Leadership

By Norashidah Md Din

Leadership Definition 1
• The Collins English Dictionary. ( © 1998 HarperCollins Publishers ) leadership (n) 1. The position or function of a leader. 2. the period during which a person occupies the position of leader: during her leadership very little was achieved. 3. a. the ability to lead. b. (as modifier): leadership qualities. 4. the leaders as a group of a party, union, etc.: the union leadership is now very reactionary. This dictionary definition of leadership focuses on the position (singular or collective), tenure and ability of leaders.

• Peter Drucker : The forward to the Drucker Foundation's "The Leader of the Future" sums up leadership : "The only definition of a leader is someone who has followers." To gain followers requires influence but doesn't exclude the lack of integrity in achieving this. Indeed, it can be argued that several of the world's greatest leaders have lacked integrity and have adopted values that would not be shared by many people today.

Definition 2

Definition 3
• John C Maxwell : In the 21 Irrefutable Laws of Leadership, John Maxwell sums up his definition of leadership as "leadership is influence - nothing more, nothing less." This moves beyond the position defining the leader, to looking at the ability of the leader to influence others - both those who would consider themselves followers, and those outside that circle. Indirectly, it also builds in leadership character, since without maintaining integrity and trustworthiness, the capability to influence will disappear.

having a vision that is well communicated.Definition 4 • Warren Bennis: Warren Bennis' definition of leadership is focused much more on the individual capability of the leader : "Leadership is a function of knowing yourself." . building trust among colleagues. and taking effective action to realize your own leadership potential.

Summary from Definition • Leadership – position -> election or appointment – Influence -> those who can influence others is exerting leadership “knowing yourself and exerting influence with integrity and trustworthiness in tact!” .

LEADERSHIP STYLE • AUTOCRATIC • DEMOCRATIC • LAISSEZ-FAIRE ( pronounce as leh-say fair) .

manipulation or even threats to accomplish their goals.Autocratic • The leader's word is "law." • The typical autocratic leader does not involve others in the decision making process. • Style is popular with today's CEO's . • And this type of leader might resort to force.

. She was meticulous and demanding.Example of Autocratic • Martha Stewart: built her empire with personal attention to each and every detail. She was also very successful in her endeavours and in using her autocratic management style.

Surprisingly.Upside of Autocratic • In the workplace. most workers have already worked for an autocratic leader and therefore have little trouble adapting to that style. . some conditions may simply call for urgent action. and in these cases an autocratic style of leadership may be best style to adopt.

. With today's emphasis on joint decision making and empowerment. employees just entering the workforce will be highly resistant to this management style.Downside of Autocratic • The down side is that some studies suggest that organizations with lots of autocratic leaders have higher turnover and absenteeism than other organizations.

• Workers feel that their opinion counts and because of that feeling they are more committed to achieving the goals and objectives of the group. • The style produces a work environment that employees can feel good about. . • And key to this style is communication .seeking the opinions of others and letting your opinion be known.Democratic • The primary behaviour of these leaders was to forge consensus through collaboration.

Example of Democratic Leadership • Democratic governments like Malaysia • ???? .

. •This creates an ideal environment for collaborative problem solving in addition to decision making.Upside of Democratic Leadership •Since employees have an equal say in the decision-making process. they are more committed to the desired outcome. •The collaborative environment created by this style often results in more thorough solutions to problems.

If the business need is urgent. If the workforce is inexperienced. this style is not very effective. . • takes time to get to a decision.Downside of Democratic Leadership • depends on the knowledge of his followers or employees. the democratic leader needs to switch styles.

• Allows followers to have complete freedom to make decisions concerning the completion of their work or ask questions of the leader • The leader provides the followers with the materials they need to accomplish their goals and answers questions to the follower's questions .LAISSEZ-FAIRE • The laissez faire style is sometimes described as a "hands off" leadership style because the leader provides little or no direction to the followers.

.Example of LAISSEZ-FAIRE • US President Ronald Reagan demonstrated a more hands-off leadership style. His administration was characterized by reduced federal regulations of business and industry and a return of power to the states.

. In these cases. less direction is required so this style can be good.Upside of LAISSEZ-FAIRE •This kind of style is positive only in the case when the employees are very responsible and in case of creative jobs where a person is guided by his own aspirations.

It proves poor management and makes the employees lose their sense of direction and focus. . The disinterest of the management and leadership causes the employees to become less interested in their work and their dissatisfaction increases.Downside of LAISSEZ-FAIRE • This style has more disadvantages because usually it is the result of the lack of interest of the leader that leads to his adopting this style.

Which style to use or is better? • An effective leader should be able to use all three depending on situation and circumstances in order to get the job done. .

let alone the extra tasks you've assigned? • Your answers to these types of questions can reveal a great deal about your personal leadership style. what is your first reaction? Do you chase everyone to get back on track. • When your boss puts you in charge of organizing the company annual dinner. or do you ease off a bit recognizing that everyone is busy just doing his/her job.Leadership check…. . what do you do first? Do you develop a time line and start assigning tasks or do you think about who would prefer to do what and try to schedule around their needs? When the planning starts to fall behind schedule.

because he wants to do it. when you want it done. in the way you want it done.LEADERSHIP is… …the ability to get a person to do what you want him to do. .

Others are very people-oriented. • Neither preference is right or wrong. so that you can then working on developing skills that you may be missing.• Some leaders are very task-oriented. . then you're more people-oriented. just as no one type of leadership style is best for all situations. If you make people your priority and try to accommodate employee needs. they simply want to get things done. If you prefer to lead by setting and enforcing tight schedules. And others are a combination of the two. it's useful to understand what your natural leadership tendencies are. However. you tend to be more production-oriented (or task-oriented). they want people to be happy.

it plots the degree of taskcenteredness versus person-centeredness and identifies five combinations as distinct leadership styles. or Leadership Grid. Called the Managerial Grid.A Leadership Framework • A popular framework for thinking about a leader's 'task versus person' orientation was developed by Robert Blake and Jane Mouton in the early 1960s. .

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their interests. organizational efficiency and high productivity when deciding how best to accomplish a task. • Using the axis to plot leadership 'concerns for production' versus 'concerns for people'.• Understanding the Model • The Managerial Grid is based on two behavioral dimensions: • Concern for People .This is the degree to which a leader considers the needs of team members. Blake and Mouton defined the following five leadership styles .This is the degree to which a leader emphasizes concrete objectives. and areas of personal development when deciding how best to accomplish a task • Concern for Production .

• Country Club Leadership . and procedures. people in this category believe that employees are simply a means to an end.High Production/Low People Also known as Authoritarian or Compliance Leaders. These people operate under the assumption that as long as team members are happy and secure then they will work hard.High People/Low Production This style of leader is most concerned about the needs and feelings of members of his/her team. • Produce or Perish Leadership . has strict work rules. This type of leader is very autocratic. and views punishment as the most effective means to motivate employees. What tends to result is a work environment that is very relaxed and fun but where production suffers due to lack of direction and control. policies. Employee needs are always secondary to the need for efficient and productive workplaces. .

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Medium Production/Medium People This style seems to be a balance of the two competing concerns. • Middle-of-the-Road Leadership . nor for creating a work environment that is satisfying and motivating. though: When you compromise. dissatisfaction and disharmony. It may at first appear to be an ideal compromise. Leaders who use this style settle for average performance and often believe that this is the most anyone can expect. you necessarily give away a bit of each concern so that neither production nor people needs are fully met.Low Production/ Low People This leader is mostly ineffective. The result is a place of disorganization. . Therein lies the problem.• Impoverished Leadership . He/she has neither a high regard for creating systems for getting the job done.

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High Production/High People According to the Blake Mouton model. as a result. This creates a team environment based on trust and respect. which leads to high satisfaction and motivation and. The premise here is that employees are involved in understanding organizational purpose and determining production needs. . this is the pinnacle of managerial style. their needs and production needs coincide. These leaders stress production needs and the needs of the people equally highly.• Team Leadership . high production. When employees are committed to. and have a stake in the organization's success.

the "Team Leader" as an ideal has moved to the ideal of the "Transformational Leader" .Theories of leadership have moved on a certain amount since the Blake Mouton Grid was originally proposed. And in many situations.

Has high expectations. Stirs people's emotions. Sets clear goals. Provides support and recognition. .The "Transformational Leader“ -> Someone who. Encourages. and Inspires people to reach for the improbable. Gets people to look beyond their self-interest. according to leadership researcher Bernard Bass: Is a model of integrity and fairness.

The Choice to Act – Will we act upon life or will we merely be acted upon? Three Everyday Choices • 2. The Choice for Principles – Will we live our lives in accordance to proven principles. will our daily choices lead? • 3.(from Everyday Greatness -Reader’s Digest) • 1. or will we suffer the consequences of not doing so? . or purposes. The Choice of Purpose – To what ends.

(that you cannot go against) Power of principles • One foggy night at the sea the captain of a ship saw what looked like the lights of another ship heading toward him. The message was: “Change your course ten degrees to the south”. • The reply came back: “ Change your course ten degrees to the north. He had his signalman contact the other ship by light.” .

” .” • Reply: “I am seaman first class – change your course ten degrees to the north. so he signaled back: “ I am a battleship – change your course ten degrees to the south.• Then the captain answered: “I am captain.” • This last exchange really infuriated the captain. so you change your course ten degrees to the south.

• Reply: “ And I am a lighthouse. Change your course ten degrees to the north!” (Story by Dan Bell in RD) .

What principles to rely on? • Do some soul searching on the meaning of life – read as much as you can • What proven principles already there? • Truth seeking attitude. . as laid down in Quran and showed in Hadith (Narration of how the Prophet pbuh embraces life as practical example). which is the “lighthouse” that you cannot go against? • Example – for Muslims.

If he uses them wrongly. he can become lower than the lowest form ( a beast). Otherwise. (At-Tin: 4-5) .Example: Principles from Islam • Khalifah fil ard – upon creation everyone agreed to become “leader/vicegerent” in the world (Al-Baqarah:30) • The Creator created mankind in the best of mould as a “leader” and he is also given will and discretion. he would be rewarded unfailingly.

Discipline. society. Perseverance. Sincerity. Honesty. Trustworthiness. Courage. Gratitude. relations. neigbours. Integrity. Relationship with parents. Humility. value of life …… . love. enjoying what is right and forbidding what is wrong (Al-Imran:110) • Other basic principles (not exhaustive): Responsibility.More Examples • You’re the best of people. country. Respect. Empathy.

And let the soul searching begins .) if not already! .

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