. Cleaned and dried seeds can be stored in sealed tin boxes for about 8 to 12 months. Nursery and Plantation Techniques The seeds should be sown in well prepared and raised beds just before snowfall (December). Germination 62

commences in April or May and may even last up to June depending upon weather condition. The seedlings should be pricked out in transplant beds with 7.5 x 15 cm spacing during first rains and 15 x 22.5 cm spacing in second rains. Seedlings become fit for planting by the third or fourth rains (32 to 44 months) when they are about 20 to 25 cm tall. Seedlings can also be raised in polybags for better performance or alternatively, one-year-old seedlings can be pricked directly into polybags and used for planting in third year during rainy season. Maximum germination of 89.33 per cent was achieved when freshly collected seeds (Brunudhar in Kullu) were stratified (moist sand) for 15 days (room temperature) followed by soaking in 200 ppm GA3. Dry stratification, however gives 70 per cent success when seeds were stratified for 30 days (41o C) followed by 100 ppm GA3 treatment. Similarly, maximum germination of 70.67 per cent was obtained when seeds are pre-treated with water at 2 to 3o C (24 hr soak). Spruce can also be rooted on large scale by vegetative means by planting cuttings under intermittent mist (10s on, 10 min off with a photoperiod of 15 to 16 hr). Girdled cuttings from young donors (4+0) exhibit significantly highest rooting of 86.46 per cent in summer (April) when treated with 0.5% IAA + 10% Captan + 10% sucrose + 0.5% B nine + 0.1% gallic acid - talc formulation. The result was equally effective with 85.42 per cent success each when cuttings were 63

treated with 0.75% IBA - talc formulation (as above) or 0.25 % NAA - talc formulation (as above). Highest rooting of 97.92 per cent was obtained when lateral cuttings from young donors were treated with 0.75% IBA - talc formulation (as above) under intermittent mist. Girdled cuttings from 18year-old donor results in only 47.92 per cent success in April when treated with 0.75% IBA - talc formulation (as above) under mist. Air layering on 18 to 20 year old trees at Panju (Chhachpur, Jubbal Forest Division) revealed a maximum of 62.4 per cent success in May when treated with 0.75% IBA + 0.25% NAA + 10% sucrose + 1.5% pyragallol - talc formulation. For planting, pits of 30 cm3 should be dug well in advance (after removing undecomposed raw humus and clearing the undergrowth) at 2x2 m or 3x3 m spacing in suitable places with side shade. The main requirements for successful planting of spruce are well-drained and exposed mineral soil free from weeds and undergrowth, protection from desiccating sun especially during earlier stages and provision of abundant light after establishment. Plants should to be kept well protected for at least four to five years till they are well established. Plant Protection No serious fungal attack has been reported in the species. However, Trametes pini is often found on lopped 64

trees. Peridermium thomsoni attack needles and green cones, while Peridermium piceae - a rust fungus attacks young shoots. Barclayella deformans is another fungus that produces short orange coloured tassels 3 to 5 cm long. Making isolation trenches or ring barking of trees in infested areas should control the fungal diseases. Pseudo cones are often formed by aphids (Chermes abietispieoe) in the green state during May and June with aborted needles in regular spirals. Dioryctria abietella have also been found to attack cone and seeds in natural stands. Eucosma hypsidrays, the budworm lays eggs in young buds affecting proper growth of plants. The insect-pests can be controlled by treating with chlorpyrifos (Durmet 20EC) @ 4ml/l water. Similarly, uncontrolled fire cause considerable damage to the plants especially in regenerating and plantation areas. Severe grazing also damages seedlings by trampling, uprooting and browsing them along with grass. The species is frost hardy but prone to drought, exposure, hail, wind and snow damage. Utilization and Economic Importance Spruce wood is white and soft to moderately hard. The wood can be used for general construction, planking, shingles, tea and apple boxes, packing cases, etc. The species is very suitable for pulp and paper (long fiber), matchwood and also airplanes providing knot free and other specific parts for its manufacture. Treated wood can also be used for railway 65

sleepers and light construction works. The nursery-raised plants grow 5 to 8 cm/yr for first few years. In Kullu forest division, average girth of 0.35, 0.80, 1.17, 1.53, 1.83 and 2.13 m have been recorded at 20, 40, 60, 80, 100 and 120 yr of age, respectively. Similarly, average height growth of 1.3 m has been recorded in 10 years spruce plantation in Kullu Forest Division.

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Pinus gerardiana (Neoza / Chilgoza)


Introduction Pinus gerardiana belonging to family Pinaceae is native of the northwestern Himalayas, which is commonly called as chilgoza or neoza. The species is prized for its edible and highly nutritious nuts. The chilgoza pine is a small to medium sized evergreen tree. Branches are short and horizontal forming compact habit. The bark is thin, glabrous, silver gray in colour with mottled appearance, exfoliating in irregular thin flakes. The wood is tough and resinous. Heartwood is yellowish brown while sapwood is lighter in colour. Occurrence The species is a native of northwestern Himalayas occurring in Afghanistan, northern Baluchistan, Kinnaur valley along Sutlaj, parts of Chamba and borders of Kashmir and Tibet. It is often found between an altitude of 1,600 m to 3,300 m and prefers to grow in the dry temperate zone where there is very less of summer rain, but with heavy winter snowfall. In the Satluj valley, it is found both on the cooler and hotter aspects. On the hot cliff faces of the valley bottoms, it grows in a bushy form. The total precipitation in the area varies between 375 to 900 mm, which is received mostly as 67

snow during the winters. In the natural zone of chilgoza, soils are dry, barren, loose and fragile without much of topsoil. The species is also termed as the champion of the rocky areas, as it is even found growing on rocky cliffs. It is found associated with Cedrus deodara, Fraxinus xanthoxyloides, Quercus spp and Ilex spp or with Pinus wallichina. Phenology The needles start appearing during May and June in clusters of three, which are, 3 to 5" long, stout, stiff, dark green in colour and persist for three to four years. The male catkins are nearly half inch long, while female cones are 6 to 9" long and 4 to 5" broad when mature. The female cones are bluish green in colour with errect scales, which have recurved spine from upper margin. After fertilization, the female cones turn compact and grow rapidly during the second year and often attain full size during July. Majority of the female cones mature during September and October in the following year. Seeds are between 2 to 4 cm long, light to dark brown in colour and winged, which are inconspicuous and caducous in nature. Reproduction Natural regeneration in chilgoza in its area of distribution in India is more or less absent because of the ruthless harvesting of cones by local inhabitants. The cones are also attacked by borers and many types of birds, squirrels 68

and rats, take fancy to its nuts. Young seedlings are nibbled by birds or grazed by sheep and goats. Lack of soil moisture during early growing stage also takes quite a toll of the naturally growing seedlings. Presently, plantations are being carried out by the State Forest Department, through seedlings raised in nursery in polybags to conserve the species. Nursery and Plantation Techniques Plus trees have been marked in different areas of Kinnaur for seed collection. Cones should be collected during September and October when still green, heaped and covered with gunny bags or tarpal for 15 to 20 days for drying. On drying, the cone scales split and cutting the cone and separating the scales manually helps in collection of seeds. The cones can also be dried in a solar dryer or oven, but then seed germination percentage decreases due to excessive moisture stress. Seeds should be sown in polybags (43 x183 ) filled with a mixture of well-sieved forest soil and FYM (1:1). At least two seeds be sown in each polybags at a depth of 2 cm after soaking the seeds in water for 24 hr during the second week of February. The seedlings should be protected from excessive direct sunlight, thus be provided with grass thatch for initial 4 to 6 months. Excessive irrigation should be avoided. The seedlings are nursed in nursery for 2 to 3 years. 69

Field plantation should be carried out in pits (2x2 ft). The digging of pits should be one during November and refilled with sieved soil and FYM (2 kg/pit). The best field planting season is during last week of December. Care be taken that roots are not exposed during transportation and plantation work. Grafting technique has been standardized with a success of 75 per cent through top bud clet grating method. Polybags raised 2 to 3 year old seedlings be grafted during mid February, and provided with partial shade through thatch during initial six months. The polythene wrapped around the graft union should be removed before next growing season. The grafted plants are ready for out plantation during the next planting season Plant Protection Damping off of young seedlings in nursery can be avoided by drenching the polybag soil with Bavistin (0.1%). Borer attacked cones should be harvested and burnt during November or December. Utilization and Economic Importance Chilgoza seed form an important article of diet. Seeds also fetch good market prize (Rs 250 to 400/ kg fresh weight). Seeds are also used in various religious and cultural activities as garlands. Seeds are stimulant and posses carminative and 70

expectorant properties. Wood is used as small timber in areas where there is scarcity of timber species. The heart wood is also used as torch during night travel and other night activities.

Pinus roxburghii (Chirpine / Chil)


Introduction Pinus roxburghii commonly called as chirpine or chil belongs to family Pinaceae. It is an economically important species, well known for its oleoresin and timber yield. It is the only indigenous Pinus spp, which is commercially utilized for resin tapping. It not only provides timber, fuelwood and pulpwood but also meets the demand for packing cases. Needles of chirpine are used as bedding in cattle sheds, as cushion material for packaging of fruits and vegetables and for making boards. Occurrence It occurs in a fairly continuous belt between longitudes o 71 to 93o and latitudes 26o to 36o N, confined to subtropical and warm temperate monsoon belt between 450 to 2,300 m altitude in Shiwalik and the main Himalayan river valleys from Jammu and Kashmir to Bhutan. The absence of this pine forest from Kashmir is noteworthy and is related to the weakened southwest monsoon. Total area under chirpine in the country is 6,77,813 ha. The important chir growing states are Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh and Uttrakhnd with a total area of 6,77,813 ha.

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Phenology The needles start appearing during May and June in clusters of three, which are 3 to 53 long, stout, stiff, dark green in colour and persist for two to three years. The male catkins are nearly half inch long, while female cones are 6 to 9" long and 4 to 5" broad when mature. The female cones are bluish green in colour with errect scales, which have recurved spine at upper margin. After fertilization, the female cones turn compact and grow rapidly during the second year and often attain full size during July. Majority of the female cones mature during September and October in the following year. Seeds are between 1 to 3 cm long, winged and light to dark brown in colour. Reproduction Natural regeneration in chil in its area of distribution is not a problem. The young cones are attacked by birds and the young seedlings are nibbled by birds or grazed by sheep and goats. Lack of soil moisture during early growing stage may kill a few seedlings. Presently, plantations are being carried out by the State Forest Department, through seedlings raised in nursery in poly bags. Nursery and Plantation Techniques Mature cones should be collected from the selected seed stands or phenotypically superior trees with green and 73

dark green needle colour during February and March. Generally heavy and large cones should be selected. Preferably seed should be collected during good seed years, which excel in most seed/cones characteristics. Seed can be stored in perforated poly bags (20x10 cm and of 150 gauges) under deep freeze conditions for a longer period without loosing much germination percentage. Soil used in the nursery bags should preferably by clay loam having 5.8 to 6.8 pH. Sieved soil is mixed with well rotten FYM and BHC (1g/ poly bag). Clean and graded seeds are dipped in water for 24 hours and the unsound seeds which float on the water are removed. Seeds are sown generally during March and April or September and October in perforated polybags at a depth of 1 to 1.5 cm. Light irrigation is given with the help of rose can twice a day except during rainy season. Shifting of polybags is done twice in the nursery to avoid striking of roots in the earth. First shifting is done in May and second just before planting. Application of CAN (0.5 to 1.0 g/polybag) in 2 to 3 split doses is beneficial for the growth of the seedlings. Area taken for plantation is first cleared of bushes and burning of slash. Soil working is done from March to May. Pits of size 30x30 cm are dug at a spacing of 3x3 m or 2.5x2.5 m and are aligned in lines running along the contour. Forest soil, which possesses a huge number of mycorrhizal association forming fungi, is widely used in the nursery for development of mycorrhizae fungi. Platu (C1D) and Swarghat 74

(C1) stands were found best seed sources for fast height and diameter growth of seedlings. The species can be raised vegetatively through stem cuttings. One year old lateral cuttings obtained from four year old sapling and from 17 yr pole stage gave 54.17 per cent and 40.62 per cent rooting, respectively during spring season when treated with NAA (0.25%) in talc powder under mist chamber with bottom heating temperature of 244oC. Plants can also be raised through grafting. Cleft grafting technique was found the best, which gave 46.79 per cent success in field condition after six month of grafting. Scion and stock diameter should almost be the same. Last week of February to last week of March was found best period for grafting. Plant Protection Mostly cut worms and grubs do considerable damage to the growth of nursery seedlings and are controlled by drenching with 0.1 per cent of chloropyriphos (Durmet 20 EC). Mostly species of Pythium, Phytophthora, Fusarium and Rhizoctonia cause damping off in the nursery seedlings before or after emergence from the soil. Nursery fumigation with 5 per cent Formalin/Methyl bromide, 15 to 20 days prior to sowing and soil drenching with Carbendazin (0.1%) or Captan (0.3%) should be done when initial disease symptoms appears. Cutworms and grubs, which do considerable damage to the seedlings in the nursery, are controlled by drenching with 0.1 75

per cent chloropyriphos (Durmet 20 EC). Hot water treatment of seeds at 57o C for 40 minutes is effective in eliminating large number of seed borne fungal diseases. Utilization and Economic Importance Rill method of resin tapping gave higher yield as compared to French Cup and Lip method (blaze size 32x16 cm, lip size 15x5 cm with freshening period after 6 days interval with acid stimulation 20 per cent H2SO4 + HNO3 (1:1 ). Refrigerated storage of oleoresin at 7oC up to 105 days can prevent loss of turpentine. Progenies of high resin yielding tree from Chanina-3A and Majhin-9A registered highest oleoresin yield of 2.103 kg/3 month and 1.931 kg/3 month, respectively, in one tapping season, i.e., mid May to mid August. Crooked bole form of trees was found related with high resin yield. Spraying a mixture of 10 per cent ethaphon and 20 per cent sulphuric acid recorded highest oleoresin yield.

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Populus ciliata (Himalayan poplar / Chalan)


Introduction Populus ciliata, commonly called Himalayan poplar or chalan or phalash in local dialects, belongs to family Salicaceae. It is one of the poplars commonly found in India, in temperate Himalayas, distributed from Kashmir to Subansiri river in Arunachal Pradesh, Tibet, Nepal, Yunnan province of China and North Burma. The distribution range is between 27-33o N latitude to 71-95o E longitudes at an elevation of 1,300 to 3,000 m asl. Occurrence In natural state, it occurs commonly in ravines, river flood plain deposits or as secondary successional species in burnt pine or fir forests. The species is adapted to temperate conditions and can grow at places where the summer temperatures do not go beyond 25 to 30o C, with average rainfall of 250 to 3,000 mm/yr. This Himalayan poplar can thrive on all types of soil provided its basic requirements of porosity (where water does not stagnate) and moisture are met. It is normally found growing on well-drained, porous soils rich in moisture, irrespective of their geological substrate, which varies from karewa deposits to glacial moraines to conglomerate to schist. 77

These soils are of average fertility and neutral in reaction, generally within the pH range of 5.6 to 7.4. The species is found growing singularly, or in patches in close competition with broad-leaved, or conifer species. It has also been used as a nurse crop for silver fir regeneration, or as a plantation for stabilization of the hill slides in temperate zones of western Himalayas. Here it is commonly found in the temperate mixed deciduous forest, western mixed coniferous forest and in west Himalayan oak/fir forests. Its main broadleaved associates are Alnus nepalensis, A. nitida, Ulmus wallichiana, Cornus macrophylla, Acer spp., Aesculus indica, Corylus colurna, Carpinus viminia or Betula alnoides, whereas its coniferous associates are Pinus wallichiana, Abies spp., Picea smithiana, while in Parvati valley it is associated with Pinus roxburghii. Phenology The vegetative bud flush starts in March and leaf flush in the species occurs by the end of March or first week of April, whereas the leaf shedding occurs in October. The difference of up to two weeks can be observed between trees at higher elevation and lower elevations, whereas the southern or northern aspect of the hill can cause a delay in flowering by 3 to 4 days. The flowering bud flush is also simultaneous with the leaf flush but in females the catkins appear prior to leaf flush. The sex ratio in the species has been observed to 78

be 3 males to 2 females. The pollination is by wind and the fruits ripen during May and June, when the catkins are about 20 to 30 cm long and 3 to 4 valved capsules split open to let the seed be dispersed by wind. Reproduction In nature, the species sexually reproduces itself through seeds, As and when the seeds fall on any virgin ground created either through landslides, river flood plain deposits or burnt forests it germinates and establishes itself. Artificially the seed should be collected prior to its shedding when the catkins are green and one or two capsules on the catkin have split open. The seed can be separated from the floss by throwing it against a strong current of wind against a wire mesh and seed separated from the floss is dried and stored in double sealed vials at 4o C. Asexual reproduction of the species occurs through root suckers. Whenever the root is exposed by injury or through other means, the sprouts arise from the exposed root parts. But as the species is a pioneering species the sprouts from the root do not attain full tree heights until and unless they are quite far away from the canopy of the mother tree and other competing vegetation. Nursery and Plantation Techniques The seed separated from the floss can be sown 79

broadcast in germination trays on sterilized soil where high humidity is to be maintained or in the mist chambers. Germination normally occurs within a day or two and after the seedlings have reached the four leaf stage they are to be pricked out at a distance of at least 3 cm apart and after 8 leaf stage to 15 cm apart. By next March, the seedlings should be pricked out in well prepared nursery beds 45 cm apart and by the year-end they are ready to be transplanted in the field. In case the planting size of the plants is less than 2 m the plant should be cut back to one vegetative bud at the base and after two years with one-year shoot and two year root the plant can be planted in the field. Soil should be ploughed deep and suitable sized sunken nursery beds prepared. Normally loamy soils are required for poplar nurseries. In case the soil is clayey, then sand should be added to the nursery soil to make it more porous. To these prepared beds add FYM (25 q/ha) and super phosphate (25 kg/ha). Normally for poplar raising cuttings of approximately 22 cm long and 14 mm thick are used which should be obtained from stool-bed nurseries. The cuttings are obtained in January and should be planted immediately after collection and if they are to be stored then the ends of the cuttings should be wax-sealed and stored in a cold place. Stored cuttings should be dipped in water for 24 h before planting with sealed wax ends cut open. From 80

mature trees, cuttings should be obtained from only terminal shoots or one-year-old young sprouts from pruned/lopped parts. The cutting should be cut straight at the basal end and given a slant cut opposite to the top bud at the upper end. They should be planted straight into the ground with the help of planting rod with the slant cut facing the sun. Cuttings in the nursery are planted at a distance of 45x45 cm and in the stool bed nursery at 60x60 cm. The normal weeding, hoeing and irrigation should be carried out from time to time. Nitrogenous fertilizer (CAN) at the rate of 15 kg/ha twice in the growing season, i.e., first application during April and the second in July be provided. Besides regular watering and weeding, care should also be taken to remove young side branches or branches which start competing with the leader shoot. Even at the sprouting stage if two buds sprout on a cutting, the lower sprout should be removed. The lower one-third part of the developing ramet preferably should be kept clean from branches and leaves. Normally one year old entire transplants are planted in the field which have attained a height of approximately 2 m, but in some cases the plants of more than 2 m height with two year root and one year shoot (barbattle) are also used depending upon the pressure on the planting site. Ideally the planting is done with the help of augur, which can dig a hole of 1 m, but it can also be planted with the help of a crowbar where also a hole of at least 1 m is required. Before planting, 81

FYM (2.5 kg/pit) and neem cake (250 g/pit) should be added and mixed with the filling soil. The plants in a block plantation are spaced 5x5 m or 6x6 m and in a windbreak the plant-to-plant distance is kept lower at about 3 m, but closer spacing of 2 m have also been seen in few places. Growing plants need to be trained for single leader shoot development for commercial plantings, where all competing side shoots are removed and at the same time, lower one third part of the developing plant is kept clean to give it cleaner bole. The recommended clones and hybrids for higher productivity include UFC-1000, UFC-1900, UFC-2200, UFC010, UFC-6403, IL-3B for areas above 1,500 m; and Hybrids UCM-3287, UCM-3220, UCM-3296, UCM-2801, UCM-113 for areas between 1,000 to 1,500 m. Plant Protection Termites can be controlled by the application of either neem cake or by drenching with Durmet/Dhanushban (4 to 5 ml/l). Gall formation is the most common problem in Himalayan poplar and can be controlled by spraying with 0.025 per cent of Metasystox (25 EC) or 0.03 per cent of Rogor (30 EC) during April. Stem borer can be controlled by inserting in the hole, cotton soaked with petrol or solution of Endosulfan/Methyl parathion (0.1%). Leaf defoliators can 82

be controlled by the spray of Malathion /Endosulfan (0.5%). Leaf rust can also be controlled by 3 sprays of Cosan (0.3 %) at 10 days interval or with Dithane Z-78 (0.2%) at 15 days interval. Utilization and Economic Importance The plant attains a marketable diameter of 30 cm in about 15 to 20 years on sandy soils in river flood plain deposits or in ravines, while on landslips it may take 25 to 30 years depending upon the soil moisture regime. In forests it takes more than 30 years to reach harvestable age again depending on the moisture availability. The wood is normally utilized in packing cases or for small water channels. Its utility for paper and matchsticks has also been tested.

Populus deltoides (Poplar / Eastern cottonwood)


Introduction Populus deltoides, commonly called poplar or eastern cottonwood in North America, belongs to section Aigeiros of family Salicaceae and has been most extensively cultivated the world over. It is also one of the most commonly planted poplars in Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Shiwalik belt of Himachal Pradesh and Jammu & Kashmir. It has also been tried in Cooch Bihar, Orissa, Madhya Pradesh and Maharashatra which otherwise are outside its natural zone. Occurrence In natural state it occurs commonly on river deltas or dykes of eastern half of United States of America and southern Canada. It is a tree, which is usually associated with bottomlands, alluviums and riparian areas. Whereas best development occurs on moist silt or sandy loam soils. It can grow almost anywhere and is also relatively drought resistant. In the Lake States, it is a common invader on old fields and disturbed upland sites. Cottonwood like other poplars is highly intolerant to shade and competition, hence must establish dominance early. In India it is a preferred agroforestry species and is cultivated as tree intercrop with many other agricultural crops, most common being, wheat, sugarcane, pulses and turmeric. 84

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Phenology The vegetative bud flush in the species occurs in February and by this time the male and female trees can be distinguished easily with the size of the flowering buds which are pinkish and large in males and greenish and undistinguishable from the vegetative buds in females. The autumn colouration starts in October end and plants are leafless by end of November. It produces good seed crop every year and seed can be carried long distances by wind. In areas with large number of poplar trees, the air may be filled with lot of cotton, which is, an irritant and can cause allergy to few. But in India as the tree is mostly planted in foothills where its chilling requirements are not met, so it does not normally flower. But in mid hills where its minimum chilling and day length requirements are met it flowers profusely and has been used in many hybridization studies. Reproduction In nature the species sexually reproduces itself through seed. As and when the seed falls on any fresh soil devoid of weeds or other competition, it germinates and establishes itself. The seed should be collected prior to its shedding when the catkins are green and one or two capsules on the catkin have split open. The seed can be separated from the floss by throwing it against a strong current of wind against a wire mesh and the seed separated from the floss is dried and stored 85

in double sealed vials at 4o C. Asexual reproduction in the species is through stump sprouts or through hardwood cuttings. Nursery and Plantation Techniques The seed separated from the floss can be sown broadcast in germination trays on sterilized soil where high humidity is to be maintained or in the mist chambers. The germination normally occurs within a day or two and after the seedlings have reached the four leaf stage they are to be pricked out at a distance of at least 3 cm apart and after 8 leaf stage to 15 cm apart. During the next March, seedlings should be pricked out in well prepared nursery beds 60 cm apart and by the year-end they are ready to be transplanted in the field. Soil should be ploughed deep and suitable sized sunken nursery beds prepared. Normally loamy soils are required for poplar nurseries. In case the soil is clayey, then sand should be added to the nursery soil to make it more porous. Water channels should be prepared in advance. To these prepared beds, add FYM (60 t/ha) and super phosphate (25 kg/ha) as basal dose. Hardwood cuttings of 22 cm long and 1 to 3 cm thick are used which should be obtained from stool bed nurseries. The cuttings should be obtained in January and planted immediately after collection. If they are to be stored then the ends of the cuttings should be sealed with 86

wax and stored at 3o to 5oC. Before planting cuttings, they should be treated with solution of Aldrex (0.5%) for 10 min and dipped in Emissan (0.5%) for 10 min. The cutting should be cut straight at the basal end and given a slant cut opposite to the top bud at the upper end. They should be planted straight into the ground with the help of planting rod with the slant cut facing the sun. Cuttings in the nursery are planted at a distance of 80x80 cm and in the stool bed nursery at 1x1 m. The normal weeding, hoeing and irrigation should be carried out from time to time. Nitrogenous fertilizer (CAN) at the rate of 200 to 250 kg/ha should be applied in two split doses in the growing season, i.e., first application in April and the second during July. Besides regular watering and weeding, care should be taken to remove young side branches or branches which start competing with the leader shoot. Even at the sprouting stage if two buds sprout on a cutting and the lower sprout should be removed. The lower one-third part of the developing ramet preferably should be kept clean from branches and leaves. Normally one-year-old entire transplants are planted in the field, which normally attain a height of approximately 3 to 5 m, but some time they can be as tall as 7 m. Planting is done with the help of either hand augur or tractor mounted augur, which can dig a hole of 1 to 2 m deep. Before planting, FYM (2.5 kg/pit) and neem cake (250 gm/ 87

pit) should be added and mixed with the filling soil. But care should be taken to remove much of the side roots before planting. The plants in a block plantation are spaced 4x4 m or 5x5 m but under agroforestry plantings the distance is generally kept at 5x4 m or 7x3 m. Growing plants need to be trained for single leader shoot development for commercial plantings, where all competing side shoots are removed. At the same time lower one third part of the developing plant is kept clean to give it clean bole shape. The recommended clones and hybrids for different areas are UD-5503, UD-6502, UD-10007, UD-3210, UD3296, UD-8800 and Hybrids Solan-1, Hyb-U for areas between 1,000 to 1,500 m; UD-0102, UD-0700, UD-6500, UD-4400, UD-7007, UD-8800, IC, 200/86, 52/86 and P1/92 for areas between 300 to 1,000 m; and UD-5501, UD-5512, UD-6501, UD-6502, UD-1007, UD-63N, G-3, D-121 and S7C16 for areas less than 300 m. Plant Protection Termites can be controlled by application of either neem cake or by drenching with Durmet/Dhanushban (4 to 5 ml/l). Sun scrotch is a common problem in the species for which the stems up to a height of 2 m be painted with Bordeaux 88

mixture/lime paste. Stem borer can be controlled by inserting in the hole cotton soaked with petrol or a solution of Endosulfan/Methyl parathion (0.1%). Leaf defoliators can be controlled by the spray of Malathion/Endosulfan (0.5%). Leaf rust can also be controlled by 3 sprays of Cosan (0.03%) at 10 days interval or with Dithane Z-78 (0.02%) at 15 days interval. Mistletoe can hamper growth of the plant, therefore the effected branch may be cut at least 1 m below the effected part and burnt. Utilization and Economic Importance The plant attains a marketable diameter of 30 cm in about 7 to 10 years with a height of 12 to 15 m. The yield of the fully-grown marketable plant varies from 0.5 cu m/plant to about 1.0 cu m/plant depending upon the site conditions. The wood is commonly used in manufacture of matchboxes, match splints, ply board or in pulp and paper industry.

Quercus leucotrichophora (Ban oak)


Introduction Ban oak is a moderate sized to large evergreen round crowned tree with massive gnarled branches and irregular short clean bole. It can attain a girth of 120 to 180 cm and height of about 20 m. The leaves are serrated, dull green and glabrous above and densely white or grey beneath. The bark is grey to greyish brown, longitudinally or transversely cracked, exfoliating in scales, often covered with moss. Occurrence Ban oak is commonly distributed in temperate forests of the western Himalaya, between 800 to 2,400 m, sometime it descends down in moist localities and ascends on southern aspects but grows best on cool northern aspects. The normal annual rainfall in its habitat ranges from 1,000 to 2,400 mm and rarely up to 3,000 mm. It grows on a wide variety of soils, frequently found on clayey soils developed from the decomposition of shale but deep clayey loam soil with adequate water supply supports good growth. Phonology The old leaves start falling with the appearance of new leaves on lilac and purple twigs in March-April. The flowers

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are unisexual. The male catkins are pendulous single or more in clusters at the base of the new shoots and female spikes also appear on the new shoots in April-May with small and inconspicuous sessile female flowers. Pollination takes place during May and June. Development of fruits in the first season is very slow while rapid in the second season. The fruits (cup enclosing acorn) become brown on ripening in December and January after 19 to 21 months of flowering. Reproduction Natural and artificially regeneration of this species is obtained mainly from seeds. Seeding starts at a comparatively early age of about 25 yr in seedling origin plants and 10 yr in coppice crop. Acorns should be collected in second week of January when moisture ranges from 32 to 40 per cent, which can be stored in polybags at 5+1oC for maximum value of germination parameters. The collection by sweeping forest floor has higher proportion of borer-damaged acorns. There are 500 to 800 acorns/kg. Artificial regeneration is obtained by direct sowing or transplanting of nursery raised seedlings. The germination capacity of fresh seeds is high which declines considerably at room temperature after 3 months. The acorns stored at 5+1oC in polybags are suitable for better longevity and germination for 9 months, thereafter, it declines considerably. It is also regenerated through coppice shoots but suffers by browsing and heavy lopping for fodder. Stump 91

sprouting is maximum up to 30 cm dbh. The coppice shoots originating from dormant buds gain more height than seedling origin plants in the early period of growth. In coppice with standards, 30 to 50 yr rotation is adopted for coppice, however, now the green felling is restricted. The vegetative propagation by seedling cuttings from lower portion of shoots treated with IBA (6000 ppm) + -HBA (2000 ppm) + sucrose (5%) + captan (5%) gives about 30 per cent rooting. Nursery and Planting Techniques The seeds are sown 5 cm apart and 2 cm deep in wellmanured raised nursery beds during February-March in about 25 cm spaced lines. Medium to large sized acorns are best when treated with 100 ppm GA3 for 24 hours for maximum germination and seedling growth. The acorns stratified for 60 to 90 days in sand, FYM and ban oak forest soil (2:2:1) and sand and FYM (2:1) exhibits maximum germinability values. The beds are provided with light shade and protected against rodents and birds. Germination starts in 10 to 12 days and complete in 4 to 5 weeks. The nursery beds are regularly irrigated after sowing. The weeding and hoeing are regularly done in the nursery for 2 to 3 years for better seedling growth, till the seedling attain 15 to 30 cm height and fit for out planting. In between one or two pricking are done to space out the seedlings for better growth. The seedlings should be planted in field with ball of earth in rainy season, since their 92

survival is more as compared to bare rooted plants. Weeding along with soil working is required for 2 to 3 years in plantation for better performance. The artificial regeneration can also be obtained by direct sowing in the field. The seeds are dibbled about 2 cm deep in well-worked soil in lines or patches. The strips are 30 cm wide and 3 m apart for line sowing and the patches are 45x45 cm spaced at 3x3 m and in pits of 45x45x45 cm at 3x3 m distance. About ten kilogram of acorns are sufficient for sowing one-hectare area. Seeds should be collected from middle-aged well-grown trees from its natural zone. Plant Protection Acorns are eaten by bear, monkeys, squirrels, rats, birds, etc. The larvae of Calandra glandium, Aphosdisium hardwickanaum, Curculio sikkimensis and Enarmonia disperma bore and destroy the fruits and reduce the germination of the acorns upto 40 per cent. The use of methyl bromide/carbon disulphide @ 3 ml/q of seed can be used for fumigation in closed containers to check this damage. Only healthy seeds without boreholes should be sown in nursery. Rats and crickets destroy young seedlings. Seedlings and saplings are also killed by severe frost, they are also sensitive to drought. Caterpillars of Indian gypsy moth (Lymantria obfuscata) defoliate the trees, which can be controlled by using sticky bands or by tying gunny bags soaked in Metacid (1%) 93

on stem near tree base during June and July. Stylotermes bengalensis, a wood inhabiting termite, attacks standing trees and riddles the wood by making galleries. Armillaria mellea and Fomes annosus cause root rot, which can be restricted by girdling the trees one or two years before felling to avoid inoculation buildup. Fomes conchatus and Polyporus gilvus causes heart rot which can be restricted from spreading by removing the over mature trees, whereas Sphaerotheca lanestris causes powdery mildew which results into witches broom, which can be controlled by the use of Carbendazene (500 mg/l). Its management for fodder, both in natural forests and plantations, requires a uniform or block rotational system of lopping with rest period of one to three years depending on site and elevation. The trees below 25 cm dbh (2ft girth) and more than two third of the lower crown should not be lopped. Utilization and Economic Importance Ban oak is in great demand for fodder, firewood and charcoal due to its nutritive and high calorific value, respectively. The wood is very hard, tough apt to warp and split. It is difficult to season and work. It is used locally for construction, ploughs and other agricultural implements. The ban oak leaves contain good amount of crude protein, crude fibre, N-free extract, ether extract, total ash, calcium and phosphorus making it an excellent winter fodder, for which 94

the tree is heavily lopped. Trees marked for felling are however, allowed to be lopped freely by right holders. Ban oak bark produces low-grade tannin which is used for tanning low-grade leather in hilly areas. The leaves are also used for rearing tassar silk worms. The acorns can be substituted for maize up to 15 per cent in poultry ration without any adverse effect on the growth of chicks. However, the acorns are not suitable for human consumption due to higher tannin content.

Robinia pseudoacacia (Robinia / Black locust)


Introduction Robinia pseudoacacia commonly known as robinia or black locust is a leguminous tree. It is an early successional, fast growing, nitrogen fixing, multipurpose tree. It not only provides excellent fodder but also possesses high suckering ability. It is an important species for soil conservation, for roadside avenue plantation and farm-forestry in the temperate zone of middle and western Himalayas. Occurrence Robinia is native to southeastern United States and has naturalized the world over. In India, its plantations were introduced around 1890 in the mid hill zone of northeast Himalayas between an altitudinal range of 1,000 to 3,000 m. Its ideal habitat is temperate moist climate. It is normally confined to a region where annual precipitation varies from 100 to 150 cm, out of which between 50 to 75 cm occurring in the active growing season. In dry climate, the species is apt to slow growth with excessively thorny and shrubby habit. In general, it is distributed in the regions having mean temperature of 30 to 38o C during summer and minimum of 10 to -25o C in winter. It favors deep, rich, gravely, well drained loamy soil and is also capable of growing on a wide

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range of soils, except wet, heavy and stiff ones. In the less favorable areas, it shows good initial growth for two years and latter on the growth soon comes to a standstill due to top drying and the plant dies with in a few years. Phenology Robinia is characterized by paired sharp spines formed from stipules at many nodes of the twigs. The tiny naked buds are hidden inside the leaf bases, but the terminal bud is missing. Leaves are 10 to 15 cm long composed of 7 to 23 oval or elliptic leaflets. Bark is thick and rough and radish brown to dark gray. In March and April, creamy white blossoms appear which are very fragrant, forming inflorescence up to 20 cm long in pendulous racemes. By the end of the summer, broad papery pods succeed the flowers. They ripen during July to September. In the Himalayas, leaf shedding is during September to November. New leaves appear during March and April just before the flowers and by the end of April the trees possess thick foliage. Reproduction Robinia can be regenerated both through seed and vegetative propagation. Trees begin to yield commercial quantities of seed from the age of six years. Seeds, which fall on fresh moist mineral soil before winter, germinate and seedlings come up readily in spring and quickly establish their hold on such soil by their well-adapted root system. 97

Regeneration is scarce where the soil is more compact or has a carpet of grass or weed seedling. Seed is wind dispersed and should be collected from the tree when the colour of pods changes from green to yellowish brown. On an average, a middle-sized tree has been found to yield 6 to 12 kg of seed. The seeds should be stored in a cool dry place to retain their viability for at least three to four years. The species also reproduces readily and profusely by root suckers. The suckers usually appear after fourth year from the dormant rudimentary buds that occur naturally from adventitious buds. The species is difficult to root, but can be rooted through stem cuttings, by exogenous application of 500 mg/l of IBA or NAA to the stem cuttings under mist conditions. Tongue grafting is successful for artificial regeneration. Protocol has been developed for the production of in vitro raised plants by taking shoot buds as explants from the selected tree through enhanced axillary branching. The establishment and multiplication can be done on solid MS medium supplemented with 0.02 mg/l BAP + 0.05 mg/l NAA + 0.6 mg/l BAP. Micro shoots can be induced to in vitro rooting through 10mg/l IBA dipping followed by hardening of plantlets. Nursery and Plantation Techniques The nursery soil should preferably be fertile, welldrained or sandy loam and free from excess of stagnant water, which is fatal to the young seedlings. The nurseries should 98

be made in low rainfall areas and with small raised beds. The beds should be very carefully leveled so that small depressions leading to accumulation of water are not formed. Sowing should be completed by the end of April to get optimum plantable size during coming winters. Seed rate on an average should be 0.5 to 1.0 kg/ha with a minimum of 50 per cent germination to raise plantation for one-hectare area. In the nursery bed, seed should be put 1.5 to 2.0 cm deep in row at a distance of 5 to 10 cm for seed to seed and 25 to 30 cm from row to row. To attain uniform germination and conservation of moisture, the nursery beds should be mulched with at least 2.5 cm thick layer of grasses. Polybags should be filled with sand, soil and well rotten farmyard manure in equal proportion and the seed should be put 1.5 to 2.0 cm deep. Sowing should be completed in the nursery as well as in polybags by the end of April to attain the plantable size of 1 to 2 m by the end of December or January. Excessive watering during nursery stage induces damping off fungal attack and should be avoided. Seedlings grown in polybags can be planted during rainy season and the naked root planting is done during the winter season. Tissue cultured raised plants transplantation during rainy season has proved satisfactory. For planting around agricultural fields, spacing of 4x4 m is adopted, while for energy plantation 1.5x1.5 m is satisfactory. To attain fast growth, nitrogen fertilizer application after the establishment of seedlings should be provided (100 kg/ha) along with 1 kg 99

FYM/plant. One to two weeding along with bush cutting is essential during the initial years of plantation. Plant Protection The most common disease is powdery mildew, which is caused by Erysiphe spp, which can be controlled by the fungicidal spray of carbendazim (0.05%) or benomyl (0.05%) or ethrimol (0.05%) or dimthrimol (0.05%) at 15 days interval. Three Fusarium spp viz., F. oxysporum, F. equiseti. and F. semitectum can be easily controlled by the application of bavistin (100 to 250 ppm) or benlate (50 to 100 ppm). Major insects attacking the species are cut worms, white grubs and termites and their attack can be controlled by mixing lindane dust (1.3D) at the rate of 20 to 25 kg/ha at the time of preparation of nursery beds. Utilization and Economic Importance The tree provides quality timber and excellent nutritive fodder for cattle with high crude protein, calcium and phosphorus. The litter builds up the soil and the tree also serves as a good honeybee flora. It provides good fuelwood and the wood is also used for the manufacture of small agricultural implements.

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Salix alba (Willow)


Introduction Salix alba commonly called as the cricket bat willow, belongs to family Salicaceae. It is a large deciduous tree with drooping branches, spreading crown and reddish green and brown bark, cracking with age. It attains a height of about 20 to 30 m and diameter up to 90 cm. The tree is a strong light demander, growing best in open sunlight. It is fast growing, suitable for coppice and pollard as well. It is sensitive to drought, water logging, strong wind and heavy snow and is frost hardy. Moisture plays important role in its establishment. It was introduced in Kashmir valley during 1916 from England and it is naturalized. The species is also planted in Himachal Pradesh, Tarai regions and other northern states as well. Occurrence The white willow has a wide natural distribution over the whole of Europe except the extreme north, occurring also in western Asia and in small part of North Africa. It is a species of moist temperate region extending to subtropical areas under cultivation. In India, it is extensively cultivated in the western Himalayas up to 3,000 m mostly in Kashmir and Kullu valleys along river streams, canal banks and around lakes. It is also raised in dry temperate zone of 101

Lahaul and Laddakh at a much higher altitude, mainly for small timber, fuel wood and fodder. Recently, it is being cultivated in tarai regions of Uttrakhand. The annual precipitation along with winter snow in these areas varies between 600 to 1,400 mm. The species requires perpetually moist, well-aerated, deep, fertile, rich loamy soil, which is never subject to drought or prolonged water logging. Phenology Himalayan willows are leafless in the winter and sprout early in the spring, and flowers appearing with or before the new leaves. The flowers are dioecious, in catkin bearing numerous flowers on a slender axis. The fruit a small capsule dehiscing in to two recurved valves which ripens 2 to 3 month after flowering. The seeds are minute with long silky hairs enabling them to be carried to a long distance by wind. Nursery and Plantation Techniques The soil must be worked out to a sufficient depth (60 cm). During nursery preparation, FYM (30 to 50 t/ha) and super phosphate (20 kg/ha), as basal dose should be applied. Use of nitrogen fertilizer should be kept to a minimum. It is necessary to apply a fertilizer containing boron salt. Cutting of about 20 to 25 cm length and 1 to 2 cm diameter at the base are planted in the sunken nursery beds at a spacing of 50x30 cm, during dormant season (January to February). The 102

cuttings should be dipped for half an hour in water containing Bavistin (1.0%). The cutting should have 2 to 3 buds with no side bud near the upper end. The cuttings are inserted vertically, leaving only one bud above the ground which gives a plantable size of 2.5 to 3 m by the following winter. Side branches should be pruned during September to October. Cuttings can also be planted in polythene bags/root trainers for raising plants especially for plantation to be carried out during rainy season. For production of sets, cutting of about 1.0 m length and having 2 to 6 cm diameter be made from healthy branches of mature trees collected from upper crown and planted about 2 ft deep during November to March in well prepared and manured nursery beds, at a spacing of 1x1 m. During spring season, large numbers of shoots are produced. During December and January all shoots should be cut nearly at stool level without injuring the bark of the stool to grow vigorous shoots in the next season. In the second season, all lateral shoots except few at the top should be rubbed off which are to be used for making the sets. Except few lateral shoots (5 to 6) at the top should also be rubbed off twice in growing season. All side shoots should be pruned close to the stem leaving 5 to 7 suitable straight stems to reduce competition. Shoots coming up in third growing season are also vigorous and suitable for planting.

Sets are planted in November to March. The sets should be stored in moist conditions and not be left exposed. For planting of sets, crow bar holes are made by inserting stakes about 60 cm deep in the soil and the sets put firmly in the hole with soil rammed up tight around the buried portion. The present practice consists of planting 3.7 m long (usually 3.1 to 3.7 m) and not more than 10 cm in girth, deep crow bar holes during February and March at a distance of 1.8 to 3.7 m. However, spacing in the plantation varies according to locality and management objectives; combinations in the range of 2x2 m, 2x4 m to 5x5 m are common. Watering and mulching is particularly valuable. As pruning wounds are frequently a source of defective timber, no branchlets should be removed at later stage than one year. To get a clean bole, it is most important to rub the young shoot off the trunk by hand, using rough gloves, while they are quite soft and small, up to a height of 2.5 to 3 m. This process is repeated twice a year in the first two growing seasons. This plantation method is same for set and ETPs. Plantation raised at 1.8x1.8 m is first thinned in the fifth or sixth year, removing alternate plants thus keeping the spacing of plants at 1.8x3.7 m. A second thinning is needed after 8 to 9 yr, which provides a spacing of plants at 3.7 x 3.7 m. Clear felling is done with 12 to 14 yr rotation. The crop is worked on rotation of 16 yr when it is coppiced. Four to five

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coppice rotations can be had before the area is replanted with new sets. Planting of ETPs (nursery raised plants from cuttings i.e., entire transplants) is similar to the sets. For obtaining timber for cricket bats, plants should be pollarded at 3 to 4 m. Sets are obtained from pollarded plant every year. For obtaining timber for cricket bats, pollarded trees must have minimum of 40 cm diameter before harvesting. Salix alba cv Coerulea- three clones (006/05, 006/06 and KW), Salix albathree clones (SI-63-007, SI-64-017 and SI-62-096), Salix matsudan (SE-63-012) and Salix jessoensis (SE-63-016) are recommended for cultivation in Himachal Pradesh. Among hybrids, S. matsudana x S. alba (799), S. matsudana x S. alba (NZ 1002), S. matsudana x S. alba (PN 733), S. matsudana x S. alba (NZ 795), S. matsudana x S. arbutifoilia (NZ 795) are the best ones. Plant Protection Application of neem cake or drenching with chloropyrophos (0.1%) can effectively control termites. Stem borer can be controlled by inserting cotton soaked with a solution of Endosulfan (0.1 %). Spraying of Endosulfan/ Malathion (0.5%) is found suitable for leaf defoliator. Aphids are controlled by spraying Metasystox (0.1%) during the month of September and October. 105

Utilization and Economic Importance The species makes good firewood, furniture and agricultural implement, cricket bats, artificial limbs, etc. Arborescent willow is mostly utilized for pulp, veneer, plywood, sport goods, agricultural implements, furniture, fruit box, artificial limbs, matchwood, honeycomb frames, tool handles, fiber boards, fence posts, etc. The plant is most suitable for the biological control of soil erosion and phytoremediation. The bark is astringent and slightly bitter, which is used for tanning purpose. A decoction of bark is employed in haemoptysis, acute rheumatism, gout fever, diarrhoea and dysentery. Tender part of twig is lopped for the fodder, under optimum conditions, natural stands of S. alba yield 15 to 30 m3/ha/yr of timber with the best selections up to 60 m3/ha/yr. In Tarai region of Uttrakhand (Pantnagar) 6 yr old plants show 19 m height and 106 cm girth.

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Santalum album (Chandan)


Introduction Santalum album, commonly known as sandal or chandan is a small evergreen tree attaining a height of 12 to 13 m and girth of 1 to 2.4 m with slender, drooping as well as erect branching. Stem is initially green and tender, gradually turns brownish and becomes hard, the bark is reddish brown or dark brown and red inside. Sapwood is white, scented while the heartwood is yellowish to brown and strongly scented. It is a semi root parasite and found in association with other tree/shrub species. Occurrence Sandal is found all over India while more than 90 per cent of the area is in Karnataka and Tamil Nadu. In Himachal Pradesh it grows naturally at Bilaspur and Jawalaji area of Dehra Forest Division district Kangra. Sandal tree flourishes well from 250 to 1,000 m altitudes on different type of soils like sand, clay and loam to clay loam soils in Himachal Pradesh. It has adapted to sub-tropical, submontane and low hills climate in Himachal Pradesh where rainfall of the area is 700 to 1,900 mm and mean atmospheric temperature range from 20 to 240C.

Phenology Leaves are opposite and decussate or rarely with whorled arrangement. Flowers are purplish brown. The trees flower at an early age of 2 to 3 yr. Most trees flower twice a year (March to May and September to December) and rest once in a year. Overlapping of flowering and fruiting seasons usually result in continuous supply of flowers and fruits. Fruit is a drupe, purplish brown black when fully ripe and single seeded. Reproduction Sandal fruits fresh from the tree or fallen on the ground are collected from March to April and from September to October. Seeds are soaked in water and depulped by rubbing. These are dried under shade and stored in polythene or gunny bags. Nearly 6,000 seeds constitute one kilogram and 80 per cent of them retain viability upto 12 to 18 months. Viability gradually decreases after 9 to 10 months. Freshly collected seeds of sandal exhibit 4 to 6 weeks of dormancy. To hasten germination, the seeds are treated overnight (16 hr) with gibberellic acid (0.05 %). On an average 75 per cent of seeds germinate under laboratory conditions and 40 per cent in field conditions. Nursery Production and Plantation Techniques Nursery beds should be prepared in partially shaded 108

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area. Seedbeds of size 5x1m are formed with sand, soil and FYM (2:1:2). Nematicides in the form of Thimet (250g/bed) is mixed with the soil; 1 kg seed is then spread uniformly over the bed covered with 2 cm of sand, watered and mulched with straw. The straw is removed when leaves appear. To prevent fungal infections, the beds are sprayed with Diathene (0.2%) once in 15 days. The beds are watered once or twice a day depending on the climatic conditions. Seedlings are transplanted at 4 to 6 leaf stage to polybags (30x15 cm) containing sand, original field soil and compost in the ratio of 2:1:2 along with one or two seeds of red gram (Cajanus cajan). The seedlings of red gram serve as primary host. After transplanting, seedlings are kept in shade for a week, weeded and watered regularly with care to avoid excess moisture. Host plants are pruned periodically to check their growth so that they do not hamper the growth of sandal seedlings. Ekalux (2 g) is also provided to polybags to avoid nematodes attack. The polybags should not be kept in one place for more than two months to avoid root penetration in the soil. Healthy sandal seedlings having a height of about 30 cm are planted in pits of 60 cm3 size with an espacement of 3x3 m at the onset of monsoon. Miscellaneous secondary host forestry species can be planted in quincunx system, in alternate lines/alternate plants such as Dalbergia sissoo, Acacia

catechu, Albizia lebbeck, Tectona grandis and Leucaena leucocephala. The host plants are pruned periodically to make maximum sunlight available to sandal. To facilitate maximum heartwood formation and to obtain clear bole, side branches on the lower half of the main stem are pruned at regular intervals. Operations in the second year include casualty replacement, weeding, soil working, pruning, etc. Third year operations are similar except for casualty replacement. To improve initial growth, farmyard manure mixed with leaf mulch can be applied. Average initial cost of raising onehectare plantation of sandal with host comes out to be around rupees 8,000/ha. Dibbling seeds into bushes: Seeds are sown directly during monsoon usually with a hollow bamboo pole of 4 to 6 cm diameter, 1.5 m length and having a hollow mental piece attached at one end. The pole is introduced at the base of bushes, soil is raked and through the hole 4 to 5 seeds are transferred. Trench mound technique: This technique involves sowing sandal mixed with seeds of other species preferably those, which act as hosts for sandal on the mounds of trenches (3x3 m). These trenches are generally aligned along contours in rows of 6 m apart with a distance of 3 m end to end, between one trenches to another along the same row. 110

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Utilization and Economic Importance Sandal is considered a slow growing tree under forest conditions (1 cm girth/yr). However, it can grow at the rate of 5 cm girth/yr or more even under favourable soil and moisture conditions. In Himachal Pradesh under sub-tropical climate heartwood formation starts around 8 yr of age. The oil content has been found to be around 3.5 per cent, which is rated commercially viable. A sandal tree having a girth of 80 cm at breast height can yield about 75 to 80 kg of heartwood. Heartwood of sandal is described as astringent, antipyretic, cooling exhilarating, moderately hard, durable and strongly scented, yellow or brown in appearance. It is one of the finest woods for carving and turning next only to ivory for intricate workmanship. Utility articles like jewelling cases, cabinet panels, chessboard, penholders, knives, picturing frames, caskets, etc., are made out of it. Powder of heartwood yields oils, which is preferred in various perfume compositions of oriental and occidental types. Oil is also used in medicines as an antiseptic, antipyretic, antiscabietic, diuretic, expectorant, stimulant and for treatment of bronchitis, dysuria, gonorrohea and urinary infections. However, its use as base of fragrance has far outweighed its use in medicine.

Sapindus mukorossi (Reetha)


Introduction Sapindus mukorossi is a large sized deciduous tree belonging to family Sapindaceae and is commonly called as soap nut or reetha. The tree attains a height of 20 to 25 m with a girth of about 3 to 5 m at breast height in nearly 60 to 80 yr. The main trunk is generally straight (4 to 5 m) and the canopy comprises of side branches and the foliage constitutes an umbrella like hemispherical top measuring 4 to 6 m in diameter. The bark is shining grey and fairly smooth of young plants, which turns grey when the plant reaches maturity. The leaves are alternate and peripinnate compound, rachis is nearly 30 to 50 cm long and bears 5 to 10 pair of leaflets. An individual leaflet is 7 to 15 cm long and 2 to 5 cm wide. It is acuminate and lanceolate in shape. Occurrence Reetha is an important species of tropical and subtropical regions of the Indian continent. It is indigenous to India and China and widely grown in upper reaches of Indo Gangetic plains, Shivaliks and sub Himalayan tracts between 200 to 1,500 m above msl. It is quite common in Shivaliks and the outer Himalayas of Himachal Pradesh. The species flourishes well in deep clayey loam soils and does best in 112

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areas experiencing nearly 150 to 200 cm of annual rainfall. In its natural habitat, the maximum shade temperature seldom exceeds 400C and the minimum temperature may drop below 00C. Phenology The leaves turn rich yellow and fall by December end to January. The plant remains leafless until March or April till the new leaves appear. The panicles of white or purplish flowers appear in May and June. The fruits ripen in November and remain on the trees till January. The fruit is one seeded globes drupe, usually solitary, sometimes two drupes together, about 0.75" diameter, smooth with yellow flesh, turning light brown and translucent with wrinkled surface. The seeds are smooth, black, nearly globose, hard and nearly 0.5" long. About 750 to 800 seeds weigh 1 kg. Reproduction Reetha can be grown through seeds and vegetatively through stem cuttings and grafting/budding. The plants raised through seed are not true to type and have long pre bearing phase. Hence raising it through vegetative means is recommended. The plants raised through stem cuttings do not develop taproot, thus there survival in the field is less. The alternate method of grafting/budding is best.

Nursery and Plantation Techniques Seed should be sown in nursery during March. Owing to hard seed coat, germination is very slow and low which can be hastened and improved by presowing treatment of seeds in fresh cow dung for thirty days, which gives 60 to 65 per cent germination. Sowing should be done in polybags filled with soil, sand and FYM (1:1:1) or in nursery beds. The seed should be sown 5 cm deep in lines spaced 20 cm apart. Regular irrigation and weeding is required. For raising true to type precocious plants, chip budding in the month of March should be done on plants raised through seed, when the plants attain diameter of about 1 cm. Nearly 75 per cent success can be attained by this method. The unsuccessful budded plants should be budded again during the following June. March budded plants are ready for field planting in the ensuring rainy season. Seed should be collected from middle-aged healthy trees in December. After removing the paricarp, seeds should be stored in gunny bags. The seeds retain vitality for one year, however, fresh seeds should be preferred. Out planting should be done in pits (60 cm) with the onset of monsoon in July. Nursery bed raised grafted plants should be planted out with balls of earth. For polythene bag raised plants, polythene should be removed before planting. Care should be taken to ensure that soil column is not broken during planting. A spacing of 6x6 m should be adopted for block planting and 4 to 5 m for single 114

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row planting. The graft union should be kept at least 10 cm above the soil surface to avoid collar rot. The sprouts coming up from the stock should be removed during first year. Local selections available with Regional Horticultural Research Station, Jachh are recommended for plantation. Utilization and Economic Importance Being a hair tonic with high quality washing properties, it is the main constituent of different brands of herbal shampoos available in the market. It is used for washing delicate garments, particularly woolen and silk besides, washing gold and silver ornaments. Rural people especially Gaddis (shepherds) in Himachal Pradesh are using reetha fruits for washing their clothes and hair since time immemorial. Recently, Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow has developed a contraceptive cream know as Consap. The oil extracted from its kernel has medicinal value and insect killing properties. The paricarp yields 6 to 17 per cent saponins. The kernels contain fatty oil up to 40 to 45 per cent by weight. Fruits fetch good market price between Rs 10 to 23/kg. Up to two quintals of fruits can be harvested from a full-grown good genotype. The wood is utilized for modest rural building construction and agricultural implements.

Taxus baccata (Yew)


Introduction Taxus baccata, a dioecious plant, commonly called as yew, belongs to family Taxaceae. It is an evergreen tree found growing mainly in the upper parts of temperate zone. The species is much branched with spreading branches and dense foliage. The bark is usually thin, reddish brown and scaly. It is highly prized for its taxol contents, which is used in the cure of breast cancer. For the same reason, its bark and leaves were ruthlessly harvested by the mafia and smuggled. The species suffered a great loss due to this practice and has been listed under endangered species category. In general, it is a conspicuous tree and prefers growing in shady places under trees. In the northwestern Himalayas, it is found associated with kharsu oak or fir and rarely with spruce, deodar and moru oak. Occurrence The species is widely distributed throughout the northern hemisphere in India. It is indigenous to the Himalayas and usually found growing between 2,000 to 3,500 m, invariably above 5,500 m. Mostly, it is found in moist, shady places under wood to broad-leaved species. The area of its distribution receives heavy monsoon rains with heavy winter snowfall. The species requires fertile soil for healthy growth. 116

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Phenology Leaves distichous, flattened, flexible, linear 1.0 to 1.5" long, spreading in two opposite ranks, acute, narrowed in to a short stalk with upper surface shining and lower surface pale or rusty red. New leaves appear during the spring season, while the old ones fall mostly during May and June. Flowering takes place from March to May. Male flowers consist of globose head of stamens on a common stalk, while the female flowers consisting of a single erect ovule surrounded by disc on a peduncle. As the fruit matures, the disc enlarges and becomes succulent and finally forms a bright red fleshy cup in which the olive green seed is partially embedded. The fruit ripens during September or November the following year. Reproduction Although the species bears seeds annually, but a good seed year is observed after many years. The dispersed seeds germinate after two years in nature and the young seedlings require shelter and deep shade. Since the seedlings grow very slowly, initial protection from grazing and fire is essential for its establishment. Nursery and Plantation Techniques Seeds should be collected during October and November from medium sized trees. Nursery can be raised in raised beds or in polybags by keeping acid peat, soil and FYM 117

(1:1:1) as the medium. The seeds take nearly 365 days to germinate. Presowing treatment is essential and the same includes stratification in sand for three months at 15 C, chilling for three months below 0C, again stratification for three months at 15C. Plant Protection The species is attacked by insects and fungi such as Scolytoplatypus kunala (sapwood borer), Lenzites abietinus (brown cubid rot), Asterostromella rhodospora (white spongy saprot), etc. Utilization and Economic Importance Wood is valued for strength, durability and decorative characters; thus mostly used for candlesticks, fancy items, woodcarving, furniture, veneers, etc. It is also used for making bow and is a source of Zarnab mostly used in Unani medicine. Leaves and bark contain taxol, used for curing breast cancer. Leaves also possess hydrocyanin acid, formic acid, ephedrine, etc.

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Terminalia bellerica (Bahera)


Introduction Terminalia bellerica belongs to family Combretaceae and is locally known as bibhitaki, aksharvriksha (Sanskrit) and bahera (Hindi) It is a large deciduous tree with straight tall bole, usually attains height up to 18 to 24 m and girth of 1.5 to 2.4 m with cylindrical bole (6 to 9 m). Leaves are 7.5 to 12.0 cm by 5.0 to 15 cm, clustered, alternate, broadly elliptical, dark green, glabrous and thick midrib with prominent lateral leaves. Flowers are pale-greenish, hermaphrodite with upper flower often male. Fruits are dry fleshy drupe, 2.5 to 3.3 cm long and 1.3 to 1.9 cm diameter. Occurrence The tree is found scattered in the greater part of India except Rajasthan. In its natural habitat, temperature ranges from 0 to 480C and rainfall varies from 900 to 3,800 mm/yr. In Himachal Pradesh, the species is confined to sub-tropical zone (400 to 900 m) particularly Kangra, Bilaspur and Sirmour districts. It attains best dimension in fertile moist valleys having good soil depth. Phenology Leaf shedding occurs during November to January. 119

New leaves commence between April to May. Flower appears between April to June (greenish-white). Fruit ripening is from November to February depending upon the locality and fall soon after ripening. On maturity fruits are light to dark grey in color, dried under sun and can be stored in gunny bags for one year. The number of fresh fruits with pulp weighs between 66 to 106/kg and after drying between 375 to 405/kg. Reproduction Fruits are collected from November to February depulped and stored. Seeds have high germination capacity, however soaking in cold water can be done for 24 hours for quick germination before sowing. Nursery and Planting Techniques Nursery beds are treated with 5 per cent formaldehyde, 15 to 20 days before sowing. Pretreated seeds are sown in nursery beds in the month of March and April and where availability of water is scarce the seeds be sown in last week of May or first week of June with a spacing of 15x15 cm, which is regularly irrigated. Germination commences within 15 days and completes within one month. Regular weeding and hoeing should be undertaken in order to irradicate weeds competing the seedlings. Nursery can also be raised in polybags (9x4 cm) containing a growing medium of soil, sand and well rotten farmyard manure in the ratio of 1:2:3, 120

respectively and in case vermicompost is available then soil, sand and vermicompost in the ratio of 1:1:2, respectively can be used. Two to four month old seedlings can be planted best in July, as tall plants are difficult to manage. For roadside planting 14 to 16 month old plants can be planted in ordinary pit or staggered trenches to utilize available water more efficiently. Planting is done at an escapement of 10x10 m. Plant Protection The larvae of Trabala vishnou feed on plant. Lamida carbonifera defoliates this plant by skeltenising and eating in irregular patches. Immature seeds are damaged by insect Mecrobaris terminaliae on trees. The insects while lying on ground bore hard nuts. Bavistin (1 g/l of water) and Indophil (2 g/l of water) can be applied to protect germinants from root rot. Foliar application of Chloropyriphos (4 ml/l of water) is done to protect seedlings from white grubs and termite attack. Utilization and Economic Importance Timber is used for construction work. The flesh of full-grown but not over ripe fruits contains 21.4 per cent tannin, while the stone contains 14 per cent. The fruits are one of the constituents of triphala. Leaves are a good fodder and also fed to silkworm. Bark contains 12.25 to 19.77 per cent oxalic acid. Yield varies from 3 to 4 q/tree. 121

Terminalia chebula (Harad)


Introduction Terminala chebula belongs to family Combretaceae. Its local names are haritaki (Sanskrit and Bengali) and harad (Hindi). It is a deciduous tree attaining a height of 15 to 24 m with clear bole and girth of 1.5 to 2.4 m. The crown is rounded and spreading. Bark is dark brown with longitudinal cracks. Leaves are 7.5 to 18.0 cm long and 5.0 to 9.9cm broad sub opposite, ovate, acute base and rounded often-unequal sides. Flowers are greenish- white, bisexual and fruit is drupe (2.0 to 4.0 cm long). Occurrence The tree is found in greater parts of India except arid areas of Rajasthan and southern Punjab. In Himalayan tract the species is found up to 1,500 m elevation. In peninsular India it is found in the deciduous forests up to 900 m. In Himachal Pradesh, the species is confined to sub-tropical zone (400 to 900 m) particularly in Kangra, Bilaspur and Sirmour districts. In its natural climate, the temperature range is 00 to 470C where May is the hottest and January is the coldest month of the year. The normal rainfall ranges from 100 to 1,500 mm/ yr. The tree attains best dimensions in moist and fertile valleys having some deep soil. The most suited soils are well-drained soils such as sandy loam and clay loam. 122

Phenology The leaf shedding occurs from February to March. The new leaves commence from March to May. Flower appears during March to June (greenish-white). Fruit ripens from December to March depending upon the locality and fall soon after ripening. The tree is strong light demander. The young plants however, withstand slight shade and benefit by side protection from the sun. It is fairly hardy against frost and drought. It also withstands fire and exhibits remarkable power of recovery from scars and burns after forest fire. Reproduction The tree bears abundant seeds, but are mostly destroyed by insect, rats, squirrels and rodents. On maturity the fruits are light to dark yellow in colour. The fruits are collected during January to March, dried under shade and seeds can be stored in gunny bags for one year. The seed number varies from 100 to 700/kg. The seed of harad (Terminalia chebula) are said to have double dormancy, i.e., physical as well as physiological dormancy. The same may be overcome by the methods detailed below: Stratification: Fruits are soaked in bucket containing water for one night. Fruits are removed and depulped by rubbing with hands to separate seed from the fruit. Seeds are kept in gunny bags after drying in shade. A pit of size 2x2 ft is made (it depends upon the seed lot size) and plastered from 123

inner sides of the pit with a cow or goat dung slurry. Gunny bag containing seeds is put in the pit. Now the dung slurry is poured to cover the gunny bag containing the seed up to the brim of the pit to moisten the layers of seed. The pit is covered with hard cover leaving a hole either on the side or in the middle of the pit so as to monitor the wetness of the slurry. If it goes dry, pouring of water is done through the hole to rewet. This method is referred to as wet stratification and done for three weeks, by this time, the seeds swell and crack and the radicle may start emerging. This treatment gives about 35 to 60 per cent germination. Clip Method: Seed is clipped at its broad end in such a way that the embryo is not damaged. The clipped seeds are soaked in cold water for about 36 hr. Seeds are removed from water and sown in the nursery. This method gives about 45 to 60 per cent germination. Embryo Removal Method: Embryo is obtained after breaking the seed coat carefully so as to avoid any significant damage to the embryo. Embryos are soaked in cold water for overnight before sowing in the poly bag containing a medium of soil, sand and farm yard manure in the ratio of 1:2:3, respectively and in case vermicompost is available then soil, sand and vermicompost in the ratio of 1:1:2, respectively may be used. This method gives about 70 to 80 per cent germination.

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Nursery and Plantation Techniques Sowing of seed is done in March under irrigated conditions and during end of June under non-irrigated conditions. Pretreated seeds/embryos are sown in poly bags (9x4 cm) containing a growing medium of soil, sand and well rotten FYM (1:2:3) and in case vermicompost is available then soil, sand and vermicompost (1:1:2) may be used. Seeds are covered with soil and watered regularly. Germination commences within 10 days and is completes within 2 to 3 weeks. Patch or chip budding can also raise nursery. Patch budding is done in July and chip budding in April. Planting is done in rainy season at an escapement of 3x3 m (pure plantation) and 8x8 m under agroforestry practices in pit of 1m3 or staggered trenches. The recommended selections for plantation are as mentioned below : Jachh Harar-1 (JH-1): Selection from Pragpur area with mean fruit length, diameter and dry fruit weight of 6.53 cm, 3.23 cm and 10.35g, respectively. Fruit is long necked, pale yellow in colour, high quality and locally known as koonj. Jachh Harar-2 (JH-2): Selection from Bilaspur area with mean fruit length, diameter and dry fruit weight of 5.43 cm, 3.15 cm and 15.45 g, respectively. Fruit is oval, light yellow in colour, high quality and locally known as murrabi. Jachh Harar-3 (JH-3): Selection from Palampur area with mean fruit length, diameter and dry fruit weight of 5.00 125

cm, 3.31 cm and 10.00 g, respectively. Fruit is oval, pale yellow in colour, high quality murrabi. Jachh Harar-4 (JH-4): Selection from Kallar, Bilaspur area with mean fruit length of 5.0 cm and diameter 2.61 cm. Fruit is oval, pale green, high quality, locally known as koonj. Jachh Harar-5 (JH-5): Selection from Palluri, Sirmaur area with mean fruit length, diameter and dry fruit weight of 6.18 cm, 3.45 cm and 16.29 g, respectively. Fruit is oval, light yellow in colour, high quality murrabi. Plant Protection The larvae of Trabala vishnou feed on the plant and cause wide spread defoliation. The beetle and larvae of Attagenus alferii and A. gloriosae attack dry stored fruits. Pathogenic fungi recorded on the species are Uredo terminaliae attacking leaves, Phyllactinia terminaliae causing powdery mildew and Cercospora catappae causing leaf spot. To protect germinant from root rot, apply Bavistin (1g/l) and Indophil (2 g/l). Foliar application of Chloropyriphos (4 ml/l) is done to protect seedling from white grubs and termite attack. To protect fruit from fruit borer, 2 to 4 sprays of monocrotophos (200 ml Monocil/Nuvacron 36 WSC) or cypermethrin (200 ml Ripcord 10 EC or 80 ml Cyambush 25 EC / 200 l of water) after every fortnight from mid June onwards is recommended.

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Utilization and Economic Importance Depending upon quality of fruit and market demand, the price of fruit varies from Rs 10 to 40/kg. On an average fruit yield of 2 q/tree is harvested. The picking, packaging, loading and transportation cost of the fruit up to terminal market varies between Rs 4 to 7 /kg. The timber is used for construction, as posts and beams and for making carts, etc. It is suitable for manufacture of good quality handles. It gives satisfactory yields of pulpwood in mixture with other species for production of wrapping and printing papers. The wood makes a poor fuel wood having calorific value being 3, 967 Kcal/kg. Fruits are known as myrobalans or chebulic myrobalans. The dried flesh surrounding the seed contains 30 to 32 per cent tannin. Haritaki is the best of the mild laxatives. It is harmless and restores all body functions. It is used for chronic fevers, diarrhoea, dysentery and piles, indigestion, anaemia and chronic cough. It is known to heal wounds and chronic ulcers. It is also used as tooth powder for curing mouth ulcers.

Toona ciliata (Tooni)


Introduction Toona ciliata, commonly called as tooni, is one of the foremost and fast growing species of the family Meliaceae. It is large deciduous tree well known for its timber and fuel wood values and commonly called as toon. It grows best in the small gaps in the forests and also cultivated extensively out side forest areas. Occurrence The tree is found to grow in the sub Himalayan tract ascending up to about 1,500 m elevation and valleys of the outer Himalayas from Jammu and Kashmir eastwards in Bihar, plains of Assam, Manipur, Arunachal Pradesh, West Bengal and eastern and western Ghats and hilly moistened region of the Indian Peninsula. In south India it is mainly confined to evergreen and semi-evergreen forests. Tree is also distributed in Kerala and Karnataka and moist tracts of Tamil Nadu. In its natural habitat, it occurs frequently on moist localities such as ravines, stream banks or swamps with best growth in deep, rich, moist, sandy and loamy soils and also grows well on the alluvial soils. It prefers good drainage. It is a tree of sub-tropical climate, where the normal rainfall ranges from about 1,125 to 4,000 mm/yr. Rainfall occurs during monsoon 128

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season, summer is fairly hot and winter is mild. Absolute maximum shade temperature in its natural habitat varies from 37.50 to 47.50C and absolute minimum temperature from 10 to 17.50C. If tended and watered properly in the early stage of growth, it has tendency to grow under dry conditions also. Hence grown extensively as a roadside tree in northern India having annual rainfall as low as 750 mm. Associate tree species varies with its distribution region. Phenology Phenology greatly varies from region to region. In northwest India, tree leaf shedding occurs in December and tree remains leaf less for about two months. New leaves appear towards the end of February and completed in early April. Flowering starts with the advent of spring in March and continues till end of April or even till May end, followed by fruit ripening period in May and June. In south India, the flowering and fruiting periods start one to one and half months earlier. Reproduction Natural reproduction takes place through seeds. Soon after seed fall, seeds and seedlings can be located, which are washed away during heavy rains. Saplings are often found to establish under the bushes where density of associated vegetation is less. Good natural regeneration takes place by 129

clearing the associated vegetation in the vicinity of seed bearers. Winged seed escape at different time till the end of July, covering ground for some distance around the mother trees. The seeds are collected during the end of May and June from mature (brown coloured) capsules. Germination percentage of the seed collected from the ground is comparatively less, and thus not much preferred. Ripen seeds are dried in sun for 3 to 4 days and seeds are separated with light stick beating. One kilogram of capsules yields about 200 gm of clean seeds. Seed germination percentage ranges from 75 to 90 per cent, which varies with altitude or region of its distribution. Fresh seeds show maximum germination percentage (80 to 94%). Seed viability period varies from place to place but in general decreases with storage time period at room temperature. After three months of storage period, seed viability reduces (20 to 30%) which continues to decline and cease or become nil after 5 to 6 months of storage. Seed storing in polythene bags at 10 to 50C temperature maintains 93 per cent germination after one year and is recommended to maintain seed viability for longer period. Direct sowing can also be practiced. Seeds are usually sown during June end to August. Toona ciliata cuttings collected during spring season and treated with IBA (1.0%) + Captan (5%) + sucrose (5%) give the best rooting of 73 per cent. 130

Nauni-Oachhghat, Kangra, Renuka and Rajgarh are the best seed sources in Himachal Pradesh. Nursery and Plantation Techniques Nursery soil should be mixed with FYM (25 t/ha) along with phosphorus and potassium @ (50 kg/ha each) as a basal dose. The seeds are sown in June and July in shaded raised nursery beds in lines 20 cm apart and should be covered with fine soil or sand. Nearly 5 to 8 cm tall seedlings are transplanted in the nursery at spacing of 15x15 cm. Water logging should be avoided. Planting out of nursery raised saplings is done in monsoon season in pits of about 30 or 45 cm2 at spacing of about 3x3 m or 4x4 m. Planting should be completed before middle of August. Pure plantation of this species is susceptible to shoot borer attack. Mixed plantation with other species providing about 50 per cent overhead cover is recommended. Entire plants are planted with balls of earth. Sumps prepared from 1 or 2 yr old plants and planted out in July and August give good results. Optimum size for planting is required to be about 1.5 to 2.5cm collar diameter. Monsoon stump planting in the open also gives good results. After their preparation they should not be stored under dry conditions. If storage is necessary these should be wrapped in moistened gunny bags before stumps are planted in the pits. 131

For best performance add FYM (2.5 kg/pit) at the time of planting. Application of CAN (50 g/plant) after one year of plantation is also required for best growth performance. Plant Protection Seedlings are sensitive to drought in the nursery stage; hence require shading or mulching with grasses, straw and leaves. Seedlings are badly browsed by grazing animals. So fencing is therefore necessary in plantation areas. Regular lopping of tree results in large cavities in the tree. Nursery pests are termites, white fly, cutworms and surface grasshoppers. They damage seedlings by feeding on root and shoot or cutting them from the soil surface. To control them mix Aldrin 5% dust (20 to 25 kg/ha) with soil while preparing the nursery beds or 30 to 40 g/m 2 of these insecticides. Spray of Nuvan (1.5ml/l) is recommended to control white fly attack. Another alternative is to drench the soil in beds/polythene bags with Aldrin 30 EC solution (4 to 5 ml /l of water). Insect Hypsipyla robusta attacks this species during flowering, first generation attack on inflorescence and flowers, and second generation on seeds, which leads to inhibition of regeneration through seeds. The insect some time also bore growing shoot causing head back resulting in staggered appearance and this finely affect quality and quantity of timber. Spray of Thiodan 35 EC (endosulphan) or Metacid 50EC 132

(methylperathion) @1.5 ml/l and 1ml/l, respectively on young plantation in the month of June is recommended. However it is not possible in case of old plantation but the same can be applied in the month of February or March to eradicate the first generation of this insect. In addition to insect-pest attack, Witchs broom symptom caused by phytoplasma at any age of tree has been observed in this species. This inhibits flowering and also reduces growth of the plant. There is no permanent control for this symptom except the pruning of infected branch. Utilization and Economic Importance Toona ciliata is a multipurpose tree especially used as timber in India. Apart from its utility as timber, it is also used in construction for ceilings, floors, window frames, cigar boxes, cheap grade pencils, etc. The timber is classed as suitable for GradeI commercial plywood and Grade-I moisture proof plywood. The flowers contain red colouring matter and also a sulphur coloured dye, which forms a source of less important natural dyestuff. Flowers are also used in conjunction with safflower and turmeric to produce sulphur yellow colour. The bark possesses astringent and anti-periodic properties and is used in various medicines.

Ulmus villosa (Marinoo)


Introduction Ulmus villosa Brandis (syn. Ulmus laevigata Royle) belongs to family Ulmaceae and is commonly known as Marinoo. It is the most sought after social and agroforestry species and finds greater potential on account of its multiplicity of uses and fast growth habit. Marinoo is extensively grown in this belt and is lopped for its nutritious fodder besides providing fuel and timber. It is a medium to large deciduous tree found around the field bunds in deep and moist soils with an average height of 20 to 30 m and girth of 110 cm. Bark is smooth in middle aged trees and rough in old trees which exfoliating in diamond shaped flakes. Occurrence The tree is commonly known as marinoo and is found in the north Himalayas from 1,200 to 2,200 m elevations in moist deep soils with high organic matter content. It is commonly found in the Balh valley of district Mandi in Himachal Pradesh. Phenology New leaves appear during January and February. The appearance is initially green, which changes to brownish green

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to brown on maturity. Leaves are pubescent when young and turn glabrous and rough with maturity. Leaves are elliptic and 7 to 12 cm long. Flowering starts in February and March in raceme (cymose). Flowers are purplish red and 12 to 16 mm long. Heavy flowering takes place after a gap of two years. Seed formation takes place during March and April and dispersal is through wind. Reproduction Natural regeneration is very scanty, as the seeds are minute and dispersed by wind during spring season. It is propagated through seeds as well as vegetative cuttings. Nursery and Plantation Techniques Seeds are sown in March and April immediately after collection and after mixing with fine soil, so as to ensure rapid and uniform germination. The seed bed should be covered with grass/mulch for about 10 days. Germination completes with in 21 days under field conditions. Seeds stored in perforated poly bags at 5o1oC retain viability up to 57.8 per cent for four months of storage. After about 45 days, the seedling should be pricked in to transplanting beds or in polybags. Application of 80 kg N/ha in two split doses (half at the time of transplanting and half at one month of transplanting) with 20x15 cm spacing is the most promising and appropriate for raising vigorous and healthy nursery stock. 135

Vegetative propagation is feasible through stem cuttings and the cuttings are collected during dormant season. The species is a moderate rooter as in untreated winter planted cuttings 10 per cent rooting takes place and rainy season planting fails to develop roots. Winter planted basal seedling portion gives rooting up to 46.66 per cent when treated with IBA (1.5 %). For rooting, basal portion in winter and apical portion in rainy season is the best propagating material. Seedlings raised in the nursery are planted in the field during rainy or winter season in the pits of 30 cm3 dug one month in advance at a spacing of 3x3 m. The spacing in farmlands varies depending upon the plantation model adopted. Utilization and Economic Importance It is considered as one of the most important agroforestry tree species for the valley and the mid hill agroecosystems of the region. It has great potential outside its natural range for use in farms, community and degraded lands for its multiple uses and fast growth rate. Marinoo is lopped for its nutritious fodder besides providing fuel and timber.

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Berberis lycium (Kashmal)


Introduction Berberis lycium commonly known as kashmal is an errect evergreen shrub with an average height of 3 to 4 m; bark is rough, grayish and deeply furrowed. Twigs are pale yellow in colour. Leaves are leathery fascicled in the axils of simple or three fid spines. Flowers are dull yellow, borne in simple racemes. Fruit is a berry, which turns purplish blue on ripening. Occurrence It occurs in the outer northwestern Himalayas. It is a common shrub found in open areas, especially on newly exposed sites, grasslands (ghasnis), bunds of cultivated areas; and is also frequently found in ban oak forests. The altitudinal range for its distribution is between 800 to 3,000 m. Phenology Flowering takes place form March to June, while fruiting takes place from June to October. Reproduction In nature, it usually propagates through seeds. However, it can also be raised through vegetative means by 137

rooting the cuttings. The best time to collect the seeds is when the fruits have turned purplish blue. July in the lower altitudes, while September in the higher altitudes are the best months for seed collection. The seed is collected by beating the bush with sticks and collecting the fruits on a tarpaulin spread underneath. The seeds are extracted from the fruits after depulping, through washing and drying the seeds in the sun. It has around 1,59,000 to 2,00,000 seeds in a lot of 1 kg seed. Nursery and plantation techniques The best period to sow the seeds in the nursery is July. It shows maximum germination of 82.00 per cent when the seeds are sown in soil, sand and FYM (2:1:1) as germination media. At 2 to 4 leaf stage of the seedling, they are pricked out in nursery beds (1x1 m) containing the same media at a spacing of 10 cm in lines. Irrigation is done judiciously. After one month of first pricking the seedlings are transplanted in poly bags. For vegetative propagation, stem cuttings when treated with rooting hormones like IBA (0.6 %) in powder form, produce 40 to 45 per cent rooting in rainy and spring season. Planting out of poly bags raised plants in rainy seasons; when the seedlings are one-year-old in ordinary pits of 30 cm3 sizes give 90 per cent success on denuded slopes.

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Utilization and Economic Importance It is locally used as fuel as it has high calorific value of 4,505 cal/g. It is also used as fodder for goats. The villagers eat fruits. Root and lower stem wood yields rasaunt. The active principle being berberine in the extract is used in ophthalmic disorders. It is also used in skin diseases, menorrhagia, jaundice, chronic diarrhoea and piles.

Carissa opaca (Karaundha)


Introduction Carissa opaca, commonly called as karaundha is a small thorny evergreen shrub. It has light gray bark and green branchlets. Spines 1 to 3 cm long often forked at the base of the branches. Leaves are opposite dark green. Flowers are white scented, borne in corymbose cymes at the end of branches. Fruit is a berry, dark shining purple and juicy when ripe. Occurrence Extremely common in scrub forests in drier parts of sub-tropical parts of India. It ascends to 1,800 m. Forms an under growth in sal, teak and chirpine forests. Thrives best on sandy or rocky soils. Phenology It is evergreen, new shoots appear in March. Flowering takes place from February to June and fruits ripen during September to November. The fruits turn red from green and finally to dark shining purple when ripe. Reproduction Natural regeneration takes place through seeds. During October to November, dark purple coloured fruit stage is the

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best time for the collection of seed. The seed is collected by beating the bush with sticks and collecting the fruits on a tarpaulin spread underneath. The seeds are extracted from the fruits after depulping, through washing and drying the seeds in the sun. It has around 28,000 seeds in a lot of 1 kg seed. Nursery and Plantation Techniques It exhibits a maximum of 70 per cent germination, when the seeds are sown in sand as germination media. Sowing of seeds is done in the nursery during February and March. At the 2 to 4 leaf stage of the seedlings, they are pricked in nursery beds (1x1 m) at spacing of 10 cm in lines, containing soil, sand and FYM (2:1:1). Till the germination has started and before first pricking, daily irrigation with rose can is done. Thereafter before the onset of monsoon, irrigation on alternate days is done. After one month of first pricking, the seedlings are transplanted in poly bags containing the same media. Vegetative propagation is very less. Rooting of the stem cutting treated with the growth regulators is observed around 20 per cent only. Planting out with earth ball around the roots (poly bag plants) is done during July and August in ordinary pits of 30 cm3 sizes, when the seedlings are one year old. Utilization and Economic Importance It is an excellent fuelwood and is also used as live fence. Sheep and goat browse the leaves and young shoots. 141

The ripe berries have sub-acidic with sweet taste and are lavishly eaten by monkeys and birds. It is mostly used in the preparation of pickle. The roots are locally used to cure of fresh and old wounds. Leaves are considered to be a rich source of tannin.

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Coriaria nepalensis (Makkola)


Introduction Coriaria nepalensis commonly called, as makkola is a large evergreen, non-leguminous nitrogen-fixing shrub. Bark is rough with reddish brown colour. Branches are long and spreading, branchlets quadrangular, leaves thick nearly stalkless, conspicuously three veined. Flowers greenish, 5 mm in one or several axillary clusters, 2.5 to 10 cm long. Fruit is black with 0.5 to 0.8 cm diameter encircled with purple petals. Occurrence Fairly common among shrubs on hillsides and ravines in temperate and sub-tropical Himalayas from 1,000 to 2,200 m altitudes. Phenology Flowering takes place during April and May and fruiting takes place during June and July. Reproduction In nature, the plant regenerates through seeds. The best time for seed collection is when the fruits have turned fully mature (black) during July. The seeds are collected by beating the bush with sticks and collecting the fruits on a tarpaulin 143

spread underneath. The seeds are extracted from the fruits after depulping, through washing and drying the seeds in the sun. It has around 10,00,000 seeds in a lot of 1 kg seed. Nursery and Plantation Techniques Nursery is raised in rainy season. As the species has embryo dormancy, the seeds are given pre-sowing treatment like stratification in layers of sand at low temperatures (01oC) for around 30 days, which enhances the germination to 82 per cent in soil, sand and FYM (2:1:1) as germination media. After 2 to 4 leaf stage, the seedlings are pricked in the nursery beds (size 1x1 m) with the same media at the spacing of 10 cm in lines. Irrigation is done judiciously. After one month of first pricking the seedlings are transplanted in poly bags with the same soil media. For vegetative propagation, stem cuttings when treated with rooting hormones like IBA (1.0 %) in powder form produce 50 per cent rooting in spring season. Planting out with ball of earth (poly bag) is done during rainy season in pits of 30 cm3, when seedlings are one-year-old. Utilization and Economic Importance It is used for rearing of silk moth. Wood is used for making boxes and is rich in tannin. Sheep and goat browse the branches. It is excellent fuel wood with calorific value 4,516 cal/g. It is excellent plant for soil reclamation and plantation on denuded areas. 144

Debregeasia hypoleuca (Sairu)


Introduction Debregeasia hypoleuca commonly called as siaru is a large evergreen dioecious shrub. Bark is thin dark gray in colour. Branches are pubescent. Leaves alternate 10 to 15 cm long and 1 to 2 cm wide, the underneath is white in colour. Flowers whitish and are borne in sessile/sub-sessile axillary heads. Fruit is an achene enclosed in the fleshy parianth, amber coloured, sweet but insipid and mucilaginous. Occurrence It is mostly found growing in the subtropical regions of the outer Himalayas. It grows naturally along with watercourses between 700 to 1,500 m elevations. It comes up well on landslide areas and prefers deep sandy loam soil with adequate moisture and good drainage. Phenology It is an evergreen and the new leaves emerge in April. The old leaves are shed during February and March at the same time. Flowering takes place from February onwards and continues till the first week of April. Fruiting takes place during June and July.

Reproduction Under natural conditions, it reproduces itself through seeds. The best time for seed collection is when the fruits attain amber colour and the seeds are not dispersed. June to first half of July is the best time for seed collection. The seed is collected by beating the bush with sticks and collecting the fruits on a tarpaulin spread underneath. It has around 20,000,000 to 22,000,000 seeds in a seed lot of 1 kg. Nursery and Plantation Techniques Nursery should be raised during July and August. It exhibits a maximum of 65 per cent germination when the seeds are sown with germination media containing soil, sand and FYM (2:1:1). After 2 to 4 leaf stage, the seedlings are pricked in the nursery beds (1x1 m) with the same media at 10 cm spacing in lines. Daily irrigation is required before the monsoons, but afterwards it should be done as per the requirements. For vegetative propagation, stem cuttings treated with IBA (0.75%) in powder form produce 90 per cent rooting during spring season. Planting out with earth ball around the roots (poly bag) is done during July and August, in moist localities and in ordinary pits of 30 cm3 sizes, when seedlings are one year old.

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Utilization and Economic Importance It is a good fodder. The wood is used as fuelwood as it has the calorific value of 4,365 cal/g. The stem fiber is made into twine and rope while the fruits are eaten and used as flavouring agent.

Indigofera pulchella (Kathi)


Introduction Indigofera pulchella, commonly called as kathi in local language, is a large nitrogen fixing deciduous shrub. Stem is thin. Branches and leaves are thinly pubescent. Leaves are imparipinnate, 5 to 15 cm long. Flowers are bright pink in colour, which fade to violet, borne on 5 to 15 cm racemes. Fruits are pods, straight, glabrous and 8 to 12 seeded. Occurrence It is a common shrub species of sub Himalayan tract and found growing in outer valley areas. It is commonly found in sal and chir forests. It is well distributed in the foothills and ascends up to 2,500 m altitude. It is very common in scrub forest areas too. Phenology Flowering takes place from November to March, while fruiting during rainy season. Reproduction Under natural conditions, the species regenerates through seeds. The best time for seed collection is July and August, when the fruits are about to mature. The seeds are

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collected by beating the bush with sticks and collecting the fruits on a tarpaulin spread underneath. Nursery and Plantation Techniques Rainy season is best for establishment of nursery. It exhibits a maximum of 68 per cent germination when the seeds are sown in soil, sand and FYM (2:1:1) as germination media. At 2 to 4 leaf stage of the seedlings, pricking is done in nursery beds (1x1 m) containing the same media at a spacing of 10 cm in lines. Irrigation is done judiciously. After one month of first pricking the seedlings are transplanted in poly bags. Around 16 per cent rooting of the stem cutting can be achieved with growth regulators. Planting out with earth ball around the roots (poly bag planting) is done during rainy season, when plants are oneyear-old in ordinary pits of 30 cm3 sizes. Utilization and Economic Importance Its wood is used as fuel wood with calorific value of 4,273 cal/g, besides it is also a fodder yielding plant. Flowers are sometimes eaten. Decoction of roots and leaves is used for relief from cough and its powder is applied externally for chest pains. It is an excellent species for soil reclamation.

Justicia adhatoda (Basuti)


Introduction Justicia adhatoda, commonly known as basuti is an evergreen gregarious shrub. The bark is yellowish in colour; flowers white, borne in axillary pedunculate spikes; branches and young leaves pubescent; while the fruit is a capsule, it dehisces with a cracking noise and scatters the seeds to considerable distance.. Occurrence Occur throughout the plains of India and in the sub Himalayan tracts up to an altitude of 1,500 m. Grows well on rocky soil and sloppy areas. Phenology It flowers from December to April and fruits mature between from February to May. Reproduction In nature, basuti regenerates through seeds. The capsules are collected when they are near fully mature. The seed is collected by beating the bush with sticks and collecting the fruits on a tarpaulin spread underneath. Thereafter the seed is cleaned and dried in sun. Basuti has around 30,000 seeds in a seed lot of 1 kg. 150

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Nursery and Plantation Techniques Best time for raising its nursery is during the rainy season. It exhibits a maximum of 76 per cent germination when seeds are sown in germination media containing soil, sand and FYM (2:1:1). After 2 to 4 leaf stage, the seedlings are pricked in nursery beds (1x1 m) at a spacing of 10 cm in lines with the same germination media. Irrigation is done judiciously. After one month of the first pricking, seedlings are transplanted in poly bags containing same soil media. Around 90 per cent rooting is observed by treating the branch cuttings with IBA (0.4%) in powder form either in spring season or rainy season. Planting out with earth ball around the roots (poly bag) in rainy season, when the seedlings are one year old in ordinary pits 30 cm3 gives 100 per cent success on slopes having rocky soils. Utilization and Economic Importance The plant is very useful in soil reclamation programme. Leaves contain alkaloid vasicine and essential oil. Leaves are source of drug used mainly as expectorant in the form of juice, syrup and decoction and gives relief in bronchitis. Vasaca is promising insecticide against pest of storage. Leaves also possess antihelminthic and weedicide properties. Seeds are source of fatty oil. It is a good bee flora. The tender branches are used for cleaning teeth and also used for curing pyorrhea. It is a good fuel wood having calorific value of 4,301 cal/g. 151

Woodfordia fruticosa (Dhai)


Introduction Woodfordia fruticosa commonly known as dhai, is a large, branched and spreading evergreen shrub. The bark scales off in small patches; leaves opposite and lanceolate; flowers and their calyces are bright red in colour, arranged in short clustered panicles in the axils of fallen leaves. Fruit is a capsule, ovate or elliptic and 6 to 10 mm long. Occurrence It is distributed throughout the greater part of India from 300 to 1,600 m. In Himalayas it is found in open dry slopes rocky fields and wastelands. It forms undergrowth in chirpine, sal and dry teak forests. It thrives best on sandy or rocky soils, but does not grow well on clayey soils. Phenology It is evergreen, leaves start shedding during second half of January and continues till April. New leaves start appearing from May onwards. Flowering takes place from February onwards and continues till May. Fruit (capsules) formation starts from March and continues till June. Seed dispersal takes place from May to June.

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Reproduction Under natural conditions, it regenerates through seeds and the best time for seed collection is before the capsules dehisce and seeds are dispersed, as the seeds are very minute. April to first half of May is the best period for seed collection. The seed is collected by beating the bush with sticks and collecting the fruits on a tarpaulin spread underneath. The seed is extracted from the capsules by drying them in sun and sieving through sieves with minute pores. There are around 1,90,00,000 seeds in a seed lot of 1 kg. Nursery and Plantation Techniques Seeds are usually sown in the nursery during May. The seeds should be pre-treated with 0.5 per cent bavistin to prevent damping off. It exhibits a maximum of 75 per cent germination when the seeds are sown in sand as a germination media. Till the germination has started and before the pricking is done, daily irrigation with rose can is done. At the 2 to 4 leaf stage of the seedlings they are pricked in nursery beds (size 1x1 m) containing soil, sand and FYM in the ratio of 2:1:1 at the spacing of lines being 10 cm apart. After one month of pricking the seedlings are transplanted in poly bags containing same media. For vegetative propagation, stem cuttings when treated with IBA (6%) in powder form produce 40 per cent rooting in spring and rainy season. 153

Planting out with earth ball around the roots (poly bag) is done during July and August in ordinary pits 30 cm3, when the seedlings are one-year-old. Utilization and Economic Importance It is a good fuelwood as it has calorific value of 4,533 cal/g. It is also a source of small fodder for sheep and goats. The flowers produce yellow red dye used for colouring silk. Bark and leaves are used for tannin. The plant possesses many medicinal properties such as being an astringent, stimulant, suppurative and styptic. It is useful in bowl complaints, haemorrhages, diarrhoea and dysentery, complaints of liver, leucorrhoea, menorrhagia, stimulant in pregnancy, skin diseases, etc. Flowers are used in preparation of asawas and arishtas in ayurvedic medicines. It produces gum, which is used as substitute for gum tragacanth.

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Dendrocalamus hamiltonii (Maggar bans)


Introduction Dendrocalamus hamiltonii commonly called as maggar bans is a large bamboo, with culms growing at an angle or curved downward, attaining a height of 12 to 25 m with 10 to 18.5 cm diameter, which are greyish-white when young and turns dull green after words, lower nodes marked with root scars, internodes 30 to 50 cm long, wall nearly 1.2 cm thick, leaves variable in size, small on side branches, but on new shoots reaching 37.5 x 3.75 cm, leaf sheaths covered with tuff of white stiff hairs. It bears purple flowers. Occurrence The species is extensively cultivated in Himachal Pradesh between 350 to 1,400 m altitude in Kangra, Chamba, Mandi and Bilaspur, having rainfall between 200 to 800 mm/ yr. It can withstand temperatures ranging between -5 to 46C and is capable of growing on a wide variety of soils having good drainage. The species performs best on sandy loam soils underlained with boulders. It is rarely found on heavy soils like clay. Phenology The new culms arise from buds on the rhizome during August, attain their full length by November or December, 155

bear large, straw-coloured deciduous sheaths and start producing green leaves. During winter, this process is suspended, giving a naked look to new culms. Production of new leaves is again resumed in summer when old culms also produce new leaves and shed old ones. It flowers usually sporadically, annually as well as gregariously at an interval of 30 to 40 yr. But, under Himachal Pradesh condition one to few culms in isolated clumps flowers sporadically. Reproduction Natural regeneration takes place through proliferation of rhizome and there are very few instances of natural regeneration through seeds have been observed in Himachal Pradesh, so far. Nursery and Plantation Techniques The species is artificially regenerated through seeds, rhizome and offsets; cuttings raised plantlets through macro proliferation techniques. In general, seed is least source of planting material for large-scale plantations. Seedlings are handy than other type of propagules. As it produce sufficient quantity of seed, which are available in one area or another sporadically in enormous quantity at the time of gregarious flowering, therefore, there is no need to resort to other methods of propagation except when genetically superior plants are required. 156

Freshly ripened seeds should be used for raising nursery. The seeds ripen during May and June. They should be collected immediately before dispersal. Seeds are usually sown during May and June in the trays or in the nursery beds having the growing media of soil, sand and FYM (1:1:1). Seeds start germinating after 10 days and germination is complete within 10 to 20 days. After about one month (2 to 3 leaf stage) seedlings are ready for pricking into polybag (21x15 cm) or in nursery beds for further macro-proliferation. The polybags raised seedlings can be placed under agro-nets (50% light transmission). Planting stock raised under these agro-nets gives better survival and are easy to manage as the plants require very less water from external sources and likes intermittent light conditions. Poly bags raised seedlings should be weeded from time to time. The poly bag raised seedlings can be planted either in the same year or during the next year. In the technique of macro-proliferation, 8 to 9 months old seedlings are taken, which have developed 4 to 5 miniature culms. These miniature culms are separated into different units with independent rhizomes with fibrous root and shoot and placed in polybags (21x15 cm). Each seedling can be multiplied 3 to 7 times under Himachal Pradesh conditions. The seedlings raised in polybags or in nursery beds should be macro-proliferated during the months of March and April. In order to minimize mortality, the seedlings after separation should be kept in shade till out planting is done. The plants 157

placed in shade results in better survival and have comparatively less water requirement. Irrigation should be done at regular interval to avoid any moisture stress. The seedlings thus raised are ready for out planting during the ensuing rainy season. Proliferated seedlings remain small in size due to continuous separation, thereby making it easy to handle and transport. Culm segments are cuttings/portion of the culm (stem) usually with 1 to 3 nodes with buds or branches. Generally, the culm selected for the cuttings should be around one year old with healthy buds. Segments are selected from lower part to mid zone of the culm. The upper part and the lateral branches of the upper culm are discarded. Culm segments are cut with sharp knife or saw. Avoid splitting at the cut especially in thin walled species and keep 5 to 10 cm on either side of the node. April to June is the best time for collection and planting of cuttings particularly under Himachal Pradesh conditions. These culm segments should be transported to the propagation beds as quickly as possible. The growing media should be composed of soil, sand and FYM (1:1:1) in the bed. Culm segments drawn from mature clump should be laid down obliquely or horizontally 10 cm deep inside the growing media and spaced 30x15 cm apart. Whereas culm segments of young clump are buried in a slanting manner (30 to 40). The bottom nodes are buried 3 to 6 cm in the soil, with the middle node at the same level as the ground surface 158

and the third (top) internodes exposed above the ground. If culm segments with one or two nodes are used, one node should be buried 5 cm deep inside the soil. After that, the nursery beds are mulched or sheltered and regularly irrigated. The culm cuttings drawn from mature clump starts sprouting within 20 days and develop roots between 45 to 90 days and take about 6 to 36 months for the development of plantable stock. The culm cuttings drawn from the juvenile clump develop rhizomes and roots within four months of planting the propagules. The plants thus produced can be used for further multiplication in the month of April next year or can be uprooted and used for planting in the field in rainy season. Separated out rhizomes can be planted in the rainy season. The traditional method of planting is by offsets at the onset of rainy season in June and July. A survival rate of 50 per cent can be expected through this technique. Offsets are generally planted in gullies, depressions and along the streams. A pit of 60 cm3 is dug and filled with a mixture of farmyard manure. A spacing of 6x6 m to 9x9 m is desirable. The base of 1 to 2 yr old culms along with its rhizome having 1 to 2 buds is dug carefully. The culms are cut at a height of 1.0 to 1.5 m just above the bu point and rhizome severed at the desired oldest narrow point and planted out immediately. The established plants yield culms of exploitable size after 4 or 5 yr.

Plant Protection It needs protection from domestic cattle and wild animals. Grazing should be prohibited in young bamboo stands. Rodents have the tendency to feed on bamboo by making holes at the base of the bamboo stem and eat the roots and the rhizome. Different kinds of fungi cause diseases in the nursery stage such as leaf spots (Phyllostachvs spp.), root rot (Ganoderma lucidum) and culm rot (Pjiellinus pectmalus). The root rot pathogens infect roots by coming in contact with infected residue of roots and stumps. Witches broom, an abnormal malformation caused by unknown organisms also occurs. Seed borne fungi also cause considerable damage to bamboo seeds particularly in storage. Blight is one of the most destructive diseases caused by Sarocladium oryzae. Controlled burning in the blight affected culms and subsequent removal of the affected culms should be done. This must be followed by drenching with Bavistin (0.1%) or Fytolan (0.4%). Utilization and Economic Importance This bamboo is used for shuttering, scaffolding, fences, staircases and as wooden nails. It is also used for basket making, crafts, floats for timber rafts, etc. The leaves and young culms provide excellent fodder in winter season when green fodder from other sources is scarce.

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Dendroaclamus strictus (Male bamboo)


Introduction Dendrocalamus strictus commonly called as male bamboo is a middle sized, densely tufted bamboo, often gregarious, sub-deciduous, culms attaining 8 to 16 m height, and 2.5 to 8.0 cm diameter according to the locality. The culms are almost solid in dry areas and hollowed with thick walls in moist areas. Inflorescence is a large panicle of dense globular heads 4 to 5 cm apart, sterile, intermixed with 2 to 3 fertile flowers. Occurrence Male bamboo is widely distributed in the deciduous forests all over the country except in northern Bengal, Assam and moist regions of West Coast. It occurs in the plains and hilly tracts usually up to an altitude of 1,000 m. It is commonly cultivated throughout India in the plains and dry hills of Aravallies, Shivaliks and ravines. This is the only bamboo found wild in the northwest India. In its natural range of distribution, rainfall varies from 800 to 5,000 mm/yr with major portion falling during the monsoon season. The atmospheric temperature in its growing habitat ranges between 60 to 460C.

Phenology Dendrocalamus strictus flowers irregularly. Flowering may be both gregarious and/or sporadic. One or a few culms in one clump, or a few clumps, or a few clumps in a locality (sporadic), or all culms of one clump and all clumps in an area may flower together (gregariously). Flowering usually takes place from November to February; the grain like seeds fall onto the ground from April to June and germination takes place during the following rains between July to September. At the beginning of the flowering season, the culms usually retain their leaves. However, these are gradually shed till only the flowers are left on the culm. As the ripe seeds start falling, the culms start drying and it completely dies. In sporadic flowering , when few culms of a clump flower, the whole clump does not die and only the flowering culms shrivel off and die. Culms of any age may flower, a new culm that develops is likely to flower and die off in the first year. The seedling cycle normally in this species is between 20 to 65 yr. Reproduction The flowers are generally produced from November to March and seeds ripen during April and May. The seeds fallen on the forest floor start germination immediately after the rains. If the seeds have fallen in groves (nallah) beds and other moist areas they germinate even before the rains. 162

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Normally germination is complete by the end of June. If fire occurs just after the seed fall, the seed is liable to be totally burnt. In well protected areas, germination is profuse and the whole ground is carpeted with seedlings after the rains. The seedlings come up in large numbers and severe competition sets in amongst them for survival. The thinning out process of nature gradually spaces out the seedlings, leading to their final establishment at a respectable distance from each other. Vegetatively the rhizomes proliferate and produce many new culms every year mostly during monsoon period. The culms fall on moist ground due to natural damage by wind, birds, animals, etc. The culm also sometimes produce new plant by rooting at nodes. Nursery and Planting Techniques The common practice these days is to plant out nursery-raised seedlings. The seed should be sown immediately after its collection. Germination commences within a week and is completed within 30 days. The seedlings when about 10 to 15 cm tall are pricked out into beds at a spacing of 25x25 cm or in polythene bags of size 20x10 cm filled with pulverized forest soil mixed with farm yard manure. Sowing can be done directly in the polythene bags. The young seedlings require light shade. Flood irrigation should be done only when the seedlings are big enough to withstand it. Application of super phosphate gives better growth of seedlings, whereas nitrogen retards its growth. 163

D. strictus has relatively wide tolerance to site condition. However, it is expected to show vigorous growth under conditions of high soil fertility, good drainage and abundant rainfall well distributed throughout the year. Bamboos generally thrive well on drained sandy loam to clay loam soil with pH of 5 to 6.5, but grow poorly on too acidic, saline-sodic and coastal salty soil. The original vegetation on the land and the goal of plantation determines site preparation. If the purpose is to develop commercial bamboo stands then the original shrubs and herbaceous plants need to be removed. If the stands are developed for amelioration of the area, then clearance of vegetation around the pits will be enough. The pits should be dug out at least one month before planting and be large enough. Normally the pit size varies from 30 to 45 cm3, which may further be altered depending upon the size of the propagule and site conditions. Adequate quantity of well decomposed farmyard manure or compost should be mixed with the soil during the refilling of pits. The plant spacing/distance should be delimited according to normal size of clump and site productivity usually ranging between 4 to 9 m. Seed origin seedlings or macro-proliferated seedlings can be used for large-scale plantation programme. The planting stock of culm origin and/or offsets is mainly used for raising homestead plantation. Planting should be done as soon as the rains start and should be completed by mid of July to ensure 164

better survival and vigorous growth. Planting of the seedling stock is carried out during the onset of the monsoon season in the pits. During the monsoons, 1 to 2 yr old seedlings are planted out in the pits of 45x45x45 cm at a spacing of 4.5 x 4.5 m. Utilization and Economic Importance It is used for house construction and making of baskets, mats, furniture, agricultural implements, tool handles and chicks for doors and windows. The main importance at present lies in its use as a raw material for paper and rayon manufacture in India.

Chloris gayana (Rhods grass)


Introduction It is a leafy perennial grass and popularly known as rhodes grass. This grass was introduced in India in mid seventees. It is a good seed bearer, easy to establish, drought tolerant, good herbage production and shade tolerant. It is a pioneer grass in fallow and abandoned area. Occurrence This grass occurs up to 2,200 m altitude and can thrive in a wide range of temperature between 10o to 50o C, while 30o to 35oC being the optimum temperature for its growth. It grows well in areas receiving an annual rainfall of 600 to 1,000 mm. In dry areas, it responds well to irrigation. The grass grows under various soil conditions. It grows best in fertile loamy soil. Heavy clay, high soil acidity, waterlogged condition and prolonged drought or frost affects its growth adversely. Phenology It is a tufted grass with fine stems reaching 0.5 to 2 m high. The leaves are 10 to 20 mm wide. Seed germination begins at the outset of rainfalls. Vegetative growth completes by second week of September. Flowering and seeding continues during October and November.

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Reproduction The plants can be propagated successfully through plantation of grass tufts/seedlings in the beginning of the rainy season. Seeds should be preferred in only those areas having good soil texture like nurseries. Seedlings for one-hectare can be raised by using 4 kg of seeds. Nursery and Plantation Techniques Nursery (raised beds) is prepared by ploughing the field and mixing FYM (25 to 30 kg/ha). In higher areas, sowing can be done in March with irrigation facility. In dry and hot areas, sowing is done in the beginning of rainfall. The seeds may be broadcast or drilled shallow maintaining a depth between 1.5 and 2 cm. The seeds should be lightly covered and pressed. The seeds being very tiny and light, should be mixed with soil, saw dust, etc., for uniform broadcasting. Weeding and hoeing operation should be done from time to time. Transplantation of six-week-old seedling/grass tuft (comprising 2 to 3 live tillers) is done in rainy season. The plantation can be done in the whole area (with plant to plant and row to row distance as 30x30 cm which can be increased to 50 to 75 cm), or patch planting (strip planting with 1 m wide strip along the area and space at 4 to 5 m, or rectangular patches of size 1x1 m with regular spacing of seedlings distributed randomly in the whole area) depending upon the 167

time, cost, labour, planting material and the total area to be planted. However to produce a good forage area in short time it is essential to reduce the (30x30 cm) planting space. In vegetative propagation about 30,000 to 50,000 rooted cuttings are required for planting in one-hectare of land. Soil working is done with small spade by making a short pit, which can accommodate the roots of seedling easily. If possible a handful of FYM is put into the pit to have better survival. Kadambra is recommended for commercial plantation. Plant Protection The plant is generally free from insect pest attack. Utilization and Economic Importance On an average, 10 to 15 t/ha/yr of forage can be obtained from this grass. Crude protein content of this species is in the range of 3 to 8 per cent. The grass is known for high carotene content. Early cut hay is good in terms of crude fibre content.

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Pennisetum species (Hybrid napier)


Introduction It is hybrid between napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum) and white pearl millet (Pennisetum americanum). It is commonly known by different names such as hybrid napier, napier-bajra hybrid, elephant grass, however, the universal name is Pennisetum. This is a short-lived tufted perennial grass. In India the hybrid was first produced in Coimbatore in 1961. It is famous for high herbage yield. Occurrence It grows in the tropics throughout the year but its growth is checked in sub-tropics if the temperature falls below 15oC. The grass is best suited for areas receiving around 1,000 to 1,100 mm/yr of rainfalls. Alternate showers and bright sunshine favours its growth. Loamy and sandy soils are the preferred soil types. Temperature around 35oC is optimum for its growth. The grass does not thrive well in waterlogged conditions. High production can be achieved in deep fertile soils. Phenology It forms large broad clumps spreading by stem bases, rooting by nodes and by short rhizomes. The tillers can achieve 169

a height of 2 m and the leaves are broad with resistant leaf hairs. The stem is succulent and fibrous. Reproduction Being sterile hybrid, the grass is planted by rooted slips or by stem cuttings. Basal portion of cuttings with 2 to 3 nodes from 2 to 3 months old tillers are best suited for plantation. Nursery and Plantation Techniques Deep nursery beds are required to plant cuttings or rooted tufts. During most of the time in a year, planting can be done except when temperature falls below 15oC. In summers, irrigation is required for its plantation. In rainfed areas, planting is generally done in the beginning of rainy season. The cuttings are planted vertically or at an angle with one or two nodes above the ground. Planting distance ranges from 0.60 to 1.5 m. The rooted tufts are planted in rainy season with plant-to-plant distance ranging from 0.45 to 1.00 m. NB 22, NB 21, Pusa giant are recommended for plantation in Himachal Pradesh. Plant Protection No serious pest damage is noticed in the grass.

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Utilization and Economic Importance On good fertile soils, the yield can range from 40 to 70 t/ha/yr. In grasslands, with good soil strata the yield can vary from 30 to 40 t/ha/yr. It is possible to take two to three cutting during a growing season in good soil condition. Crude protein in the grass can vary between 9 to 12 per cent. Oxalate content in some varieties can reach up to 3 per cent.

Panicum maximum (Guinea grass)


Introduction It is a perennial bunch grass commonly known as guinea grass. It is an excellent fodder producing species and is valued for its high productivity, palatability and wide adaptability to different microclimatic conditions. In India it was introduced in 1793 and is the oldest among the introduced grasses. It has shown good growth performance in limestone mine spoil sites too. Occurrence This grass grows in warm and humid areas from sea level to 1,800 m altitudes. It can thrive in a wide range of temperature 15o to 40oC. Hot and dry winds are not favourable to its growth and it remains dormant during such condition and revive its growth with the rainfall showers. Like wise it is also prone to frost damage. It grows well in the areas receiving rainfall of 600 to 1,300 mm/yr. The grass is a shade tolerant species and well adapted to grow under trees. It can be grown as intercrop in orchards of tropical fruits. The grass is adapted to wide range of soil conditions. It grows on welldrained light textured soils preferably sandy loam or loams. It can not tolerate heavy clay soils.

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Phenology The species possesses short rootstock from which stout, slender, erect and glabrous or hairy stems originates. The leaves may be about 20 to 60 cm long and 20 to 35 mm wide. Flowering occurs in panicles. The germination of seed initiates in March or April in upper regions and early July in lower regions. Vegetative growth occurs in rainy seasons by September. In exceptional cases, vegetative growth also occurs during the end of winter season till high summer temperature is attained. Flowering and seeding extends over a long period corresponding to emergence of new panicles and their ripening. Seeds on the plants can be observed in early summer. Reproduction This grass is easily propagated both by grass tufts and seed. In grassland plantation of grass tufts/seedlings (comprising of 2 to 3 tillers) should be preferred. Seedlings in the nursery can be raised through seeds (3 kg /ha). Stem cuttings can also be used for propagation. Nursery and Plantation Techniques Nursery (raised beds) is prepared by ploughing the field and mixing FYM (25 to 30 kg/ha). In higher areas, sowing can be done in March. In dry and hot areas, sowing is done in the beginning of rainfall. The seeds may be broadcast or drilled shallow maintaining a depth between 1.5 and 2 cm. 173

The seeds are to be lightly covered and pressed. The seeds being tiny and light should be mixed with soil, sawdust, etc., for uniform broadcasting. Straw mulching improve establishment. Weeding and hoeing operation are done from time to time. With the advent of rainy season, 4 to 6 week old grass tufts/seedlings are used for plantation in grassland. They may be planted at spacing between 0.30x0.30 m to 1.00x1.00 m depending upon the time, labour, cost and area to be planted. Seedling is planted by making a small pit which would accommodate the roots easily. Small amount of FYM can be added to each pit to enhance establishment. Plantations can be done in the entire area at one time or by using strip plantation method (strips 1 m wide running along the entire breadth spaced at 4 to 5 m) or randomly distributed 1x1 m2 plantation in which the plant to plant spacing is 30x30 cm. In areas suitable for seeding, plants can be raised by using seed (5 to 10 kg /ha) depending upon seed quality. The seeds are covered with thin layer of soil to avoid loss due to water or wind erosion. Around 28,000 to 45,000 seedlings/ha are generally required for good coverage. Patrie green, PGG 616 2000 and Gatton panic are recommended for plantation on large scale in Himachal Pradesh.

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Plant Protection The plant is generally free from insect pest attack. Utilization and Economic Importance The average herbage yield of this grass is about 12 to 16 t/ha/cut. Three cuttings at monthly interval are possible in good monsoon year. Crude protein in this grass ranges between 5 to 12 per cent. The grass is free from oxalates. It makes good hay and silage.

Setaria anceps (Golden timothy)


Introduction Setaria anceps is popularly called as golden timothy. S. anceps together with other species forms the so called Setaria sphacelata complex. It is recognized by glabrous leaves and folded leaf sheaths arranged in fan fashion. The grass is native to tropical and sub-tropical Africa. It was first introduced in India in 1950. Occurrence It is successfully grown in medium rainfall areas of different states of India. It can be grown from 500 to 2,200 m altitude receiving rainfall between 750 to 1,500 mm/yr. It cannot survive prolonged hot and dry season. It is also affected by frost. It survives well in the temperature range of 25o to 35oC, but it has been reported to survive at low temperatures also (9oC). Under hot and dry periods, the plants remain dormant. The plant remains almost green for longer duration as compared to other species occurring in tropical and subtropical regions. Phenology The grass is a tufted perennial. Stem is erect, 1 to 2 m high and most of its part is covered by leaf sheath. The leaves

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are about 20 to 50 cm long and 8 to 20 mm wide, green to dark green in colour. Flowering is in cylindrical panicles, orange to purplish in colour. Seed is elliptic, convex on the embryo side and flat on other. Vegetative growth accelerates once the pre-monsoon showers are received. Flowering generally starts from August onward, but sporadic flowering in some tillers can occur during other time of the year. Reproduction Propagation is both by seed and vegetative means. Seeds produced at some places may show very low viability and hence low germination percentage. Strict vigilance is required if it is multiplied through seed. Vegetative propagation using seedling/grass tuft is preferred for plantation in grasslands. Nursery and Plantation Techniques Nursery preparation may require a deep plough followed by operation with country plough and addition of FYM (25 to 30 kg/ha). Seed sowing is carried out few days before rainy season. Seeds are broadcasted (3.5 to 4.0 kg/ha) and covered with thin layer of fine soil. Regular irrigation is required if there is intermittent rainfall. Seedling/grass tuft (4 to 6 week old) are planted in the beginning of rainy season in small pits, which easily accommodate the roots. Small amount of FYM can be added 177

to each pit for better success. The seedlings/grass tufts are normally planted at 30x30 cm but can be increased to 75x75 cm depending upon the time, germplasm, labour and cost factor. The entire area can be planted at one time or strip plantation (1 m wide strip along the breadth of the area spaced at 5 to 6 m spread over the entire area) or patch plantation in 1x1 m wide area dispersed randomly in the entire area can be used. In the areas with less seed production (viable seed) plantation in narrow range is preferred. Around 40,000 to 60,000 seedlings/grass tufts are required for plantation in onehectare area. Kanjungula should be planted in good moist areas where as Nandi and Narok are preferred in low moisture areas. Kanzungula variety is tall with thicker stem, bluish green leaves and vigorous growth and yield highest among all varieties. Nandi is tufted grass with short and broad leaves. The leaves are dark green. Seedlings have distinct red spots. It has reasonable drought resistance and moderate frost resistance. The grass possesses relatively low oxalate content. Narok variety is robust, resembles nandi and leaves are green. Relatively more resistant to frost. Plant Protection No serious pest damage is noticed in this grass species.

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Utilization and Economic Importance Kanjungula can yield appreciably high forage production in the range of 40 to 50 t/ha, nandi and narok yields 30 to 35 t/ha. Crude protein content of the grass varies between 6 to 12 per cent. The grass contains oxalic acid that may vary from place to place between 2 to 7 per cent. This grass can produce excellent hay and silage.

Abelmoschus moschatus (Kasturi bhindi / Musk plant)


Introduction Abelmoschus moschatus commonly called as kasturi bhindi, ambrette, musk plant, lata kasturi, mushkdana, belongs to the family Malvaceae. It is an erect, tall, hirsute, branching herb about 0.5 to 1.75 m in height with 5 to 7 lobed palmate leaves. The flowers are of large size varying from 7.5 to 10 cm in diameter having yellow coloured petals with purple center. The pod is oblong, lanceolate, 5 to 10 cm long containing compressed gray coloured kidney shaped seeds. Occurrence Kasturi bhindi or mushkdana is native to India and is found growing wild in the foothills of the Himalayas. This plant thrives well on sandy loam fertile soils with pH range of 6.0 to 8.6. It prefers well-drained soils and requires hot climate. In Himachal Pradesh, it can be cultivated up to an elevation of 1,200 m in summer and rainy seasons. Reproduction Kasturi bhindi generally flowers from mid June to October or November. It is a cross pollinated crop. Pods start developing in the month of July and continue till November. The pod colour changes from green to reddish brown and

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dark brown on maturity. The fully ripened pods dehisce the seed. Low temperature and incidence of frost during seed maturity in October and November reduces the seed yield if cultivated in colder areas. Nursery and Plantation Technology It becomes very difficult to transplant the naked root seedlings raised in the nursery, as they can not bear planting shock. Hence nursery raising and transplanting is not recommended. The land should be ploughed at least twice to bring it to a fine tilth. Well rotten farmyard manure at the rate of 15 t/ha should be spread in the fields before ploughing. Vermicompost at the rate of 2 t/ha can also be applied near the sowing spot before dibbling of seeds. For inorganic cultivation N (120 kg/ha), P2O5 (35 kg/ha) and K2O (40 kg/ ha) are used for better yields. Nitrogen (40 kg/ha) is applied as basal dose while the remaining 80 kg is applied in two equal split doses. The first dose is applied after 60 days and the second after 120 days of sowing. The whole field should be divided into beds of convenient sizes. These beds should be raised, as the plant does not tolerate water logging. Irrigation during dry spell is recommended. Since this plant can be grown successfully only with the direct sowing of seeds, so dibbling of seeds is recommended at a spacing of 60x45 cm. About 2 to 3 seeds should be sown on these marked spots in the well-prepared plots. The seedlings can be thinned to 181

one on these spots after about 20 days when the plants get properly established. Weeding and hoeing should be done twice a month during the early stages. The plant suppresses weeds as it grows and spreads its branches. Harvesting and Postharvest Kasturi bhindi is a 170 to 180 days crop. The pods, which have turned blackish, are selectively harvested. About 20 to 25 pluckings have to be carried out. The pods have to be dried under shade after harvest and seeds are separated from these pods by beating the pods with sticks or by splitting it by hand followed by cleaning, shade drying and storage. One can harvest nearly 9 to 10 q/ha of seeds. The existing rate of seed varies from Rs 70 to 120/kg. Plant Protection Spotted bole worm Earias insulana and E. fabia insects attack the plants both during the flowering and fruiting stages. To reduce the incidence of this pest, spraying of 0.15 to 0.2 per cent solution of Thiodon 35 EC at 10 to 15 days interval is recommended when the plants are one month old, till harvesting of the pods. Hibiscus mosaic virus exhibits a mosaic like appearance on the leaves of this plant. Such plants should be removed immediately from the field in order to prevent other plants from being infected. Colletotrichum hibisci causes anthracnose, which can be controlled by treating 182

the seeds with Agrosan GN or Cerason before sowing and the crop can be sprayed with Bordeaux mixture. Utilization and Economic Importance Seeds possess medicinal properties and are used as an ingredient in several ayurvedic medicines. These are the source of essential oil, which smells like animal musk, used in perfumery, flavouring and cosmetic industries. The volatile oil present in the seed coat is mainly composed of farnesol and ambrettolide. The plant yields good quality fiber and the leaves are used for cleaning sugarcane juice during jaggery or loafsugar preparation.

Andrographis paniculata (Kalmegh / Chiretta)


Introduction Andrographis paniculata, commonly called as kalmegh in Hindi and bhoonimb in Sanskrit belongs to family Acanthaceae. The plant is also known as rice bitters in the West Indies and King of bitters or chiretta in England. It is an annual, herbaceous, erect, profusely branched herb, 0.3 to 1.0 m tall. The branches are sharply quadrangular. The leaves are petiolate, 5 to 8 cm long and 1.0 to 1.25 cm broad, lanceolate and acute. The flowers are small, white with purple dots on corolla. The fruit is capsular, 20 mm long and 3 mm broad, linear oblong and acute at both ends. Seeds are small, oblong-ovoid, crustaceous with yellow-brown colour. Occurrence Kalmegh is found in the plains throughout India and Sri Lanka. It is also reported from certain parts of China, Thailand and Bangladesh. In India, it is distributed in the states of Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh and West Bengal. The crop comes up well in tropical and subtropical regions. However, cooler climate with well-distributed rainfall is ideal. It can be grown on a variety of soils. However, sandy loam soil, rich in organic matter is good for its growth and yield.

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Reproduction Flowering and fruiting takes place between July to August and November to December, respectively. It is a self to often cross-pollinated crop and is commercially cultivated through seeds and rarely through cuttings. Nursery and Plantation Techniques Propagation of kalmegh is through seeds. Seeds are either sown directly in the main field or nursery raised seedlings are transplanted. Seeds are sown in the nursery in the month of May or June. A seed rate of 1.0 to 1.5 kg is required for one hectare of land. Land is prepared well by repeated ploughing and planking. FYM (25 t/ha) is mixed in the soil at the time of ploughing. Kalmegh responds very well to the application of manures and fertilizers. A fertilizer dose of 75 kg/ha of N, 75 k/ha of P2O5 and 50 kg/ha of K2O is required for raising a crop in one hectare of land. Of this, 50 per cent of N and entire dose of P2O5 and K2O is given as basal dose and remaining 50 per cent of N is used as a dressing 30 days after sowing. The seeds germinate in about 8 to 10 days and the seedlings are ready for transplantation when they are 45 to 50 days old. The first weeding is done after about 20 to 30 days of planting. One or two weedings (as required) are done after 60 days of sowing. Harvesting and Post Harvest Crop is harvested in the month of November and 185

December by cutting the plants at the base, leaving about 10 to 15 cm of stem for regeneration. After harvesting, plants are cut into small pieces, dried under shade and packed in airtight containers or gunny bags and stored in moisture free and cool places. An average yield of 20 to 25 q/ha of dry herbage can be obtained. The market rate of dried herbage varies between Rs 25 to 30 /kg. An income of Rs 50,000 to 60,000 /ha can be earned from this 6 to 7 months crop of kalmegh. Plant Protection Kalmegh is a hardy plant and is not attacked by any pests and diseases of a serious nature. Utilization and Economic Importance The whole herb is the source of several diterpenoids, of which the bitter water soluble lactone andrographolide is important, which is distributed all over the plant body in different proportions. The leaves contain the maximum (2.5%) andrographolide content. The plant is considered to be highly efficacious against chronic malaria and often used as liver tonic, blood purifier and in skin diseases. The common ayurvedic drugs are Kalmeghasva and Kalmeghnavayas Lauh, where in the main constituent is Andrographis paniculata.

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Asparagus racemosus (Shatavari)


Introduction Asparagus racemosus, commonly known as shatavari or shatavar or shatmooli belongs to family Liliaceae. It is an extensively branched climber and can grow even upto 10 m high (on suitable support) having succulent, tuberous, fasciculated roots arising in a large bunch, 15 to 30 cm long and 1 to 2 cm thick. Stem is woody. Cladodes are 0.6 to 1.2 cm long, linear, spines are stout, straight, densely crowded. Flowers are small, white, mildly fragrant, 3 to 4 mm across in solitary or fascicled, simple or branched copious racemes. Fruits up to 6 mm in diameter, globose, often obscurely 3 lobed, with only one seed. Occurrence It is distributed throughout tropical Asia, Africa, Sri Lanka and Australia. In India, it is found up to an altitude of 1,200 m in the tropical and sub-tropical regions. Its allied species, i.e., Asparagus adscendencs is found growing sporadically in Una, Chamba, Kangra, Hamirpur, Bilaspur, Mandi, Solan and Sirmour districts of Himachal Pradesh. A. racemosus has been introduced in the university Herbal Garden at Nauni, Solan and is performing well. It prefers tropical or sub-tropical climate and grows successfully in 187

sandy loam soil with good organic matter and proper drainage system. It is biannual when cultivated, otherwise perennial. Reproduction Flowering and fruiting takes place from August to January. It is a self to often cross-pollinated crop. It is propagated both by seeds and root tubers. Nursery and Plantation Techniques For commercial cultivation, root tubers are preferred over seeds. Nearly 25,000 to 26,000 tuber fingers with crown intact are required for one hectare of land and are planted during March and April before sprouting. If raised through seeds, these are sown in the nursery in the month of May to June. A seed rate of 1.5 to 2.0 kg is required for one hectare of land. Germination starts after 20 to 25 days of sowing. Well rotten FYM should be applied at the rate of 25 to 30 t/ha at the time of land preparation. When the seedlings are 8 to 10 cm long they are transplanted in 60 cm spaced rows, 60 cm apart in well-prepared field. Finger like tubers are planted in polybags during March and April with soil, sand and FYM in the ratio of 1:1:1. These are transplanted first before the onset of monsoon in pits filled with soil, sand and cow dung (2:1:1:). The field should be irrigated immediately after transplantation. The crop being a climber requires support for its proper growth. For this purpose, 1.5 to 3.0 m long stakes are used to 188

support the general growth. Frequent weeding is required during its early period of growth. For satisfactory development of roots, timely weeding is necessary. Harvesting and Post Harvest Crop is harvested after 18 months in the months of November and December. Freshly dug out roots are to be washed with water to remove adhering soil particles. The root bark and pith are removed manually. Thereafter, these roots should be treated with 0.25 per cent potassium metabisulphate solution for five minutes. After drying, whitish roots of best quality can be obtained, which have high appeal in the market. Roots without any treatment remain light yellow to light brown in colour. After drying, the roots should be packed in airtight containers in different grades. An average yield of 140 to 150 q/ha of fresh roots or 14 to 15 q/ha of dry roots can be obtained. On an average depending on the quality, the roots fetch Rs 150 to 300/kg. An income of Rs 2.0 to 2.25 lc/ha can be earned from 18 months crop of Asparagus racemosus. Plant Protection No serious pests and disease has been noticed in this crop. Utilization and Economic Importance The root powder contains moisture (13.42%), ether 189

extract (3.19%) proteins (2.95%), saponins (5.44%) and steroidal saponin (Shatavarin-I to IV). Shatavarin-I is the main active principle. Leaves contain diosgenin. The root is largely used in the preparation of medicated oils, prescribed for nervous and rheumatic complaints. It is said to be tonic and diuretic and is useful in seminal debility, impotency, hysteria, leucorrhoea, general weakness, acidity, high blood pressure and useful as a galactagogue. A mixture of honey and fresh root juice is given as a demulscent in dyspepsia. It is estimated that in India, more than 500 t of shatavari roots are needed every year for various medicinal preparations.

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Bunium persicum (Kalazeera)


Introduction Bunium persicum, commonly known as kalazeera, umbu and siahzira, belongs to family Apiaceae. It is a glabrous herb with globular tuberous roots (bulbs), profusely branched stem, attaining a height of 50 to 60 cm and a spread of 40 to 50 cm. Leaves are dissected, 2 to 3 pinnatisect, segments filiform, lower leaves are petiolate, upper sessile, 1 to 5 linear bracts of 1 to 7 mm or lacking. Flowers are small, white in compound umbels; rays 4 to 17 and 0.3 to 3.2 cm long, unequal; pedicels 3 to 4 times longer than the flowers. Fruits are oblong, 3 to 4 mm long, dark-brownish ribbed with pointed ends and have deep aroma. Occurrence It is a native of Baluchistan, Afganistan, Kashmir and Himachal Pradesh. In Himachal Pradesh, it is found in certain areas of Chamba, Kinnaur and Lahaul and Spiti districts. It is mostly found between 1,850 to 3,100 m above msl. Well drained sandy loam soils are best suited for the proper development and growth of the plant. The waterlogged soils are completely unfit. Dry temperate type of climate is suitable for its cultivation. Heavy snowfall during the winter months and evenly distribution of light precipitation during 191

the growing period of the plant are essential for the better growth and the production of the healthy seeds. Reproduction Flowering and fruiting takes place from May to July. It is a cross pollinated crop and can be propagated through seeds as well as bulbs. Nursery and Plantation Techniques Land preparation is necessary before its plantation. Land should be ploughed 3 to 4 times to bring it to a fine tilth to help in proper aeration of soil and better development of bulbs. Application of well rotten FYM at or before the time of ploughing at the rate of 20 to 25 q/ha has been found to be beneficial for obtaining good crop. Requirement of chemical fertilizers depends upon the soil nutrients status. However, fertilizer combination of 60 kg N, 35 kg of P2O5 and 30 kg K2O /ha gives higher yield. The crop is propagated through both seeds and bulbs. If seeds are used for propagation, then the crop is obtained after 3 or 4 years. The healthy and mature seeds are selected and mixed with soil and sown either in line or by broadcast in the month of September and October. Line sowing method is preferred as it facilitates intercultural operations and ensures uniform plant population. The seeds are sown 2 to 3 cm deep in rows, maintaining a distance of 30 cm between rows. About 2.5 to 3 kg of seed is sufficient for 192

one-hectare land. For the plantation through bulbs, these are first raised in nursery beds through seeds (fruits). When appropriate bulb size (5 to 8 g) is attained, these are dug up and planted in the field in the month of September and October. These bulbs start sprouting in March or April. The bulbs are planted at a distance of 20x25 cm and about 2,00,000 bulbs are required for plantation in one hectare of land. Crop requires a minimum of 2 to 3 hand weedings. Weeding at earlier stages contributes towards healthy growth of the plant and higher yield of the fruits. Kalazeera crop, though sensitive to excessive moisture, requires sufficient moisture in summer months, i.e., in May and June for better flowering and seed development. The cultivation of other crops in combination with kalazeera is also possible and preferred. To harness the maximum benefit from the available land and growth, intercropping of kalazeera can been done with buckwheat (Fagopyrum spp), peas, beans, cauliflower, cabbage, turnip and even in apple orchards. Plant Protection This crop is also prone to certain pests and diseases at different stages of development, which if not checked, drastically reduces the yield of the crop. White grub often attacks the tuberous root, which can be controlled either by exposure to sun or by application of Kanodane dust (Lindane). It should be applied at the time of preparatory tillage. Black 193

caterpillar attacks the young plants, causing damage to the whole plant. Dusting with Kanodane (1.3%) is effective in controlling this insect. At the time of flowering and fruiting, different types of insects damage the crop. Spraying proper concentrations of Nuvan, BHC or other insecticides at the time of attack can control the attack. Harvesting and Postharvest The crop of kalazeera does not mature at the same time. Primary umbel fruits mature first followed by secondary umbels and so on. Since the crop is prone to shattering, so the umbels should not be allowed to over-mature and are to be picked up as and when they turn brownish in colour. Harvesting starts from the first week of July. The oil yield from the fruits decreases with the maturity (dark brown). The oil percentage is maximum when the fruits are immature, but fully developed (light brown). But, the cuminaldehyde and 1, 3 menthadienal contents are higher in the fully mature seeds. The seed should be harvested when fully developed, but not fully mature. However, for propagation, fully mature fruits should be harvested. The normal yield of kalazeera fruits (seeds) is nearly 5 to 6 q/ha and the market rate varies between Rs 400 to 500 /kg. An income of Rs 2,00,000 to 2,40,000 /ha is expected during good seed year. Utilization and Economic Importance Essential oil having 45 to 65 per cent carvone, mixture 194

of ketone, carvone, terpene and traces of carvacrol and cuminaldehyde (40.6%) is obtained from the fruits. Depending upon the soil and climate 4 to 14 per cent essential oil has been reported in fruits. Kalazeera is a low volume, high value and nonperishable commodity, used as prized spice in cooking for flavouring of dishes. In the indigenous systems of medicines, the fruit are regarded as stimulants, carminative and useful in curing diarrhoea, dyspepsia, fever, flatulence, stomachache, haemorrhoides and obstinate hiccup.

Digitalis lanata (Tilpushpi)


Introduction Digitalis lanata commonly called as hritpatri or tilpushpi is also known as foxglove and belongs to the family Scrophulariaceae. D. purpurea and D. lanata are the most important species of this genus and are used in medicine besides being ornamental. It is a biennial crop, attaining a height of 60 to 90 cm. The leaves are simple, exstipulate, alternate, opposite or whorled. The flowers are greyish white resembling sesame flowers, zygomorphic, bilipped, pentamerous, hypogynous and bisexual. The stigma is bilobed and the fruit is a capsule. Occurrence The species is native of Western Europe and United Kingdom. It occurs in Central Europe and Eurasian countries. Himachal Pradesh and the hilly areas of Tamil Nadu have a vast potential for producing enough quantity of leaves and seeds to meet the demand of the pharmaceutical industries. With the adoption of proper agro-techniques, strain EC 115996 has given high glycoside content of 0.65 to 1.20 per cent in the first and second successive cuttings. Foxglove prefers warm climate, well distributed rainfall and good sun shine during winter. It requires well drained, sandy loam soil,

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rich in organic matter and exposed to sunlight. Sandy, clay and waterlogged soils are unsuitable for its growth. Temperate regions ranging from 1,800 to 2,200 m are most suited for its cultivation. Reproduction Flowering and fruiting takes place between May to September. It is a cross-pollinated crop and its propagation is done through seeds. Nursery and Plantation Techniques Tilpushpi is propagated through seeds either by direct sowing in the filed or by raising a nursery followed by transplanting the seedlings. The land should be well ploughed, pulverized, leveled and weeded before sowing. Sowing may be done in spring as well as in autumn. Approximately 5 to 8 kg of seed is required for direct sowing of one-hectare area, while for nursery raising 1 to 2 kg seed is sufficient. The seeds germinate in 15 to 20 days and seedlings are ready for transplanting in about 35 to 45 days after sowing. Well-rotten FYM (30 to 40 t/ha) should be applied at the time of land preparation. Addition of 100 kg/ha of N, 50 kg/ha of P and 25 kg/ha of K is useful. It is essential during summer (April to June) to irrigate the crop 3 to 4 times each month. Hand weeding during rainy season is important to control the weeds. During the summer and after each harvest hoeing should be done. 197

Plant Protection Leaf blight caused by Alternaria spp is a common disease of foxglove. Brown spots appear on the leaves. Spray of any copper fungicide at the rate of 0.1 to 0.2 per cent effectively controls this disease. Harvesting and Post Harvesting The age of harvesting of leaves require special attention in order to get maximum glycosides contents and 2 to 3 harvestings of leaves should be done during mid November, in March and before flowering (before first week of May). EC 115996 variety has given higher glycoside content of 0.65 to 1.20 per cent. It gives a higher foliage yield as well. Drying of the leaves is an important factor to prevent the loss of glycosides. Thus, to retain their active principles, leaves should be dried at a suitable temperature, i.e., 50o to 60oC in oven. Marked deterioration is noticed especially when the temperature is high above 70oC. Leaves can be spread on surface, frequently upturned and dried in sun. An average yield of 150 q/ha of fresh leaves and 25 to 30 q/ha of dry leaves can be obtained. Dried leaves are stored in air-tight containers and kept in cool and dark places. The market rate of dried leaves varies between Rs 10 to 15/kg. An income of Rs 25,000 to 30,000/ha can be earned from its cultivation.

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Dioscorea deltoidea (Singli mingli)


Introduction Dioscorea deltoidea, commonly called as singli mingle, belongs to the family Dioscoreaceae. It is an extensive climber with unarmed stem, twining to the left. Leaves are alternate, simple, broad at the base and narrow at the apex, pointed, triangular in outline, palmate with reticulate venation. Flowers are small, in bunches, dioecious and the fruit is winged. Rhizomes grow horizontally and close to the surface of soil with scattered roots. Occurrence Singli mingli is distributed throughout the Himalayas at altitudes ranging from 1,000 to 3,000 m extending over the states of Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Sikkim and parts of West Bengal. Sub-temperate to temperate climate with well distributed rainfall and sandy loam to loamy soil rich in organic matter is suitable for good growth and development of rhizomes. For plantation, undisturbed area with humus rich soil under partially exposed conditions is preferred. Reproduction Flowering and fruiting take place from May to October. It is a cross pollinated crop. Propagation can be 199

done both through seeds as well as rhizomes. Plantation through rhizome splits is preferred. Nursery and Plantation Technique Two to three ploughing followed by harrowing and planking are necessary for having well pulverized soil. For plantation in forests, small pits of 15x15 cm size and 30 cm deep should be dug at 60x45 cm row and plant distance. The pits should be filled with pulverized soil mixed with FYM. For field cultivation, rotten FYM (25 to 30 t/ha) should be applied before planting. Appropriate rhizome weight for planting is 75g. Rhizomes should be planted in first fortnight of March under sub-temperate conditions and in first fortnight of April under temperate conditions. After about one month, the plants are earthed up and the plants thus come on ridges. The climbing vines of this species should be provided artificial support for their optimum growth. Crop should be irrigated at weekly intervals and later at 10 days intervals during summer season or according to the requirements. Harvesting and Postharvest Harvesting after three years of planting during December gives approximately 200 to 225 q/ha of fresh rhizomes.

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Plant Protection No major pests and diseases are observed in this crop. However, leaf spot disease is sometimes observed and for this, 0.3 per cent of Diathane M-45 (a wide spectrum fungicide) may be sprayed as and when required. Utilization and Economic Importance It is an important source of diosgenin (steroidal sapogenin), which is used for the production of corticosteroids, sex hormones and antifertility compounds. Other steroid yielding species are D. prazeri, D. composita and D. floribunda.

Eclipta prostrata (Bringraj)


Introduction Eclipta prostrata commonly called as bhringraj also known as kesaraj, ajagar, bhangra, mochkand and babri, belongs to family Asteraceae. The plant is erect or prostrate, slender and roughly pubescent herb. Leaves are opposite, sessile, narrowly lanceolate and 2.5 to 10 cm long. Flower heads are white, 0.625 to 0.875 cm in diameter; radiate and terminal on erect stalks with pappus of 2 to 5 minute teeth; ligules two toothed entire; involucral bracts leaf like, outer larger, receptacle, flat. Achenes are narrowly oblong ribbed and tipped with pappus teeth. Occurrence The plant is found in moist situations throughout India. In hills, this plant is found in favourable situations ascending up to 2,000 m. In Himachal Pradesh, the herb is growing in sporadic to moderate quantity in moist places and along water channels, ponds, ditches, etc., up to 1,300 m elevation. It grows in rainy season and bears flowers and fruits before autumn. Sandy loam and loam soils are best for the cultivation of bhringraj. This plant prefers moist soils rich in humus. The plant grows well in both tropical and sub-tropical regions.

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Reproduction Flowering and fruiting occur from August to November. It is a cross pollinated crop and is propagated through seeds. Nursery and Plantation Technique The seeds are sown in rows, 5 cm apart at a depth of about 0.5 cm in the nursery beds, at least 30 days in advance to the transplanting in the field, as the seedlings are ready for transplanting after 30 days of germination. The fields should be ploughed twice or thrice before monsoon if the crop is to be raised during monsoon or in the month of February, if the crop is to be raised during summer. Nearly 10 to 15 t/ha of farmyard manure should be properly spread and mixed during ploughing. Proper water channel and furrows should be made to divide the field into beds of convenient sizes. The transplanting should be done in well prepared field with a spacing of 15x30 cm. Direct sowing of seeds can be done in the field in rows 30 cm apart. The plants so raised require proper thinning at about 2 to 4 leaves stage for maintaining requisite spacing. It is beneficial to go in for transplanting of plants raised in nursery for getting uniform crop. For organic cultivation of Eclipta alba, in addition to farmyard manure applied at the time of ploughing of field, Azotobacter (1 g/ plant) and vermicompost (2 t/ha) should be applied. Due to its prostrate nature, it covers the entire space in the field and 203

does not allow the weeds to come up in the later stages, thus weeding at early stages is recommended. Harvesting and Postharvest The vegetative growth of this plant recedes after flowering and the plant starts crumbling after complete flowering. Hence it should be harvested before the start of crumbling stage. It should be properly dried in partial shade to retain its colour. The dried material should be packed in gunny bags and stored in a dry place. The average dry herbage yield ranges between 3 to 4 t/ha and the market rate is about Rs 20 to 25 /kg for whole plant and Rs 1,200 to Rs 1,500 /kg for seed. Plant Protection No significant incidence of pests and diseases has been found in this plant till date. Utilization and Economic Importance Entire plant is used in different preparations. It is a tonic and deobstuctant in hepatic and spleen enlargement and is also emetic. Plant is used as a dyeing herb in tattooing. Roots are applied externally as an antiseptic to ulcers and wounds in cattle. The plant contains 0.078 per cent nicotine on dry weight basis. Stigmasterol and alpha-terthienyl methanol (a sulphur compound) have also been isolated from petroleum ether extract of the dry leaves. 204

Gentiana kurroo (Karu)


Introduction Gentiana kurroo, commonly called as karu also known as trayaman in Sanskrit, is an endangered species of northwestern Himalayas belonging to family Gentianaceae. It is a perennial herb with tufted and decumbent stems, leaves are narrow long, radical rosulate 7.5 to 12.5 cm long and 6 to 13 mm broad, and cauline leaves 2.5 cm long, narrower. Flowers are blue, spotted with white, solitary or racemose; calyx half as long as corolla; corolla five lobed, limb funnel shaped; capsule linear and oblong. Occurrence Karu is found growing as sporadic patches in Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand and adjoining hills in temperate to alpine grassy slopes of northwestern Himalayas. It is a hardy plant and tolerates frost and drought. It can grow in a wide variety of soils, but water logged conditions are not suitable for its cultivation. The areas between 1,500 to 3,000 m altitude having sub-temperate and temperate climates with ample sunshine are suitable for its cultivation. Reproduction The flowering and fruiting take place from July to October, which can prolong till November. It is a cross 205

pollinated crop and can be propagated through seeds as well as root splits. Nursery and Plantation Techniques The plants are generally raised through seeds in the nursery. About 50 g seeds are sufficient for raising nursery for one-hectare area. The seeds should be sown in nursery beds during February and March. Seeds germinate within 15 to 20 days and attain four-leaf stage in about three months. At this stage, the plants should be pricked in to polythene bags containing soil, sand and FYM mixture (1:1:1). The nursery beds and polythene bags should be irrigated very carefully with the help of fine nozzle spray pump. The seedlings in polythene bags become ready for out transplantation in about 5 to 6 months, after pricking. The polythene bags raised seedlings should be transplanted in well-prepared field along with earth ball at a spacing of 30x30 cm. The plants are drought resistant and should be given light irrigation. During rainy season, the field should be kept free from standing water. The plants are slow growing and the field should be kept weed free throughout the season. Harvesting and Postharvest The underground part is harvested after three years of transplantation by digging. Before harvesting, the field should be given light irrigation so that the complete underground 206

part can be dugout easily. The harvested material should be washed for removal of soil, separated from leaves and then dried in shade. Rootstock yield of approximately 80 to 100kg/ ha can be obtained. Utilization and Economic Importance It is an indigenous plant of temperate Himalayas and much prized in India for bitters present in its roots. It is used in indigenous system of medicines for curing various ailments and also as a substitute for the true gentian (Gentiana lutea). The plant is valued as bitter tonic, antiperiodic, expectorant, antibilious, astringent, stomachic, anthelmintic, liver tonic, blood purifier and carminative.

Gloriosa superba (Kalihari)


Introduction Gloriosa superba belongs to family Liliaceae and is commonly known as glory lily, kalihari, langli and agnishikha. It is a perennial herb with a weak stem, climbing on supports with the help of leaf tip tendrils. The stem is 60 to 130 cm in height and leaves are simple, sessile and linear to lanceolate with cirrosed tips spirally twisted in the upper part to serve as tendrils. The flowers are large, bright coloured, solitary or corymbose with six perianth segments arranged in two whorls. The flowers are green yellow on opening, changing soon to orange yellow and turning to dark pink or red before withering. Occurrence It is widely distributed in the tropical and sub-tropical parts of India from Tamil Nadu to foothills of the Himalayas upto 1,800 m altitude. In Himachal Pradesh, it is found in parts of Bilaspur, Kangra, Hamirpur, Solan and Sirmour districts in sparse populations. Its soil requirement is medium sandy loam having pH 6 to 7. Reproduction Flowering starts from the second week of July and continues upto the end of October. The fruits are capsules,

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which dehisce longitudinally by slits exposing bright red seeds. It can be propagated both by sexual as well as asexual means. It prefers cross-pollination, however, self-pollination is also observed. Nursery and Planting Techniques Large number of plants can be produced in short time by using seed, but such plants take 3 to 4 yr to bloom and hence tuber is preferred for planting. Pretreated seeds are sown in the nursery at 2 to 5 cm depth during February and March. Germination initiation takes place within 20 to 25 days. The germination percentage can be increased up to 50 per cent by treating seeds with 4,000 ppm of thiourea. Approximately 4 kg of seeds are required for raising nursery for one-hectare area. One year old seed raised tubers should be dug out from the nursery beds in the month of March and transplanted in the field at a spacing of 45x60 cm. Vegetatively, it can be propagated by tubers. The V-shaped tuber is cut into two parts at the neck region and such splits can be used for vegetative propagation. Presprouting storage of tubers at 10oC with 50 to 70 per cent relative humidity for 60 days gives 100 per cent sprouting. Large sized tubers give significantly higher sprouting percentage, plant height, number of flowers per plant, number of seeds/pod and dry seed weight per plant. The planting time for tubers is February and March, with a spacing of 60 to 45 cm. Application of N:P:K (40:50:75 kg) 209

at the time of planting and additional N 80 kg/ha after 8 weeks of planting is required for a good harvest. Since the water requirement is quite less, thus 2 to 3 irrigations up to flowering stage are sufficient. Harvesting and Postharvest During October and November, shade drying of capsules is done after harvesting to separate the seeds from pericarp. A yield of 150 kg/ha during first year and nearly 250 to 300 kg/ha of seeds after second year can be obtained. Controlled hand pollination, between different flowers on the same plant at stigma receptive stage (characterized by parianth lobe colour being greenish at base, yellow at middle and reddish at the tips), increases seed yield more than twice. Utilization and Economic Importance Its tubers and seeds are traditionally used in treating gout, rheumatism, cholera, typhus, colic, skin diseases, etc. The colchicine present in both tubers and seed is used as salicylate in the treatment of gout and rheumatism and also for inducing polyploidy in plant breeding. Its attractively coloured flowers have tremendous ornamental value and are used as cut flowers.

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Hypericum perforatum (Basant)


Introduction Hypericum perforatum commonly called as basant and St. Johns wort, is an important medicinal plant belonging to family Hypericaceae. It is slightly woody, perennial, growing freely wild to a height of 30 to 90 cm in uncultivated lands and orchard floors. The leaves are characterized by translucent dots, giving perforated appearance and that is why the species is called H. perforatum. It bears bright yellow flowers and the capsular fruit bears small numerous exalbuminous seeds. Occurrence In Himachal Pradesh it is distributed in shady and damp forests of Shimla and Kullu between 1,300 to 2,400 m, occurring mostly on orchard floors. Some of the other localities, where it occurs are Chhajpur, Dochidhar, Koftu, Sanaba, Sansog, Jubbal, Chamba, Chirgaon, Bajaura, etc. Reproduction Flowering and fruiting takes place between June to July and seed setting takes place in August and September. Plants shed leaves during autumn and new leaves appear during spring. It is a self-pollinated crop and is propagated through seeds. 211

Nursery and Plantation Techniques It can be propagated both by seed as well as slips. However, propagation by seed is easy. Seeds of H. perforatum are minute, dark brown to black and 1,000 seeds weigh approximately 140 mg. Seeds are sown in raised nursery beds during November and December or during February and March. About 100 g of seed is sufficient for one-hectare plantation. Seeds start germinating (germination percentage approximately 50%) after about one month. Seedlings are ready for transplantation after 2 to 3 months. The performance of November and December sown seedlings is better as they are ready for transplanting in February and March which ensures long growing period and flowering during the same season whereas; seedlings obtained from February/March sowing and transplanted in June/July may not flower in the same season. Seedlings are transplanted at a spacing of 30 to 40 cm. During dry season, it requires regular irrigation, i.e., every 7 to 10 days interval. Application of 90 kg/ha of CAN gives favourable effect on herb yield. During the first year, the branches are mostly straggling, becoming erect in the next season due to development of woody shoots. Harvesting and Postharvest Harvesting one-year-old plantation provides fresh herb yield of 2.5 to 3.5 t/ha. Dried herbage yield ranges between 1 to 1.5 t/ha. Being a low return crop, it is best suited for growing as an under story in orchards or suitable agroforestry systems. 212

Utilization and Economic Importance It is mostly used for treating depression, to soothe the nerves and heal wounds, burns and snakebites. It has gained importance due to its antidepressant activities and is also being investigated for its potential activities against HIV. The important active contents are hypericin and hyperforin.

Lavandula officinalis (Lavender)


Introduction Lavandula officinalis commonly called as lavender belonging to the family Lamiaceae (Labiatae) is an under shrub, attaining a height of 30 to 90 cm with straight woody branches of which the lower ones are leafless, putting out numerous herbaceous stems, which are quadrangular, greyish and pubescent. The leaves are opposite, long, narrow, lanceolate and light greyish green in colour. At the end of each slender stem, the inflourescence arises where densely packed layers of flowers arise in whorls. These are, in fact so compactly grouped that there are no leaves in the floral sector and form a compact spike. The long calyx is tubular and five lobed. The tubular corolla is bilabiate. The whole flower is mauve to purple, tinted with light blue in colour. Occurrence The true lavender plant is distributed in the mountainous region of southern Europe bordering the western half of Mediterranean and extending from the eastern coast of Spain, France, Switzerland, North Italy and North Africa. It was introduced at Nauni Campus through NBPGR, New Delhi. It does well only in those areas which have cold winters and cool summers. Due to the deep root system, lavender

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grows very well on sloppy lands there by checking soil erosion. It is resistant to frost and draught. It prefers open sunny sites for proper growth. It requires light, well aerated, dry and calcareous soil. It can be cultivated upto 1,700 m elevation. Reproduction Flowering and fruiting takes place from March to August. It is a cross pollinated crop. The plant can be propagated through seeds as well as by cuttings. Nursery and Plantation Techniques The seeds are sown in nursery beds in November and December upto a depth of 2cm under polyhouse conditions. Seedlings (5 to 6 cm) are first transplanted in the polybags during March-April having soil mixture of soil, sand and FYM (1:1:1) and during monsoon, these seedlings are transplanted in the field. Cuttings are obtained from biennial branches of mother plantations in October-November or in early spring (February-March) and grown in soil mixture of soil, sand and FYM (1:1:1). Well-rooted cuttings are transplanted in the field during monsoon season. The performance of cuttings/ seedlings is better when planted in polyhouses or glass houses. The field is ploughed two to three times followed by harrowing and planking. FYM (25 to 30 t/ha) is added at the time of field preparation. N (30 kg/ha), P2 O5 (45 kg/ha) and K2O (30 kg/ha) should also be applied as a basal dose. In addition, 60 215

kg N is applied in three split doses during each year. Seedling/ cuttings are planted at a distance of 90x45 cm apart from the rows and between the plants. Regular weeding should be done in 15 days interval followed by hoeing. If rains are scanty, irrigation should be done at weekly interval especially during summer months. Harvesting and Postharvest Depending upon the exposure of the plantations, plants start flowering earlier in the warmer and low altitude areas and later in higher altitudes. Harvesting should begin at 50 per cent blossoming to 75 to 90 per cent flowering stage. The harvesting of the crop should be done during dry sunny days. Lavender in fresh conditions should not be stored for long period of time and should be immediately distilled. The first sizable harvest is obtained three years after planting and the plantation remains productive for 10 to 15 yr. The flowers are harvested with stem lengths of not more than 12 cm. Dry flowers yield is between 8 to 10 q/ha and the essential oil content ranges from 0.5 to 1.1 per cent. Gross income from dry flowers is about Rs 80,000 to 1,00,000/yr. Plant Protection No serious disease and pests have been observed in the crop.

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Utilization and Economic Importance Lavender oil has stimulant and carminative properties and is used in hysteria, nervous disorders, etc. It possesses refreshing and sweet odour and blends with many other essential oils, therefore, it is used in perfumery also. For high grade perfumes, the finest quality of lavender oil with an ester content of about 50 per cent is used. The leaves give an aromatic flavour to salads. It is a favourite plant of bees and is an excellent insecticide as well as antiseptic. On account of its microbial action, it is nowadays finding increasing use in form of aerosols or disinfecting houses, class rooms, public halls, etc. Lavender flowers are used in making sachets and potpourri.

Matricaria chamomilla (German chamomile)


Introduction Matricaria chamomilla commonly called as babuna or German chamomile belongs to the family Asteraceae. It is an annual, herbaceous, much branched, spreading or erect aromatic plant, attaining a height of 60 to 90 cm. The stems are leafy and hollow, leaves are doubly pinnate with narrow linear segments and the flower heads are terminal and solitary. The ray florets are incomplete, zygomorphic white, the disc florets are numerous yellow and tubular. The fruit is small achene with 3-5 ridges. Occurrence German chamomile is indigenous to Europe. Its cultivation is fairly widespread in many European countries, i.e., Germany, France, Yugoslavia, Hungary and Russia. It can be grown as a summer crop in the hills up to an altitude of 2,000 m and can grow on any type of the soil. Well drained, rich in humus soils are best suited for this crop. Reproduction Flowering and fruiting takes place from April to May. It is a cross pollinated crop. The fruit is a small achene with 3 to 5 ridges and a single flower head has 40 to 50 seeds during the end of May to first fortnight of June. It is propagated through seeds.

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Nursery and Plantation Techniques Nearly 1 kg of seeds are required to raise seedlings sufficient to plant one-hectare of land. Seeds are sown in the nursery during October and November. As the seeds are small, these seeds are mixed with sand or fine soil in the ratio of 1:4 and sown in the nursery beds. The nursery should be watered regularly. The seeds germinate in 15 to 20 days after sowing and the seedlings are ready for transplanting into the main field during February. In order to obtain the maximum flower and essential oil yield, the crop has to be transplanted at a spacing of 30x30 cm. Chamomile is a shallow rooted plant; hence, deep ploughing is not necessary. The field is ploughed two times followed by cross harrowing, leveled properly and flat beds of convenient size are made. At the time of final harrowing, FYM (20 to 25 t/ha) is added and mixed well in the soil. Application of N (30 kg/ha) with P2O5 (45 kg/ha) and K2O (30 kg/ha) is applied as a basal dose. Rest of 60 kg/ ha of nitrogen is applied in three equal splits, i.e., first at the time of transplanting, second after one month of transplanting and the third application of one third in the last fortnight of April. Regular weeding should be done at 15 days interval followed by hoeing, if rains are scanty, irrigation should be done at weekly intervals especially during summer months. Harvesting and Postharvest Flowering starts from the second fortnight of April to first fortnight of May. Fully opened flowers should be picked 219

up immediately. Delay in harvesting may result in shedding of petals. The picking of the flowers may be done with hands. About 4 to 5 harvests could be taken at 7 to 10 days interval. The harvest of the flower will be maximum in the third or fourth flush of flowering. The last flush of flowers (fifth) will be allowed to set the seeds. The freshly harvested flowers have moisture content of 60 to 85 per cent. For drying, the harvested flowers are spread in thin layers in the shade. While drying, the flowers are turned up and down once or twice. The dried flowers are packed in moisture proof containers and stored under moisture free conditions, so as to avoid spoilage by insects and fungi. Fresh flowers yield of 8 to 10 q/ha (3 to 4 q/ha on dry weight basis). Essential oil content ranges from 0.3 to 1.3 per cent. Gross income from onehectare area comes out about Rs 15,000 to Rs 20,000/ha. Utilization and Economic Importance The essential oil is used in alcoholic and non-alcoholic beverages, ice cream, candy, baked goods and chewing gums as a flavouring agent. The essential oil, in very small percentage is used in high-grade perfumes. The oil has many therapeutic uses and acts as antispasmodic, carminative, antihelminthic, sedative, diuretic, etc. Oil is particularly used in infant ailments such as teething problems and stomach disorders. The main constituent of the oil is chamazulene, which is responsible for the blue colour of the oil, azulene and some sesquiterpenes and sesquiterpene alcohols. 220

Melissa officinalis (Lemon balm)


Introduction Melissa officinalis, commonly known as lemon balm belonging to the family Lamiaceae (Labiatae) is a herbaceous plant which grows up to 60 to 80 cm with many branches, numerous upright stems, bearing widely spaced leaves and perennial rootstock. The projecting or slightly nodding flowers are bluish to yellowish white appearing in the leaf axis. The plant has a lemony smell. Occurrence This plant is naturally distributed in eastern Mediterranean region, Iran and southwest Siberia. It was introduced in Nauni campus through NBPGR, New Delhi. This plant can grow in moist and rich in organic matter areas up to an altitude of 1,800 m. It requires light and well-aerated soil. Reproduction Flowering and fruiting takes place from late summer to early autumn (August to October). It is a cross pollinated crop.

Nursery and Plantation Technology The plant is raised mainly through cuttings during February and nearly 400 kg of stolons are required for planting one hectare of land. The field is ploughed two to three times followed by harrowing and planking. Cuttings are planted at a distance of 30x30 cm (plant to plant and row to row). FYM (20 to 25 t/ha) is added at the time of field preparation. Fertilizers, viz., N (30 kg/ha), P2O5 (30 kg/ha) and K2O (30 kg/ha) is applied as a basal dose and remaining N (60 kg/ha) is applied in two splits viz., first half at the time of transplanting and the second half after one month of transplanting. Use of biofertilizer like azotobacter (10 kg/ha) was also found effective in increasing the herb and essential oil yield. Irrigation should be done at weekly interval especially during summers. Regular weeding should be done at 15 days interval followed by hoeing. Harvesting and Postharvest The shoots are cut nearly 10 cm above the ground before flowering and the leaves stripped. The harvesting of crop should be done during early morning hours for getting more essential oil contents. The leaves are dried in shade or in open sheds and two to three times turning upside down of leaves should be done to avoid rotting and browning. Fresh herbage yield is up to 110 q/ha. Essential oil content ranges from 0.12 to 0.29 per cent. Oil yield is about 10 to 20 kg /ha. 222

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Plant Protection Three pests namely Helicoverpa armigera, Plusia orichalcea and Tetranychus spp were found to be associated with this plant. Application of endosulphan and melathion led to significant avoidance of losses. Utilization and Economic Importance This is an important crop yielding essential oil. It is sedative, carminative and main area of application is nervous disorders of the stomach, intestine and heart. It also possesses stomachic and antipyretic properties. It is used to strengthen the gums and to remove the bad taste from the mouth. It is considered as a brain tonic and useful in hypochondriac conditions. The tea prepared from the plant is used for flatulence, lack of appetite and indigestion. Externally, it is used for wounds, neuralgia and rheumatism. It is also used as a culinary herb.

Mentha species (Pudina)


Introduction Mentha species, commonly called as mint also known as pudina, belongs to family Lamiaceae. One of the important species Mentha arvensis (Japani pudina), is a branched perennial herb with running rootstocks and rigid branching stems up to 75 cm tall. Leaves are 5 cm long with small leaf stalk or none, margin toothed. Flowers are lilac in colour. Other important species is Mentha piperita, which is quite hardy. This species is a cross between M. spicata and M. aquatica. Plants grow up to 90 cm tall and are glabrous. This plant has a strong odour and more aromatic taste. It is rich in essential oil. Leaves are long, petioled, opposite and lanceolate. Mentha spicata is a perennial herb nearly one meter tall. Flowers are borne in long spikes, white or pink in colour. Occurrence In India, pudina is commercially cultivated in Tarai regions and Haldwani area in Uttarakhand, Jammu and some parts of Punjab. A well-drained sandy loam soil with pH 6.0 to 8.5 is suitable for this crop. Highly acidic and alkaline soils are not suitable. For cultivation of Mentha crop (Mentha arvensis), an average rainfall of 2000 to 2500 mm/yr and temperature between 15 to 250C is suitable. Mentha piperita and Mentha spicata grow well in temperate climates.

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Reproduction It is generally propagated through suckers. The flowering and fruiting time is from May to July. Nursery and Plantation Techniques Land should be well ploughed 2 to 3 times followed by harrowing and made free from boulders and weeds. For higher foliage growth and oil yield, application of FYM (25 to 37 t/ha), N (150 kg/ha), P2O5 (62 kg/ha) and K2O (75 kg/ ha) is recommended. However, it depends upon the status of the soil. One-fifth part of N and full dose of P2O5 and K2O should be mixed with the soil during the last ploughing and remaining N should be divided in to four equal parts and added during third week and sixth week of transplantation and also after first and second harvesting. Propagation is done through rooted suckers. Mentha arvensis is best transplanted during mid January to mid February. For a smaller area, 8 to 10 cm fresh and healthy long suckers at 45 cm distance and 4 to 5 cm deep are planted with the help of a sickle, but for a larger area, cultivator should be used for transplanting. After transplanting, suckers are covered with light soil and irrigated so that the soil does not dry. Sprouting starts in a shorter time period. Nearly 375 to 600 kg of suckers is required for one hectare. The crop should be irrigated at 10 to 15 days interval in March and at 6 to 8 days interval during April and June. In winters, the crop requires light irrigation at an interval of 20 225

to 25 days. During rainy season, well-managed water drainage system is required to drain off the excessive water. Crop should be kept free from weeds. First and second weeding should be carried out at 3 to 4 weeks intervals after transplanting. Harvest and Postharvest The best time of harvesting is at the time of flowering, when there is maximum growth of foliage and is in green stage. Harvesting done after and before flowering affects the oil yield. Crop should be harvested 6 to 8 cm above the soil surface. Two harvestings can be taken after 100 to 120 days during May and June and second after 180 to 190 days during August to September, respectively. Depending upon the climate, fertilizers and irrigation management, three harvesting can also be obtained after 65 to 70 days of second harvesting (November). Harvested crop should be spread in a bright sunshine for 2 to 4 hours. Oil is obtained by steam distillation process and arrangements for this should be done well in advance. Average yield from 2 to 3 harvestings of M. arvensis is about 200 to 250 q/ha of fresh leaves and stems, which yield 100 to 150 kg/ha of oil. In M. piperita average oil yield is 75 to 90 kg/ha. Average herbage yield is 250 to 300 kg/ha is obtained and the plant generally contains 0.3 per cent oil. In case of M. spicata, herbage of 200 to 250 kg/ha, which yields 75 to 100 kg of oil. The average price of oil of Mentha arvensis is Rs 300 to 350/kg, Mentha piperita Rs 400/kg and for Mentha spicata it is Rs 300 to 350/kg. 226

Plant Protection Root rot is the main problem in this crop, which can be controlled by dipping the suckers in Bavistine solution (5 g/l) for 5 to 10 minutes. To save the crop from termites, chloropyrephos (5 ml/ha) mixed with 50 to 60 kg of soil is sprinkled before transplanting. Prevention from leaf roller insects can be obtained by spraying endosulfane 35 EC or Carboryl (50%). Spray should be carried out 20 to 25 days before harvesting. Utilization and Economic Importance Mentha arvensis is the main species of mint, which is cultivated on commercial scale due to the demand for its oil by the industries. The main constituents of its oil are menthol and menthone. Mentha arvensis yields menthol, which is used in confectioneries and many types of medicines like cough syrups, tablets, etc. The oil is antiseptic, carminative, refrigerant, stimulant and diuretic. Mentha arvensis also finds use in liver and spleen diseases, treatment of asthma and jaundice. Mentha oil is used in medicine for stomach disorders and in ointments for headache. The infusion of leaves is used in indigestion and rheumatic pains. Mentha spicata, which contains carvone, is used in Pudin Hara a medicine used for stomach troubles. In all, the oil obtained from different species of mint is also used in cosmetics and perfumery. Mentha piperita is a source of peppermint and is considered as 227

aromatic, stimulant, stomachic and carminative and used for allaying nausea, flatulence and vomiting. In M. spicata, the main constituent is carvone, which is used in stomachache. Main constituents of M. citrata are linalool and linoline acetate.

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Mucuna pruriens (Kaunch)


Introduction Mucuna pruriens commonly known as kaunch is an annual climber, belonging to family Papilionaceae. It is found growing throughout India in tropical and subtropical regions. It is an annual twining herb having trifoliate leaves, purple flowers borne in branches and purplish brown pods on ripening covered with profuse coat of stinging hairs. Seeds are black shining often spotted white. Occurrence It grows on a variety of soils. However, it does well on sandy to clay loam soils having good amount of organic matter with adequate drainage. It requires tropical or subtropical climate. In Himachal Pradesh, it occurs in low hilly areas up to 1,200 m altitude. Reproduction The flowering takes place from July to September and fruiting takes place from August to November. It is a selfpollinated crop and is propagated through seeds. Nursery and Plantation Techniques White seed strain IC-127363 is the recommended variety. The crop is raised through direct sowing of seeds in 229

the field at the rate of 40 to 45 kg/ha .The field is ploughed 2 to 3 times and FYM (15 to 20 t/ha), P2O5 (80 kg/ha) and K2O (80 kg/ha) are applied to the field at the time of land preparation. Nitrogen (100 kg/ha) is applied in three equal splits, first split as basal dose, second split after 30 days of germination and third after 60 days of crop age. The seeds are dibbled at a spacing of 90x90 cm. Two seeds are sown per pit and after germination and establishment of plants, only one plant is retained per pit. The soil should have sufficient moisture at the time of sowing and if moisture is not sufficient then irrigation is given immediately after sowing. The crop can also be raised in wastelands by making pits of 60x60 cm size along with the trees. Since kaunch is a twining annual and best yields are obtained when the vines are provided support with the help of sticks. During early stages, irrigation is given at four days interval depending upon weather conditions. After the monsoon, the crop is given 3 to 4 irrigations at regular intervals till harvesting. The crop requires 1 to 2 weedings in the initial stages. Harvesting and Postharvest Kaunch is a crop of about six months duration. The flowering is continuous and thus pods mature periodically. Harvesting is done 3 to 4 times in the season. Harvesting stage can be judged by turning of green colour of pod to dark brown. The brown coloured slightly shrinkled pods are harvested in 230

the morning hours when there is humidity in the atmosphere. If there is no humidity or morning dew in the field in the morning, then the plants are sprayed with water and then harvested to avoid itching. The harvested pods are sun dried and seeds are separated from pods by beating with sticks in closed bags to avoid severe itching by the stinging hairs on the pods. The yield of seeds varies from 15 to 40 q/ha depending upon the cultural operations, climbing support and irrigation. Under irrigated conditions and when good support is provided to the crop, a yield of 50 q/ha can be obtained. Plant Protection Leaf eating caterpillars have been observed in the crop and spraying 0.2 per cent of metacid (0.2%) can control their attack. Leaf spots have also been observed which can be controlled by spraying Mancozeb-45 (2.5 gm/l of water). Utilization and Economic Importance Kaunch seeds have been used in Indian system of medicine against diabetes, diarrhoea, spermatorrhoea, menstrual disorders and as nervine tonic since ancient times. It is a rich source of 3-(3,4 dihydroxy phenyl)L-alanine (LDOPA) which is used for curing Parkinsons disease.

Ocimum basilicum (Meethi tulsi)


Introduction Ocimum basilicum, commonly called as meethi tulsi, French basil, bhabri tulsi, belongs to family Lamiaceae and is a much-branched variable herb. The height of this plant varies from 30 to 90 cm and leaves are 3 to 5 cm in length. The plant is being cultivated for the last 3,000 yr in Europe and Asia. There are many oil glands in the plant, which yield aromatic oil. In India, tulsi (Ocimum sanctum) have both religious as well as scientific importance. It is considered as a sacred plant and is used in performing various religious functions. Other important species are Ocimum kilimandscharicum (kapur tulsi) and Ocimum gratissimum (vantulsi, long tulsi). Occurrence There are about 60 species of this genus distributed mainly in Asia, Europe, Africa and America, where they are being cultivated. In India this plant is mainly found in the warmer parts up to 1,800 m in the Himalayas and in Adaman Nichobar Islands. In Himachal Pradesh this plant can be grown in Shiwalik ranges up to 1,300 m and is mainly grown in parts of district Kangra, Una, Hamirpur, Bilaspur, Mandi, Solan, etc. This plant can be grown in varied soil and climatic

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conditions as a summer crop. Excessive rainfall and frost is not suitable for this crop. Reproduction The flowering and fruiting takes place from July to September. It is a highly cross-pollinated crop and all of its types are propagated through seed. Nursery and Plantation Techniques For cultivation of tulsi, well drained loamy soils having pH 5.0 to 8.5 are suitable. Better growth of the plant can be obtained in temperature range of 140 to 300C. Seeds are sown in 1x4 m long raised nursery beds during April and May. This plant can be grown throughout the year except in winter months. In each bed, 20 to 30 g seeds should be sown and between 600 to 800 g seeds are required for one hectare. Seeds are very light and should be mixed with sand. Line to line distance should be 6 cm. Nursery beds are then mulched with grass and irrigated. Germination of seeds takes place in 3 to 10 days and at that time grass cover is removed from the nursery beds. Moist gunny bags should be used as a cover so that the plants do not loose much of the moisture due to high temperature. Before transplantation, the field should be ploughed two times and should be kept ready by May to June for plantation. Well rotten FYM at the time of land preparation particularly during second ploughing is more suitable for the 233

crop. Before sowing, application of N (40 kg/ha), P2O5 (30 kg/ha) and K2O (30 kg/ha) is recommended. After 45 days of transplanting, again one dose of Nitrogen (20 kg/ha) should be applied. The plant is propagated through seeds. Spacing should be 45x30 cm. Crop should be irrigated immediately after transplanting. Further irrigations at an interval of 10 to 12 days are recommended before commencement of the rainy season. In case of excessive rainfall, proper arrangement should be made to remove the excessive water from the field. Irrigation is not required if the crop is sown in monsoon. Life span of the crop is 70 to 80 days and normally requires 2 to 3 irrigations. First weeding should be done after 20 to 25 days and second after 40 to 45 days. Harvesting and Postharvest This crop matures in 10 to 12 weeks. Crop is ready for first harvesting, when the colour of inflorescence in 80 per cent of the crop changes from green to golden. It should not be harvested in milky stage, as it will reduce the yield of oil. Second harvesting should be done after an interval of 45 to 60 days. Harvesting of the crop should be done 15 to 20 cm above from the ground level, so that crop can be ready for next harvesting in shorter time period. Four to five harvesting can be taken from this crop in one year. After harvesting the crop, it is dried under shade for 4 to 5 hr and water distillation is carried out. Full plant distillation yields 0.25 per cent oil 234

and from inflorescence up to 0.4 per cent oil can be obtained. From one hectare, 100 to 150 kg oil can be obtained from 2 to 3 cuttings. Properties of the oil depend upon the chemical constituents present in it. Average price of oil is Rs 200 to 250 /kg and the cost of cultivation per hectare has been estimated to be Rs 7,500 /ha/yr. Therefore, an income of approximately Rs 15,000 /ha/yr can be obtained from this crop. Plant Protection Basil leaf roller eats leaves and flowers during July to September and can be controlled by spraying 0.2 per cent of endosulfone 35 EC. Hairy caterpillar lays eggs and the larva of the insect eats the leaves and cause huge losses. It can be prevented by digging out and burning the infected plants in the initial stages and also by application of endosulfone (4%) or folidol powder (25 kg/ha). At the third and fourth stage of the caterpillar, Endosulfone 35 EC (0.2%) spray is recommended. Blight caused by Alternaria fungi results in leaf fall. It can be controlled by the application of Dithane M45 (2 kg in 625 to 750 l/ha). Leaf blight caused by Colletotrichum capsacci fungi and can be prevented by application of Dithane M-45 as in case of blight control. Wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum causes drying of plants. To prevent this, proper drainage system should be maintained.

Utilization and Economic Importance Oil from leaves possesses antibacterial and insecticidal properties. Main chemical constituents of this plant include camphor, citral, gerniol, linalool, lynalyl acetate, methyl chavicol, methyl eugenol (mainly in O. gratissimum), caryophyllene, ascorbic acid and carolene. Seeds also contain a greenish yellow fixed oil. Seed is mucilaginous, demulcent and is useful in complaints of urinary system. Seeds also contain a greenish yellow fixed oil. Leaves are used as condiments in salads and other foods for their medicinal properties. Extract of the plant is useful in catarrh and bronchitis and is also applied to skin in ringworm and other cutaneous diseases and dropped in to ear to relieve earache. An infusion of leaves is used as stomachache in gastric disorders of children. A decoction of roots is given as diaphoretic in malarial fevers, while the decoction of leaves is given in common colds. Leaves are also useful in controlling high blood pressure. Properties of Ocimum oil are different in different species and accordingly they are used in cough syrups, cough tablets and many other cosmetic products. Oil is also used in mouthwash, toothpaste and many pharmaceutical products and also used for flavouring food articles. The crop is also said to have air-purifying effects.

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Ocimum sanctum (Tulsi)


Introduction Ocimum sanctum commonly known as tulsi also known as sacred basil is an annual, biennial or perennial under shrub depending upon the objectives, belongs to the family Lamiaceae. It is commonly cultivated in gardens. The species is worshiped by Hindus and traditionally grown in courtyards and temples. It is an erect, much branched with soft hair, 30 to 75 cm tall herb. Leaves are elliptic-oblong or obtuse, entire or serrate. Flowers are purplish or crimson, in racemes, closely whorled. Two types of O. sanctum are met with in cultivation; the green type (Rama or Sri tulsi) is most common and the second type (Krishna tulsi) bears purple leaves. The leaves of this basil, on steam distillation yield a bright yellow volatile oil possessing a pleasant odour characteristic of the plant. Other important species are Ocimum kilimandscharicum (kapoor tulsi), O. basilicum (bhabhri tulsi), O. gratissimum (tan tulsi), O. cannum and O. americanum (American tulsi). Occurrence O. sanctum has wide distribution. It is found throughout India ascending upto 1,800 m in the Himalayas and in Andaman and Nichobar Islands. The plant occupies a wide range of habitats. It is sufficiently hardy and can be grown 237

on any type of soil except the ones with highly saline, alkaline or water logged conditions. However, sandy loam soil with good organic matter is considered ideal for its growth. The crop has a wide adaptability and can be grown successfully in tropical and subtropical climates. Reproduction Flowering and fruiting takes place from June to July and November to December. It is a cross-pollinated crop and is propagated through seeds. Nursery and Plantation Techniques The land is well prepared with 2 or 3 ploughing until a fine tilth of soil is obtained. Well rotten FYM (10 to 12 t/ha) should be applied at the time of land preparation. Seeds propagate the plant. Seeds are sown in the nursery during the month of April and May. A seed rate of 300 to 400 g is required for one hectare of land. The seeds should be sown in the nursery beds mixed with sand or ash and covered with light soil, mulched and given light irrigation. The seeds germinate in 8 to 12 days and the seedlings are ready for transplantation in about 6 weeks time at 4 to 5 leaf stage. The seedlings are planted at a distance of 30 cm in rows and 30 cm apart from plant to plant. The optimum fertilizer dose recommended for this crop is N (120 kg/ha) and each of K2O (60 kg/ha) and P2O5 (60 kg/ha). Half the dose of N and the entire dose of 238

P2O5 and K2O are given as a basal dose. The remaining dose of N is given in 2 splits after the first and second harvest/ cuttings. Cobalt (50 ppm) and manganese (100 ppm) if applied, increases the oil yield. During summer months, three irrigations per month are necessary; whereas, during the remaining period, it should be given as and when required. The first weeding is done usually one month after planting and the second after four months or as required. Thereafter, no further weeding is required. One hoeing after two months of planting is sufficient. Plant Protection The plant is susceptible to powdery mildew caused by Oidium spp., seedling blight caused by Rhizoctonia solani and root-rot caused by Rhizoctonia bataticola. Powdery mildew can by controlled by spraying wettable sulphur (0.3%). To control leaf rollers, whenever noticed, spray the crop with 0.2 per cent of Malathion or Sumicidin (1 ml/l). Harvesting and Postharvest The crop is harvested in the month of November and December. After harvesting, the plants are cut into small pieces and are dried under partial shade, packed in airtight containers or gunny bags and kept at moisture free and cool places. An average yield of 10 to 12 q/ha dry herbage can be obtained. The market rate of dry herbage varies between Rs 20 to 25/ 239

kg. An income of Rs 20,000 to 30,000/ha can be earned from this crop. Utilization and Economic Importance Leaves yield essential oil containing eugenol, carvacrol, methyl eugenol and caryophyllene. Seeds contain a greenish yellow fixed oil. The oil from leaves is said to possess antibacterial and insecticidal properties. Seeds are useful in complaints of the urinary systems. The juice or infusion of leaves possesses diaphoretic, antiperiodic, stimulating and expectorant properties. It is used in malerial fever, disurea, leprosy, common colds, diabetes, as antispasmodic, antibacterial, antituberculosis, catarrh and bronchitis; applied to skin in ringworm and other cutaneous diseases and for relief from earache. An infusion of the leaves is used in stomachic and gastric disorders of children.

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Pelargonium graveolens (Rose scented geranium)


Introduction Pelargonium graveolens belonging to family Geraniaceae is commonly called as the rose scented geranium. It is a bushy aromatic plant with cylindrical stem, woody at base, pubescent, green when young and turning brown with age. The leaves are alternate, stipulate and simple with 5 primary lobes, which are highly aromatic in nature. The inflorescence is umbellate and the flower is bisexual, hypogynous with pink corolla. The two posterior petals are larger with reddish purple markings. The ten stamens are united at the base and the ovary is hairy, superior, pentacarpillary and syncarpous. Occurrence It is native of Cape Province in South Africa and is commercially cultivated in France, Belgium, Spain, Morocco, Madagascar, Egypt, Reunion islands, Congo, China, etc. In India, after being introduced at Yercaud (Tamil Naidu), its cultivation has spread to Nilgiri and Kodaikanal hills, Bangalore, Hyderabad in the south and Tarai region of the Himalayas in the north. In Himachal Pradesh, it has been found suitable for cultivation in selected regions of Kullu, Kangra, Chamba, Sirmour and Solan. Due to the widespread and 241

increasing demand by perfumery industry, India is currently importing more than 20 t of its essential oil annually with an almost equal quantity being produced locally. Being shallow rooted crop, well-drained porous soil preferably red lateritic with pH 5.5 to 8.0 or a calcium rich porous soil is most suitable for its cultivation. Subtropical climates with temperature ranging from o 5 C to 23oC with well distributed rainfall (1000 to 1500 mm/ yr) are ideal. However, it can also be grown in temperate and tropical regions from 1,000 to 2,200 m altitude. Reproduction Flowering and fruiting take place from March to July. It produces sterile seeds and is propagated by vegetative means (shoot cuttings). Nursery and Plantation Techniques Using 20 cm long terminal shoot cuttings with about 8 nodes are ideal for its propagation. The cuttings should be planted in raised nursery beds of 3x1 m at a close spacing of 8 to 10 cm. The nursery beds should be well prepared and thoroughly mixed with FYM (20 t/ha). Cuttings should be treated with 0.1 per cent Benlate solution before planting. The nursery bed should be provided partial shade and irrigated regularly. The cuttings develop roots in about 40 days and 60 days old cuttings become ready for transplanting. Cuttings 242

raised in polybags give better field establishment. Approximately 30,000 cuttings are needed for one hectare of land. The field should be disc ploughed to a fine tilth and divided into ridges and furrows. Rooted cuttings should be planted at a spacing of 60x60 cm on the ridges. Immediate irrigation is provided initially which can be reduced to twice a week later on. Water logging should be avoided. FYM (10 t/ha), N (35 kg/ha), P2 O5 (35 kg/ha) and K2O (35 kg/ha) should be thoroughly mixed in the field before transplanting. A second dose of N (35 kg/ha) should be applied two months after transplanting. Further nitrogen should be applied after every harvest. Application of zinc sulphate (20 kg/ha) and boron (10 kg/ha) has been found beneficial. Plant Protection Wilt disease is a major problem of the crop followed by leaf blight, which can be controlled by treating the cuttings with 0.03 per cent Benlate solution before planting in nursery and also in the field. Two weeks before harvesting, the crop should be sprayed with 0.03 per cent Benlate solution. Harvesting and Postharvest A good harvest can be obtained for 3 to 6 years. Harvesting commences about 4 months after transplantation, when the leaves begin to turn light green and exhibit a change from a lemon-like odour to that of rose. The crop should be 243

harvested using a sharp sickle and sent for distillation immediately. Depending upon cultural practices, 2 to 3 harvests/yr can be taken. Cultivation under polyhouse conditions is reported to reduce the harvest time by about 21 days. The freshly harvested material should be stacked near the extraction units for about 12 to 24 hr. This results in slight fermentation and splitting of glycosides, which increases the essential oil yield. The essential oil can be extracted by simple steam distillation method. Important varieties are the Algerian or Tunisian type, with dark pink coloured flowers but is unsuitable for wet conditions. This variety yields 50 to 60 per cent more oil than Reunion type. Reunion or Bourbon type are sturdy plants with light pink coloured flowers and are more suitable for wet conditions. The oil content is higher during summer months. Utilization and Economic Importance Pure geranium essential oil is almost a perfume by itself and blends well with all other aromatic oils. It is widely used in scenting soaps and for the isolation of rhodinol, which forms part of most high-grade perfumery. As essential oil is derived from its leaves/herbage, its content is higher during summer months from April to June. The oil content ranges from 0.08 to 0.15 per cent depending upon the season of harvest and about 15 kg of oil can be recovered from one hectare with a density of about 25,000 244

plants. Cultivation under polyhouse conditions is reported to increase herb and oil yield upto 50 per cent over conventional planting.

Picrorhiza kurroa (Kutki / Kadu)


Introduction Picrorhiza kurroa, commonly called as kutki, belonging to family Scrophulariaceae and also known as kadwi and kadu is an endangered herbaceous perennial. Roots are thick fibrous and characterized by stoloniferous rhizome. Stem is creeping and branched. Leaves are radicle, elliptic to spatulate, 5 to 10 cm long coarsely serrate, narrowing down in to a winged petiole. Flowers are sessile, deep blue in colour and arranged in dense spikes of 5 to 10 cm length. Seeds are extremely small and embryo is enclosed in the large bladdery loose hyaline reticulate testa. Occurrence It grows naturally throughout the alpine Himalayas from Kashmir to Sikkim between altitudinal range of 3,000 to 5,000 m on moist rocky surfaces or under moist scrub canopy of Quercus semecarpifolia, Rhododendron campanulatum and Juniperus spp. Sandy to sandy loam soil rich in organic matter is preferred for the cultivation of this species. Reproduction Flowering takes place between May and September. Depending upon the flowering, seed maturity takes place

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between July and October. It is a cross pollinated plant. Kutki can be multiplied through seed as well as stolon cuttings. However, multiplication from stolon cuttings is more successful method for achieving higher productivity within short time. Nursery and Plantation Techniques Sowing of fresh seed immediately after harvesting gives maximum germination. Seeds are sown on the upper soil surface and covered with a thin layer of moss to increase germination during March and April at higher altitudes and during November and December at lower altitudes. The germination initiates within 3 to 10 days and 50 to 60 per cent seeds germinate. Transplanting can be done after 3 to 4 months of seed sowing. However, for better establishment, seedlings should be allowed to remain in nursery beds for one growing season and transplanted in next season. Approximately 25 g of seeds are required for raising nursery for one-hectare area. For vegetative propagation, top segments of stolons are found more suitable than middle and lower segments. Nearly 90 per cent rooting is observed in top segments after 2 to 3 weeks. For better rooting and field establishment 33 to 43 long top stolon segments should be dipped in water for about 48 hr and then planted in polybags containing soil, sand and FYM (1:1:1). This ensures good rooting. Out planting should be done during May and June, 247

with a planting density of 1,10,000 plants/ha. Application of FYM at the rate of 150 q/ha/yr improves growth of the plant. After plantation, if rains are scarce, initial irrigation at 2 to 4 days interval is required till the plants are established. Harvesting and Postharvest Harvesting is done after at least two years of planting during September and October. Root stock yield of 450 to 600 kg/ha (seed raised) or 850 to 1,050 kg/ha (propagation by stolon cuttings) can be obtained. Approximate return of Rs 65,000 to 85,000 /ha after three year of planting is expected. Utilization and Economic Importance The roots and rhizomes constitutes an important drug which is described as bitter tonic, stomachic, antiperiodic, cholagouge, laxative in small doses and cathartic in large doses and is useful in dropsy. Traditionally, the roots of Picrorhiza kurroa are used to treat abdominal pain, stomach disorders, anaemia and jaundice.

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Rauvolfia serpentina (Sarpagandha)


Introduction Rauvolfia serpentina commonly called as sarpagandha or chotachand belongs to family Apocynaceae. It is an upright perennial under shrub attaining a height of 60 to 90 cm. Stem of the plant is roundish and gives out a milky-sticky substance when injured. Leaves are light green to pale green and coloured leaves are arranged in whorls of 3 to 4, up to 10 cm long and 5 cm broad, gradually tapering to a small petiole. Flowers are white or pinkish; peduncle is deep red, about 1.5 cm long. Fruits are round, 5 mm in diameter, dark purple or blackish when ripe. Occurrence In Indian subcontinent, sarpagandha occurs naturally in the tropical Himalayan regions up to an altitude of about 1,200 m. Reproduction Sarpagandha flowers during May and the fruits develop in September. It is both self and cross-pollinated crop. Seed as well as root and stem cuttings can propagate it. Nursery and Plantation Techniques Loamy to sandy loam soils rich in organic matter with 249

good drainage is suitable for its growth and development. Localities, which are less prone to frost and having pH 6 to 8.5, are more suitable. Tropical to subtropical climate is best suited for this crop. Field should be ploughed 3 to 4 times and 20 to 25 t/ ha of well-decomposed FYM should be applied. Dark violet coloured seeds should be collected periodically and macerated for 15 to 20 hr in water followed by 3 to 4 washings and dried for 3 to 4 days to get moisture content of 8 to 10 per cent and stored. Nearly 7 to 8 kg seeds are required for one hectare. Raised seedbeds, 15 to 20 cm high are prepared. Germination is between 15 to 20 per cent as the seed viability is less than one year. Hence, seeds collected during September and December should be used for sowing. Before sowing, seeds should be dipped in water for 24 hr and thereafter kept in shade for one hour. Plants are ready within 25 to 30 days, when the plant attains 6 to 7 leaves stage. Root cuttings can be prepared any time under green house conditions. Main root and secondary roots are cut into 5 to 10 cm pieces and are planted 5 cm deep in the soil before commencement of rainy season. Nearly 100 kg of root cuttings are required for plantation of one hectare. Stem cuttings of 20 to 25 cm long having 4 to 5 buds taken in July and August or February and March are suitable. Nearly 60 to 65 per cent plants are ready in two months for transplanting. A fertilizer dose of N (10 kg/ ha), P2O5 (50 kg/ha) and K2O (25 kg /ha) is applied as basal 250

dressing. Nitrogen (10 kg/ha) is again applied after 50 days and 170 days of transplanting. Plant to plant distance is kept at 30 cm, where as line to line distance is 45 cm. Before transplanting seedlings are dipped in 0.1 per cent solution of 2-methoxy-carbonyl benzimidazol for 15 min to protect them against damping off disease. Field should be kept moist and irrigated at an interval of 10 to 15 days in summer and 30 to 35 days interval in winter. Weeding and hoeing should be done 3 to 4 times in the first year and afterwards 1 to 2 weeding and hoeing are required. Harvesting and Postharvest Plants are pruned lightly after one year and flowering is discouraged to get healthy root system. Plants after 18 months contain maximum alkaloid (1.4%) and should be dug in February. Field should be watered before harvesting to facilitate the digging of roots without any damage. Initially plant develops one main root, which later divides in to 2 to 3 roots. Stems are cut from upper parts and used for propagation. After digging out of the roots, adhering soil is removed, washed and roots are then dried under shade. Care should be taken that during washing of roots, bark does not get removed as it contains 80 per cent of total alkaloids. After drying, the moisture contents in the roots should be 3.5 to 4.0 per cent. Dried roots are cut in to 15 to 20 cm pieces, graded, packed in bags and stored in moisture proof stores. If roots are to be 251

stored for longer duration, then periodic drying should be done to prevent insect attack. Dry roots yield of sarpagandha is 20 to 25 q/ha and seed yield is 30 to 38 kg/ha. The prevailing market rate for root is Rs 75 to 150 /kg and for seed it is Rs 5,000 to 6,000 /kg. Utilization and Economic Importance Roots are an important source of drug in this crop, which contain 1 to 1.9 per cent total alkaloids depending on the quality of roots. More than three dozen alkaloids like, ajmaline, ajmalicine, reserpine, rescinnamine, deserpidine, serpentine serpentinene, reserpinine etc., are found in this plant. Root bark of sarpagandha contains 2.5 per cent alkaloids, whereas roots without bark contain only 0.45 per cent. Stems and leaves have an alkaloid content of 0.45 to 0.55 per cent. The drug is suitable for mild anxiety cases or patients of chronic mental illness. It is a useful medicine and acts on nervous system. The roots of the plant are useful in diseases of bowels and in fever. It is also useful in high blood pressure, hysteria, sleeplessness, etc.

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Rheum australe (Revandcini / Rhubarb)


Introduction Rheum australe commonly called as revandchini, rhubarb, chunkhri, chukri, archa, moti ninayin, and tukshu belongs to family Polygonaceae. It is a tall, stout herb, 1 to 2 m tall with long stalked, quite large lower leaves (20 to 50 cm), broadly ovate, rounded. The roots are quite thick, stout, going deep in to the soil or running under soil on rocky surfaces and even penetrating the rock crevices and the stem is hollow. Flowers are small, dark purple in colour arising in long branching racemes. Fruits are purple and angled. Occurrence It is distributed in the Himalayas from Kashmir to Sikkim between 3,300 to 5,200 m altitudes. It is distributed in alpine slopes and rocky areas at 3,200 to 4,200 m in Kullu, Lahaul and Spiti, Chhota and Bara Bhangal, Kinnaur, Chamba, Shimla and Sirmour at various locations. The plant requires deep, rich soil, mixed with well rotten manure. The herb is drought resistant to some extent. Reproduction Flowering and fruiting takes place from June to September. It is a cross-pollinated crop and is propagated through seeds and crown splits of the roots. 253

Nursery and Plantation Techniques The plant can be propagated either through root splits (crowns) or seeds and the former method is preferable for easy and quick establishment. The required seed rate is nearly 5 to 6 kg/ ha and nearly 15,000 to 16,000 seedlings are required for one hectare of plantation. Seeds are sown during October and November at higher elevation before snowfall. At lower elevations, seeds are sown during February or March in polyhouse. At alpine sites, best planting period is between May to June. For better germination, seeds should be sown in styrofoam trays containing sandy loam soil mixed with manure or forest litter in polyhouse at 20 to 25oC. Vegetatively, the species can be propagated through root splits (crown splits) with at least one dormant bud and are transplanted in early spring at a spacing of 75x75 cm with the crowns buried 10 cm beneath the surface. Aerial portions wither during winters and die off, but regenerate during the coming spring. Well rotten forest litter (40 to 50 q/ha) should be added at the time of land preparation. Irrigation requirements change with the season and it also depends on the texture of soil. Weeding is done twice a month in the first year and at monthly intervals in the second and third year of growth. Harvesting and Postharvest The roots are dug up in September or October from 3 to 4 yr old plants. Active ingredients concentration increases 254

with the age of the plant. Plant should be harvested before senescence to achieve the high quality of active contents. Roots are washed and cut into 3 to 4 cm long pieces or circular slices and kept for drying in partial shade or in warm air. After drying, these are stored in airtight containers. A yield of about 40 to 42 q/ha of roots is obtained after three years. The selling price of the root is nearly Rs 80/kg. A gross income upto Rs 3,30,000 can be generated after three years. Utilization and Economic Importance Chrysophanic acid, emodin, starch, rutin, anthraquinone derivatives, essential oil, calcium oxalate and a resinous substance have been obtained from the roots. Leaves contain oxalic acid. It is a mild purgative having properties similar to senna. The root is regarded as a panacea by the people and is found in all houses in the hills. It is chiefly used in tonsillitis as astringent, laxative and also as tonic. The paste is applied in mumps and also taken orally. It is as efficacious as tincture iodine for healing cuts, wounds and swellings. It purifies blood and by being astringent reduces the swellings and rheumatic pains quite effectively. Powdered roots are used for cleaning teeth and sprinkled over ulcers for quick healing.

Rosmarinus officinalis (Rosemary)


Introduction Rosmarinus officinalis commonly called as rosemary is a dense, evergreen under shrub, growing up to 1 m in height with a characteristic aromatic smell. The plant has an erect stem divided into numerous long, slender branches, bearing many sessile, opposite leaves. The leaves are 2 to 4 cm long, almost cylindrical, smooth and green on top, whitish and glandular beneath. The flowers are arranged in little clusters towards the ends of the branches and are white in colour. The fruit is an oval, four-sectioned cremocarp, brownish in colour. Occurrence It grows wild on the shores of the Mediterranean and in Spain, Portugal and Algeria. It was introduced in the university through NBPGR, New Delhi. It is a temperate region plant and requires light, sandy loam, well aerated soil. It can be cultivated in Himachal Pradesh up to an altitude of 2,000 m. Reproduction Flowering and fruiting take place in January and June, respectively. It is a cross pollinated crop. It can be propagated both through cuttings and seeds. 256

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Nursery and Plantation Technology For vegetative propagation, the cuttings should be 10 to 15 cm long and leaves should be removed from half of the length and raised in poly bags having soil mixture of soil, sand and FYM (1:1:1) during February or March. The plant is also propagated through seeds. The seeds are sown in nursery beds in autumn (November-December). The seedlings are transplanted in polythene bags having soil mixture of soil, sand and FYM (1:1:1) during February and March. The performance of the seedlings/cuttings is better under polyhouse/glasshouse. The seedlings/cuttings are transplanted in the field during monsoon (June and July) at a spacing of 45 cm and 90 cm apart in rows. About 22,000 plants/ha give the highest yield of herbage and oil. The field is ploughed two to three times followed by harrowing and planking. FYM (25 t/ ha) is added at the time of field preparation, with N (30 kg/ ha), P2O5 (45 kg/ha) and K2O (30 kg/ha) as a basal dose and the rest (60 kg/ha) of the nitrogen is applied in two equal splits, each at one month interval. Regular weeding should be done at 15 days interval followed by hoeing. If rains are scanty, irrigation should be done at weekly intervals especially during summer months. Frequent cutting of the bushes after 2 to 3 yr keeps them free from becoming leggy and promotes formation of numerous shoots from which oil is extracted. After 10 to 12 yr, when the yield reduces, it should be uprooted and fresh plantation should be carried out. 257

Harvesting and Postharvest The shoots are cut for distillation when they have reached their maximum size, but have not become woody. Maximum essential oil is obtained from freshly harvested leaves. The yield of dry leaves is up to 15 to 17 q/ha and approximate gross income is Rs 1.5 to Rs 1.7 lc. Essential oil content ranges from 1.0 to 1.5 per cent with freshly harvested plants. Utilization and Economic Importance Rosemary leaf oil is used almost wholly in the perfumery industry, in the production of soaps, detergents, household sprays and other such products. It is an excellent fixative material. Oil also contributes strong fresh odours and also serves to mask the unpleasant smell of other ingredients. It is used in Eu-de Cologne, shampoo and toilet soaps. The essential oil of this plant is known to have anti microbial activity against gram-negative and gram-positive organisms. It is carminative and mildly irritant. It is also used in the formulations of compounded oils for flavouring meat, sauces, condiments and other food products. The leaves are used in cooking. Water extract obtained from its flowers is used as eyewash.

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Salvia officinalis (Sage)


Introduction Salvia officinalis commonly called as sage belongs to family Lamiaceae. It is a hardy, perennial, low shrub or undershrub with quadrangular, branching stem, having opposite decussate leaves. The leaves are of greyish-green colour, occasionally tinged with red or purple. The flowers are blue; fruits consist of black nutlets, borne in open cups formed by the dry post floral calyx. Occurrence The species is native of southern Europe and was introduced at Solan from Poland. Sage is a hardy plant and can be grown on a wide variety of soils, but sandy loamy to loam soil free from water logging conditions is suitable for its cultivation. The regions having sub-temperate to temperate climate and adequate sunshine are good for its cultivation. Reproduction The species produces viable seeds both through selfpollination as well as cross-pollination. The plants can be raised through seeds as well as stem cuttings. It is also a cross pollinated crop.

Nursery and Plantation Technique Usually the plants are raised through terminal stem cuttings. Terminal stem cuttings of 10 to 15 cm length are taken from healthy plants during February. Only terminal four leaves are retained and all the lower leaves are removed and then cuttings are dipped in 0.1 per cent solution of Bavistin for 15 to 20 seconds and then dipped in 200 ppm IBA solution before planting in raised nursery beds with soil, sand and FYM (1:1:1) media. The nursery beds are provided shade and watered daily. The shade is removed from nursery beds after about one month of planting. The rooted cuttings are ready for transplantation in 2 to 3 months. The field is prepared by ploughing 2 to 3 times and then leveled. At the time of land preparation, 15 to 20 t/ha of FYM is mixed in soil. Ridges, usually 20 cm in height are made in the field at a spacing of 60 cm apart. The rooted cuttings raised in the nursery are transplanted on ridges at a distance of 60 cm from plant to plant. Transplanting is done in the evening hours and irrigation is given immediately after transplantation. Irrigation is given daily for 7 days and then at 2 to 3 days interval for 7 to 10 days and thereafter at 7 to 10 days interval. The field should be kept free from weeds. During monsoon, the field should be kept free form standing water as it causes wilting of the plants.

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Harvesting and Postharvest The leaves may be harvested after about 4 to 6 months of transplanting. Only one picking of leaves should be made during first year and after which two or three pickings may be made in a season. The leaves are shade dried. Sage leaves are apt to turn black during drying; therefore, moisture must be removed continuously by turning the leaves. The dried herb should be marketed promptly, since it loses flavour rapidly with age. For production of essential oil, the leaves along with stems not more than 15 cm in length are cut with sickle and freshly distilled. The yield of dry leaves in first year from single harvest is about 300 kg/ha and in second year onward 1,500 to 2,000 kg/ha of dried leaves can be obtained. The crop usually remains productive for 10 to 12 yr. The essential oil yield varies from 40 to 50 kg/ha/yr. Utilization and Economic Importance It is valued for its highly aromatic leaves, which after drying are widely employed for seasoning of poultry stuffing, meats, soups, sausages and canned foods. The essential oil obtained from leaves, which is commonly known as sage oil, is used for the flavouring of table sauces, canned and packed foods, soups, meats and especially sausages.

Salvia sclarea (Clary sage)


Introduction Salvia sclarea commonly called as clary sage belongs to family Lamiaceae. It is a tall (60 to 90 cm) annual plant with a widely branched deep root system. Stem is branched, squarish, with numerous epidermal glands on younger parts. Leaves are petiolate, opposite, broadly ovate, apex obtuse, base cordate, crenate or toothed with thin hairy above. Flowers are many, blue purple to purple, in 15 to 80 cm long panicle, hermaphrodite and zygomorphic. Occurrence Clary sage is a drought and cold resistant plant. High altitude between 1,200 to 2,000 m with ample sunshine is suitable for its cultivation. The plant flourishes in wide variety of soil but well drained sandy loam to clay loam soils which are slightly acidic (pH 4.5) are best for its cultivation. Reproduction Flowering occurs during June and July and seeds mature during August and September. It is a cross pollinated crop. It is propagated through seeds. Nursery and Plantation Techniques Nearly 600 to 800 g of healthy seeds are sufficient for raising nursery for one-hectare area. Seed sowing in well-

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prepared nursery beds is done during November. Seeds germinate within 15 to 20 days and nursery gets ready for transplantation by the end of January. Transplanting is done during the end of January or first fortnight of February at a spacing of 30x45 cm in well-prepared field. Manure in the form of FYM (15 to 20 t/ha) is applied in the field at the time of land preparation. Nitrogen (90 kg/ha) is required for getting good growth of the crop. Basal dose of N (30 kg/ha), along with P2O5 (30 kg/ha) and K2O (30 kg/ha) is applied at the time of land preparation. Remaining nitrogen (60 kg/ha) is applied in two equal split doses, i.e., first after one month of transplantation and the second at the time of flower bud initiation. Two weedings are required during March and April. Two to three hoeing should be done before the flowering season. Irrigation is given at 7 to 10 days intervals during dry season. Harvesting and Postharvest The flowering spike is harvested at full bloom stage with the help of sickle. About 45 to 50 q/ha fresh flowering spikes are obtained which in turn give about 13 to 15 liters of oil. Daily harvest of fresh flowering spikes should be distilled by steam distillation. Excessive stalk growth should be removed before distillation as stalk contains the least quantity of oil. The distilled oil free from moisture is stored in airtight amber coloured bottles under refrigerated conditions. 263

Utilization and Economic Importance The flowering spikes of the plants yields essential oil, which is used in perfumery. Because of its coriander like notes, it is used as a flavour in liqueurs, ice creams, candy, alcoholic and non-alcoholic beverages, etc.

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Solanum nigrum (Makoy)


Introduction Solanum nigrum commonly known as makoy, makoi, kakamachi and black nightshade belongs to the family Solanaceae. It is an annual herbaceous weed, which grows up to 30 to 100 cm in height. It is an erect or rhambling, sparingly or often much branched, usually glabrous herb. Leaves are ovate or oblong, sinuate toothed or lobed and narrow at both the ends. Flowers are white in colour and the berries are red, yellow or black (3 different types of plants have been observed in this species). Occurrence Makoy is found growing throughout India in dry parts up to an elevation of 2,100 m. In Himachal Pradesh, it is found all over the state up to 2,600 m, especially as weed near villages, footpaths and fields. The plant grows on almost all types of the soil ranging from sandy loam to clay. It flourishes on the well-drained soil, which is fertile and rich in organic matter. It has the capacity to grow under different kinds of climates throughout India up to an attitude of 2,100 m and prefers a moderate climate for better growth. It is sensitive to frost and drought, but prefers open areas with bright sunshine. The plant cannot withstand high rainfall or high temperature. 265

Reproduction It is a self-pollinated crop and is propagated through seeds. The flowering and fruiting time is from June to October. Seeds are smooth and yellowish in colour. Nursery and Plantation Techniques The soil of nursery should be properly disinfected with formaldehyde before sowing. Farmyard manure should be properly mixed in the nursery beds. The seeds are sown in rows 5 to 10 cm apart at a depth of 0.5 to 1 cm in the raised nursery beds at least 30 days in advance to the transplanting in the field. The beds should be mulched and watered regularly. The required seed rate is 250 to 300 g/ha. The seedlings are ready for transplanting after 30 days. The land should be brought to fine tilth by ploughing it 2 to 3 times before the onset of monsoons depending upon the soil texture. Farmyard manure at the rate of 10 to 15 t/ha should be well mixed during ploughing. The whole field should be divided into beds of convenient sizes having proper water channels and furrows. For organic cultivation of Solanum nigrum, in addition to farmyard manure applied at the time of ploughing of the field, Azotobacter (1 g/plant) and vermicompost (2 t/ha) should be applied. While in case of inorganic fertilizers, N (100 kg/ha), P2O5 (50 kg/ha) and K2O (50 kg/ha) are optimum for obtaining the maximum yield of plant biomass from this crop. From this recommended dose of fertilizers, half the dose of N, the 266

whole of P2O5 and K2O should be applied as the basal dose at 7 days after transplanting followed by the application of the remaining half of N, after 30 days of transplanting as top dressing and the crop should be earthed up. The transplanting should be done in the well-prepared field with a spacing of 45x45 cm in normal productive soils. The spacing can be 60x45 cm in high productive soils. It can be raised directly by sowing the seeds either in rows, which are 45 or 60 cm apart. The plants raised by using this technique require proper thinning at about 2 to 4 leaf stage for requisite spacing. But, it is advantageous to raise nursery to get uniform crop. Weed growth in this crop is very high in the early stages of growth of the seedlings. To keep weeds under control, two weeding should be done at 25 to 30 and 45 to 50 days after transplanting. Harvesting and Postharvest Makoy should be harvested after 3 to 4 months. Harvesting should be done at mature green berry stage. The plants are cut into pieces and spread in a thin layer in order to dry the pieces preferably under partial shade. It should be taken into considerations that the drying herb pieces retains green colour. The dried herb becomes brittle and the berries crumble and should be packed in jute bags and stored in moisture free atmosphere. The average dry herb yield of this crop ranges form 6 to 8 t/ha. The existing market rate for this species is Rs 12 to 15 /kg for whole plant and Rs 1,200 to Rs 1,500 /kg for seed. 267

Plant Protection Different kinds of pests attack the plant and the common ones are ladybird beetle (Henosepilachna vigintioctopunctata), aphids (Aphis eronymi), grass hopper (Orthacris simulans), semilooper (Thysanoplusia orichalcea), leaf miner (Liriomiza trifolii) and cut worms (Spodoptera litura). Spraying of different kinds of pesticides and insecticides like monocrotophos (0.15%), carbaryl (0.2%), malathion (0.1%), dimethoate (0.2%), demecron (0.05%) and quinalphos (0.05%) have been recommended for the control of these pests. This plant suffers form many diseases like leaf spot (Alternaria spp and Cercospora spp) and viral diseases like yellow mosaic, phyllody, etc. Treatments with different fungicides like carbendazin (1.5 g/kg seed) for seed treatment and benomyl (0.1%), mancozeb (0.2%), dimethoate (0.2%) for spraying the crop are recommended for controlling these diseases. Utilization and Economic Importance The whole plant is used in different ayurvedic formulations. The leaves are used in the treatment of scrofulous dyscrasias and its over dose is said to produce diaphoresis. Berries are considered to have tonic, diuretic and cathartic properties. Green fruits contain glycoalkaloids, while mature fruits are reported to have glucose, fructose, vitaminC and B-carotene. 268

Spilanthes acmella (Akarkara / Akalkand)


Introduction Spilanthes acmella commonly called as akarkara, akalkada and para cress belongs to family Asteraceae. It is an annual herb, more or less pubescent, sometimes hairy. Stem is 30 to 60 cm tall, usually decumbent near the base. Leaves are opposite, stalked, ovate, lanceolate, nearly 5x3.75 cm, toothed or entire. Flower heads are discoid or radiate, conical, solitary on long stalks. Flowers are white or yellow in colour, mostly bisexual. Achenes are flattened, each enclosed in a scale. Occurrence It is distributed throughout India ascending up to 1,300 m above msl and often found occurring as a weed in rice fields. It is being grown successfully in the university Herbal Garden at Nauni, Solan for the last many years. It prefers tropical or subtropical climate and grows successfully in sandy-loam soil with good organic matter. Reproduction Flowering and fruiting takes place between May to November. It is a cross-pollinated crop and is propagated through seeds. 269

Nursery and Plantation Techniques Land should be ploughed 2 to 3 times to bring it to fine tilth which helps in aeration of soil and better development of roots. It is usually propagated through seeds. Nursery is sown during the month of March and April. A seed rate of 1.5 to 2 kg/ha is required. For higher yield of crop, 20 to 25 t/ha of well rotten FYM should be applied at the time of land preparation. NPK (12:32:16) at the rate of 30 kg/ha should be applied at the time of hoeing. The germination starts after 12 to 15 days of sowing. After 4 to 6 weeks, when the seedlings are 10 to 12 cm long, these are transplanted in 30 cm spaced rows, 30 cm apart in well-prepared field. The field should be irrigated immediately after transplantation. Harvesting and Postharvest The crop is harvested during the months of November and December. Freshly dugout roots should be washed with water to remove soil particles and then kept for drying in the sun. Flower heads and aerial parts should be dried in partial shade. After drying, the material should be packed in airtight containers or in gunny bags and should be stored in moisture free place. An average yield of 4 to 5 q/ha of dried roots and 10 to 12 q/ha dry herbage is obtained. The market rate of dried roots of akarkara varies between Rs 500 to 600 /kg and an income of Rs 2,00,000 to 2,50,000 /ha can be earned from the crop of akarkara. 270

Utilization and Economic Importance Main ingredient is spilanthol obtained from roots, leaves and flowering heads. Leaves are chewed to relieve toothache and affection of throat and gums. Flower heads are used as mouth freshener. Tincture made from the flower heads is reported to be used to treat inflammation of jawbones and caries. Plant boiled in water is given in dysentery and an ether extract of fresh flower tops is effective against anopheles mosquito larvae. It increases the flow of saliva and is useful in fever especially during summers.

Swertia chirayita (Chirayita)


Introduction Swertia chirayita commonly called as chirayita, chireta and chirata belongs to family Gentianaceae. It is a robust, erect, once flowering herb, attaining 60 to 150 cm height. Leaves are lanceolate, acute and opposite, cauline leaves much smaller than radicle leaves. Roots 5 to 10 cm long and light yellow in colour. Flowers are numerous, small, green yellow tinged with purple colour. Calyx and corolla are four lobed, green to light yellowish-white; two nectar glands present at the base of each petal. Fruit is an oval capsule containing 20 to 45 seeds. During the first year of growth, it remains as low stature plant without any visible shoot, but with abundant radicle leaves. These radicle leaves are very large ranging in length from 15 to 20 cm and 4.5 to 5.5 cm in breadth. During the second or third year, shoot development commences attaining a height of 60 to 150 cm, which bears cauline leaves, flowers and fruits. Occurrence It is found in temperate zone of the Himalayas between 1,800 to 3,000 m. But due to unscientific exploitation, it is disappearing from its natural habitat. In Himachal Pradesh, it is reported to be occurring in Shimla at Chadwick falls,

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Mashobra and Matiana. However, plants in nature are very difficult to locate and efforts are afoot to domesticate it. Reproduction Flowering occurs from July to October and fruiting during October and November. After fruiting, the plant dries up. It is a cross-pollinated crop and is propagated through seeds. Nursery and Plantation Techniques Seeds are sown in nursery in spring or autumn. Germination starts in about one to two months. Initial seedling growth is slow. Seedlings (4 to 6 leaf stage) are initially pricked into polybags containing soil, sand and FYM (1:1:1) mixture. They are retained in these polybags till they attain reasonable growth. This generally takes about several months. Seedlings in polybags of transplantable stage are transferred to the main field either during the month of November or February/March next year. Seedlings attain transplantable stage approximately 8 to 10 months after seed sowing. A spacing of 30x45 cm is considered to be optimum. Before transplanting, the field should be treated by carbofuron and thoroughly prepared and mixed with 10 to 15 t/ha of FYM. The field should be divided into raised strips to provide adequate drainage. After transplantation, for about one complete season, initial growth is restricted to the development of huge rosette of radicle 273

leaves. In second or third year, proper aerial shoot develops which bears cauline leaves, flowers and produce seeds. As the growing branches are weak, they require proper support to prevent breakage. Harvesting and Postharvest Capsules mature during October and November and the whole plant should be harvested only after seed collection, i.e., after October and November. Stems and roots are divided into small pieces dried and stored. Plant Protection Severe infection of nematode Melidogynae spp has been observed in the plantations raised at Shilley nursery during monsoon period. To check the nematode population, infected plants should be removed immediately and soil should be drenched with carbofuron (1 to 1.5 kg/ha). Drenching should be repeated after every 7 to 10 days. Utilization and Economic Importance The drug chirata is obtained from this plant. Whole plant possesses medicinal properties. It is useful as bitter tonic or mild febrifuge and possesses anthelmintic, antipyretic, antiperiodic and anti-diarrhoeal properties. It also cures leucoderma, inflammation, burning sensations, urinary troubles, bronchitis, asthma, malaria and liver problems. 274

Chirata extract obtained from the plant is used in herbal medicines such as Ayush-64, Diabecon, Mensturyl syrup and Melicon V ointment.

Tagetes minuta (Jangli gainda)


Introduction Tagetes minuta, commonly called as jangli gainda or wild marigold. It is an erect, annual, aromatic herb belonging to family Asteraceae. It attains 1 to 2 m height. Leaves are 7 to 15 cm long, pinnatisect, segments are 11 to 19, each of 4 cm or more long, linear or lanceolate; flower heads are pale yellow in corymbose and clusters; achenes are black and weigh 0.85 to 1.00 gm/1000 seeds. Occurrence The species finds habitat in western Himalayas between the altitudes of 1,000 to 2,500 m. The plants have wide adaptability to varying soil and climatic requirements. It can be easily cultivated over different soils and even under partial shade of trees. Though the crop can be grown in low altitudes and plains of northern India, but the quality of oil produced has low olfactory value and hence mid hills of Himachal Pradesh are best suited for its cultivation for getting good quality oil. Reproduction Flowering and fruiting takes place from July to October. It is a self-pollinated crop. Propagation is through seeds.

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Nursery and Plantation Techniques The main season for cultivation is between May to November. The mature seeds are collected from healthy plants at the end of November. The crop can be raised in the field either by direct sowing in lines or by transplanting nurseryraised seedlings. About 500 gm seeds are sufficient for raising plantation in one hectare area. This crop responds very well to organic and inorganic fertilizers. FYM (15 to 20 t/ha) is applied at the time of land preparation. For direct sowing, seeds are sown in well-prepared field during pre-monsoon showers at the end of May or first week of June. For raising nursery, the seed sowing is done in well prepared nursery beds at the end of April, so that nursery is ready for transplantation in mid June on the onset of monsoon season. The nursery raised plants are transplanted at a spacing of 60x45 cm. Fertilizer doses of NPK (120:60:60 kg/ha) is ideal for getting maximum yield of crop. Nitrogen is given in three equal splits of 40 kg each, first dose at the time of land preparation, second after two months of sowing and third at flower bud initiation time. Phosphorus and potassium are given as basal doses. After transplanting, the plants are irrigated daily for 3 to 4 days till they get established, if there are no rains during that period. In direct sown field, the crop is maintained at a spacing of 60x45 cm by thinning. The initial growth of plants is slow for 3 to 4 weeks and hence one weeding after two weeks of establishment of plants and second weeding after one month 277

of first weeding is essential for getting healthy plant growth. The plants are pinched at a height of 50 cm above ground level for getting more number of branches. The crop responds favourably to irrigation given during dry weather conditions. It grows easily under rainfed conditions, where monsoon rainfall is uniformly distributed. Tagetes minuta is a six months kharif crop. In Rabi season, wheat, vegetables or Matricaria chamomilla can be grown. Harvesting and Postharvest Marigold crop should be harvested at full bloom stage around October to November in mid hills. The leaves, flowers and fruits (achens) contain essential oil and stem part contains negligible amount of oil. It is labour intensive and uneconomical to harvest only leaves and flowers. The whole plant is cut from ground level with sickle and chopped to small pieces in chopper and immediately distilled for extraction of oil. On an average 25 t/ha of fresh herbage is obtained, which in turn yields about 50 to 60 kg of oil. The essential oil is obtained from the crop by steam distillation. The harvested material should be distilled within one or two days of harvesting. The yield of oil varies from 0.25 to 0.30 per cent on whole plant basis from fresh herbage. The water from the oil is removed by passing it through separating funnel. The moisture from oil is removed by treating the oil with anhydrous sodium sulphate (20 g/l). The pure oil is stored in 278

airtight amber coloured glass bottles under refrigerated conditions. Plant Protection In general wild marigold is free from diseases and insect pest infestation and no serious insect-pest or disease has been observed in mid hills. Utilization and Economic Importance The leaves and flowers of the plants are valuable source of essential oil, which is used mostly in perfumery industry.

Valeriana jatamansi (Mushakbala / Tagar)


Introduction Valeriana jatamansi commonly called as tagar also known as Indian valerian or mushakbala belongs to the family Valerianaceae. It is a perennial herb with a strong smelling rootstock. Radicle leaves are 2 to 7.5 cm long, deeply ovatecordate, acute with long petiole. Emergence of radicle leaves continues throughout the life cycle of the plant, whereas cauline leaves are visible only on flowering shoots. Female and bisexual flower bearing plants occur separately. Flowers are white or tinged with pink. Female flowers are comparatively smaller. Occurrence It is well distributed in temperate region of the western Himalayas between 1,800 to 2,600 m. In Himachal Pradesh, it is found in Shimla, Kinnaur, Kullu, Mandi, Kangra, Chamba, Sirmour and parts of Solan districts mostly under deodar, oak and blue pine forests. Reproduction Flowering takes place from February to April. After seed dispersal flowering shoot dries up. It is a cross-pollinated crop.

279

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Nursery and Plantation Techniques It can be reproduced both by seed as well as vegetatively (rhizome splits). However, seed propagation is preferred due to ease of germination. For vegetative propagation, rhizome cuttings (shoot offsets) are used as propagules. Seeds are generally sown in May or June in raised nursery beds. Approximately 120g seed is required for raising nursery for one-hectare area. Seed is minute, so surface sowing is preferred. Germination starts within 7 to 10 days after sowing. Three to four month old seedlings at 4 to 6 leaved stage are ready for transplantation during the onset of rainy season (August). Transplanting is done during August and September with a spacing of 30x30 cm. It prefers deep, rich soil and flourishes well under open cultivated conditions. FYM (10 to 15 t/ha) should be applied during field preparation. Regular weeding should be done during initial months after transplanting. In dry season, watering should be done at 10 to 15 days interval during winter and 7 to 10 days interval during summer months. Harvesting and Postharvest Root and rhizomes are dug out during autumn (October). Commercial harvesting is possible only after two years of plantation. After two years, 35 to 70 q/ha of fresh rootstock and nearly 8 to 15 q/ha of dry rootstock can be obtained from the crop. 281

Utilization and Economic Importance It is valued in traditional medicine for treating hysterical fits, hypochondriasis, nervous unrest, emotional troubles, epilepsy, asthma, leprosy, cholera and skin diseases. Roots are used as carminative, laxative, antiperiodic and aphrodisiac. Most of the therapeutical properties are due to the presence of the group of compounds termed as valepotriates present in its rootstock. Essential oil present in rootstock is valued for its use as flavouring agent and in perfumery.

282

Viola odorata (Banafsha)


Introduction Viola odorata commonly called as banafsha, vanaksha or sweet violet belongs to family Violaceae. It is a small, perennial herb, with short tufted rootstocks putting out lateral rooting stolons. Leaves arise in rosettes, are long stalked, ovate and cordate; flowers are lilac, blue or sometimes bluish white borne separately on delicate stalks. The corollas are literally symmetrical, formed of 5 petals with a nectar-bearing spur. Capsules are globose, many seeded. Cleistogamy has also been observed in the plant. Occurrence The genus Viola has many species namely V. pilosa, V. canescens, V. patrinii and V. biflora found throughout temperate Himalayas up to an altitude of 4,000 m. In Himachal Pradesh, Viola species are found in Chamba, Kangra, Kinnaur, Kullu, Mandi, Sirmour, Bilaspur, Shimla and Solan districts. V. odorata is an introduced species from Europe to Kashmir and Himachal Pradesh. The plant grows well in a cool and moist climate, but exposure to heavy or frequent rain is fatal for its blooming. Sandy loam soil is best for the crop. Reproduction Flowering and fruiting takes place during March and 283

April and second sporadic flush appears from July to September. It is a self-pollinated crop. The plant can be propagated through division of lateral stolons, splits and seeds. Nursery and Plantation Techniques The land is ploughed 2 to 3 times before sowing. Approximately 25 t/ha of FYM is required at the time of field preparation. Addition of NPK (90:60:60) is suggested, as per the soil nutrient status. The seed rate of 500 to 600 g/ha, and about 1,60,000 seedlings are required for one-hectare. Healthy and mature seeds are selected and are sown during the month of March or April. Planting through stolons/splits is done in the month of November or December. When the seedlings are 8 to 10 cm long, they are transplanted in 25 cm spaced rows, 25 cm apart in well-prepared field. The field should be irrigated immediately after transplantation. Proper weeding and hoeing are necessary to obtain good yield. Harvesting and Postharvest Flowering starts during the months of March and April and continues till June or July. Heavy flush comes usually in March and April, thus harvesting should be during this period. The flowers are usually dried in the shade and after drying, the flowers should be packed in airtight containers. An average yield of 1 to 2 q/ha of dry flowers and 10 to 15 q/ha of dry foliage can be obtained. The market rate of flowers varies 284

between Rs 400 to 700 /kg and of foliage/whole plant (dried form) between Rs 100 to 200/kg. An income ranging between Rs. 55,000 to 1,20,000 /ha from flowers and Rs 1,00,000 to 1,50,000 /ha from foliage can be earned from this crop after second year. Utilization and Economic Importance Roots contain glucoside methyl salicylate; yield an alkaloid, violine a glycoside, viola quercitin, which is probably identical with rutin and a saponin. Roots, leaves and blossoms contain methyl-salicylate in the form of a glucoside. Whole plant and flowers are used in medicine. In action, it is aperient, antipyretic, cooling, demulscent and diaphoretic, diuretic, emetic, emollient, expectorant, febrifuge and purgative. Also useful in asthma, bleeding piles, cancer of throat, cough, fever, headache and skin diseases.

Withania somnifera (Ashwaganda)


Introduction Withania somnifera commonly known by the names ashwagandha, asgandh and asugandh belongs to the family Solanaceae. It is commonly known as winter cherry in English. It is an erect, herbaceous, evergreen and tomentose under shrub, 50 to 150 cm tall. All parts are clothed with whitish, stellate hairs. Leaves petiolate, 5 to 10 cm long, ovate and subacute. Flowers are bisexual, greenish or lurid yellow usually about 5 together in sub-sessile umbelliform cymes. The fruit is a berry, enclosed in calyx pouch, turning orange red in colour when mature. Seeds are many and enclosed in pulp. Occurrence Ashwagandha is an important cultivated medicinal crop of India. It is also found wild in grazing grounds in Madhya Pradesh, Punjab, Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand up to 1,500 m above msl. The crop is cultivated in an area of about 4,000 ha in India mainly in Madhya Pradesh, Punjab, Rajasthan and some areas in south India. Ashwagandha grows successfully in sandy loam or light red soils with good organic matter and drainage. It prefers a subtropical climate and is planted in the rainy season and prefers dry weather for its successful cultivation. 286

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Reproduction Flowering and fruiting takes place between June to November. It is also a self-pollinated crop and is cultivated through seeds. Nursery and Plantation Techniques The crop can be grown by directly sowing the seeds into the field as well as by raising nursery. Seeds are sown directly in the main field by broadcasting during the second week of June, before the onset of monsoons. Seed rate of 10 to 12 kg/ha is required. Nursery is sown during the month of April to June. To avoid nursery diseases, the seeds are treated with Diathene M-45 at the rate of 3 g/kg of seeds before sowing. The germination starts after 10 to 15 days of sowing. When the seedlings are 6 to 7 weeks old, they are transplanted in 30 cm spaced rows 5 to 7 cm apart (plant to plant to obtain soft roots) in well-prepared field. The field should be irrigated immediately after transplantation. Ashwagandha does not require heavy doses of manures and fertilizers. For a good crop 10 t/ha of FYM should be applied at the time of land preparation. The directly sown crop is thinned at 25 to 30 days to maintain a plant population of 4,76,000 to 6,66,000/ ha. Hand weeding at 30 days interval helps to control the weeds effectively. Harvesting and Postharvest Harvesting is done in the month of December or 287

January. The maturity of crop is judged by the drying leaves and the berries turning red. The entire plant is uprooted and roots are separated from aerial parts by cutting the stem 1 to 2 cm above the crown. Roots are washed with running water or beaten with club to remove the adhering soil. They are then transversely cut into smaller pieces for drying. After drying the entire product is carefully hand sorted into grades, based on the thickness and uniformity of the pieces. Generally the roots are graded into three categories, i.e., A, B and C. An average yield of 5 to 7 q/ha of dried roots and 60 to 70 kg/ha of seed is obtained. The market rate of dried roots of ashwagandha varies between Rs 50 to 60 /kg. An income of Rs 25,000 to 40,000 /ha can be earned from 5 to 6 months crop of ashwagandha. Plant Protection Seed rotting, seedling blight and leaf blight are common diseases affecting ashwagandha. They reduce the plant population drastically. They can be minimized by treating the seeds before sowing with Captan at the rate of 3 g/kg of seeds, followed by spraying the crop with Diathene M-45 at the rate of 3 g/l of water, when the crop is 30 days old. If the disease is not controlled, then the spray should be repeated at an interval of 7 to 10 days. Utilization and Economic Importance Several types of alkaloids are found in this plant, out 288

of which withanine and somniferine are important. The total alkaloid contents in the roots have been reported to vary between 0.13 to 0.31 per cent, though much higher yield up to 4.32 per cent has also been reported. In addition to alkaloids, roots are reported to contain starch, reducing sugars, free amino acids and neutral compounds. Leaves contain many free amino acid and unidentified alkaloids. The drug ashwagandha derived from roots is mainly used in ayurvedic and unani formulations. Withaferine-A has been receiving good deal of attention because of its antibiotic and anti-tumor properties. Roots are used for curing leucorrhoea, rheumatism, dyspepsia, skin diseases and bronchitis and are mainly used for curing general and sexual debility. Fruits and seeds are diuretic in nature. The leaves are reported to possess anthelmintic and febrifuge properties. The ointment prepared by boiling the leaves, is useful for the treatment of bedsores and wounds.

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Patron Dr K.R. Dhiman Vice-Chancellor Direction Dr A.K. Verma Director, Extension Education Compiled and edited by Dr SD Bhardwaj Director of Research Dr Rajan Bawa Dy. Director Research (Forestry) Technical Support Dr R.N. Sehgal Prof & Head, Deptt. of Tree Improvement & other scientists Dr S.D. Kashyap Prof & Head, Deptt. of Silviculture & Agroforestry and other scientists Dr N.S. Chauhan Prof & Head, Deptt. of Forest Products & other scientists Advisory Board Sh Pankaj Khullar, IFS Principal Chief Conservator of Forests HP Forest Department Dr S.D. Bhardwaj Dean COF-cum-Director of Research Dr OP Sharma Jt. Director (Communication) Printed and Published by : Director, Directorate of Extension Education, Dr YS Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry, Nauni, Solan (HP)

Package of Practices For Forestry Crops


( r e ,S r b ,G a s s B m o sa d Tes hus rse, abo n M d c n l&A o a i P a t ) eiia rmtc lns

Directorate of Extension Education


Dr YS Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry Nauni (Solan) 173 230 (HP)

SHRUBS Berberis lycium (Kashmal) Carissa opaca (Karaundha) Coriaria nepalensis (Makkola) Debregeasia hypoleuca (Sairu) Indigofera pulchella (Kathi) Justicia adhatoda (Basuti) Woodfordia fruticosa (Dhai)

Mukesh Prabhakar Mukesh Prabhakar Mukesh Prabhakar Mukesh Prabhakar Mukesh Prabhakar Mukesh Prabhakar Mukesh Prabhakar

137 140 143 145 148 150 152

BAMBOOS Dendrocalamus hamiltonii (Maggar bans) DR Bhardawaj Dendrocalamus strictus (Male bamboo) DR Bhardawaj Grasses Chloris gayana (Rhods grass) Pennisetum species (Hybrid napier) Panicum maximum (Guinea grass) Setaria anceps (Golden timothy)

155 161

Bhupender Gupta Bhupender Gupta Bhupender Gupta Bhupender Gupta

166 169 172 176

Mentha species (Pudina) Mucuna pruriens (Kaunch) Ocimum basilicum (Meethi tulsi) Ocimum sanctum (Tulsi) Pelargonium graveolens (Rose scented geranium) Picrorhiza kurroa (Kutki / Kadu) Rauvolfia serpentina (Sarpaganda) Rheum australe (Ravandcini / Rhubarb) Rosmarinus officinalis (Rosemary) Salvia officinalis (Sage) Salvia sclarea (Clary sage) Solanum nigrum (Makoy) Spilanthes acmella (Akarkara/Akalkand) Swertia chirayita (Chirayita) Tagetes minuta (Jangli gainda) Valeriana jatamansi (Mushakbala / Tagar) Viola odorata (Banafsha) Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha)

Bhupender Dutt YP Sarma Bhupender Dutt Bhupender Dutt RC Rana R Raina Bhupender Dutt NS Chauhan Meenu Sood YP Sharma YP Sharma KR Sharma NS Chauhan R Raina YP Sharma R Raina NS Chauhan NS Chauhan

224 229 232 237 241 246 249 253 256 259 262 265 269 272 276 280 283 286

MEDICINAL AND AROMATIC PLANTS Abelmoschus moschatus (Kasturi KR Sharma bhindi /Musk plant) Andrographis paniculata (Kalmegh/ NS Chauhan Chiretta) Asparagus racemosus (Shatavari) NS Chauhan Bunium persicum (Kalazeera) NS Chauhan Digitalis lanata (Tilpushpi) NS Chauhan Dioscorea deltoidea (Singli mingli) RC Rana Eclipta prostrata (Bhringraj) KR Sharma Gentiana kurroo (Karu) RC Rana Gloriosa superba (Kalihari) R Raina Hypericum perforatum (Basant) R Raina Lavandula officinalis (Lavender) Meenu Sood Matricaria chamomilla (German Meenu Sood chamomile) Melissa officinalis (Lemon balm) Meenu Sood

180 184 187 191 196 199 202 205 208 211 214 218 221

MESSAGE
The forest cover over the Himalayas feed the life support systems and also provide food and water security, which are embedded within it. The forests also play a vital role in subsistence economy of a large population especially living in and around them. In addition, they also maintain ecological balance and provide environmental stability. This signifies the need not only to protect them, but also to increase the green cover. Since the Himalayas are more sensitive to the adverse effects of biotic interferences and climatic change, therefore, we need to conserve and promote them through afforestation. It is quite remarkable to know that the Directorate of Extension Education is bringing out a "Package of Practices for Forestry Crops (Trees, Shrubs, Grasses, Bamboos and Medicinal & Aromatic Plants)", which is very much required, as it will be of great use to the foresters, scientists, NGOs and progressive farmers for successful adoption and raising of area specific plantations for carbon trading, fulfilling their fuel and fodder requirements and supply of medicinal and aromatic plants to pharmaceuticals. This will also help in supplementing farmhouse income and conserve the Himalayan environment at large. I congratulate the contributing scientists for bringing out the present compilation.

KR Dhiman Vice Chancellor

PREFACE
The State of Himachal Pradesh over the years has witnesses a widespread exploitation of forest wealth, which plays vital role in the economy of the state. Our forest cover is perilously low and that too with gleaming poor productivity. Areas which once supported substantial forest cover are turned into marginal areas. Indiscriminate felling on private land further created shortage of each day needs of the farming communities, transferring their dependence on neighbouring forests. Presently, the forests of Himachal Pradesh are spread over 14,360 km2, which accounts for 25.70 per cent of the total geographical area of the stae. The state forest department undertakes plantation work under various programmes and during the year 2003-04, plantation work on 13,414 ha was taken up. The target of achieving 66 per cent of the geographical area under forest can only be achieved through afforestation on both the forest areas by the goverment agencies, farming community and other voluntary agencies on privately owned areas, so that they become self sufficient for non-farm daily needs and reduce pressure on surrounding forests and also generate additinal income. Rehabilitation of denuded and marginal areas is not only important but also challenging for mountain societies and governments in the region and associated communities downstream. But the same needs proven plantation technology and proper choice of species. Although lot of reaseach work has been carried out by the University scientists on trees, shrubs, grasses, bamboos and medicinal & aromatic plant

species, yet the technology generated has not effectively percolated to the end users. The current endeavor was undertaken to compile all the research information available with the scientists on different forest species and bring out a consolidated compilation for forestry crops. The present compilation was further refined and finalized after exhaustive deliberations and discussions between the senior forest officers and university scientists during the state level workshop. Since all the plant species are very important, as each one has its own specific growing niche and also possess an intrinsic value, which may play a big or small role in ecosystem functioning, providing economic benefits and conserving the environment at large. Thus herein we have included cultural practices for 27 tree, 7 shrub, 4 grass, 2 bamboo and 37 medicinal and aromatic plant species found growing naturally in all the four agro-climatic regions of the state and those which can be introduced for harnessing economic gains. It is hoped that the cultural practices of 77 species incorporated herein will serve as useful guiding principle for the forest field functionaries, progressive farmers and other Voluntary agencies. In the end, the financial assistance received from the Himachal Pradesh Forest Department, Shimla is duly acknowledged for holding of the workshop and publication of "Package of Practices for Forestry Crops (Trees, Shrubs, Bamboos, Grasses and Medicinal & Aromatic Plants)". SD Bhardwaj AK Verma R Bawa

FOREWORD
Forests constitute a vital natural resource for the survival of mankind. They are inerwoven with the progress of our civilization and have been a boon for sustaining and trnsforming the economies. Although forestry is the second biggest landuse in India after agriculture, contribution of forestry to the socio-economic development of the country is not very well understood by the people at large. Forests silently serve the nation occupying about one-fifth of the country's landmass. The forests of Himachal Pradesh are known not only for their grandeur and majesty, but also play a significant role in maintaining the fragile ecosystem of the north-western Himalayas. Of the geographical area of 55,673 km2 in Himachal Pradesh, legally classified forest area is 37,033 km2 (68.78%), comprising of trees, pastures, and even treeless cold desert. During the last century we have tended to overuse our forest resources, resulting in ecological degradation, erosion of biodiversity and lowering of forest density. Today, we are facing a colossal mismatch between demand and supply of forest based products, as also the emergence of many environmental problems. Issues such as sustainable development, equitable benefit sharing, Intellectual Property Rights and National Sovereignty have taken over the modern conservation scene.

India introduced a progressive "National Forest Policy (1988)" that recognizes the relationship between rural poverty and environmental protection. It is also accompanied by a massive afforestation programme on village commons and on biologically unproductive wastelands. It is extremely timely for the University scientists to bring out the much needed "Package of practices for Forestry Crops (Trees, Shrubs, Grasses, Bamboos and Medicinal & Aromatic Plants)" which would help not only in various plantation programmes but also help to conserve the existing forest cover, increase area under green cover, promote their rile in ecosystem restoration and meet societal needs on sustainale basis.

Pankaj Khullar Principal Chief Conservator of Forests Himachal Pradesh Forest Department The Talland, Shimla-171 001

A FOREST PRAYER
Ye who pass by And who would raise your hand against me Hearken ere you harm me. I am the heat of your heart On the cold winter night The friendly shade Shielding you from the summer sun Any my fruits are refershing draughts Quench your thirst As you journey on. I am the beam That holds your house The board of your table The bed on which you lie And the timber that builds your boat. I am the handle of your hoe The door of your homestead The wood of your cradle And the shell of your coffin. Ye who passes by Listen to my prayer And harm me not.

A FOREST PRAYER
Ye who pass by And who would raise your hand against me Hearken ere you harm me. I am the heat of your heart On the cold winter night The friendly shade Shielding you from the summer sun Any my fruits are refershing draughts Quench your thirst As you journey on. I am the beam That holds your house The board of your table The bed on which you lie And the timber that builds your boat. I am the handle of your hoe The door of your homestead The wood of your cradle And the shell of your coffin. Ye who passes by Listen to my prayer And harm me not.

CONTENTS
Name of Species TREES Abies pindrow (Fir/Silver fir/Tosh) Acacia catechu (Khair) Albizia chinensis (Siris/Kala siris) Resource Person Page 1 6 11 15 20 25 32 37 41 45 51 55 61 67 72 77 84 90 96 101 107 112 116 119 122 128 134

GS Shamet KR Sharma DP Sharma and SD Bhardawaj Albizia lebbek (Siris/East Indian walnut) DP Sharma and SD Bhardawaj Bauhinia variegata (Kachnar) KC Chauhan Cedrus deodara (Deoda/Himalayan cedar)GS Shamet Celtis australis (Khirak/Nettle tree) GK Sharma Emblica officinalis (Amla) RK Nayital Grewia optiva (Biul) IK Thakur Hippophae species (Seabuckthorn/ HP Sankyan Chharma/Sutz) Juniperus macropoda (Dhup/Padam) R Bawa Morus alba (Mulberry) PS Thakur Picea smithiana (Himalayan spruce/Rai) GS Shamet Pinus gerardiana (Neoza/Chilgoza) R Bawa Pinus roxburghii (Chirpine/Chil) RN Sehgal Populus ciliata (Himalayan poplar/Chalan) DK Khurana Populus deltoides (Poplar/Eastern DK Khurana cottonwood) Quercus leucotrichophora (Ban oak) NK Gupta Robinia pseudoacacia (Robinia / Kamlesh Kanwar Black locust) Salix alba (Willow) NB Singh Santalum album (Chandan) KS Verma Sapindus mukorossi (Reetha) Kamal Sharma Taxus baccata (Yew) R Bawa Terminalia bellerica (Bahera) RK Nayital Terminalia chebula (Harad) RK Nayital Toona ciliata (Tooni) Vidya Chauhan Ulmus villosa (Marinoo) Bhupender Dutt