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Mass Media

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lThe television is detrimental to our abitity to think criticalty.


2should we still expect objective reporting from today,s mass rnedia?
Society
3Has globalisation made the world more civilised?

5-34

4clobalisation has crated two worlds, not onc. Comment.


5somc high-profile politicians have brought up claims that the young adults in indllstrialized or rapidly industrialized countries like the Unitcd Statcs and Singapore are too self-absorbed. Do yott agree?
6The family has suffered at the expense ofcareer iD Singaporan society. Disc6s.

TCri(ically examine the forces threatcning the family in Singapore. 8Critically examine the forces threatening the family in Singaporc todav.
9Parents in Singaporc today hnve generally abdicated thcir responsibilities. T(, ivhat extent do you agree with this statement?

lols ar agl]ing population necessarily

a bad

thing?

llls

an ageing population necessarily a b:rd thing?

12ln this modern era, the aged are becoming more ir.relcvant than they ale useful. What arc your viervs?
lS lhe greatcst obstacle to womcn achieving eqtlality is the wornen thcrnselves. I)o you agree?

l4our

lives are determined by the places $e :rre born into. How true is this belicP

IsPublic figures have to behave wel! at all times. Do you agree?

l6"Thc road

less

travellcd." (M. Scott Peck) is being diffcrent overratcd?


35-43

Valucs
lTHumlln lifc
is precious nnd nrtlst bc preservcd at allcosts. Discuss.

lSAsian Values: Do thcy exist?

38capital punishment versus the life sentence. Discuss.


3gEx-criminals ought to be given a secoud chance. Discuss.

Sports
40Sport is taking fun seriously. Do you agree?

82-89

4lsport has fallen short ofits true ideals. Is this true of today's world?
42Is it true that competitiye sport is all about fame and money?

43with technology, sport is no longer the samc. Do you agree?


Miscellaneous 90-104

44"Hal the world, make it a better place." Can we?


45"Science enslaves, the arfs liberates." Discuss.

46Any change in society begins in the school. Comment. 4THistory is dominated by wars. Discuss. 48comment on the st:lte of tr:rditional rrts in your country.
49Genetic Patcnting S0Tragedy and Our Response Quotes
105-109 110-113

Vocabulary

The television is detrimental to our ability to think critically. The srereotypical imase of the American family is often that of an obese middle_ aged farher. his wife and chitiren on thc of ,,li"L,*.. ,ra';"g white earine chips. rhis "",g" ..*u,io. u,o;;;"";;;;'.;;;;:.,. nor enlirety ", ].1.^Y:::,q" devetoped nar,ons and uncommon rn rew wonder orren calted rhe "idior-box". Of lare. it has [reen accused "h) of discouraging ir"","g a neSari\e effect on rhe vieweft' abiliry to rhink ""a "r.* criticaly.i;; #;",iil;,"r""!il,lir"",

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First of all. ir is neccs.an to clearly defi e whet is refercd lo bv one s ability lo criLica'y. tr rcfers ro rne ar,;liry of rhc i"di",d";i-; i;;i';i.Jri i1,10..,,".. o, ,,, issue and weigh borh rheir meriLs and.faltacies d;"#;;:;firion. To thintr criticatly is ro rhink independenrtu *a ai.pu.ionui"ii,;i;;,f";il"* unafl.ecred by public opinion. Lrsrly, ir is rhe abil;ty to make a rati&i;;:#;;lltson *hur on"," five senses have observed, not one based
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ln this aspect, the television itselfis to blame to an extent. Most of the timc, what ore sees on any tclevision channcl is the.A-".i.un ui.*. it ill i" i".u"u.."l",ng ,rr" e.onotnii .uf'er porrer. ir hrr. nrrmfred trillrnns *toUnt i",o In.Jir',..nn.lorr"',o p.n1",, ,,.

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advalced satellite technology in the world_ A lot of news and even entertainmenl we rcceive is not witholt an American sl one wonders how one can think criticallv when tt is o,rty u,re'ui.*;;l;:#;:1*

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Of'ten. the infomtalion we reccivc is already in processed fon]r. When flmous juagn'.,'i o,' ,,,f i,,u., iil'o.irr, ,",i";.", Atd"nt fans o[ celebrities hang o' to every word "n, their idols say even if th. ."l"b.itutl rirrrc or nothrrtg rbout a Prrticular issuc.

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Another important reason whv rhe teler tsion is more prone to such accusation in comparisoo ro orher rnass nredi:r i< ',"."','J, the ,.,.; ;il; il.rlormilin . WlleI r(rdi g,u.r..p,,p.r..,u,. ";;;;';#'i',in', tmirAine i s..c hjls t,, tr) d the cverr rcporrc,t hrpperrinr ir ^n".s lr\t to s rrrirrd },... ,"1,u onr1 i. in""oi",*o .",o,,,"u nhotoBrilphs to aj(l the Fro!c\s.'ne radio only providcs The sound, so what the cvent itself IooL: lrke r. upir ro intcrtrr,.rirriL,rr fh" <lr.rn _q"i.",r ,o r(qurre\ rtrnl'18 rlrrlirv rrnd drttcjenr ",,r!ir"'1u"n,.,r,.,,,,,,,* peuptc uil inrertrcr ,h";;;;;; ." ,i.,, opinions- -Ielc\ tsion, hower cr is 0",_",,, m tull colour and stercophonic sound , and one docs not needrorhinkJr :rll whilc reccr\ino rh. intonrrrun ur".,a.i., ,rrr"rlr,',i""1.".".,, I*o.,u, ol li\c.cn.es rle fttlly cilterc,l J.ri.rn,l rhis crl,ja||r. wlr) it rs e.r,) to irhsorh 1n;6r_.,,,on rheebir rytotrrinr,criticairf i"o,r r,utonry

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p.og.o--". to i","". Uy channels such as Narional Geographic, 'Diicovery ".a'"a"y"a "li ifr"*"i'ani ggc fn.iri.t Broadcasting Corporation). Oftcn, highly .ont,nu"rriit ,rr"*'_l'ol"o"o _a c\jltu.,,e,t. objccriv.ry ,,,,1 "p t.ngrr,,";,;s,,;;._,i.n ll'lno,o ,,,u... 1,:.:!:ll!,"u dehaled tu tlle evtcllt rlrar "i I i r\s[.s Jrc irs fr.r. and cuns rr( c\posed Jn,l the publrc can mrke rr. o$.n rdtrondt judBnrenr Jtrcr lhe d(tire ,,.,",. M,:,.;r";: ;ui..,,,. ,,"** cnJrmets \ucn rs BB( anLi f-lrarrnel \ewsAsr.r gu r\, gre.rt lengrh. to irrteivieu peoplc -caretir who havc sl.oog views regarcring an issue and they are nlot ,o le:we-out any other -o*,,'op,nron perspeclivcs. The sitting at home ian thus form tri"_ _individual on corrtenrior,\ rssucs Irkc clonrng L,r retrorisDtl for exan4rle, t on_fri"-o*n five senscs JrrrrrnlnKln: JOrlrl\.norlIib.r.kprolrlld.Lrplrrrrrernr..r "r.a puhltcofinion.

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. beHowever' saying trrar rerevision.is. alJ:rin inational. There

are mind-srimulating

only detrimenral to critical thinking woutd,

Whether the television has a negJti\ c Effc!t o[ crillcJl thrnking ur not dcpends on ',lr? what viewcrs want to watch. .fhc f:rct ihrt pr,.,gr"nun". *f,,.1 Jn c.iticat thinking tend.to be nrorc popular rharr rhose wiL.h.r", .r,",". "n.o"u.og" ,i", p."pi" iiuo,,1, ao no, .I.hcrcforc, want ro thirk criticelly_ one has to bc careful ,"ir"n'Ji...-ing *t,.r progralnnles to watch as a slaple dict and wha( to watch lvhcll onc wants to relax
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quu aments oJ-the qltestioh

an: ut tr.rttroJ,u h,tn,llcLl n,ell D(.velal)ment pt)ints " ,' " r, j,.,thttt,tt,ta,dJ,t.;l

Ushnish Dc 04s33

Should we still expect objective reporting from today's mass media?

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The mass media refers to institutions concemed with the large-scale pmduction and diffusion of communication. News, which is the product of organizational paocesses and human interaction, is shaped by the mcthods used in the news-gathering process. News is thus affected by the infbmration sources available and the organizational requirements, resources and policies of pa icular institutions. A piece of news is ideally free from bias, opinio\ personal values, prejudices aod associated with scientihc data thai is generated under experimental conditions. Unlike the past, corporations and goverrments arc lrow asserting greater influence on the nuss media today. Also, the profit-motivation of media firms as well as the professionalism ofjoumalists are growinu factors contributing to the distortions of news rcports. Thercfore, we should not still expect objective repofting in today's mass media

In the past, media companies were mainly small scaled and too insignificant to acquiae any power of illfluencc. The arliclcs that they published weie also mostly balanccd and well researched. Today, ownership of the media is largely in the hands of large multinatiolal corporatiolts- Wc arc faced with an incrcasing number of multimedia conglomerales such as the Ruper( Murdoch's Media Empire which have large control ovcr the various tbmrs of media. The proprictoas of dresc large colporations often play the rolc of gatekecpers. aestrictiltg thc flow of infbmtation in a country. Illey often use their wide ciaculations to promole their pel political causes or dcligrate people t]rey disagree with- These are maidy done through the hiring and firinS of statT. For examplc, two award-winning Florida TV producers working for F'ox News have recently bccn fired after thcy rehrsed to broadcast falsc reports aboul Monsanto's controversial llenetically engineercd growth hom)one. Therelbre, mnny joumalists are 'cocrccd' or 'intinidated' into Dot rEporting things thal atlect the nolhcr company and lelalecl intcrcsts. resLrlling in news repofts drat are largely onc-sicled and lnisleilding. Thc prolit molivation of nledia firms also led to more alisasters beiug broadcast, lhrl appcal nlore lo the audicncc. Thus, due Io corporate influe[ces at]ecting lhe lrass iledia, wc carno{ expect oiiectivc reponing fiom il todayCornpared 1rl in the pasl, media companics today arc increasingly irnder government pressure- Vcry otien. lhe govcrnntent sees the media as a plattbrm ot wlich it can put forth its propaganda alld changc what the pcople think. This is cspccially so when a ruling pa.ty in drat country has a large sha.e of the broaclcast nlcdia timc_ In thc recent fhailand elections, more television coverage was given (o the prime Ministcr. Mr_ Thaksin Shinervatre than to the opposition lcaders. This suggests that Thailand's mass media is not oeutral in its broadcasring approach, espccially since Mr. Thaksin's fnmily runs the kingdon's largest tclecornmunication corporation. Allhough the mass media is given the ficcdorn to repod what i1 wanls and various laws are hid dob,n to avoid nledia bias in many countries, objeclivc reports still c nnot bc cxpected lronr today's mass nlcdilr due to govemrnent ill(ervcntiot.

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Joulnalists used to coocLlr thal obicctivily wts the htllnlrrk of crediblc joumirlism- They largely wrote rniclcs orr rvhich thcy wcre tlloroughly informed Today,

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the recent tsunamr however, joumalists lepoft news based on how they see the world ln in their i,r"il"rrt, i.port"." tiom Sri Lanka are known to ex;ggerate the extent of damage the propofiions of to toy with people's emotions in an atGmpt to increase .*" """*.y po.,i irr,o s.i Lanka Thc danage done to the coast of other itft'ected ,rr"t rii the locals "ia Joun*i". *u, no,."ported. This skewed piece oiinformation may mislead both joumalists report news as they see it' they would freque[tly and -J io..ign"rr. Sin;e iheir Oft""' when joumalists try to be objectivc and u"ini.*io"n"ffy slant "ou"rug". rp broadcasting their liberaL slalt' As a result' we cannot still expect ,ft"y

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".a non biased reporting in today's mass nredia-

news There l1as been a growing intcrest among readers worldlvide in.objective broadcast in *" pu.t. ihis m"iy <tttue profit-motivated media cornpanies to liberal bias "o-pu."Jio n"*i in order to incrcase readelshiP However' the problem of -orJ otrj".,iu. vie\ts ..itt i. media corpotations Unbcknown to them' somc of their ownwe still *iff "f*'"vt subtly or not Hence' n l.i ia.as *outa rc nintecl in the aticles they write, whether mediacan|ot expect objective reporting in today's mass

Morc ancl more newspapcrs claim that they are indepcndent ol -lhe Sovernmenl jollrnalisrs evcn devise ntner inttu"n.ing factors Some of thesc media compuries and "na iiJr-"*t t"*tiq*iof verifying thc faimess of the stories they publish The Oregonian' 'prosecutioD ediling US fror"a daily. for examples, is said lo enlPloy a system callcd " peoplc care about ftcir image and therefore ir"-.r;-i. "a1tii"^,c a stoly. Such news woricl' a tnedia cunpaoy will not he able to Itrj."titity l{owevcr, il today's globalizc

..u,'aotuu"-E'ventuxlly'ilrvillhavelohavelinks,cilhe'withothcfmcdiacolnP.lnie\oI acccpls utir", ,yp". c,f con,panies. Howcver. wllen this happens alld the media lomparly

kini of favor fiom any source. its stand on objectivity wilL cornc plumnreling ifr'"."to... it is still not possiblc tor us lo expecl objective reporting in today's
any media.

downmess

uninlormcd: if Mark Twailr oncc said. "[f you do not rcad ftc newspaPer' you arc lruc {oday' Lls you do read the ncwspaper, you are nrisinfomrecl'" fhis is especially po.ng."pl,,. To(lx), lhe nasr rredrrr lects en,rnclerting trend of lrguccl in the it. c.,nt.ni. iherclbre, pe"plc necd to be cduc'tterl Icgrrding how lo r"ii..ri";,v in"bnu" ii"iiirv trri, various tbrms of media sul'iectivrty we rs re'rdcrs rlso ncLd to develop a truthful and critical eye when reading ttre nc*'si'rpt' rnrl ehsurh tnlolnrtlLln that l\' the nrass rnedia rurlay corupared Lrnbiased since morc opir;onltcd iclcas are rnjectctl intu mass media to in the pasl. Thcreforc. !\'e caflnol still expect objcctivc repotli g from thc
today.

etsal' Contcnt of yttur esstty is L:lcarly ttnqlc and x'eLI otganizet! A tog(ttt
Hong Ji g Har 04s22

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Has globalisation made the world more civilised?

In our rnodem world. the word in vogue is .globalisation,_ After the collapse of conmunism and the end of the cold war, globafiz;don, where social, economic ahd political barriers no longer exists, emerged. The workl is a society instead of many smaller sepamte ones, with human interacdon possible anywhere. One of globalization,s premises is that it can eradicate barbarism. violencc alld wars, repJacing it_with refined a society with a univeAal culture. However, many people, including myielf, feel that fhis desired effect ofhaving a less barbaric society has notieen achievi. "
One of the indications of a less barbaric world would be a reduction in levels of violence and wars. Tlre world would shrre a common political ideology in globalization, wherecountries would work together to improvc rheu iivcs. This woui-jbe frade possiblc through the transmission of ideas and ways of governance. The westem world, for example' championed the capitarisl cause and triecl to influence the rest of the world to follow suit. Anterica was the forerunner and its fbreign policies under president Bush emphasized a hands-on approach, wherc the Unticd Siates of Arncrica (U,S) personally fook it upon itself to propagare wcstern ideology_ They believed that the US way of govenitnce ought to be adopted by everyone and thaf this way was globalization in terms ofpolitical culture. However, through rhe process of globalization, t"tre US tract nn quatms r:',"s jb.* :l?ll the Sovict on rhc rcccr.'rin8 narion. They backed rhe Taiibans whcn rhey werc trghttnB invasron in rhe 90s because they fcared communism spreading furthel. But they bombcd thcm in the afremurh of ttre 9/11 incidenr They launciect thc traq War to stem thc tide of anti American scnltment. The Antericans, the chempioris of globalization in tcmN of polirical ideology, o[ly allowed for the American way of thinking. other ideas woulrl be quashed and if e.rtire countries were ,,,,in"J r".uu". of globalization through wars ancl violencr-, ir was unavordxble. The tjS-lcd globalization has only shown the inhcaent warring and brrb.lriL lurLrrc ot thc Arn..i."n, u"'u r"rutt.

.. The benefits ()1 globalization in tenns of economic effects would be that the divergence the rich and pooa coult es would be reduced. .liading and rhc _bctween exchange of technology and ideas would enable less_developed countries io catch up with developed ones- Thc developed countr-ics felt that this woulL.l bc an advanced stage in the progress towards racial equality since it was a case of thc rich helping the poor. It would the ulrimare level of aftainment in tenns oi moral values. Wid gtiUuliJ^iion tfllougt trade, the rich, advanced countrics could civilize or enlighten the'poor, backwad ones and bring rhem ro lhc same level. I{owever, rhis only works theoreiicaliy. Globalisation gnly rc\uhcd In lhc ex|loit,rtion of cheap labour ;n count.i"s'tit" China and :tt ,lt"d: lnolA. LaDnur Inten\tvc Lrctoaicl werc situated ilr third world coufltties, whcre workers uere trcared inhuntrncly, Lvrng rn squalor and bcing paid extremcly low wages. f.br rnstance. hum.n right. groups crarnrcd that for a uS$r20 Nikc shoe riiade in china, the worker reccived less rhan UStlj l_ Chikl labour was also reporledly pracrised by Nike shoc manufacturing ifldLrslrics in China as well. Llencc, giobalisation fhrougli tradc has allowed multi-lation{l corpor-ations to lakc aclvantage J cheap labout off.e'rctt Uv rtrira_ world couorr ics. Ycr, whilc they hide uncler the ba[nir of providing jobs t., rt,e ott,.,*,s" joblcss poor and bringing them to rhe sanre civilizcd lcvel evc"rriually, rhey pay rhe

it is not v/orkers peanuts and give them pathetic livjog conditions This is because the poor would be desirable for them to b;ng thc Poor to the same level of riches since a ;;lh"g -""; engage in siuch labour then. Thus, glotralisation through trade has only civilized the- rioney-grubbitg and hhumane side of the so-called more ;;;.g-h,
nations and matle them appear no less barbaric as a result

positive Ilowever, in temrs of global culture' we have definitely procee'ded in a past fifty years. direction. In thelarts, a worl6 iulture has evolved dramatically since the crtlture and Many nrod".nists have fused the best qualities of the Eastern-and Westem an intemationally formecl a whole new breed of fusion ari. For instance, Bright sheng, has successfully merged Chinese and ac.tuiorea Cnin".. compute. expefl in America' Westem stvles would .i^.i*f .".i" togcther. The successful fusion ol O cnlal andeasier to have access to {ar have beel1 irnpossiile without globalisation Furthermore' it is audicnces ln ini".nnLionut u"t. because of iire fact that they are aware of intemational high'-whar with i.g^p". "f""", lhe number of intemational perlonners is very placc in the pe'iodthe of Siniupo* e*fti.t e.stivat, Films Festival and Arts Festival taking cllture and our n"friuo.y to ltluy. Internatiolal acts can be flown in and rve can diverslfi hds definitely cxposed stonrore t.ing itio g."ut". fl.ights. ln this rcspect. globalisation cultJralchangcs urd rnacle us more retined and civilized-

"Gtobalisation" is a word that s|ells much (hangc irnd its rcirch is oLrLy limited to or menlal Ihe size of our globe- Despitc our ditfercrlces' be iI rn temN of phy\i(xl lt may ofl't hcnefils' ,ilrp".iry, *. arc-nonetheleis equally cauSht up in globatisatiolr'Liti having a vibra t global atls;ullurc, or ir may spell tlisastcr like cult ral.rcscnlmcnl' cheap lebour' ,ej".tiun n-f gtot,oi iJentity to rnaintain individralily or the exploilntion of " _-"fi",c against such changes may llso show oul barblrric or civilizcd fl"" t*v *. anolher nlater when nature. We llave lo bleaLthe egg in oader lo nrake xn omelct' bllt il is it conres to whether wc woiLld bc wilting to sacrifice our h[manity for corplele glnl\Jtr'irrrnrr irl ill :llca- ofurlr lrulrrarr 'o ict1
Mttin probltm: You tiid nttt tuswer tl( Llltcstion "llas " htfu conclusiott (vo t slightb) Lack Gootl riisr:ussion dt.spit( lhe lttng wirlt:tlness arul perhaps tfu: stiSht of e\)alua!i.)n. Cool! c\anPIes Lirrt Yi Niy 04s31

has crdtted two worlds, not one. Comment.

globalisation was coiied to rcflect the creation of a world in which are non existent Indeed, the ideal aim of globalisation is to unite the this is made possible by the mpid development in communication Nevertheless, sociologists and economi.rs aliLe arc unltzed wirLr the tr,,ne globa,isation and feel lhat jt ha. fallcn \hofl of its rrue ideats. I here'a'.. people who feel drat globalisation has separated the world more than it has agree with this statement to some extent.
ir, One of the most evident effects of globalisation is the creation of a .North_South le'- a term coined by economists to describe the huge economic disparity that exisrs een ich and poor nations. Globalisation is often see-n as a fagad" mi rfr"

sh P.troleurn. Former Indone,ian pre\ident Suklrno o \. dubbcJ gf"fr"ti",io,, .rr the 'new form of colonialism'. lndeed, in the economic sense, *" ;;" ;i;;;';;; globalisarion has created a huge disparity between the rich anil poor natio.s insLeaa of reducing the rich-poor gap. Thus, in a sense, grobalisalion has createcr nor one, but two

m?Lke themselves richer. Most rich nations have )nted outsourcing policies thaf enable them to tap the ."roua"", of uuoth"a for thei own development. This is evidenr evcn in South_East Asia itr"tf *f,el" t of_the oilfields are owned by Westem companies such as Exxon Mobil. Shell and

apitalise

on the poor alrd

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Politically, lllobalisation has created a wo.ld whcrc the more powedul ations have tltc most say in worlcl affairs. "fhis rgxin, ls eonrraly ro thc idea ihat elc,balisation \-tould urrrc llrc uorld. Ho$ r. thdr l,trssrble qlren rlre rnorr fowerlul n,rrion,',,r,.rt,e,.lr.; makrrg thc deLrsion? Anlcrirr rrgucd lhat therc was a ncedio invade Iraq on thc basis of Saddam Hussein's weapors progranlme. IJowcver, the Unitc.l N^tio,rlr'1U11 Secu.ity Council votcd against the invasion of Iraq, but was p,r*".t... t,-r fa"u"nt'ilr. ,nuoaiun_ After thc war, it soon became cvirient thit lraq,s supposed pnr."lr"ion-ui *""p,rn, ut mass destruction (WMDS) was a hoax. The events'that occurred in ti," traq Wa, highlighted a clear loirr - rhar the unired srares runs rh," *n,tu nna ,rntro,tv can srand irr its way. The situation has also becn Jescribcd o, u"r"u.r-ttr. *olti,.ituution. Thus, it can be seen that globalisation has not yet fulillcd ".U.S.irs ulr_, oi"riiin, ur" *_fa, but ha.s crcated a lrurf between natiors. Moreov;r, rr h.r, c,ruscd the less pn*.i.t,,t uuriun. to .slrftcr from an irfcdority complex and comply rvrrh thc ,lec,si,rns ol iti" ,no." p,r*"rtut
natlons.

tailure though. Socially, mirde euhurol tusiun possible in many counrrics, whcre the lif.esryles of .9"t1':ll)r,'"1t:i. . e buth rhrivrng tne Last rnd We\r regardlcss of the paft o[ lhc world thal an tndividual rs rfl. t[ l\ commoD ro find n 'L'hin town' in the Uniled States ancl a .McDonalds, in Sirgapore. lhe intlux of forcigners in individual counrrie. i, o". * irr.,"""i ru.,o..' ,rr", make cultural fusion possibrc. Indeed, culturar fusion has crealed a harmoi'rious mrx ol cultures and has made peoplc aware of another pcrson,s cultnre. lftf,ougt it . i".u" .rf Amcrican cultural domination has oiien croppetl irp, it is quitc cvident tlu_t societies still
_

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t|'r is not ro siry rhirr glohtlisarion is a complete

I I t I

I I t I rl I I I I t

maintain thcir roots even when exposed to tbrciSn cultures. In the area of music, globalisation has enabled musicians to take the best of both worlds and come up wiih ;omething that shows traits from both worlds. New Age musician, Kitaro' is f'morrs for such com-positions and the Malaysian band 'Too Phat' is renowned for making 'hipiop' music using traditioral tuncs. Thus, in this area, globalisation has united the best from both worlds and created a new blend of culhrre that no country can call its own' In conclusion, globalisation may have failed to unite the world economically and politically, but its success in fusing cultures is not to be played down. Though it has not iully achievert iLs ideal aim of creating a world without borders' it ha$ come a long way from the 1940s when the idea of Germany holdirg talks with the United States was impossible. Ooc of the barriers that used to restrict unity language - has been rernovcd to an exrent. No doubt, globalisatioo is still not very successful- But neve heless, the future certainly looks bright as China rises as a supcrpower and balances the powe' once hcld by the U;iGd States. Hopefully in the futurc. we can one day look fbrward to a real world without borders.
The grcdt ma

hc four (:ategorical cl.tssirtcaioll of tle effccts ttl global^ation


toward one workl, culturalh,, Tan Yee Kiat 04s:]4

il

is ),aur clear arul ol.lered

thillkits Polentidlly,

Lhc grrdtest e

g p!!j!k!A t

faiIing would
is not

it

is--

GLoBALTZATIoN Qu@T E s: IT HAs sEEN sArD THAT ARculNG AcAINsr GL@BALIzaTl@N


ACAINST THE LA'WS - K@FI ANNAN

6F

's

LIKE ARGUINc

GR,AVITY.

BY RICH P(EPLE LIKE US' !5 A VERY NIC TALKING TH IN G... YOU ARE TALKING ABOUT THE IflTRNET, Y(EU ARE ABOUT CLL PH(DNS. Y(DU ARE TALKING AEOUT C(EITIPUTERS. TUIS OOCST'T
GL@BALrzarr@N,

As

DEFINf

AFFECT TW@-THIRDS OF THE PEOPLE (DF THE W(ERLD. - IlmnY CARTE R

GL@BALIZATIoN HAs cHAticED us INTo A conPANY THAT SEARCHES THE WORLD, N(DT JUST TO sELL lDR T@ S{DURC!, BUT TO FINO INTELLECTUAL CAPITAL - THE 'WORLD.S 85T TALENTS AND GREATE5-T IDEAS. \i/E LcH -

IAcK

some high-profire poriticians have brought up clairns that the Joung adurts in industrialized or rapidty industrialized count.ies tike rtr" Uni;;'i,;il;; Silgapore are too self-absorbed- Do you agree?

of singapore in early Jure for the amual preuniversitf ,;;;;;il;;;, Durins the seminar, Dr. Vivian Batakrishnan rlescribed Singaporean yo"if, .,::r"ti frr"g.y *a seltrsh". In an informal poll conducred-by ff,. S"r.Ar" "., fi_!, nn ii overwhelming majorirv begged ro differ wirh ,r,. rnrni.*r, "ilil uarri"tpru., * ,"r"i,[ nii iiourr, ,tu, ,t -nigir_p;fff. people oI their generation were becoming roo self absorbed. " So_. p,rtiti.ut figurcs have brought up claims that rhe young a.tutrs in rnaustriaiiiea o. ,upiaty indusrrialized counrrics like rhe Unircd stu"" u"j sing;po; ;;.;;i;: r* ," *o'absorbed. Altfiouglr there rna) be some erceprions. in ml opinioni rhosec,l.t,m" arc urli.t to only a srnall cxtent. As education today takes on a morc holistic approach, community work atul lre slowty being inresrated iJ," irr.' *un ,rri, :::l-,^lj,l,,llr"^"reDr """J'",itrrn.

Just two weeks before, five hundred youth convened at the National University

ur"t" positive diftcrence in the lives of rhe uldcrprivrlegca " arr"ott -, "it.,a" r., t,act up the claim that youth irt dcveloped counlrics do r""or* ir"-."irl. i" "^"r,rii" .,v".0 .."* ."rlr"i"r,ri from an issue of us sEV'ENTEEN ."g;,i;;"1. highlighted a group of teenage girls whu underrook, p".r,.r1r*"J., ,rri .nrgte hanacdly r'', (onrnrrnirv invotremcnr p,"t.., LJ_, r.""r".i,r,i *,,,,"ar"ao ::::1illi':d.. th( lcss lbrtufi3tc. Ftorn sorrlcrllrns tot "',",,e.,s tlte ahovr c\.rmph.s. rr is rhu. er idcnt Ihar yoLlll rn developcd countdes are hot selfish aod :etf absorbcd bc.;;;;; ;;;; th" n..,ts uf others bcforc thek own, contrary to uh3t rhe tcmr .,sel[-,rbsorbei..i.Jpii".. .f.nu., ,t" claim is tnre to o y a snrall exteni.

ro tu huild proper schools or visit rural areas in ihailand ro ronstrucr toicrslu. ,i. ."iia"nr._ ,trv"y from home, thesc participants have no lnalenal ctrmlon. yet "anita,.y they carry out the tasks -rrr"i. t*iuta assigned r nuch cnjoymenr and enrhusirsm,

iii!=:Tfli.iLi'f::Tfi'.'.':,'"'a::'"li'":i:::'J";ii'Jlll'"#l$"ily',fi:il:,; themselvcs in chariry work. be it local. o. uu"r."ur..i-1".i_* fii'.*"r"pr", in singapore organ,,.. .,..,",,. ."i;;;;;i, "ta"y in"",,.,'n",,, r.,on.,. :j:":l-"::ll: llii"rr. bv theirrtudenr.. I.lre:c srudenrs g" lreprl rrJr alr verv ue rc(ci!ed
vi
t""*i.g

l;:;;;;;:il:;..#:1Tir""il;.,_"

ieason why rh( young adults in devcloped coontries are said ro be nor hecxuse dLcv ale tblc to take hardships in their stride and adapt to lhcir situation instcad of merely whining ir the hopc thal the situarion will bet{er itserf, or that someone will coil)e and better thc siruation for them. The frti",.ir-" .frurl.i".ir,i. ot yourh. f, far cry tionr thar in devetopert co"*.t", " i.ouy. r" ,r," ::1"j.1,;ii^".,^:l:ll:"'brd wdKe ol rne terrunst Septentber I I auacks on the US Twin brll) shaten. \4rl) innu(.crt lrve: wcr. l,rst arrd rnarrl suloTowers. the US ecolomv was brcr.lwrnrrclr stack. As nillions moumed rhe deaths hcro.. rr," Us, ".,i:;:;'i,;;. oir""ii, rrllrecl ro_gcrher. formrng supporr groups lhar helped ".,j..'in" over the ride each olhcr "."",o :T*U"","0 nnes. It is oeilln ul luvcli :uch inrtLntrvcs that show thrlt the y;ung do not clcse.ve dre {ag,

-^,, ^"-1i"t,l:r scrr-aosorDcd lt

i*t","

go a 'self-absorbed' for instead of grievirig silently' they take hardships in their stride and step further to help those in the same boat as they.

very Closer to home, just a few years ago, the Singapore economy was not doing well and cornpanies carried out rnajor retrenchment exercises' leavilg many Singaporean that a parents unemployed. Some, although sti1l employed, took major wage cuts such itranpe in tifesrvie was warranted. When interviewed or polled by the local media as to parents cited noru ih"y *out i .op. with the reduced income flow in the household' most buying measure; such as ."ducing their teenagers' pocket money and cutting down on In respoDse to their iu*ury it -r, purchasing only what was absolutely necessarJ' p-",it.' I."ta"rr.lt-"nts or wage cuts, a small number of Singaporean youth took fo the ;fieets in search of work in an attempt to supplement the household's income l-ess youth polled significantty, however, in response to the poll on their parents'.most ofthe reieated ttrat they would accept pocket money leductions and other financial changes fufther unquestioningly because they understa[d the situatio[ their parents are in When most youth cited lu"'.tion"a ^i io hn* th"y would aid the cuffent economic situation' to ease the burden ol1 sacriftccs like spending less and goilg out and eating oul Less often in developed their clders. As such. ii can bc seen tiom thc above mentioned that the youth the situation - deltnitely countries are able to take hardships in their stride and adapt to a mark of a self-absorbed generation. Thus, the slatemenl that youth in developed

not

countries are too self absorbed is true only to a small extcnt'

On the flipside however, there are instaoces when thc youth of developed ilr countries can be sclf absorbecl lt is lhese limes that catch the ettention of inclividuals

gcnelction' the govemrnent, who then speak abotlt il' tamishing the image of the whole is whe-n the young Oneiexamplc in rvhich this nature of being self-absorbed carr surface are lacing sliff competition- [n this situation. it is "evcry man for himsell'' and many would gJ all out ;i{l litlle regard of others. just so lhey would enicrgc vrcnnious' Althou;h it is convenicnt to seJthis as a characleristic of the generation as a whoLe' it woulcl Le bcfter if onc examines lhc situation into which the yoLlng are plxced- ln today's fast{aced world, cspecially irt dcvelopcd countries' thc young must keep uP with the competition should they want to keep afloat. Thus, it lhen becomes rccessary to bc
selfish and self absorbed.

ln conclusion. the youth ill dcveloPcd coufltrics are self absorbed to only a small cxtenl. They have proven to be lble to take hardships in their stride' idapt to their situation. and thcy clo put the needs of the mderprivileged befbrc the needs of thcmselves. They do, however bccome sclf absorbed whcn faced with stifT comlctirlon' in which case it iecones a necessily. Thc clai tha{ lhey are too sclf absorbed probably stems frorn the fact that it is easier to rcmember the bad points of the generation instead of the good, but as has been proven, the characteristics displayed by the youth of today o i", ary frorn the "self]absorbcd" generation painted by many menhers of thc

"," gcneration

bcforc ours. 7)ood essayl l(ell baLanced, r:artJu[[y t ttnsidercd wirh u good ttst ttf cxutnples Nur Raihana 04522

l0

The family has suffered at the expense ofcareer in Singaporean society. Discuss.

a,ed ir J""" ii' 0",_iur,'i.,fl "ll".1, :;,"oJL#:lll ard te5s rime spenl $irh lhe fa;itv olhers mighr .rr.."1,1., ,. iru.'",i,t.lr.n in rtr. tust place. Hence, ir would be fair to say that """" f".ify _f^o"r.i"r. ,i,o.i"nJ '' ," " ""*,ng ,t. famity ro be less ctosel) knir. as a resutr olenrptra.is
dererio,
r

;H1'*:\H:::;:t":;":xfi'";:'

As Sirgapore progresscs. oeopj: are becomitg ntorc alld nlote edu.ated. As rend ro wanr tu rocu' more on rhe,,'i.,.e,s.

rhu'.

:rff

nlln

Hl;ril:l

on;;.;;;;;;..'"'

.aieir: could grcallv ti.duce limrly t;m,

mteraction is higrrry important in nlainrar.ing cruse bo'ds


.

neglcctcd Filmil) rellrions suffer. xitd to worcen the situe{ion, ill somc cases. the chiklren pjck ut) bcd hrbirs sucb as snrokrns In.a recenr .i rr'".,ij."r"i,-,i lshown rhat childlcn whu atc djnllcr:I homc *]th rlre t;rrnill ucre Ic.\ jrLcl) to " rllRjr!,. 1 \rLclr acri\'ic\ sucn n. rang fiplt, i.d LiruB ahu\c ff,",.,i,-.';;;:'j,;;,,t;;;

;";;; "."',.,,r#:#',tj.. n"r"r,*, ;,;.;;. ;;J ffi lTii ;:il j Li'l:H:ilT1;:; ".i.r,,"" "n.,,gr, ;;;;"",*t;;'fi;",T.T"fi in::"ll].fir-:i::ili;.:1.r,"-i::i
i

men were the bjead winners srayed ar home and spenr rheir time tooking ,t chores. Bur xs more peopic are educated, ,n-",; "l' \ here both larentri are not workins ar As a resu ;;;.1;_: :, lJ,xl"iffi responsibilities at work, they now havr

Traditionally,

rrr"j'ii;ral"?"lu"olil n"*.n"a

of the family and women

usually

"irn

.,,.r.

a*,.'u,"nn".i,

i;;i

;r;.;'";.;rl;:;:;leDon r|'n push rh" r'\pnn',hil'r\ .r ol'Ln biir*,iI rp ,i,";"r;;,.'ii";:l'rrrs " :rbou rrrrrrng,n",,',i,,,""i'i".i",.',,1ffi::llli,;;:.:ilir,il',,i."ij'li;,,i,liiilll
rl,cir

paretlts ,esoft ro hiring crorncstic hcrpcrs ro .#'li :'.ijii;',:;'fi'l ;i,1.',::j::rv'rs.cornnlon in singapore' as Inosl fimilies .o'sist of

,""0

.trt,tr.ll

dual

j:lg.hl
De

tlr.rn thcrr pJrcl,.. ii,r_. i, ,rr,,|e,,,.,,rf.,fo, they mighr bc cioser to thc maids rhan parents. Hence, tbr thc sake oiirr"i,:.r,.*, por"u,,

ucal r. :j,."ii"." se( therr rrrid. rrorc Il)c chrl,lrcn


nt rookrns

I:.t

rhu. prctrnu ,,p rrdcsirilbte r"rt,,.. r" ,,tj,,t,",.

lln,,, l_,,0.

*o,,,0

ffil , [iJ;1"1i:lrrrv

'ti"' 'ur*",'',"''r'". a,,""]"'iiii,'il.iin",. o*,,",


tenrily

on thcir careers tirst and havc children at a later age, or nor have .nro_" ,".rii.' iirlli placing so much elfolt into building up their uilreers, sonte couples mighl nor want to 'pend o,,.rrirdr... hur ,nrrcad .p"nj,t,"i, r,n,a..,n.,i ;il,,1,lli]:\ r, r srL,,ry conductc,l rn Silgaporc il lead uurrrerr \rh!, uent tbf .f_,,,r,. ,,.." ,1,,^,,.,r jrs:ilyltJr rr,i, rr,e) .rid ,,or ui,,r bab,eL ro hro.r. rr,.,, i;; l',l, lii",. ,, suffcrs in that couples are less willing to slarl families_ Thercforc. at the cxpe[sc ot ",",,, career. fewer lamilies are formerl

currsisr.,,t.fJr.nt,.,l|d,l,rl.lr.o lr ,*.o",1f",. *,,no,,, ,,,,,0,,.". Ho$c,c1 x,i.4.,.1, hcc,me.morqc,Jrrcar-.,"",.""r"*.",,i;:'l;;'",::jl:"..,.,".,_ "", furnil) \\uIld

tt.1l, ,. ,, rrc talit)lenpic in SinpJporc. rlre r.lrrl r. rlr. oI:ocict\ thJt jr

;";;;.';

.,;;;,,,;;_

"lii

L.

greater On the other hand, an emphasis on career does have its advantages- With family ties as income, the tamily can lead a comfortable life. This would definitely boost each other ,fr" f"-ify wouli be able to participate in activities and spend time with *i fr"ut ftu"l"g to wony abouitaking on more jobs to buy the next meal Many broken fu-ili"a ."aoliu, p-enis resort to deiperate measures' such as cdme, to make ends meet' 'I'her"fore, a stable and adequate income would be beneficial to the family With good each tl-" -*ug.fn"nt, family members would still be able to keep strong bonds with keep to oih.r. p".."nG should leam how to balance both lamily and work appropriately the family going.
has Family ties are extremely inportant in keeping a family as one' To do so' one time on their to.p"nd ti*" tog.th"r with one's family. However, as pcople,spend mole ."..!.r, .u"f.t ftiify time is cornpromisld. By just Providing for the family.and leaving ifr" t".rpontiUifity oi t eping the iamily goi-ng to orhers woutd only worsen the situationsngapolean Therefore, to say that thc family has suffercd at thc rxpcnsc of uareel u society is generally justified.

Daphne Ho 04s26

To

NATIoN IN PUT THE v@RLD RtcHT lN @RDER, \r/E musr tlRsr PUT THE THE FAINILY @RDR: T(D PUT THI NATI@N IN (ERDER. VE MUST FIRST PUT (DUR IN ORDER; T@ PUT TH FAMILY IN @RDER, \I/E MU5T FIRST CULTIVATE PERS@NAL LIF; \(/E MUST FIRST ST @UR HARTS R]GHT.

Fanr

L'r Quer

s:

C@N

FUcrus

BE CULTIVATED LlKg a GARDEN' TInE, EFF@RT, AND TmAGINATI@N musr BE suEn@NED c@NSTANTLY To KEEP ANY &ELATI(DNSHIP FL@URISHING AND CR(EVING.

Y@uR FAmtLy aND Y(EUR L@vE

nusr

Jrm

RoH

Critically examinc the forces threatedng the family ill Singapore.


Having a family.is one of the most important priorities for many. ln recent years, families have changed and evolved over.rime in ,fi" f"." development of society. These chanScs include changes "i-gf.i"iira'tion and rapid in famify-.lJJ, u" *"lr a, comrnunicliorr wirlrin rhc family. herrce rhre-arening "",io",ur".

togethemess.

irinilf-"ofr"r,r"n...

"nO

The changing values of society have greatly thrcatened the family structurc. While such.a phenomenon was greatly flow".,l ;p"" ; ,h" t;.;, ii i"'n-ornino, u.,.o.,,ln" to find single parenr families. This is due ro rlr. high d*;"';;;pr.uif"rr, _ Siogopor", which can be atributed ro rhe changing _unti,.,1 *r" Wf,in pasr rctr rtrar rhe) werc ur)tigcd ro tive rrreir ti,c. r.ir, rl-"i, t,r.uon,j, on." .y::::l ll lT rriey werc nrifncd. womcn nowadays feel otherwise. Most women feel that they should have r Ireedom of choice rnd rhar nobody cun ."sUcr tt,ai +lJon . .""" ,n", u.. uniappy with their husbands due ro soDrc mariral problems, rhey immetiiatety opt for a divorcc and cease their DrarrinJ,e wirhour ,h,rk;s-;i;; ;;;;;;, of rhis rastr decisiurr ;nd

y.",ri"i'ffir*".
iiir."

rhe

iml,,cr,r

Lr..,nih"m..t".-.r *;ii

:_

;;.;;,n,"i,.,,1-

""

ian,ly o. it ,uouia

of rontricepri\i\ rtr( jcBr.tition ,,t .b.,ai.,, r. \!ct, r, g;";;;;;;;;i;l;;:.,';,: ",i;, contributed to,this small farnily size. Houcver, I r..r,ir"i ifr"'J,rr..,l.loi,,n" socrcty as well as rhe hectic schedule^are a "non*in* milor tactor rcsulil,,g i,t ,fr".",r"...i iifi,ri size. Most people put fhci. carecrs bcfcrrc rhcir iamilies, *frl.f, l.-"r,,j".t i;o,n rhe olany irrterr.rc*s,nnducred a,d prrbtr.rre,i ,",r," r\rn're rL) """.;";,:; "i ;;;.;;;;;;,i;" Brvi l)rrth tu nlore .lril,lr. or r\crr as to wirether or not thcv should srarr a

Rapid development and thc demands of the changilg society have tlueateDed the Ir rhe pasr, a famiry consisted ,r;;,:;;;;. ir',,i".n,."r, ,. ,n. phenomenon [owadavs where f:;milv size "t is greatly reduced to what is known as .nuclear familiesl consislillg oi parents and one or t*o children. I{owever, I do acknowledlle thc iact lhat cerfain lamilics have cven six or ,evco childr.n. H,rw""". iir"r"'i"uru., _^t" up a minute percentage of the Sinsaporean populatjon in geleral. Undeniably, the use

^ family size.

,,"rt

i;ii

i.,.;il;,;;;,;;$::|ng

.o_ who hold.pr,vrLisrrrg lob prosfecrs. leaving rtreir childrcn ro be raken care oI 5:111":^ rDro rng rhcnt in thijrlrarc u] rrilLos or centres. Even the eldcrly at home arc placed in thc old fblks hornc, as their chilctrcn ,i,,rpry lru. no-tin l ;;;i. ;;;.';i;".. comc honre larc,r nighr afrcr a rtay of wo.i ana .p"rd ,;;;'i"ii,, iir"o "*r," rerire to bed. Hcncc. it rtris conrinues, rhc lel9rc lhey .,i'ri,. "n,rd."" *a, definirely be affccted.

Also, the denlands of socicty havc threatened family cohesiveness and who,,,\^,", l.;rJ,.;;ihc household chorcs as well as ro lirss over rhe children. Ho*"";, ;r,;,1;.;-, ;,ii*t,,r, u."
togcthemess. In lhe pasl, the wile rvouttt bc ore

,;;;;

".h".;";;;;

,".i,,

comlDlrtricJlion .rn,j rcchrrologl lrl\u llcLted {arnilv r.rrrrrrre rr, rrh pi\r r,\,.d ilhd(r rrr, :jiln, ,,-r i,, r,.ri";', i.";;i ::::].:j]:.:^^yli': urrcrc\, tnc pcofic nt'wa!li)'\ |rctL-r to livc scpalately..fhel, buy llleit own hones once

lmprovements

in

tl
\

thevcetmarriedanditisalsonotuocommonto{indsingaporeanswoTkingabroad'away ;;; .iuii"gt. rr" introduction of t"1'pho"es and the advent of th.;;'il-;-; i"i.*"i *ii"rt has lidked many places and people tagether' all make this possible as -aJi" t"titv through these avenues- Often iouch -."it".t ".t still getorinare only with tft"it festive occasions' visited on distunt r"lativ"s ar. forgotten
fonn of television and the Last but not least, the media influence, especially in the rxther watch fot...r"i tt"" greatly threatened family togcthemess Most children l\rorld -rr,.i.^i^.1fi,"'i"r..ri,ion activities serial or surf o' tie Inremet rhan ta.lk about their dry's the In some families, comrnunication is reduced to a minimum when lvirfr ift.it as the rapid well i"i""i.i.. i" t*i"ft"a on. In fact, it is this loss of communication asthe older and the gap between a"u"f_oprn*, of society, that has caused a generation the in the loss of eflective communication' hcnce affecting

p-*o.

y"r"gJt

colresrverlesr ot lhe enlile

*"""*i".,

-sulting lamil\.

All said, families today have simPly cvolved naturally and ine'ritabty 'J"u"topiu"nt of society. Ho*"vti, no mattcr how the tamily changes' it will of .upli
always be impoitalt to the individual as well as to society-

in the face

also consider dttempts to Contprchensive answer gitting relevdnl Points' Coultt life strengthen these forces, e8. CamPaiSns to promote familJ
Chcw Li Ling Jocelyn 04s l4

Famtlv Quor e s: THE FAntLy Is rH NUcLEUs oF clvlLtzATloN' .ARIL AND \l/ILL DURANT
Ho\? "r.o ttmlr HomE Is THE PLAC \('HERE B(EYs aND GIRLs FtR5T LEARN
RIGH'IS AND NEEDS THIR VISH6S, ABTDE BY RULES, AND CONSIDER THE
OTHERS.
OF

- SIDoNIE GRUENBERG

HavlNG CHILDREN lnAKEs Ytou No MAKES Y(EU A PIAN I ST.


- III rcrae

In<BRE

PARENT THAN HAVII'{G

PIAN@

r Lrvtre

t4

Critically examine the forces threatening the family in Singapore today.


The family is the birsic building.trlock of sociery, usually consisring biological parenrs and their chitdren. white a majoriry oi;L."Aii"iri#ii"t of two rg orlo strong foundation for a country, more broken ;n"r""u" " ,J.n'i,ro,"an ..f.a"y o, anarchy. Ir short, the family unir is vital ro a.ountry,s ",u," i, prospe.iiy S-g:ry1:, however, the family unit is no tonger as *r!J"'"ru,l. gou"..o,,"nt would like it ro be. ctobalisarion hir.s expJsed ou, il.J"" .u.r, o, fe^minism,,fechnological advances, liberal estem ia*, ,t...rtut lifestyle. When a small countrv like singapore is bomba.ded ".Ji,f ""r."", o"u!.y toauy, it Uy.o rrr*yio.i", is no wonder rhat our families irave become ir..""rirgff l,uirerifri;.

";;;J,;; -ilr.i""r. i""i *. "o;;;y-;-;; "*" -'"

Although feminism was already present in Singapore in fhe l9g0s and 1990s, I imia.t or trris prre,,Jrn"no" *" iui"i#uy, ro. ,r,i, wavc or womcn s ?j-1",,:: "1,n,: trtleratton has imncrceptibly but surely, rnoved into its third stage As its name suggests, trr" l*:i',1"'l^]"'": ts our famrlics :tr fl\k todr\."r*rr.ng.. ,ni'pr"l"__ ii"i,rrir',nrro bnngs rs wltat p

*:* ::"::^:*f

**"

women have r6!rr up and reiccred rheir rradirionat u!t! dsen alu lelccreo merf tracllll roles as o rrn flouli.hing cetcers. rhel arc no longer the n, usecr to. In il"::"'::'"T'-:"T::::'T::-Y:l" new-found domi'ance in women. a, :H::j"^r:_o :-r men: h"usbands. *;,t' iiu. ,""r1.,"p....,ir'.i"',il"r"o, i:;,,;.1,,:i:ljl:.s:, of ao incre.ri,,gry a",,'i,'"", 1:::T."- husbad imd wife berwcen liiilib",,,,d,into^lerant purs n'arriar" thLrs

nives and morherb Wirh .iubs afld

y]r1li1.t t:Tjit.T.

;:ll::.

ll"

9*"

.n."*olr* rru*;#:::'lt# n*" ,pi;:::;i"'",,'.,i,ffil'.li:; ;; i;;;;';ll"

;;";t-;;;;";;;;"'J'"':::i';l;

Couplcs who crnbracc ferninisr incorne -"y p..,ir.'ii*i, 1,,.,i\,1-":1,'i better, morc comlortable life in the famrly. n"*"*r]Ur," n".'i" _P".iu*.^. *nn both parcnts working, childre are often neglccted "rr. or worse, brought up by foretgn maids_ ""f In f:rct. soiiolut.rsrs cu\necr llrar rhr trerd L,t t\^n parcnl\ *.rf.rn'g unl il',, ,n.,.n,;,,g ','i,, chrld.d(lr)quencv mr) h. retJred w,rr, .r,ira,.n',,,,iu.,"t' ,". ii,"'i.,, ,r', *.,, gua.dians, rlre percenragc of rhem teaving rrnn . ona .;ointiig result, wirh children drifring farther fromhome, .uo*,y rr,li.a apan. "".

d'ai

"i,;i;;1,'#r":-ilil:X,.li:X,lTilifll

i"-Ji;';.";;ry.

i', e;;s;;;.tt.*

tt'.l

husband wifc IT :::::.11,,,::: ,belweenslolrarised, and pu."dare furrher suained by our riresrytc. rn a f^.r ;.o;;;;y,-,il;;;,*i ;;; :::T:jll]:l :jl.'tt pl.*o wr', r. ..",".,,,.y a-troly, rrrrion hcr$ccn
moae often than not, irrilablc behaviour, n--"^^-;^.. and ! - ,.tcrnpcrecl _jpouscs, depression ^-r fraye(l caused i.y srress, niat\e marrirges rnore o[ a tirat -,,"""

*T:Yl"r:l-:-.::ll:i _ bctwecn may promolc rLntlcrslrntling

i"f

;,i:,.; ;'J";;;::;-::'::
fr": l;' .l: ier divorcc
fenance

Ul proccedings, has caused nlany tnarriages ancl familics to dissolvc

tt\o tcoplc tnis. ..rpf"J

,Sonre forces which inrrde nur corrrrtr') tnda) (v..r Jrrr\int tlre tlllnllon ul families. Heavy workloads rn,l rhe lajk ul timc lor so..til ifit,.rJ\rron ltjr le.l r.).,,rr

l-5

il;i'lJ." ';il;;,i"i..i"r o*"r"p"nt

a heallh) demograPhic graph should show Covernmenl u"it i'"ue rhJs srepperJ uP on Policies ro the possibility of them J.ut- -o." oppoaunities fbr young peoole to mecl and thus raise such as RomancinP srenrnp families. While lhis ta" strown sonle success campaigns the main reason for fewer mariages and

(n.i.rv havins more sinales lhan

i:HA#;;;
Iarnllies

the high stress levels al work'

il*"

.."uur' io oual"utc

jeopardising their career In fact, many young women' with the fear of childbifih or either p-rp.*, fruu".i"lia"d ,o-to.go the ordeal altogether' They re'ent vow to stay single Nation"al Dav speech' int"i .urriug" with no intentjon of slaflrng r tittity tn tti' leave and.family-friendly i.i-. lli"i.i.. r-". nsien Loong spoke of increa"ing matemity as thc which could help promote the foniation of families However' ;;;;;1i.;. the nrrmher of n"t't""n drastic' Iioiesee that there will not be an upsurgc in "'tr"^,rgJ.'iut" in the near futrlre' families started p^r;nts. Today's children arc more exposecl to violence' a British survey by *r*.*i ,fl* any generation iras ever been ln fact' according to pomographic videos ."n.r-"lt""n.. Si,ti"pur"ort louths have received and sent morepurrsrar' ha\c bccomc ).'.in.',ii. .:rt,,i,.ill". u,'l tr..' counrrv Flrmlovarrr' In\olou\ moral v' ues such as good our role models. displacing our pa'enrs' *ho er'emplity television' ladio and the lntemet' on i""*rt -al"yuty- Witlt t'h" "tt'ftit of informationtheir familics than thosc of any other away from ir" ttorc Likely to drLft "i,ri..-i ,"4"u age- This weakens fumily ties significantly'

ot.. ,h;-;;l;;;

ALso'theinlluenceofthemassmediahasbeensogreattodaythatjlhastaten sex and adult

of ideals and infiltratiotr On an internattional and national level' thc liberalisation fitmily as a of W"r,-t til*. into Singapore have also thrcatened the conventiooal takeil a n]ore tolerant hrrit{lnp block tor society. lhe Soveromcnl' lor cxarnple' has ",.*"ro' gay g";r- fty *""';"" is thal, rvith globalisalion' .thc acceptance of ioo.""irl family ,ii..rr*"r . Sutgap.,re *ili be rnevrtable Once this is allowed' lhc convenlional whet tiia"ftti "-fv u" threatened, as gays set uP their homcs logether end start only "*t theinselves consider a family' they

Cohabitationhasbecomeatrend-Today,Peoplelllelivingtogetherwitlrout lltd .r"*iug;-;;.tiri;;;.. Their relationship' "t" bu"d irn mutual .t*u "11-:^: expectatlons' and unknown .una"niuuf og...*",tl. Cohabitation. with its unwritte ruLes uP' as cohabiters ale slrong advocales ;;;1;t"1y ffi;;;;;';per faffilies from being set
of living together without tamilial commihnent'

th-rcatened the existence ancl fbrmation

Today'anrultitudeofforceshaveinviLdedSingaporcliketheptagLlcandhave of convcntional tamilies- For policy mtkers who birth rates' incrcased child foresee the undesiJable consequences such ns plunging the ;;li;qt"n.y and social or,rto.al tlet"dent", it is a dcadly conundrum-.Even now' g.""r'.-".t at-ggl", to protect the precious fanrily unit lvhich it recognises as the basis sol iely Th' b.rlrlc 'rnlirrrr"\' iu, r,,y

"u.."*.ful

l6

havc covcrcd mu.h

ints .is forces of some kind. Could be a bit more r the thredts are reallJ threals.

siof(. Organisaion can be improved and try

:t

critical dnd eraluatir '

Wai Jia
23

t t l I
]:
'I
]L

ANYDODY INVENTS,
ALWAYS CRE EP5 BACK. IlI rao " Illan can e

Y@u HEAR a L@T @F DraL@cuE oN TH DEATH oF yHE ArnER!{: FanrLrEs.q.ndt'r oyrNc- Tsgv'n! nERGING tNT@ Brc c@NGLori:r -ERnA B@nBEc(
N@ succEss cAN C@IIpENsATE FIBR falLURE IN TlrE rJem. IncKAY " DavrD

NoB@Dy HAs EVER BEFtgRE asKD THE NUctEAR FAnlLlr rro :. ITSCLF IN A B(EX THE VAY w'E DO. W'ITH {O RELATIVES, Ii'N

vervE puT IT IN aN Imp@sstBLE slruaTl(EN- IIIa,n caRer IlI eao

I t I
I
\.

I I I

I I I I

t t I t
I

To Yr'hat abdicated their responsibilities' in Singapore today have getrerally Parcnts ao f ou agrct nith this statement? ""*i similar to those of a y of parents in Shgapore are very much The responsibilities rr*lc a"pects such as.the pro\ision ol narcnt around rhe worl.t..lhe) *" ,n.tJi*'"-ot nunuring o[ lhe children {ensuring i-ssenrial" t.helter. tooa una .tort,,ng,'ui! i1.y.i"nr naiirllnJ ,"ipon';uiiiri"t 'uch as the emolional rheir hcclrh is cared Ior. to. "*un,pr.,. s dulies' t?lnnot Lc omilled from a porent and edu(aliorl ol tft" tn"u""'"ft" nunuring io be neglected by the modcm worling rhoueh sadly, rlrece rre Icr\ *rt''r' u"'rnl"itir'" iotut p'tittt have abdiecled lhc above ln order lo assecs lh( "*'t"r io tiitrt narenl. as well txlmi"iltrtiiJ;Jtt""at' tn" pttysical aspects mentioned resDonslbiliti"s, *e m"s a\pecl\ of his lifc a' a whrrlc' o. "*orion"t as only reeds' wlrich l choose lo dehne ln terms of providiog for a child's b$ic \thrih mnsl Parents in Srnpapore hrve tor hr* .urvivrl. ,h,' i'-";;;;i lho.c rssentrnls pattnt'' dtl'b"o'"ly dcpri\ing lheir .,,t ncsle.(cJ No ci1'Ps ol tr""rrt'""" i"ttip'""n"nt fv'n in thc ca'c uhctt llrc ut lood rnLl 'hcller ft.'t" t'"""'i"' Sing'tp"'" chrtrlrcn Pro\'idrng ior llrcrr oarenl\ b.long to t""' 'n' 'nt.- gtuuti "i'i' "tt"'i' "r^d'quJlel) ""' ,
r

:iliJ-",, il.:, .",ir, ,ro s',"i,'r-*' ll;l;l,XT: :;ltL,':ili'-Ii',ill'"":i e{uirement or :t"#;H:'?"'.1\ffi i;'X'JlJi' n i,,nl -"'" t"ormenter i:"':J
pirrenthood-

Ilowevcr'theelnoliol1alespcctofparenialresponsibilityiscomnonlyoverlookcd i*"at teri to pro lapse into salisfying their as catering for the childrel's pr'ysitui 'frto tt tftJ t"'"ot ten'na w'trfrng irdults"\lxving away for wants and clesircs
nratcdal

iff ;"ili:

* "";". y:1::; ;*I;ul,: ;::r:; [,'illil Jil:l[',i]: I'Lrrpo.eofellnrdrrrvlrr\'rrrc\ru -^:,,:;.;,;'r,orirr',lu.er1larnrl) lhJllrol1(]I(


r'
.rr.nr'.r.ucllt I!'n)'lrrlucl{r IllFnllicecqualt\murcoll(rr \\ilh I'nu rhe re'ult bcrrrg llrJl th' 'tt'f'f"n "tl"uoff' lcll
nu onc

lo ltrm Io lnr

lhc

;:i;:ilil;""i;";';;" l;1 :*::l:;lifi j;*l;:;:ff'..'-:i;#T[,".i'ilT,il': .r' rrhc'r lll:'l;:ii"";i"';;,;"',',' ',.n in'c'jiriduur' a e re* n uporl :#l,,1" i'i,::i"":li\':',l \\hcre socril t:t::5[]O'morc amidst todaY's rat racing' paper cha"ng "o'''1y prrcnt' rn i,.' ;"' t'"''e u'p 1'"' ' hirdrcn rn 'horr' srrre'potPdrr (hrldtrn i"ll;']"t]r;',,;,'i,;" lor rleir ol :;:lt ;;;.;';";;l"
."ncr,,t u,,utd bc eurlrl ,,f
r

'"''i'',"''it

frovr,ling urr,t"q,r,r;;J,;;; ;;;""." irnl ing out rrrerr drrrre' irr rrrrq rclc'r

Duetotheevcrirrcreasingcornpetrri.)nllllltc$orldtl,dlty'PJrcntscannotallbrd proper ptorLtlrng llrcir childrcn wttb a oot to seriously enlphasize th""- tlui'tt ur A(ripto oL"Jl,..'uon b"eyontl aceclcmrt,grades educarioD_ Mosrdoru,,..u" in,rr" "Ji.,-l ttntt woutd rLrrd"trbt'dly enablc one to ary Popular bookstor" r'"tot" tr'"'it'i "i t' ttr'ot't a head start nr ttlruc towards giving theil.progeny sce otl display the con,,ttit'o"nr p"t*it l"cli't tbr all subjeots rlpidly flyllg-:fi academic u'ork' with brightly cotori'l'"tt"ttrn""t bookshelvesintothehilnds.,te"g.,mutl'...irdlelllctantyouflgsters'.suchascenarro of those szrme parenls would bc into nrincl thc stark t"ni'^iion it'"t not many brings
{8

si ing down wirlr lheir chrldren and going through rhose . books -':'l them bnngins up my earlier point on emorionat .uoonn" r".""i,iii'.' ;::.":-:::l: willt rnem . h fcwer sdll would probably hrre rhe rime ro rake rheir.hir,r,.. ^,,, ,^':,.... l:l :1"'o':l rheir- chirdren ,n nr,,y

*,

*resJpnrints

#J'::fj ;',:::l:::1":1-::"1'l:1..l''n'''t'"' books


and going through assessment

the academic domain - an education in molrur, those children way ahead of theh peers,

"';

;;;;;;;i;

"pon. ",o-;" *"'ii

iil;,.*.":;i"",i;:::l:":lr;:T

i"".) ilJ"',ij,f; nours o,,",uo, troxr io",, of tuition

;,y

! liifl,}H]fff f :?',:,.;};l i"1t;ii anaipp.ofriui.fue-."*iui ,ii"r..r,o 0."r,


twenty years dowll the road

orher

;;:;;;;; on;lJ;.il ;##t""'s ff l"* * il f, i:i:mi *": +,:t' :ili:":l iI I;T X_ of making up for the Jlack of time H,: I f ifi
e,'otionrtly se*."
",i""; spent wrth each

ttreir rusponsiuiiitiJi,^;' abour Lrrcir a",i"..-vr,,,

auromarica r,,,y,r,"."i"*_l..lii,: choosrns sroup dares wrrtr rtrcir fii.nds 1."':,1" *,r.nrs. 5rmrty because rhey find rhe spi.irual sarislacrion *o _J"p,?.". *n.n severely lacking back at home. In a s "_"r!.r'rn.," rbough parents have not entlclv abdicated

In conclusion, parents in sinsapore today only see the of rhei duties. assunrins rhai the only qualifications need to furfil the material iue those in black and white and rhar by providing cveryihine
aspecrs

.ffi,"#i

:;re|se rhr cormoraron rhir rhev do nor ca,e jr " x ;fr':* would definitelv wa'r theL children to feel

;il,. :;1,:T"S"JJyl$:? -Hl#lt ."., ,;");; ;;;; ';i;';"t; !lj^,

I l I I

Fluidly writtcn niitll d ,qood sense oJ coherettcc. Valid p()lnts were well-argued through.)ut the es:d),
Adeline Quah l,ci Shan 05s

necessarily a bad thing? Is an ageing population

Be.er sanitarion.,lt** I'li'Jnifl"i""i,x'i[,lf ate increarrng rnrj'flf still rhe man) factols rhal .i.l+ry-io yecrs.old and il aisboon has rtsen a bane.dul some counlrics like Japan o""orf"t- is mo.. of people ur therr necd an Soln" peoPlc may leel lhat iirio*. i,^^.^,r ,^.,,.ndrr rhe elderly in ur' regard beca-use ot an increase ;"'J;;';"" rtr beaiand lhere is elderlv Thev"*":,",:iil;::;; a PooJ for heclthcare scrvices ":: :'::;'J"L i;,, i, a coin ha" t\^o sides. ol facrors people as resrrictins rhe'-r c'owrh ,:r::;;;, rhi,rs ;:;;:;', ;. , badvalues bcccuseyoung and 'ride poPulation too ll lo lhe ro rne,rB.ing moral Tila.nl,'f *f *fl' w "ia the elderly impafling valuablc like pro.o," iit"ttincalion of lhc economv

':tr"il+'T'ii]:"i;H"ff :l

lti"li "lii*tl

ii"y

one or rhe reasons whv ffi,"#:J req.uire.c.,suiilrl"ilrolhc bccausc clJcrl) pcoPh rn rar cotl.itcd from .: lor lncnr' rrur "^ ," .^ ,".*ase an o,lvernmc11r has ro frovide ":.^^^., "". clderlv ncrson in 'working p.pur.,ri''n as Ihere $ irr rh.e ,": :Y:1, T:',1:::::ii:':.i':"';'lilit"'"o* '' cgeing popurari"n t'19-i-'-":: ,r,i, "" ararnringrv l'l*" i:l',": \uppndrng t* ''"''11,^:'..;;i ,,^,^ n,.. workjni ddulrs Drv morc ra\e\. lh' agerng ',' b..''ut" rhP increr*e Houe'"er' alrhnugh rhe !ountser "::'jl::Ld;i: ;;;ii;;"". ihii i. Jclually helps t'r promotc ""'"'1":-'-,^": r,,,llr leads to en itrtrea'< in nooul,trron ", in'a"^"'',t tor <lJerlv relrlP'l l,.(rlrlresoanu .iu.i., ,"j-*r*r', inn,!\:rior,' Jnd new rrral producr,Un.] n"": .. .r,.rs hJve ,r\cnrcd i, robor Jos their rrtr's lror tlitlli";"'ii." ie' hnol"gv rh,.r ,h.nr ' o,,.,Pun) arr'l <rcrr brrnrints hclp' Iu scrtc thc i'":''l "* acrLr:rll) ';.";;",,, g,"*i', :,nd rhc ellccr nf tlrc :rgcing Thrs thus hclPs lL:;":,; nreclicLire t,, rhcrt' one poPulrtrun b(curne\'1 nusllr!e \il r Lrun' h ol o1'1 lnll \\lro i' Ini\ sa\ llrirl rhc cldcrl) ftnuP 1u't S',rn. pc.rplc '; i'ou,,J , corr" <hops i'rring o"'..:i:;r'lll:;;;";,. \ocicr\ 'r r,e\ curnlrrin or ror ,hc cr,re'-r) becal,'c in rhc numhcr ol leoPle '(norng.rrrr lj i:]' ';.;" ,,:*. ,.r. o',. srpp .lo\cr lo irr(r.d.,c Bur' Il $e rJ\c orr" l;:' ;;;a ; : cho* t' caie l"r rhcir s(k fxrcrrr' cxanline the sirLration' the erder.v'

*"rli,#lJ".,l,l,ifi':i *

::ilil$"T-,i:

"i:lii";.,;;il

i'

f"t i':":l,i lil"-*.

* ''"''T'i:'Jit';;;[ll l":l*:lll::ll';5"]::il ; i;;;"

ll:

i:l':;

l[

x in,.

"': ':l ':';I":'1"'li,'il'r',,i",. ,u,,t,, r.,,ne', e.n"'o"on ;:lll;;i:;J:il.ll1: lt.'{'ihi:t .1:il,1;l Ll;llll;t ;lh::T" l""l':::;l i' nut ncccssrrily lrare l:,ilc.l to s"e lhJl h) ronrblnlrrtsl'''i,"a"r".
'l 't'.y h.rLr
*tr'run
oopulaiirrr' - :tgcirrg i" imparring 'fififfi'J:l'Jr3:if.',irt::::'i'"""J1L":;'""0"'i*' 'innf vo'ng'

i], :'l

T:i:,

:,,"",';J,1.

:',:."'T;;iiil:

'];;;i;"t''j:::':,:j ;lil'T iii;ili3ii:

I'illt'll"*:;:il

li:1,:":"';:

to them

wisdom and insight

in the'mud who mry d'gLre thlr Ih" "tn"ll' "":11-l::f'\ they arc in The On the other hand' soole in thc cn!rronnrent ,re rror flexible and not easily ^u^o1,rj.tt'to'.nr^*.
20

ged are only conrfoftable in familiar

I
i+#fr
f^i:

ynli1'j:i!!!:1 "l:l.:f#u :l';:tmj ;i:' fl'.flilfi: jH gi,;i'e ilv'^'/ arc ruoreo In lherr moral belicf, .nd val;j. : :il:;1,.",,xt tr ;::11 *, *ii Tfi J#'': ;1,:::i i#,..:i *;,. T";",:;li: ::: li
lVhile the elderly u.t;.v" in'srar i:

,t,r*r",r,;=, fit, :::. 1;:u:fl Ji;:[T:,".,ilfl :: i; mer :il"l,,oin,roduce new ter,caprctry and potenLjal. Bur.l ffi charrces ol expandrng *."r,f lif." . "",,i1j(sro

t
I

'"r l(ry r ney should hold fl to principles of lifc i"H"". $; fast i":! -O f"-" fr.--,]r.'"i'E o'sr'rvin8.rrue lo thcm\etve'. some ot lhese lhe )oung may .r,r"g" ;""t:11'l tt'".'"tu" ol aged bv doing rheir besr in ,,In"jJj),;: *n",.,-"-tl.l. rrrrv oo. lncy wiil rhcrr succesr. success. The moral values lhcrl i-n*"a or.;;"'^ ^ln:, do.. Thcy ,mpro!c reip rhe lruit oi. :j^ri oI ""rr." ro vounBcr senerarion rir..fr" oi,r,i "u,.

T;il:*
_"*l

H*:i"i,+x,;iJ1:,l"T.fr
"6.'ir,

wi

l{i,:fr:*,fr f ,." .or;';,"iliHfrll:;


'r'.

ir;";;;;;,;;:i,T:""T::,fl:

r
t t t t
I

in the futu.e.

*n' ,r" i3,o".i'ir'"11'"'i"*;i", ;,ii:#i:T:ros'PPon them.Irth;-:il:;;J;;::[? "ii".,.,."i";;1::i::l::'i^":::^l:!s b;;;i;;;; Jli:J,liiil,i;Jl il'.'-*l',t*t* t,, to socicry wher rhey
rt

In conclusion. I , younger gellerarion brlieve tlat an . the vounBer g""".urion perceive not necessarily a treccssarily e rhinB it rhe .i;-;. "-'-*'""-'..'' d\ d r:",).: ot.wisdom and team bad rhins if sour'e ol wisdom es'ential morat uutu.",art,".,r,,,,.i""";:: nriat moral uuru.",o,rr"r,r,r,r'*".!iv leam frum rtrem tlim i mr(rng nu co,,rribur,on berng.infle',ibtr una .giJ. berng infle',ibrr and rrgid. conrriburron ro j,oc,err rnd j,ocierJ " Ar;;;;,;;':::" ;;;.;,,;:j::::,,"^:.T,i(in8,nu ,n even though there is tuiin...o".i even,hoLrah,r'"* ,. d,\e,.s,ryins ,h, ecnno.rr

f..""i*'iil""i'ffll*"n-tt*it",.is

"-""rr["

";;:u#;.#I#H:;,:: i.o# "";.;:il:


the

):I;.''"tt
Kang Zhi Ni

insightr,eft.

cliscussed.

More concreLe eramples h,oul.lhavee hetperl

o5s22

t I
I I

ll

Is an ageing population necessarily a bad thing?

population is An ageing population may not necessadly be a bad thing An ageing "#niirr in the oldei generation forms a large podion of the poPulation . popuraiion" i. emerging in co-pa.ison to the younger generation This phenomenon is gradually in d"u"lo,t"a und devetoping counlries due to many factors such as improvemenls years in the-.recent healthcar. seruices, high itandards of living and a low birth rate up of the elderly may disadvantage a ,+f*roogl1 ttoui"g u i"laiively large population made elde y can ."".rrii. ""*itt *"ys, the eldeily may also prove to be valuable assetschildren, guiding .The aspects of life such ai in caring for the young .onoiuot" ir, ,t . "o"ial good sources of advice They can also continue to confribute to you.rg p.opL" una U"ing lhc economy by slrying in thc worklorce'

would be the large significant disadvantage of having an ageing poPulation Due to many age expenditure of the govemment on healthcare services for the elderly nced for ."L,"d illrr"rr.. tlt"at are prevalent amongst the elderly, there is 1r constant provide is obliged to affordable and quality healthcare li..uittsl Th"s, the govenment have to be oi tlre .ost of the working population, as thlr working people ,rr*" ""*i.* .lhus, this creates a strai; on dle youngcf generation as they have to taxcd in retum. working citizen r,,op"" ,t-t" growing ageing population as the ntio of clderly to each nurses and irir'"^".- rri"." i. it.o-u ni"d ib. t oin"d medical personnel such as doctors' have to be .^G".lt t"-"n"tta to the needs ol the elderly Morc people would then trained in thc field of geriatrics

.l
I

il

iirl

Thcre are The iocreasc iD the nLlmbea of eldcrly may also lead to social Problems to takc care of many cases of the e ldcl ly bcing abandonei by reir chiidren who ^refuse for.thernselvcs as they h"i o. giu. tt*t tftelb; The; elderly People are unable to feod tbr these eldetly in jrn-" ro retu. to_ Thus, it is necesiary to provide lodgings ,ro t having to "u" in" for- of low cost rental FIDB apatlnlcnts This resulls in the govemment stlch as the in the construction oi thcse homes as special considerations t;r;;;;t planning for have to be faken into account Furthermore' due to ill satety of rfr" fiscal "tA"Ay trced retirement when many clderly peoPlc\ were youngcr' the) alc -withelderly job' many-of the difticulties. As they are unable to coritinue working or find 't Thus all these frou" to ."fy on a";iy allowances givcn to them by wclfare organizations a large- role in doinS so' needs of the eldcrly have lo be seen Io and the govemment plays a filancial burden' As a resuh, this slrains our vallrable resources ancl the elderly become These children Grandparents can be responsible fff taking care of their grandchjld'en cases of maids necd nor be left solely in thc carc o[ the maid Since there havc bcen reassuring if abusing young children without thc knowledge of their employets' it.is.more naid More importantly' gaurtdpu."nt can be at home to supcr',isJ the child(cn and " g.inap*"nt, can impa( knowleclgc accumlLlated over lhe years to the younger life with their grandchildre ' !en..ation. They can also share veiuabLe expcrienccs in tiom lhesc ihcse lcssons in life can grcatly iDfluencc the rninds of the yortng childrcn as them tionl strdling t"a.onr, tf,"y can leam nr-orals and the right way of life, plevcnting

OIrtheolherhand,lheelderlycanbeasselsinmanysocialaspectsj|thirsociety.

22

----.---_..

to

grandchJldren. An ageing populrtion has irs silver lininE.

intolhe wrong path. Thus, grandparenls ctui be seen as an intcgral part ofany their, abuidlurce their phenomeral oo,tir1, ,o .ur"'ufiita#

I I
:

.f t1r*iig"'-a
:i

continue.to contribute ro rhe economy. some *'1" t,L" ul ,he ,."-^:;i;,,:: of work orrce agam. ,r,. responsibility :.":^::':ll'l ". ., ,, .ro,*. take up r"* cen ."."".'". *-t securify guards, relief teachers and mento.* r" the younger ttors to ,r," .^1,.-." gencration. By :::" --]::i:_';: going back to d,^rl. ihc ar,_{-.r,, onry able to o""upy ,, not. tr,.."iru.!, ;;iJ to the.economy. r, :lT:::":.-:"_^Til" been scr up ru aid rhe eraerry in ,*r,",.,,Ji", i.u.. rii. IT,T,::,,:g:]:'.:lr,avc ro-work?rosramme has auracted many and can population. "t;;

:r.: elderly people who are still fir are abte tn

I::*::::j::,",t*il

:T,:j,*j::::t""j:f^1T:t,ro*', ::ll.*..^"tj:lt.,t
::l!b"r"^

i,.i, ;.;; ^;;';;;",#;;,"'-dff_

'il;;;;".;i.j ii .;;,;". :;;; ffi,:,;":;


#

r"il,".il" ;ffi;

r,,j,.U,u,rt" il ,"d".",r,"i;;.;.;;."";;,."*il'f;::'.",:*1.Sfi.$1",:i",'"J":1il?t"in:,?.:l$ ,;;i;;"

Morcover, the elderlv do not nccessadly have to rcly on others. They can also bc independerr and live acrive iulfilrins rir""yr." ef pran^"j *,,)jrn.,11?.n., rn ,o", they can prevent themselves from iacingpr"Uf?... ilr""grl riraintailing a -on"ia.y healthy and rcrivc lrtesryle by con,ranr"ly recrerrionrl rcttvities such xs ball pln. ",,",.iii,,'g "o.,rt "na

heath and loneliress. participarins acrivety i, ,t. i","tr] .Jii"Trii".'.rn o..u"n, rhese from happening. Thus, ir can bc seen ""ai, rhat the elderly burdens ro socicty, as long as they have the financial "." oi .*ppo,rinf ,ri",rr'rt".tu". urra ,rr" determination to lead a hcalthy lifcstyle. ""p"rrilitv

knuuteJse rnd er1,c1iq11r.s. ,r,"1 ,."1,,,,i. 1i,,,,r.,""*".r",.,",n" )oullp rlld.llrelr granJclrildren. By.rdolring I lt.rltlr) and ::j::."::::,.f ,:i: cldcrry can renair as conrritrurins fack)rs ro oJ ct,unrry. .r.rre ur\JUvanrag(.. ot ttrv lg a aucing pUpuhrion can be,lctcrred b1 inrplenrenring polrcre. lo e\lcnd rerirrmrnr agc. err..ruraging.lo.cr rrcs herwec, ir",,ii.. r1 ,".1 also en(ourages rhe eldcrty ro jerd heatthy ",il-,t.ir'.ra", [f"rtyt"s. fnu., an og.i rf-p.iri",i.rl necessa.ily be a bad rhing. "r"y "",

Fiom lhc above, it can bc seen that. tbough thc eldet.ly may pose burdens to thc country as a whole, rhey are also valuablc r.r"t, ,o- tlr. .o,r,,nrn,f .,1rj *i.iin.""_ ou" ,u

::::1,::1:,1-',1 edu(Jlc the wu,rr('r(e .lno

I I I I I I I I I

Rather Jluidb)

writen

ancl convincingly atgu.(1 piece of h,otk_

Cytthia'Ian
0-5s I
I

23

I I

t t I

t t

I
fl

In this modern era, the aged are


What are your views?

useful' becoming more irrelevant than they arc

$
1

from the world our fotefathe$ The world we live in today is markedly different breakthroughs that have liv"d n, Jo. to rapid industrializition and advanced scieltific havc seen the our slandiud of Iivins Technological hrea-k*uoughs lo $e "-"lf'.-i't "*""."d i^?"",ii "'"0 *i""""tions of elecronic gnig"r, r-ging from lhe basic comptler to-otlln"" gaaget' a. vcry much characteistic il;;;;;,;";;;J;iJ"o "ont"'"""iog Our ttuna*a of living is also enhanced bY rn now

l
:

of the

modem ela we are

g"n..,ions ago. the rged toiled a''d "a""".".".".r'r'"athcare'allowingtnorepeoPletodaytolivetonger.Theagedare ii.* *rr" rr"r. -^"rred the age of sixty-fir," -i f"*Although this modem era has seen ..rt.ilrti"a wholly to the fatnily anj economythey are still
aged' the rote of i*ir""r"g*"f ui""i tt"ughs that iheaten to take over macro scale'the a a lige extent be it on a micro or t"i"t"., i.J

modem era the tt would be difficult for one to debunk the view that in this "pJ.ui*. ul in lherr ,"p,"..n,inp the 'econd Benerrlion cre murc cauglrl ,,riaJl. ag"J ol shulllinv ploduclr\it) A' r.re'ull *"rt tf',i,ft";, o$n nJrenls due to the emPhatrion hours er $ orkllace ;r";J;; ;;"; *ori ,o l,ont" ancl spending long responsihilitres_rs.palcnts T":"- 1f:: .lheir to a certatn ,rru,' ,r"i. iL. ,."ona generation tend to neglcir their distiptrnrng the children to .*r"n,- irt"."for", th-ey retegate the tasl'i of nurturing and l.roL all"r lhe lhird

"t"rtr

the rged rhcir ,,wn Darcnts. *hom society reter to as rhe rgcd. tiavrrrg cenrre- nr ro ;;;;;;;;i;' ., ."ry r'blc alr':mcrrve ro scn'lins rhe voung(rer \ ' ith 'hilJcarr nrind can -at . sound i' -i.J ir'"'" The ,sed' least thr'se *;ffi;^-;;ii The SingaPorc a"ir"'i"iy-i. i,,,si.a to a"at with Lhc c-hrl'l [airlv lnd uith lovc now encourages luve realizcd rhc viabilitv of this option because it ;;;;;;;^;;;", As an incentive"it h's made it threc lier famtlies to stay togcdler. or even ciose togeLher' -irnd Devclopnrcnt Bo tl (HDB) tlals.".i". ii. rft..-ti". t"milies"to gct lalger Housing ol': on a grealer o. the role oi the sJcon.l generalion as tlrcer f."l]: i,i ,rri. ,r-a"r,r ".u, vacuurn lcft.behind by thm as child imDoftance, the nged woulct hout tn st)p intit the faorily *'.t.tl*c.rgetl are srttl re[vant and useful to a large extent at the

'"tii..r. lcvel.

arrd shove hxve sacriticed At the community lcvel' nany ot thosc xged sirly trvc 'ot rhe comlnunity as a whole Happily rnuch of their time in order to servc thc ncetls seeklng to challelgc number of the.aged renlain atrrvc Lonstantly ..,i."a. To cnrich "..ig"iti""* (heir minds instead of 1u.l ..n,n"tirg idlc anLl wstLhiDg-lrnrc sLrf.by a course at a one cffoll in thcmselves. some of the agetl nrfft to "o;nluLlity work Slrould td find lhat ..".ty ...*t"irv ."ntre iCCl in Singaporc, it rs hrghly Pussrblc lh'lt oni-lo "rgct1population"' t"tmber '_'l the one out of lhree traincrs there would;e a rttit"t ani a of them reveal that working in .+iirlorgl, ,rt"y go p^id a small fee for their services' many working snall contribution back to society Fu herlrore' thcy say

in" cCi.

lrrtirt"" An cxamplc ol-somcone with peoplc and interacliflg with them kceps thcrn lcelrng^1uung the needs of lhc who has redcfined "retirement" by rnnrcrsing hcr"clf i'r ttn'ing ('onccmeLl hy the.dangers lurking in comorunity is Mrs. Cannee Lim' an cr-pnncrpil thrs modem era she avtl"r.p^." and the easy access of the inttrntt tn youngstcls in
24

'*:tr***u*i'*Ffffr#ffi*ffiuuffi

mru****ffil
,".,",",T"H;^ln.ll":.,.'.,..,J;:,,;,,;n;:

r d*#i'.,l*'"*'it.'..x;--;i",.li'*i*tiili:-iil i,i r
#;,:ll,,li,l,,,;i,ll:l:;_

juc ,\.o,,,;,,s

,,,,rrc I

,f,t:i'*'tltr*,****llrir*n[r**:*--lrii**
.er rhe jobs

of

ffi,."{',,,::f,tffi#:,,:'",iilii-iffi['fit*ixin*tr
One or twn ,-.., -,. ^

r
t

",

*r,,,,', ,,'",h i,i,',i':i,:: ,:,:,:i,,1::'::::t:,!,:i:,;:i::::,::;i;,!{,,1!;,,

Nur

Raihana

-" ""'raLttlges\'

,,,*n_,,,"

I
25

you eq[ality is thc womcn themselves' Do The greatest obstacle to women achieving agree? by women whosc aim is to Nowadays, thele are so many campaigns orgrnised ten Hol"J"'' unittoaoy itte) slrll have nol achievei eive the woman equalirl tirtt rtte in societv some people believe lain the somc n"orm.nt us men ,t;ir;;;;Ii"hi"; to women achievirlg equality' that women themselves ar" ttte greutest obstacles of the community ; -v .piti.", ttrere arc ottrei ractors such as the culture achieving equalityil;;; the wometr flom women live in which also playt a tot" in hindering We nust consider dris toomay become an obstacle for them In the first place, thc charactenstics of women to be less competitive than a g".""q""iitr"i"t"ictt prnvet th..i u"uatty women tend their complaints and needs or men. Consequently' they may not toit" tfttit opinions nol nnlrrinv lhem. M^reover' in mosi people rgnoring tirern ot perhaps men "r*'..t'*it.l*, "i"g plr)sicrlly weiker rhin m'u Th"* irr lhe errlier d:ry' secn as the *1-n." "'.'r.,rrrrv .,utial indiuilualt than women since they were \nnlinuc\ ;;;;;d*J;.';;re cnil lhi' r-,..t.,.fi,n. 1'n.,1;g. l: a recull \ omen Llidi'nol hr\( cqlrelil\ ttre tu11t1, i,,.,,"- nrl l'rrrilt nD rarlrer s<rn rs rlrc rror'cror ur an opnio^ create rnr) '" he is physicaliy strongc' than my mother' -Th's il;.. in thc farnily Henlc .the traits^oi that mv fathcr is more impo ant tftai my mnrtr"t garn itt"ttttu"t c'rn be s'en as rn ohsr&lc for tltem to

il;l;l;:"t:';; i;;;"*" ||ll..; o, ilJ';Jt,t"J


equality.

who bear children may be a Furtllennorc' the tact that womcn are the ones lo seientists rs the Individuals who flinaron.J'o"*u.r,"n ""lri"',ing "qu^liif- Actotdrng rlra. nrcrr lrrvr' :;;:;;;,t,"thcir.hrlJrtrr'*'m'nl'"""ir\rtonu(rrr(wirlrrlrcrr'lril'l''rr in reising the:hiltlt:l1-::l hence arc Thereforc. lhey are seen to bc Ilrore capable al homc and inost of the lirne' they have to stay associatcd with this task. This rneans that iu sociery. that it is very chores roo. This view is roo{ecl so deeply ;;;il;;iJ can rcplace women rn i,rr.rri'io. ...", ro change il toclay. Hence, although Drer ulro :ll\ al fourrLl lL' hc rrising tlrc LlrrlJren. worn"rr are rrr''r" frcqu'ntl) '1,'," ltt:n': pUirrt My ctle 'rn cxarrrplc lo !llLl.lrJle rnv llurnc, l:rl'nP iarc ol lh'il clrrtaren lrt mt carc of me whcn I wes a child' whereas mother was the one wllo stayed at home and fook lo work Thcreiole' thc fact thaf women my talhcr atways went out c!ery w''rrking day the Lesutting in thcm being.associtted with are the ol1es who glve blrrh to Lneu ctrildr'en, equali{y' i^.t oi nunu.rng ,i" tattet' hamPcrs womcn's effbi in achievirlg

Ilowevcr'tlrerealeo(he.tectorshirrdcr-irrgwornenintheirfighllbrequdlity. they live Some by the cultures t'f the coinmunity i which fhes" mcn and causc women lo be "r. "x.*ptifi"cl cultures in solne coulltries ut" ntot" f'"n"iiti"t to

iirra"an,"g"0- o:"t

significant than n in Cnina. a son is considercd to be nlore "xampte' As a.rcsuli us{rally-th" daughter since thc sol*itt p."..rut tt'" fomily nallle l:*:,t-li'] Anolhcl casc occurs in collnlncs ln receivc tnore wealth frorn his Parcnts whcn they die as nlen ure seelr as treing more East Asie, wherc wcxlcn are deprivecl of eclucatiol

)5

I
I
imporranr and de*rve educarion women achieving

ber equalny- --'ter'

These culfures'

of

course' arc

ot.ru.t., ,o

dcprired uomen ofa fi ;l;rxitti"k]^thrJs'Ji'T"i;lllrr::::li;,flto :';li3* countrr h.. ,.,^--- ll",.rli *,ii""lrl"i*ill; i: rhe -r il:lXT

:::::,.T:i:i,iJht"#il:ry#:1?!i!";"il:.,1,J:JHJ.,:,:.,#::,Xf men to take on certain jobs in countrie


has

f,Ti?:"*:-:" jn::*".':*n*t":'k"#,]"1.';Tff
some counl_'e\

counrry where rhcv riwF by enrerins d,ey rive war. In addition, in somc counrriesl

chance

serve

:tr:';j.1lT:",;il

**,**i-**;.ii,,'i:lr:1"l:.;#:i+flir,iTlT['tiliH;.; miy el.lon\ ol-r{",*,, i" r.f,""i"g.q;;,r;, -',


obstrucr tlre

:
I

;i:::i:cr 'esi,,cn w"'ntnt""4"""'it'"""'"urll,:':i.t,,i:J;l ur.ycJno\.i,nnr(.rhcir$.eakressc,n,do'

o'ndoncs a,

s "",r ni",p tllrr countn(s wcll. However. ulttil ti,

;Uiil* :*il:'il#;iii#, U*[ ;:H" f 1;h,i*l:fj:h:fi:l:'1 ;,J:I::'1:i:il';t.'ff i['-]ii,ff I -r .. ,*, ;iil:i:;T;S;l;l,r';:ll';::J:'il


H";il'i:1"i,,::. ;:jl'.::,:y -,t:

rem$lvei Len bc ob'13'1q' 1e , {\ uc halr secn. wom(n themsolve; ,,rn h. ^h.,^^r^- w6rne .",;. ;;; ..;;,:i'r pos.ic.. ,n,r ,t,. tl.r',r,ri,ili"in '" berrers. ,o$c\er. lh.re rre orhcr ,rhc1
cquatiry due

0"n,."'ne

|
t

ff1;:i:.i:$;.::i;j.rfi,,,
Ilcll argued your
cuse is

*i:l;::l':|"^;::;:T:j;.:::hil.;;,][::i]ll:l::.i;::m:n:]:::;lll *r,,"r,
wtll orgunizetl antl

'",_.n"ii;:;:il.;l#".LTlil::1,':::t*1,::
r:onvincit,

:
I

o5s.

Susanlo Winata

I I
27

t
I
:

ll I
I
Our lives are detcrmiDed by thc
places we are boru

into' How trre is this belief?

I I
I
g

lre bom into-ia true to a The belicf that our lives are detemined by the places we while plates rfer to both certain extent. o|.ll lives refer to ouf lilestylcs and ]uturc and the suburb' different countdes and different parts of a country' the city' countrysidt our beliefs and norms ffri. fr"-fi"f i"qoit ttue as the place where we are bom into shapes in be ;;; i;;id.t..pportunities. on the other hand' it may not our true in that nothing lives' a"t".*ine our lives as if we exercise no choice in thi, *orta

i
:

"*

Fi$tly, my Point to show that this belief is truc is that the place where who are-bom into the countryside Uorn into alt"p", !oo, character- For example' people and have to eam ,"na to t. mor" iu*ble and hardworking as they are generllly loor cities are nore afiogant eu""ything Uy working hald. However, people who are bom into to eith due to the envirorunent around them- PeoPle frotn djfferent ur nlo, "r"Ao*r, collntriesalsotendtodifTerintennsofcharacter'fbrexarnple'foreignworkersfron

you are

Ctirlounalndiaarewillingtodotoughhobsforameagersalary.whilemany bv the phces

il;;;;;;.;-;;

very pickv ibout rheir jobs. So, our lives are dctennined

we arc bom illto-

opporhrnities lt Secondly, the place where wc are bom into detennincs our chance of .l"t".*in"a ou, .itun.es of survival, the ch:uce of obtaining education and lhe example fbod' ii.ai"g r.l. tn places with poor medical scr"rices and shortagc ofdie jusl for wilhin days " bal)ie! Africa. many childrell do not suavlve lrto adulthood and some rnay lind inlo the world. People lrvrrrg rn sorne LouLllries.like Induflesia ,,p".iil"i, Ls something ^itl".f elu.atinn to be a luxury while for peopte irr-Jnprn' ttn yejrrs ol cducrfi"n orhers Also' in. .;;t'p"i-t;ry- jubs toay t" pt",ttifut in t"ttaitt parts of the world but scare but rot in the c"ir"in f"uet of.au.atioir may land us a job in less devclopcd countrics lry the ^ aar",[""f.p"0 oncs likc the Unitcti States Thereforc' our lives are delernincd places we are bom into orrr Iives ale From another point of view' migrJtion can rnrke rhis bclrc[.tlr'rl nre pcoplc who r:an be bom determined by the pla."s *. a.. bortt intJ to bc untruc- Thete migratc lo ,he majofity of the peoplc ar.e poor like in Africa but they in,u loun,.i", *t "i" like En;lard. Wtren ttrei" peotle migrate at a very young age, their lr"ri". nm by the places thcy are "oontri". oa^.,". i, y* ,o fr" mould"ed so their character is not determined "t i,li". .ii;"if"Av, ,heir oppoltunities will nol come from the pltce they are horn illto as tr.." tf*f *iff r,r" frorrr another country. Tltus' our livcs are not detennincd by the placcs we
ate bom into.

we are My sccond point that opposcs this belied is that no matter which counlry o\{n hands aod bom into, we cafl ovctcolne all sorts of difficulties Our lives lie in our for our nothing but oursclves detennine orr lives Wc create our own chances scarch by the Places own ofportunities ancl build our own future so o{rr lives are nol determined a goocl job in a poor *" u." to* inro- No rnatter how slim our chances are of obtaiDing crowd' nothing developinS cotttlhJ, as long as we can make ourselves sland our from lhc proper schools he can i. i'npo,r.fut". If a person is bom inrc the countryside with no

28

I
travel to the city to obtain education as long as he is defermined. Once again, our not detrrmined hy thc plrcc\ we are bbm into.

livc,

,rrc

However, dcspite the possibiliqr of migration and self- derermination, the majodty of people's lives are detennined by the places they are bom into. lf a person wirh a very high IQ is bom into Af.ica and is very poor, there is hardly any chance of suwival to make it big in the workjng world. Even if he survives, the denial of the chance of education will kcep his intelligence hidden_ However, a person who is not smafl but is given an opportunity to study will be able to acquire skills and be successful. places we are bom into do shape our characters and determines our opportunities. So, our lives will always be determined by places we are bom into for the majority, even into the future.
Goocl points raised and well-supported. Keep reading to hone

t t T t
I I

jour

use

of

EnglislL.

Tan Bao Ling Charlene 05s45

t I t

?,9

I t I I

I I t I

Public figures have to behave well at all tirnes. Do you agrce?


Today, due to the openness of the media, there has been a self proliferating culture of scandal of which public figures, including celebrities, politicians and sportsmen have become victims of. Journalists dig out the dirt on them and hold them accountable for their actions. Secrets of infidelity, drug consumption ard sexual habits are uncovered for the world to see. These public figures have yet to realize that they have to behave well at all times, not just at public events, but also behind the glitz and glamour. Cood behavior should entail behaving morally and ethically and detinitely includes obcying the law. As public figures, these persoralities have the responsibility to uphold the repulation of the bodies they represent and are rcle models to many. Thus, they should be virtuous and upright at all times to be worthy ofthe limelight they bask in. Public figures have to behave well at all times as they are accountablc for the rcpotalion of the bodies they rcpresent. This is especially true tbr politicians, who rcpreseflt their party and the govemment. Ao example would be the recent case of Sinaporc's Non-constituency Member of Parlirment, Steve Chia. He had taken'sexy photos' of his rnaid, made a hobby of taking nude sho(s of himselt. and had an extranarital affair which he ended beforc the 2001 General Elcctions. This 'private' infonnation was spilled out lor public sclxtiny aftcr his wife reported him to the policc after she found the maid s pictures in his computer. Although he has since rcsigned from all his posts in the National Solidarity Party, hc is still clioging on fo his Parliamenl seat. Political observcrs say Ihat his crcditability has bccn undennined and whethea he is eligible fo| future elections or !rot, is all opefl question. On lhe sanlc notc, in 1977, Mr. Lee Kuan Yew, then Prine Minister of Singapore. adviscd mcmberu of his party, the Pcoplc's Action Party, not to misbehave themselves as anybody rvith a palemity suit against him would be 'out' of politics and Lhere would be a by-election. Thesc cxamples show that public figures, especiiilly politicians, have to behavc in a dignifiecl manner at all times, even al home, as any iscondlct can hevo grave cftccts on the cledihbility and integrity of Ihe body they represcnt. Their misdecds could damalle the body's standing as it would go against tlre values it endorsesPublic figures also have to behave well al alL times as Ihey have to live up to the expectations society has of them Io dcvelop olufual tiust- Atlcr all, they thrive on popularity. Successtul lubic tigures rccognizc drat such trust hlls to be eamed and often wrap thcn$eives in the cloak of 'family valucs' and paradc their firmilies befole the media, prescnting themsclves as likeablc chaaactcrs and showinS the public whdt they are 'really' Iike 'up close and personal'- Fbr example. David Beckham, cap(airl of Il glend's football tcam, often parades his family at public events, showinlt himself to be a 'tamily person'. lor Beckham, his good behavior has brouSht him lar.'loday, f)avid Bccklam is England's most populatr footballer and is also a household flame in countries like Singapore aod Jap:ur. Fans cite his 'wholesome lamily image' as e rcason fo[ his popularity. For politicians, many feel fhat privnte conduct coonccts shorgly to public ofiice. For ex.lmple, joumalists nradc Ihc issuc of whether (lcorgc W. Bush ever used cocainc as thc campaign qul-stion of summcr 1999. Colunrnist Molly [ri[s and News$,eek's SIuarl Taylor poi[(ed toward the relcvmt policy issue: Bush's sisning of thc

his good behavior paid off. He was elected president of the United States. These examples show that society expects public figures to be upright and worthy so it is important that public figures live up to those expectations and behave well ro gain the respect and tust ofthe public.

Texas law that made even fiast-time possession of small anounts of drugs punishable by prison time. The question was should people less fortunate than Bush be ieaming from their youthill mistakes inside a jail cell? Bush denied any consumption of cocaine and

Public figures are role models for mxoy and they havc ro behave well at all rimes to set good examples for the comm[nity. For example, a study made by the University of Califomia, Los Angeles, School of Public Health, stated that lgqo of the teenagers surveyed named sports figures as role models while anothet l0olo looked up to singers. This shows that public figures exefi a strong irfluence on impressionable minds and thus the public expects them to have clean and acceptable behavior. Whether they like it or not, famous pcople arlr mimicked, not just at their profession but at everything they do. During her recent Super Bowl half-time perfonn:rnce, singer Janet Jackson accidetrtally exposed her breast, causing a huge uproar among audiences_ Some thought that the scen.: was disgusting arld that it promoted the baring of flesh as bcing fasl onable. Janet Jackson's invitation to present an award er the Cr.lmnry Awa(is irlcw days later, was soon withdrawn- She had been denied attendance at the covetcd music award show as hcr behavior was inappropriatc and undignified_ Thus, it is important that public figures behave well at all times and inaintain a good, clean irnage as they are influential role models for many.

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Ilowever, one can also argue thal it is irrational to idealize public figures and demaftl pcrtection of them. Aftcr all, they are ollly hurnall, and it is unrealistrc to e\pcLt them to be omnipotent. Some feel that public figures have a right to do what thcy waflt privrtell a. long a: rhcv d,, rlreil t,,bs uell. lrke tur cr,rrrplelrl,c Bill r linrurrtMnrriia Lewilsky scandal thxt produced thc first prcsidential inpeachmcnt over a cenrury_ Fomrer l,resident o[ the U ited States of Amcrica Bill Clitton admittcd ro havinS an affair with Whitc llouse inrcrn Mo ca Lcwinsky. but he was srill electcd president for fwo lerms- Polls rcpeatedly suggesled thal mosl Americans did not think prcsidenl Clinton's allegecl peccadilloes undermincd his performarce as president, rlthough they undermincd their rcspect for him. This shows that ro some, ir did not matrer if Clinton. the public figure and Clinton, the private an, wcrc two difierent people. To thelll, as long as hir was honcst in lhe way he conducled his politics, whclher he was honest about his personal ljfe rcally was nonc of their-btsiness. Thus, public figures do not havc to behave wcll at all times because cven lttough thc) have .t !cftarn leveL ol erpenise, thcy are still human and to err is only hurnan. lt ca be argued that as long as they do their job, what gocs on behind the scenes is nol impol1ant. Public figurcs seek lhe bcncfits of tame and thev must be able to takc thc dowrside of public inteffogirtion. Givc rh(ir hrgh pr,rtrlcs rht,y h.rve to behrvc well and project an ethical imagc to society to gain (heir trust and live up to their expectations of thcm as role models- Morcover, a.ly misdemeanor on (hcir part could also ruin thc good lran1e of lhe body they rcprcsent- Indccd. somc of their ilcts might bear no rclcvance (o

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public and private is their jobs but public figures should rccognize that fol them' what is behavior noiu'lfu"t_u"i_*rlit" isue. To ask the world to t.m a blind eye to any immoral would simply b.; biting off more than they can chewThis is

a well-written essal Good usd of emnples and insighful conments nade

Joame Teo 04s26

R@rE lll

oDE

(ENE PEf,soN oR maYBE AN H@NoR TlE BE A R@LE m(EDEL T@ BE A ROLE IIIODEL' i IIIORE THAN TflAT. IF YOU ARE GIVEN A CHANCE T@ II'I'LUENCE A THINK Y@U sH@ULD ALWAYS TAKE IT BECAUSE Y{EU CAN T TO OO. LIFE IN A P@SITIVE LIGHT, AND THAT.S VHAT I WAI.I

L Qu@TEs:

I Tgrlr tt's
PERSONIS -

THAT'5 wHAT IT'5 aLL aB@ur.

Veeos.

TI

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CHILDREN NEED In@DELs RATHER THAN cRlrlcs' - J@sEpH f@uBERr, FRENcH EssAYlsr (17 s2-1824)

ExamPL HAs m@&E IOLL@WERS THAN RE ASON. - CHRIsTIAN N EVE LL BOVEE, ANERICAN AUTH@R ANO TA'VYER II824t9 @4)

IrnrrartoN Is A NEcsslrY IUsrrc (1841-1955)

(DF HUIIIAN NATURE'

-(ELrveR !?ENoELL H@LmEs' JR" AmERIcAN luRIsr, SuPREfiE C@u&T

32

t
road less travelled:', (M. Scott Peck) is being differcnt overrated?
M. Scott Peck had it .ight when he wrote the phrase, ..The road less travelled_,,to the idea of choosing to be different. lo this time ug., utt oi-u. ar" to be different, to the extent that some find that being diffJr""t l. disa$ee with this view, to a large extent. Being unique in oie,s ideas, thoughts and viour is not over-glorihed. Instead, the emphasis is "ppropriat,'as *r,Ii:T dre crowd,_ro_power rhe differeni sectors of *,. need y, lh:1""d and technology and the arts. business, science "ou,rt When a child,s nature m"ets th" different forms of nurturing, a myriad of unique individuals .me.g.. H"nce to them to continue being one of a kind is par for the course

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For example, in any country who would want an economy that has encouraged a
.

a country's economy would have failed as other neighbouflng .ounrri.a a,*"d,loi the nergnDounng countrles stafted doing ,r ""*-'1., , same. Trade would then bifurcate between the countries and-profits would plunge. H-ence gt1 e.'u"*,'*, *.gr'i i. r'-,". il",;;;:'u"J""1"" jJ:l9il:':; f "ii;;".;;;;;;. industries. One might argue
that if our ncighbouring countries did not change, we would have continued to mirkc money. Brt it no onc coirinues changing, we viould alt just revert back to being cavenen, grunting around, and there is no pJintin that either.

pot trade centre, our

It is importanr in business to bc diffcrent, crcative evc. An individual with unrque ideas can creatc a whole ncw business, rvith gargantuan profits, jusl i iike the creator of llread 'Ialk did. Why iust have plain bread, *h"n *. i,"u. bread and pork floss? With that simple, yet creative idea, a unique man became a"o,, rich busincssman. Also, what if a differcnt soll of approach can achieve the salne clesired rcsults, with less etibrt? Having no ua.urar rrdv[E ru natural resources of oul own Si o[ own, Stngapore would ncver be tamous fbr anything with regard Io gold. Yet a strrrlJrc rwcaki[g oithe rnrnd, antr wc werc .,!q !vs4!v LU BUru. rcr d simpre rwcrKrllg OI tDe rnind, and able to crcate Durore purple gold. and start making a name fbr ourselves. So being diflercnt is not overraled, but a
necessrly_

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,-uurEr nupurri{lr :rrea wnere oeng cltlterenl rs Another important area where being different is a must is iin science and technology. Imagine ii people werc contcnt *itl, n.u", finding out why oblects fall, or ncver In/'l rilking flrghr. Wc wurrld be rn the ate of(dn.llc\ ho,..irr*n."-"g.,. Having diffbrenr, creative ideas wiLl opcn new doors for making "id new tecturology to inprovc our lives as well as to extcnd our physical capacitics. If cv"eryonc nlade do with simple tools. we would not have nanotechnology. the atility to manipulaLe the smallcst of particles: nor would we havc stenr cell researJ which has brought us one step closer to eliminatinll ceftain discases. Nor would organ trarNplanls t" a,,L."rrtut. A. *" xnd probe rhe boundaries scr by ourselves, lhe f;ture bccomes filled wirh "^pto." endless possibilities, simply because scientist dared to be dilfercnt and crearivc
lfcing diffcrent allows differenl sectoas of a country, like the anistic community, to,bc kcpt alivc ln this epoch, a large nunber of people tcnrl lo favour sciencc subiects i scltools. as thcy bclieve it will lead to a brigh(er flturc_ But sonte i[divicluals rernain

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afis sector- This is different, sticking steadfastly to their ambitions' which lie in the .,"*.ct. us it ltJws a contioued cxistence of people like fashion designers' ntrtiitionists .ou.ti"tr. These people allow a country to stay vibranl having a diverse inJ "u..r urta a colourful pop.tlution. Besides' if everyone did enter the science faculty' science graduates' ".onorny if-ter" *o"fa not be enough vacancies in all the science sectorc for all io*" *outa "tta op ftav;g to be different and taking up ajob they were not trained for" Again, being unique allows for a better future' and should be encouraged'
are Yet a lot of peoPle tend to be so different they disrupt social peace Most of us norms' probably unimpressed with people who do something totally unacccpted by social to io so because they are being different This is where being e uniquc uncl "laim is indeed over-glorified. In some places like Singapore' with a meagre individual in people Tf small fofriuti.. of 4.4 million, t"lt.re is no room for a vast diffcrence business will surely for different i.it"," .f people tbrm, each headed working forcebusiness' thatthe '.oLtapse, a,le to a marginally effectivc considering 'small size ln this till the situatiod is on diversitlcation should be stymied' ron'ii i"*^"""

appropriate.

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Ilowever. these socially unaccePted actions or lllrge dil'crsion might actually hclp rhat would in the right circumstances, to be a springboard for People to create something in cre rling new be more_ accepred and pnctical Being ditTerent again, would help artifacts and ploducts that will allow us to advance.

diflercnt is generally llof overratcLl Wc need to bc differcnl ;n order the to help kecp econlmics alivc. We nced crcative ideas 1tl explore thc urknown and going. u,.h"^ia oft. we should have unique individuals to keep various areas of hurnxnrt) So being cliflerent is a must, alld cafflot be consiclered overrated

ln

a'1, being

Mostly
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tt tltt:ent tListussiott - rt)u n(ed t() vtttrk a little on tt uctutitry' E\amplcs nair points up. F lu(nt a d confident wrililg

nceded lo

Gcrald Phoon
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Human life is precious and must be preserved at all costs. Discuss,

It is almost inevitable that every human individual considers his own life to be of utmost va ue. However, in a somewhat paradoxical fashion, the lives of other fellow human beings are often perceived to be of less impodance. This leads to controversy sometimes as to whether every life should be preserved at all costs. I would say that to prcserye a life at all costs is not economically viable, and is very impractical. Rather, a
balance needs to be struck between morality and practicatity. Although such a balance is imponderable, it is an ideal that slrould be striven for.

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The idea of preservitrg a life incorpomtes the concept of saving a person from an imminent death, o. extendirg thc life of a person. lt is bitterly ironic thar while people seek to preserve human lives, it is often other lbllow human beings that kill people, or even themselves. Wars are the ultimate embodiment of this. Man battles against mall' resulting in an asfonomical loss of human lives. Casualties ilr World War II greatly surpassed the loss of lives caused by the Black Plague. peace is preached in an attcmpt to avoid future wars and collflicts, but sometimes, wa.r is waged in an attempt to preserve peace. Although it may seem ethically wrong, humal livcs have been saoificed to achicvc a goal, to lealizc an ideal, or to protect the lives oI people close to us. 'fhis goes back to the idea thaL we placc dil'ferent values on thc livcs of different people. The livcs of people close to us are usually perceived as being morc precious, and to better or to preserye their lives, sacrifices mxy bc made even if they arc the iives of othel humans.

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The assumption thal human life is precious is also ulrlermincd by people who perceivc the own lives to be of litrle value. Pcople afflictcd with terminal illrrcsses nray find life intolerable, or do not wish ro be a burden- Preserving the lives of people strickcn with illnesses such as canccr or AII)s is very costly and taxing, and may adversely alfect people close to them. Howcver, there arc rnoral issues that nake this such a colundrum_ Taking away the lives of such people is sccn as playing God, and doing so goes rgainsr all our cthics. I-[ence, euthanasia is still noa widely accepted in most countrics. Conversely, are the lives of pcoplc who arc of little value or even cletrimental to our society wonh prescrving? Murdercrs, rapists and robbers offen take away the livcs ol other humans, but docs this give us rhe right to take away thcirs? This..eye for an eye', concept fbnns the basis of capital punishnent_ Thcre is the altcmative of implisoomeut which is oftcn preferrcrl, since it givcs crininals a chance to rcpe t and strrt afresh. but for those impervious to changing tbr the better and unrcpentant, perhaps capital punishment cannot be avoided. Howcvcr, effort should be taken Io counsel and try to help thc criminal before capital punishment. Prcseffing human life is an idcal rhal should be strivecl fbr. lt would be ir lumanc to lct a person dying of lltv simply dic without mcdical aid. tf rirar person values his lit'e and wishes to have his Iifespan lengthcned, albeit tcmporarily, attempts should bc macle to preserve his litir [or-as loog {s possiblc- AlthouSh rhis maybe an excrcise in futility, the few cxtra monlhs the paticnt lives would bc priceless Io the feople who care for him.

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from other animals is our code of is murder forms the ethics and morals. Our acceptance that killing other human forms choose not to' does comerstone of this code- If we are capable of preserving a life' but in a moral this not bord., on murder? At times, it is a conflict of ethics that results its surroundings' and is hence' Jif"t"-u. n"..y human life is unique, is conscious of pt""iou.. Uowever, the sacrifice made in order to save a life must be weighed "on"ia"r"a the resources used in doing so could be used to betteror even save the lives ag;iist ho; that fni. may seem to be a very inhumane statement, but the bottorD line is The o? ott ".,. to preserue lives.esoo.ces ar. limit d, and an opporfunity cost is involved if we are save numerous children in life of a -"".y tp.", on p.eieruing the^ life may cancer patient can sad reality that we place be precious, but the ,qll"u f-rrt starvation. Human prcsefve ;ifferent values on the lives of different peopte limits our capacity to truly It has been said that what
separates mankind

hu.-rir".Rather'sometimesitisourcompulsiontosavealifeatallcoststlratmay
prevent others frcm living.
a human It is said that the road to Hell is Paved with good ntenhons To preserve can be so life at all costs may seem like a noble intention, but the social rilmiflcatioos life is u4r,".," ,o the cxtent that other lives are forgone' The perception that human values we place p...io* it one that is widely accepted, but the truth is that the different preserving a in different tives undermine this concept. Truly, moderation is imperative in lite, for sometimes, the sacrifice is.just too great' sentence in the While the essay i fotused, the itleas are a tad unclear' Lack of clear topic nis' :;'ntc paragraphs makis for a difficuh understan'ling of your argnnent You. 'inr"r"rrirg ideas bit ditl nil take them to the conclusion you suggest This is Lt pity' LangutrgJ is quite niceIr- controlletl Good use oftocabulary and etPression

Daniel Chang 04s63

36

Asian Values: Do they exist?

The concept of "Asian values" has often been refened to ilr mary diflbrent contexts_ Arnong the values often associarcd wirh asian:;oci.tle" a.e tn"l.in"ipt" of community above serf, the premium on frugariry and hard work. wi r' ,rrl oJ"u.."o". ot the Asian Financial Crisis in 1997 came a wave of cnriclsm, maiaty from Westenr commentators, that the death klell of rhe myrh ot Acial u"lu." hJ b.en sourraed. However, I believe that while the various attacks on the oi;A"i*' uutu".,, a,, "on""pt have some justifrcatiol, Asiar values do exist and will probably **irr*-i" U. ,"f"r"*
in the future

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One of the criticisms levied at the concept of ,,Asian values,, is on the most fufldamental level - that Asia covers such a huge geographical area and spans such a dizzying specffum of diflbrent cultrrres that ir is meaningless to speak of ,,Asian values,, as if it was a homogelcous belief system. For examplJ, have otten been made, espelially in Malaysia wherc Lhe bumiputra policy is an issue, "o.pu.i"orra between the tendercy of the Chinese to enshrine fhe pursuit of Draterial suc""ss a" a core value, itnd thc relative laidback. relaxed ethos of the Malay comnunily. Of course, compansons such as thesc have oftel been attacke.l as being over_gencraiiscd, evcn racist, but they do point to some dilfercnces in value systems betwecn cjiifeient Asian cuhures_

with the increasing globalisation of thc world, trytig to compartmentalise cultures along gcographical or ettrflic lines is becoming increasingly futilc, as cultures are now interact and influencc one another to such un e?t.m ti,ot on. "world culture" is begiriring to take ioot all around the u,orld. it.rugf, li,ouy ls,rff fr" "uMrny li^'-l].li*1,]'".,"t""ruirure, lleople B)inr our that vatLres rhar have becn cied as espccialty jn Asixn sLgortrcirnr such rs the principle of cornnlunity above self, are in fact not unique to Asia but rathca, to somc ertenr, unrvcrsal. hvcn tirc biggest flag bearers ol Westem civilisation such as thc Uniteil Srxrcj rrd rhc Unrrcd f<,rgl'|""i ir"i," f"*, ,fro, arguably inlringe on human righrs, such the USA'S patriot Act, plciseiy because rhcy have weiShed collecrive sccurity aSairNt human righls and f,r,,ntf ttJ forr,,.r rrrur" tmportant. Thus, therc is nothing particularly ,'Asian,' aboul ,,Asian values,,_ rathe. they are motivated by co[cems that would be relevant to lllolc or less any civiliscd socrcry_
Fufthemore,
It is largely on this basis that the various critics atlack the concept of Asian values as bcing more a political insffuntcnt tiran a social rcality. .I.hcy ,1,o, in a world increasingly dominaled by "wesrern varues" pcrvasive "u,,r"rr.l iriar arJar.iiiil, i.",.,n" rirr-rr market ethos of the economic realm 1o the emphasis on dernocracy anJ in;i;idual liberly itl.politics and popular culture, Asian lcerlers ."*,, ,..o,r"..li"s "e.im values" to justify and thus preserwe thcir rcgimes, ,hi.h "","1iir "f n." aut.irutic'"t *nr.t ou,l patcflralistic at best. Thcse leacler.s clairn that Asians, unlike their Westcrn counterparts, ,ll: ahovir sclt rnd workinlt rogerhcr for the comrno( good rather i1""1 l,lt-iiirr,li\idu.rl ::""-unity lllan libcr(ic.. end rhus rarious rrprcsrirc rrrcirsurrs 5.cll a\ llrc.unrrLlrlcnl ol ftec spccclt iD thc irtterests of |re,!cntmg the fiagmentation of socicty are to be applaudcd rrthcr driIrr rnrr(lernncrl. Thesc clltrc\ also pJilrt to practices such as cronyism ancl nepotism, nrasquerading as "Asian values', o[ ioyalty to [amily and friends, as thc orjgin'

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to tum to Aslan governmenls had the.foresight of the 1997 Asian Cufency Crisis- Had ttri' crisls could have bcen ave{ed' ii"'r"" it"*a' t"l tn"

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Asian govelrunT:s do hijack the While it is true - and sadly so - that many go so far as againsi enlighiened reform, I would not conceDt of Asian valires as a bulwark Politicians ua-lues b-ecause of this Phenomenon ;#;# #;;;;"*i"t"n"" ot a"i"j"t'ou"...orLed to shrewd ploys to achieve political throughout the ages and i,, utt .*i"t.". of values unique to il;""i-*. ;;i ;,i" i."i *tut ttt"y do thrs does not negate the existence values are a mvth' t,o'it-"itl'" "'"g""" that Asian trt" ""v itr. iug" .p""** of cultures that Asia ";"il. while there are inevitably aircr.n"."*;itnln*itf i" ti"t"'tott"tes that are more notable encomDasses, there are also common stranA' to tle fact uor''" svstems This can be attributcd

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i"t"r-linked histories and thus' have developed nou" that di{ferent areas of A"iu .Itrc "^Lt""ilv tited example of this is tnov most sr'Jifi":rnL' "ft"n verv similar philosophics' "ta ntinrate end sustahcd interaction the irr ionfucianism. Although it originateii p"tintuf" Malayan socicty resultcd in the of China with Japanese, Korean, ^ni """n tui'"" tft'*gn..'t Atir' unrlerpirrring rnanr LrlieI <xtensive pr.rpagatrun ol Cor ucran that 'ucll ralucs ina\'drlfcr 'r: lhe s\\rcnls.ornrnun lo A'ian soclelle' fi rn"y t'" t'".ot" i'o'" fine{uned' but tbat should onlv lcad to

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shou'd not write thefi off one evcn among diflerent Eroups within ;i;;;;;. Tt;.; .;" *btlc drffererrces in valuesmcan we ne;ate the existcncc of chinese at"" not H:ffi",g;;;.;" tot^"v' r''"' trtuitrue that some values iclentitied as "Asian" are not valucs ot American values lt is also vastly certain poinls ol sitnilarity between rigidly uniqr.rc to Asil there *" oi't"ut values tt" madc is that but thc important obs"'luotio" rltui"tutt

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miqht be similar for diflerent socletles' it

il:,?..-,i;;,;.;;'l'i"

libcdv a d the idea of 'nawia"ot 'r'ir" to eilher westem society or Asiln common lvelfare would not be "tp"ti^ity "'i"ttt"nto of w"ri"*'a*i"ty i. mu.t, a.rr" likely to rule in l^vourthe society, when a trade olt k)t with "rir"r, t" llt* iit"iy to play sale Lry castirg its the fomer, whercas Asi{n society latter " valucs are deeP-roofe'l in Asian In [act' ] trelieve it is preclsely because cenain ic, trt"* values has decp resonance with-the society that polrtrcal propatsandd ^piJ"rilrn rrol scll il ll\e rdcr o[ (ornrnurrrlv r peoplc in thc lrr 'l Plr' e pdtcrnalr'nl rripll "rrld lhc rcccnl lllv'nlrun ol llrliorlxl ler'ler* rbov( ell $erc rllelcl\ lhP "*t't -tt "'*l"gi'rl it logrtlrer" cthus ot th^c-British welfare value of alt culturcs, whethcr b" tit;';;-"i 'rr havc come ..^rJlat aty indePendcnt and iltli v itlua tistrt Americnn rpprorch such valucs tystem cngendercd by "t.,""tattack at so rc time or othet Ji"n ift" trnclcr a "utiun"f or iolitical trouble olten provide sccrned shaky, indicating lhal ti'nts"oi "tono"tic convenientframeworktornakesocra"|,-ulu.","."p.11n"ttnfJ!t.lvhilenrltnypcoplecite A\rrn values the irony is that political motivations as thc source- o[ itt" l-onttpt_nf in political agendas too Asian ledders algurlcnts against this co cept ot" ofr""

n'"'

values that make up thc value svstcm differences is in tllese value judgments that thc

tr'" iii"" oi

"rltp"tt

atlLrflous [o preservc thejl system again " roLqq6rr! ur wnrt tnev ocrceive estcm cuttural imoeriAli<m but --,;*^-r: lh:,oo.lauglrt of what rhey perceive fo be ;rcm cultural imperialism, nei;h ^,,. Iture entirelv liee from over_enthusiasm }t 'h".ptoponents of wesrem or ,,y7e.16', ture entirely ^-." --,r_,,^,^^-I i n wiurting to prove the sup".io.iiy oi ttrei. of view-

But will Asian values lose meani ino"^ingly globalised wortdi, I believe har nsr,ead of wanins Asian _"r,,-- ,..,Si,,1 ": 1r instead wanins, asian values not a one-way process and has not onl proPaSalcd ]yrsr(nr _J the ,rld. world. ln lacl. wiLh rhe;.. o[ Asian _^.,^I r.v|q6q,\ u weslem values to th"e rest ol the fact, wirh Lhe rise o[ o.,..- n. on lhe-world slage. \uch as china ^r rnd India, a nend is alread; p.^"",u1 influcncc ol Asran values o[ -J,.1rons .E ur A.iaD on lhe world. the n orld While it could be rro,,a,_r that ...- ..argue6 ,h"i " Incans rhar "Asian vrlues uill ceaseruexisrby rtreir uery ab.orprion'il; :J;;:" 6'vvdtlrdru' carurot' a' le3qt in llr. lorerrcable future, be comotcre sucl ,"", al aistirr"l 'globalisalron ccnnol al least m lhc foreseeable turure, complete <,-,, tl]at ",, ,,^,,-.ll ' thus Asian ua"", *lr .tli u T':TilrXf":r,r,ffii, "nrr

il "";;;;i;il;'l;t"[ffi::li:::;::iJJ,::*;;

t t
I

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Perceptive and v)ritten v)ith teal irLti?h


w

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I I I I I I I I
:

wett rn qttthhle. there watn r ,rirr:,o'

F'."ot'd'h" qut\tlon
o1, th,

on

*u n,u

sh.tyn
Chua Shirin 0445 i

\r& itl,.t .,1 at,an v,ttuor. u", , ), l'rlt^irut.'t lto,tt4t\ At.r, ", ,,;;;,:;:,':;:,,,,;:",:,'"ta.hara116a rn: of . -urtlttllol l''rtt'

!h' hroa,l lctcl

bur

ifl

RACE, C&EED AND C@L(DR.'WE \X/OULD FIN D S@ME OTHER CA(,SE FOR PREJUDICE BY NOON. - G eor.c e Arrr s

Humlr.r V.qlug e vore s: Ir we vete r@ waKE Lrp stomE n@RNING aND FiND TIIAT VRYONE YHE SAIIE

.!?,AS

Nlvet oe
'.4r.
r
E

ANvTHINc AGAINsT coNscrENc EVEN IF TH STATE

DEMANDS

RT

Erusretu
IN

vERy@NE IS ENTITI-ED T(E THEIR E\(/N


FACT S.

@ P

I@N, 8UI

N(DT TH EIR @w'N

'Daurtr parr.rcr
PLATo

[I oylr r aar
IS TRUTH.

'Atrstorre

ts o Eat TO ME, BUT DEARR STIL!

T
L

Rivalry brings out the best in one. Discuss' of our lives' Rivalry happens all the time. We are bound to face it at every.stage st ge or our working stage RivaLy cirr bring out the best in be it during o,rr "iritalooa the worst The nature of rivalry comes from the competitive one but it Jan also bring out to competc for what we want' nature of human beings We are bom with a natural instinct be-lhe best and ni, d^ Uri"n" oul 1e besl in one by lorring one lo give all lhc besl lo sclf-confidcnce ri"t*ti. i*i o" irt" oLher hand. rivalrl also causes selfishress lcck o[ and dirty fights among PeoPle.
one's heart will When one laces rivalry from one's peer, the competitiveness in the best in fo.". on" to ,i." up to the chitenges. Through competition' we will briflg out role. For play an inportant .,r. io fr" U"u"r,fr* others, dete;ination zrn. perseverince student must be in u."a"*i"s, if a student wants to be the best in the school' the "*ulnpt., o.,.t ,nu.t work hard to achieve the goal. lt is tl*orgh this kird of rivalry that a"i" i,r"a th".."L,.. and strive to be bctter' Thesc qualities can be developed ;il; ;;; when one faces rivalry, thus' bringing out the best in one-

Withoui Rivaly is also essential to maintain a certain standard of achicvementsand recor-ds.will not be rivalry as a d'.it,ing for.., we humans will not havc progrcss Ian Thrcpe's placc in the world U.ot"'n- fur, i-ug;i. if Michael Phelp had not threatened

iJ

with record. Ia Thrope then would not havc any dvals to conpele could havc m"..f,r." no incentive to improve hirnsell ln fact' his perlbrinance maintain "na J.L.in."t"a. Because ol r-ivalry' Ian Thrope had to work very hard to keep xnll bring out flJl""oiJ f... ft"i tc takcn away by Pheips l'his rgain shows thxt rivalry cen the besi of someonein Lfr"

ofy*ii.t

loo much rivalry However, therc is also a darker sidc of rivalry Whcn thcre is wilt cause goinll on. one will feel very prcssured to Perfonn -$cll .Too 1::ch,f::tsl.l-e hecause of io-.un" ,u bccomc very srreisetl up and rLr tur'n dllcct his herlth lt i5 also alld end up ti""f,y,f-, *lt.n on" porty loses, he or she will tend to become deprcsseddevelop low *ottn'*irlg in sadness. Thii will cause him to losc his self-confidencc and selflesteem. tn the end, rivalry only brings out the worstbecause everyone Extreme rivaLry will bring an ulwillingness to share This is vely wa Is to be thc best and every scrlpe of Lnn$ Lcdge rnd olfortunity.lrecomes themselves and cnrcial. Due to the "need" to beconrc lhc bcst, pelrple will then isolatc the people of Hijaz refuse lo help others. For exanplc' befbre Islam was intro<Iuced'

fom]edthcirowl1clans.Tlrerewercrivalriesamongclansloconqueftllemosllandand amorg lhe people riches- In the end, the "assabiah" spirit arnong clarls caused disuoity had bcen willing to and war broke out. lf only thcre werc no riv^Iry dmong clxns lf they
share, many lives would havc becn sp.rerl

Ilivalry can also bring out the evil side of humans- When wc are too absorbed asidc rvith the idea o[ winni^g a'<1 iorni.g out as *le best. we tend to put everything elsc
iust to reach ou, gorl.

ih"t

is {he time wheD we

Llse

dirty tactics to down our opponent

40

just to get a s(ep closer to our goal. For inslance, jusr take a look xt thc reelity_game show ,.survivor" [t was supposed to be a test.ot'.physical abilirres bur ir enaed ulas.Nst plain back stabbing among castaways, This rivalry brings our rhe worsr pan of liuman beings, the dark side. Io conclusion, rivaLy is important because without it, we would not be wherc we are today and rivaly does bring out the best_ in one. It is extreme dvalry that will bring out the wo6t side of human. Therefore, we should encourage rivalry only up to a certain limit -,that is, it should be just enough for improvemcnt but nor to t_he extent ttrat it wilt cause disunity in the human race.
_

On the whole well-argued and organized. Fluent English but do be careful of your t?ndcnt r to writ., tnfomplttc scntcnter.
Suzanne Chcng 0-5s I l

RIVALRY Q UoTEs: C@npETrrIoN ts rHE KEEN AWAY AT COSTS. " H NRY F@RD Ir

currlNG

EDGE @F DUstNEss.

Al\r/a.rs

sHAVING

Tue ceurn,rr FAcr rs IHAT THE

IIIOST FFECTIVE \x/AY (DP UTILIZINC HUIIIAN EN IS TH&(EUGH AN @RGAIIIZED RIV,ALRY. VHICH OY 'RGY SPECIALIZATION,AND S@CIAL C(ENTR@L I5. AT THE SAME TIME. @RGANIZED
CO - @PRATI

ON.

* CHAR r.E

H@RT@I{ C@@LEy

Rtva,ln.r er scH@LARs " H Egtew PRevr nt

ADVANCES

\X/I

SD@N.

No"|HING Is EVER D(ENE BEAUTIFULLY \'/HICiI IS D(ENE IN RIVALSHIP: N(EDLY, \vHICH IS D@Nf IN PRIDE.

(DR

'loru

Rusrt u

f,

t
fi
H

tr
Rivalry brings out the best in one' Discuss'
There is rivalry everywhere Be

;;;;;il;is strife ' and this is all pafl of human nature .Humans ar. 'nable to ""r"tti.t lives wilhoul conslant contpetiti;n bccaucc oflhe basic inslincl of survival cimnlv lea.l rhe srrongest ll',[Jruiii':. j;r.;t.o*'ri."' r,"ut"a a rar race: e\eryone desires ro be
]i iir" i"p
".a detrimental effects.
trt"

it in a famiLy' school'-society or between

I g

x
i

u"i

wttit" ttti.

'iuut'y

"' does bring out the best for some' it also has its

is able to than others Undoubtedly, under the constant Pressure to do bettet .on potential' its tof of strength and utiiize his or her trlents !o the ,"p i";;;;;'i.";; hlm lo hone his,ahililics and Willr ri\ alav. man dcvelop' a fenrclou\ cdge lhrl rlllo$s i'""1 rake rhe olvmpics ror Insrancc Fach. competrt'rr ;;i;; ."?riitv or "ot r"'ting anvone get in front of lim or her' Rivatv :''":^ In .t.*grrt .,i mind and tic cletermination not to be beatcn' lies the the there also b,tntt.tl .r""rtt J..s noionly exist between the present competitors' the man next to to best i"Jit"'a rr""- r*tou. .e.ord hold"ts' Tu many' it is not erough you, to be the ";est". They want to break a wolld record'

ffiil;;;;

;t; 'i',: ;;;;'" r,[i.' ;: ;;-;il ;"

n"u"t tn"n that nn: Rivalty brings out the inhercnt hurnnn ncccl !o prove ':,.111t^t: constant ;i;;. ;l;;.,; of succcss' rivalry can bring otrt l|c Lrest in ulc LlLrc lo-this 'fo a ""y.". for better lcsults. However' noi everyone- has the same definition of-"hesl" striving to prove lhat ..a"f;nofv1*"i. "best" might reter to pe"'nrl 'utces' aLld dch'e\errent person rcsorts to lrrscrupulnrrs means lcl on" i, unpur"tt"t"a in his orler arcn^- Yct i[ r out the rvorst in thal person Marly lake iiti. -t. thcn rivalry has insteed broughtthis success solne would do anything' no ^.fri."" ."pr.r"nt su"c"s,; and to achieri "1r""1" lt carries with it a a"spicable Rivalry is rlcver ahvays pure and clean ,*",,"a fl.*-i.* uncomnlon Io some to afld i""".lty ". the inhcreot sellishncss of humans lt is llot Lrp to thc top fake the """"i",o iu-n una cheating and backslabbing lo work their way ,".* i;; be viewe"d in two perspectives: one' vo'can merelv il;,;;' i;'"J";i;;;;i' or ..-.p.,;t,.n belween ihose in the race' striving to eam the sold; of :"i;i;;,:.;:;il being 4"i". a."p". and s"" thc number of cases of competitors livalry accuscdout ,*",'V"i blillgs "^" f,kinF Dertolmance cn}rancing drugr to achieve their Peak- In lhis case. i' r(spe!rcJ b\ rhe ;:;1"^'';',:;; ;-. r'"'"p'"" "r." $in( b) lris " i'"' o*n Incrrr( undcrharld means to lr *o.kt ior t,ili o. her ubility io excel, bur onc $ ho wrns by resorrng This acl cveorenl can hardly be *i"" iti* .. tt", " u..st i; uldmaiely regarded as e loser' o\ r strengllrs Bringing out the ion.ia...a nlrt.*", if one doesn'l depind on hrs ur hcL abLe to ;;.; t;t;;;r;.id"g out one's abilit) !o shrnc undcr rntense pres\urc r d being (lown to lorv and clctennination' Instcad' for thosc who rcsoft ;;;;i;;-;;JJr";th success' in reality ,rr""n., .iuafy Uringi out their weaknesses Though lhey might achieve hut to seek ih"y tou" foit"a ai they l,au" chosen not ro tap on their own strengths'
unwholesome aid.

or it lirrl "Best" can rcf-er to many thi gs; it can mean pcrsonal' matcrixl succc\s accept defeat by 1l refer to thc good character c,t o p"..ion lf one is able to graciously trilirs? With the rival. is this not also considered a "best" in tenns of his or hcr character

42

elections in USA coming up soon in November, competition bet{veen George Bush and Johl Ke_rry is getting incrcasingly tense and heighlnect. White rhis allows them to display their leadership abilities and capabilities to iead their country, the competition to prove that each of thern is the ..better man.. has also caused rhem to iownplay each other. Can fhis be_considered "bringing out thc besr'. in rhem? Uttimately, there wili only be one winner, and in this case, is the loser able to acknowledge defeat and pledge support to the wirurer? If tmmpeting the flaws of an opponent is the means by which Jne extols his or her abilities, this individual has aheady failed to a cefiain extent as he or she is unable to prove his or her capabilities withour betitling another. t";;;;;;;1.-;;;ufting rhem down might achieve a "best,, if one is able to attain the coveted"success, but this is also a "worst" as one has to rely on znother,s flaws, and not one,s personal achievements, to bolster one's abilities.

I I t I I

they succumb to pressure and are demoralizej, unable to excel as they do not thilk that they can better their contemporaries. Rivahy has two effects; it can give one confidence and a zealous drive or it cin also instill ulcertainty anc.l fi:ar. Because of this lear of failure that they are unable to prove that they are worthy. Some cven develop a "cannot do this" mcntality, and they are alrearly clefeatetl. Thus, they collapse as thcy ailow thek weakness to tait mph over their strengths. word "best" is too subjective, whether it relers to a moral bcst or a material b;st. In either sense of thl: word, rivalry is indeed able to brirg out thc best in somc. But we cannot ignore thc fact that rivalry can also clrum out losers, be il those who ,,selt destruct,, by collapsxtg undcr prcssure, or thosc who, under contpetition. display thc worst of their character-s.

Whil: people who can work well with intense rivalry, there are also . who fail thete are as those to do so,

It is a dog-eat dog world, and the ,,best rnan" may not always win. .Ihe

FluentlJ written. A sophisticat(.d tliscussiott. A pit)J lou did nLrt tr| to give a runge of etarnplcs especially x,hen in the intro, )1ltn ),,1u t.tLot b mettri,,ne,l trt .ul,a rhat could he explaitkLl .eclurols (runks)
Danielle Wong 04s23

I I I t t
I I I I I I

41

In

a technological society, do

libraries still h:rve a role to play?

The library can be considered an immutable part o[ ttle technology wave' a public retaining its place even in this modern day and age. It still serves its functio[ as intellectually hungry right collection oibooks. from reference to fictioil, to satisfy the down to the infant leaming the alPhabet. ln countries that rely so heavily on computers

societies and machines for their day to day functions, it comes a's no surprise that these :fe inherently fasFpaced, wherc peoPle often crave specific knowledge at the snap of of the their fingers. However, with the impeilections of thc Intemet (the closest substihlte ,rre here to library)'and the ineplaceable library experience' it is satir to say dral libftries stay.

society' thc place of the library is challenged by the fhe InerneL pcrvasiveness of a new altemative, the lnlemet. Known for its high speed' iriumphs over the books in lhat il co bines tcxt, graphics and sounds [o creale a mole engajing reading experience that stimulates the senses. Compare this with the tyfical dull ti#uiy toot tftui is often tom ard tattered and easily outdatcd Moreover' the volume of infolmation on thc world wide wcb is no less than that of the library ln fact' there is ari unlimited acccss to the htemet whercas people can only have acccss fo libriry books rvhich bavc not bccn borrowed. A merc search ol1 googie l'or 'Britney Spears' fol example, would chun out ovcr five nillion rcl:lted lioks in just about a second These wouli includc the latcst news abo[t the celebrity' and a hugc anay of photos end music vidcos. much more than wouLd bc found in librdrics.'fhe Intemct ill itsclf is ilso much more convenient than the libaary, as it transccncls geographical boundaries anrl can be or on the goaccessecl front any compulet. palnl top and even hand phole' be it xt homc to the Converscly, people have to sPecially lio oul o[ thcir wly and ruake a t[ip down nearest lilxary t;bolrow books whiclt Ihcy ilre llot evefl sure cxist in thc fi$t pl:rce!

In this technological

Howevcr. this constitutes only one sidc of lhe argumcnt Thc lnternet in rcality is not as perfcct as it seems F'or rll the abunclance in illfonnalion. the lntemcl aclually up suffers a huge credibility crisis as it takcs so liltle fbr auy Torrr, Dick and Hany lo set Fudhennore'.il lakes skili a web page]jumbling up tacts with opinions and half--Iruths ana practle io mastei searchi g techniqucs to accurately sier'c ou{ thc useful infomlation from the rest. Tllis leck.rf technicel know_how $lay bc a hindrancc to thc very oid and very young, who would naturally prcfer lhc librury Finally. the dillitalizatior of pdnt rlei;a is qaraer th.rn it seems. Not only do compaflics have to get round-copydght laws nnd intcllcctr.ral propcity rights, lhc mere frocess of copying ovcr aLreedy entails somc unwanlecl inuccuracies, Io i(s attcmpl to digitalize all thc resources in an Americall library, Google Iocorporatcd finally ddlrrittccl lhe tutilily of lhe task as lhey needed at the materiills wouid already bc outdated by lcast a dccadc to complete the projecl, ^nd
then-

However advancecl our level ol technology' there irc still asPccts ol llre libftry that catrnot be replicated. Thc esse cc of the library cxperience in frct involvcs walking in{o one and beirig grcctctl by lhc cntire ranSc irlld varioly ol books, neatly shelved and catalogues. waiti[tl to be explorcd. lu lhis ciLs.. therc Llocs not need to be ll sPecific

14

t
purpose for visiting the library, but an opportunity to chance on material rclatxrg to the interest. Moreover, many still cherish the sens;ry experience of froia;rlg |loin"tfrng tangible in their hands, flipping its pages and smelling rhe *nilf" oi-i*]p"., a.o un rhe book. Espccia y for shatespearean ora.n_a,y ctasslcs. tr :"t srmply more authentic teading them on paper ts :T_19._.f "ug"a;r',no than on sireen. Long hours on computer also srrain the eyes and det;riorak u, ,o *n1, ,tle libraries.srill have a role to play in our society is than maly loots, maeuzin.s una mullimedia avrilahte ltrere ffe not found on rhe inremcr lLi" written before the invelrtion of lhe cornputer, and refcrences thar aie copyright protected. The assortnent of newspape^ a.d magrzines on library st,etues are ,r,Jl" &t"n ,t un no, disallowed to be published online and peopt" or" ..qui."a ro.uUr.JU. oni poy to.,fr"n. As such, the library holds a different vrriery of resources arrd e^p"rien""s aitogether.and car withstand the test oftime.

ll:l::l.i

I I

"il;;;.';;,h;;;;ui',, i.;.il;;ljy;T;;;;"rks

in this tecltological society. ft _".i, fro,""u".. tfo* *i*l the times and constantly update its collecrio. ot'Ooot. ana ilefrunir. tfr" J.o-"..r"r. go,l' the lntemet_ard the library have their advanrages an.l shoulJ b" ,."J a rlontr"*t oth(.r. Rcsults of rhii are c-lihraric\ ,,nd ..crrologu.. rfr"r ,lig,,ufir" rf,. .JJl ,n .*i*,;ng libraries. Whatever Ihe case, dre library will hold its place.

the , the C_onsidering has aulique .ole of the library that caru1ot be replaced, it can be seen thaf library still future

I I I

*.t

t
I I

(jreat erpression and good points.


Lee Min Xuan

0,lsl

Ltoranv Quo.res: TnE Ltar.aRy ts ouR


UN IVE
RS

H<ousE

ITY, \I/ITH

@NE

can, and no one should

TRANscENDENTAL exception: no one graduates fiom a libra.y. No one possibiy


G

oF tNTELLecr, ouR

'PnEstoeu.I, Ca,rN scrs C@RpoRATroN VarTa,N


LIBRARtaNs HAVE

r!cer.raH

al.ways BEEN AmtBNG THE mosr THOUGHTFUL AND HELPFUT PE@PLE. THgy p,Re TgAcHERs .VITH@UT A CLASSR@@m. N(D t IBRARI E S, NO PR(EGRESS.

'Bloaocasttt WtLlato Tar gugrrc LTBRARv Is

cerr

iI@RE THAN a REP@stToRy @F B@@Ks. [T's a mYSTERI@us. woNDER@us pLAcE vtTH THE P(EVER T@ CHANGE LIVS. 'CHICAG@ Trrsutr Lt.rcrary rorren E Lt za,r eru

Tayror

45

t t t I t t I t
I

and serve for better enErkinment v


n, as t\e reed

ourserv".;;;;;;;il,;il:.;-.?.^:kl. "9ll.r ry ano audrLonrlly

becomc increasinsry stimuletjng source

qublishing and orher media coutd pur rhe ti,e ofboot s ar risk due tn' simple reason uf bcirg rnosl rr"rPrc ul bcino Inosl rte \ible to most people. con\i,-tc;,," ,r^, ^-1" DeoDle considerirrg Lh;, mosl peopic lrom <lcr eloperl co-untrie' : d:finjlely rechnologicat .quip,n.n,o,l")^ \vrrrPU'crr alro television sel\ hook\ :o\uy trKe I oe[nttetv flor,ri.h i" orfr., pa11.',:'- compulers alld televtsron set\, book\ flourish in rl ule norld' whcre. lil'rate . rutsrcalty advanced. people ntueir I.s, erist.

l:d::d..oline :r. tts tuture shines confidentjy

' '" "-

il

Yl

I I I

on

envrronrnenrat and cosr benefrrs. doing so tor erisring anJ necess:1ry.:r\ they ere already eircrrlJling rn
the

.a

alt knowtedSe online is doubrful :e-[a:l':ali:y of purdng prescnt. to me. with billio^ of on earth trom the past antl it seel" to me i^possiblc to ,ffi:":1il1J",11,:', of it onlinc put all vinuar pr:rrromr. vrrual ntrtfoml rr/r.jr- -_..L,: , _

whire ,"uri,r,i"e

]"i,,.

trtdition:l b."k

i,.,rn.iilJ"_ *.," ",,.


;;;i;",

;jJ:.x|1,;
or,

I must agree that, u hiie ir is tl \ ifluJl book' their benefirs 'ud onlrne prrblrrhing do have \!lri *r,irt" ;.':t 'lti' rrrdui'uv PIav.rs "n.r nadirionrr hoot ,e.rni r;''ili;i.";,1:lrruoughs "arr riJe upun. rire

;11,,:,-T

aenniretu ne.J f. .'l'f""-'n't"'o rerrdert pages or a bo.,k $ourJ ro sL'me avid q.,uld asree thur a cerrain herur)"Jr-u,i;r';;;;:,,;;: ," p;;;"";;;;';;,'ii.'sd I notel and rcvelline in rhe berurvrherc r, econon,y or ofrtre -":";;,.j-ir';;, somehor{. rtre,,,".,.,,.1.'""i"i,"j"j:i'. ]."8'h:,'j brc.rdrh of rhi\ dn\.rcrr r,\cniu,,. phv'icai,r) r'd ,.',";;;i', ;;,,';]l;"rJrrerrcc ur rhe \ rnrral bot'k can ncvcr rct,ldcc rtr. view. bur' \,,irr r,ora ,hi. r""g """; surell. nor

_iil;lii,l,#i_ :iljril:,i;:l i;4',;.iilTij;illi::T:i,,,11il,,'J o1 lrom


'-J:, f'l:':'

rr

re'

hrolog). llrc

,i,".'.,J?lj ?ff : ''rrd lilclrle le,'ll( qirhurt "u".1o'," lu\el\ ,ril "- tr.." ," .,* "ur)\
', *"tt urgu"a.

3,.ccs5 tu

Written with som(. r,it urd Tan Wai Jia 04S23

I I I I I I

I I I

I I
l-

Does the book still. have a

future?

a Primarity, books are for reference purposes' data collection and storage' and acclaimed simple yet powerful mears of conveying literary language The book is highly nna ."liable as knowledge colrtained within its pages can be passed down to d" is able to generation Irom "if."tiu" to generation. Despite its pages being yellowed- with.age' if the servc'its purpose ditifully. However' the existence of the book is threatened by various means of ou..*fra-ni .-"ag"rr"" of new educational software and of the entertainrnen; TechnJlogy despises the basic element of the book - paper' Because well as' of people world's obsession with iechnology and its ability to serve the needs 's or better than books do, a tirne may corDe where the book becomes useless'

Preseltly, as maiy counlies push towa[Is a knowledge based society' the use of wjth infomration tecirnology it.fl is p..uilent. In Sing:rpore' every school is equipped are Irouseclcornputer laboratoriei- where slte-of-the-afi computers and prograrnlnes least twice a week Stuclents have access to such hiSh technology cducational materials at that where computer lessons are conductecl by the IT savvy teachers lt is believcd away from sludying in Ihe classroom call gct boring' and hcnce thcre is a l1eed to move programmcs aimcd at thc tracitional use of books ai the teaching material Computer aidi[g stuclents in corc subjects are deemed io be mole stimulating and cha]lengiog to thc Ko[g and brain than books are- Countries such as America' United KiDgdom, Ilong doing away Malaysia ar-e also inlegraiing the use of IT into theia education systems and with ttre bulky books- Othei forns of teaching methods with the aid of techrology are Girls' Schools' seen as rnorc practical ancl less cumbersome Take for cxample Crcscent a bold nlove lo usc lablct PCs Evely secotldary one student this year hxs to purcltase ln this way' $3000 tabtel PLI o[ rvhich homewor-k assignments have to b{r cornpletednecd not bc hturding up homework is easily tracked and workbooks or assignmcnt lrooks the hope of clealilg a carried to school. llel-erence sources alc tufting lo technology in ncw fonn ol iheir Product. Diotionaries can now be found online' and so can i stead encyclopaedias. I he f:mous Encarta Encyclopedia comes in a compact disc fbrn of r \vfr,rt" scries of nlore than 20 large and heavy lomes This saves spacc ar'l can be willl easc. Even now thc mosl widely rcad book, the Biblc' has a latest vcrsion ^cccssed in the foam of a palm top Biblc This is so much nlore convenicnt, user friendly' and mostly, lighl weiglt. As iuch, many sources ol refere ce items arc now assurning nlort technologic{l [omrs-

When pcople think aboul books' they usLrally also associatc il -rvith fiction literature or booki fbr reart;ng pieasule. Books are promireflt examplcs of ;r so(rcc of enterlailrmenL Howcver, lhc najority oI the worLd prefers rnorc rnindless enlcdrinnl(flt lhtn that which is provicled by books Fihus, lelevision' video CDs and DVDS ere all lhe lhesc forms rage these days- Many clevcloped counlrics are atfluent enougb to indulge in of eflle ainrnent. The clemancl fbr films. television silcoms video CDs and DVDS arc leslintony to thc fitcl that lrooks are losing popularily anLl appeal The world gyrates to at enlcl1airunenl sou.ces thal rcquire morc techilology than just peo or papcr' The speed market is ntuch lastcr dran the rvhictr ncw lilm vidco CDs ancl [)VDs rre availabLe in the

48

time taken to write a book, publish it and wait lbr it to hit the [rookstores. The future of the book competing against entertainment sources that are aided by technology is dire.

To counfer this argument is the fact that books have a strong histodcal background. From the past, the first bool6 were created when Egyptians began writing on papyrus paper and the Chinese began caiving their edicts onto thin bamboo ships. People have come to realize that books are the most dependable form of data collection. Although computers are more efficient for data collation, just a single virus is needed to deshoy the computer's software, causing it to crash. The vital information stored inside will be lost forever if no backup files were made. Furthe.more, even if backup files were made, drey could malfunction if left un used for long pedods of time. By contrast, infomation from books can be retrieved without fear of it beins lost the verv next second.

In the long run, the evolution ol technology will mttke certain fo.ms of infomation stonge outmoded. Take, for examplc, the floppy disk. Previously, it was the only way to transfer files, but now there is the burning of VCDS and even DVDS. They can store much more information and at a faster rate too. ln time to come, cornputers may not include the drivcr to read floppy disks anymore as it becomes unpopular. Hence, infomation previously stored on floppy disks cannot be opened anylnore. Thc samc will go for tapes being rendered obsolete by the emergeDce ol VCDS and DVDS- Howeve[, hooks are irreplrccable 5ourccs of inlormalron
The continued popularity of books can also bc seet ftom lhe flourishing website Amazon-con where books are bei[g sold online. h shows that avid readlrrs have not lost interest in books nor abandoned them for other [orn$ of enteltaimnent. Filnls or televisioo sitcoms bascd on books somchow plle in compariso[ to fhe book. Tl]e perfoamance of the stellar cast maybe lacking luslcr aod the plof of the nlovic compa.ed to the book e[ds up too skeletal duc to the timc constraint of the movie. Thc cssence of the literary language is lost to the short and minimal diatoguc by the cast. Fuftherrnore the director of the movie may construe the plol in a orarlne. that fails to capture the most captivating parts of the book. For exarnple, movies that have been made lrased on books have not succeedcd in hitting the box-office number orle. The Harry Potter fiolie serics is much more poorly reccived than the books writtefi by J.K. Rowling. Another examplc is the Notebook by Nicholas Sparks and the Green Mile by Steplrer King. The nrovics werc all a poor retlcction of how alluring the book was in ny judgment.

As such, thc book has a ccnain ineplaceable lactor about it. In its simplicity. books will have an enduring and codearing aspect that surpasses all the movies, VCDS and DVDS enhanced by tcchnology. Thc book will still have a place in dre futrrre and remain victorious compercd lo the rest of the sources of entertainment and infonnetion technology.
Requi'cs to be less sweeping and simplistic in plac6 though it is good on th( r'holc.
'l ang Jia Hui Eudora 04524

49

Does the book

stilt have a future?

Today we live in a fast-paceJ. rapidly changing society lhat is driven by technology, which progresses in leaps. and bounds each day. It threatens our lifestyles, forcing us to adapt or be left behind. For centuries, the book has been regarded as ao icon of litera.y wealth and a symbol of the pursuit of knowledge- But like many other aspects of our society, it is threatened by the advent of digital technology and other mobile sources of infomation. Letter writing has been replaced by the much more efhcient and cheaper email, while online diaries, commonly known as web logs or 'blogs', are now popular fixtures on the lntemct. However, an essential characteristic that gives the book its longevity, is its ability to adapt and change with the times, catering to the everchanging needs arrd tlemands oI socier).
The book is a ubiquitous entity. At school, at work or at play, the individual wiil dcfinitely encounter the book- In schools, books are the lradilional medium for teaching and leaming, although in rccent years its rcle has been slightly marginalized by the use of information technology (IT) during lessons. In tluth, an online lcsson, though more creativcly presented, simply cannot compiue to an actual lessol in class where the studcnl is guided through the lesson by his textbooks ard doubts can be clea.ed up immediately still the mair tool of by the teacher. It is not surprising theD, ftat today, books ^.c teaching and lcaming in schools. As comparcd to earlier textbooks, the books r$ed by students today have adapted to the new aims of education, which are to further independent leaming and nurlirre critical thinlers. Integralion is the main aim of publishers. end a majority of tcxtbooks now co rc with useful web linl$ to informativc siles on the lnternet.

[t is csscntial fbr studcnts to bc lT litcrate so as not to be lelt behind in today's inlonnation driven econonry. 'Ihe book has thus complemented lhe role of the lntemct by lecommending useful and reliable siles to students, maintaining its role as a maj.r s.urcc of infoamation and an importallt teaching medium ill schools at prescot and in the future.
In thc past, at workplaces, the book was used in stocktakinS, accounting and for various othcr uscs. Today in most businesscs and corl]panics, books and handwritten rccords are regardcd as inefticient and cumbcrsomc. Companies now look to IT soltLtions for clficiency; the majodty of all company operations arc automated and most havc cornplcx data storage systems. However, for- all its efficiency and productivity. tcchnology is not infallible. A power surge or blackout could result in the nclwork bcing down while an important gate runs the risk of being erased- Thus, it is of paramount imponance that hard copies of compLlter documents are stored as wcll, ensu.ing the srnooth running of the company when the techflology fails. In Singaporc, hard copies ol accotnting documcnts have to bc stored ul to 7 years, for income tax purposes- Adapting lhc usc of lcchDology in workplaccs is comnlonplace nowadays to increase the level of elliciency end organization at wolk. ln the past, Ihe book was vital ill managing rn enlire busirrcss. Today, the role ()1'lhe book is rcncwcd as it takes on the responsibility ol backing up sofi copics of informi ion. Hence, it is clear that the book still has a fut[re at thc workplace.

50

readel: in years to con-,"

wcarrh and 1l:'"," l':"lr ,fro.,r.well. providing lnowledSe and Pruvruurg lJ]owledPe arnment. uut todav rnore than -.,^.nmenl Bul loday, rn^rc,u"- auar. n socrely faces an acute probleri ing number ofyourhs *;.; ol an Plrrtdy youlhs ol locla\ tre fr.c.t u i,r. a ^r^.1^ . ,mg Une primary rcason would he lhat the of loda) ore faced \^ itlt - Dlerh, trhal ljle ";;;:Jl on]ine chars. o. :' ,i:':"': acrir DooK compurer games. and *""'*" ,';il j:'^l:'Jlo pjck up ities lilerhit alarming i:1 _'"' 'lv P'r uP a book l nl\ alarmine " probtem problem ha\ broushr abour '",rr'. oi ;;:,;;:: Ias brought aboul ro rack ^ lack socierv ulSing vourhs ro read. "j "n"o*un.,_ rrl.er hand. ,h. n"pr; ;;*";;l;."',T'n' on rhe ':o'n ta.Ken olt successfully, ranscending bourdaries of ase an,.r ,":1:^:":',t1 novels.has taken off successtully, scending bourrd:ties ' _ ""-' age and lun. 'filt"lage and aclrieving populariry with pcopte Idwide. Reading ;. , ly dJlcrorlcdos uho will purcltase novel\ wrru wlll ourclrjr\e ron lheir favorite suppon therr frv^ri'. authors. thu, to '".i""-,i Lc rhc pubtishing houser open. lr rs e\ novel. r. Lhe toor tra., a ,, ;.r; t;;;;;;:1",;).eprng idenr rh:I _ ' ""' l\ rll conllnlle lo cnleflain many ntorc generarions ol

ledge.

Tluough rhc ages. rhe book has nrovr

ihe 1,oit ;;-"}}J

ro be a souce of lirerary

I I

I I

in,o ., .",nor., .ri,,\'nn'r Ir'rlrrrr'h(d rr 'r' rlrc new B'rJn.i,J. rre atso.\a;i..;;;;;:,,.:l;:, monrhrv rce r ,i. ,i*", '", '":';l:;:,]l]'::il:.:l'.w-wrrorc cai(res ',d rn!,r, ror ,, " ""' rol' o('unje,l lr\ I'o,'ks .i\ infurmal;on pruvidcr\. Bul '',. n,ur" ot,"n n"' irr';rrnirri,rir nvrrrhble un rlrc tnremcr c.,rr be ,on,erirne. t,,r,.r,r,Il"o'i*.i,"ni,"'1" u""'" lrc( oI Iivision rn,l e,lrliJrg. lleIL.. rvr can \(c rhe bou( conttnurng I ur o *,),,. ol tclt,,l,lc Intormrrion rce
B.ra.nrci, i\

' ru / vcrrs 3eo. lh(' e\otbitnnr cosl md bulk) nJtrlrc "' th. ;ncvclor ol rrnpracricrt in-rtrrs dav arr,t ryc jlli9: llrcnr, where rnlormirio|| ncedj ro be rrrL -:,^,,:,"lit Ir'rrrr\ricrs In(ll Iomlrcss''l lnertr\ v,rlunlci ol itrlonrratr,,

__ in. The non fiction book laces th( greare\r rhrllcnte rn rhi, lnlonnarro. Agc rhltr lire 1_;",;on 1,"*r d f.^,,...ii,i i," we own randri( rl rollowers who hu1 correcrion purpose.. T"h. i;;;."J;;l thnpn r'6, :1':'h:' I'r lhc book ulrinrsrclv rlcpcnd\ on frofir' made by puuli.lrer..'NJr-rrcr'io; t#""; :i: i5 narurllly so bccir'se r";;;;;;' :: jh: brunr ol'.lh' orr'laughr or tccluuloB) | rris necdcd rs vri'lelv arcilablc on rhe rnremer. The Brirannicl is, '.' ";r;;;;;;,;'r rrom rhc Unrred Kursdonr sord rn sers consisring i;"";";,,;l;llol:,::l:llTt:'ll

I I I I I I I I I I

tuturc.

o,

f,.r.nl rnJ tn tllc

'i;:1.';"t:ll1il^^ltlil o-les5 unsro|pahrc. tsu, tr,c \rrrr prdcc\ rlrc'cessihle lu techlrologJ. Liui ro J r'",;,"orr. ,l]i 'rr lorrgbeenregard"d".;".;;;;;i ;i1:l:8).rrrsir'irrrr'rcnt rlJ\j'as,terl rhebrrokrrrr rircrac) itrr'r turowledtc and it beaurirutly rt i.rugrr ,;" ;;rr;'. nl:rved it rotc ;;;i,;: hc.buo( ju\ririe\ rr'i longc\ irvhes rrs r,nprrbirrrl ',lr',1 hv ro chanse rnd ,h"'- ,p;; ;;;";,, u,ure and wir , h;i ; ;,;. .:,i;;:,I"Y:'j' i;:ii;:,,".;T " ;f;:;i:i:;,i;;: f
\ o n.6no1 1u,,r,",,,.n:,";;,',;;;:;;,:::!i'.qu;'1 ta, L\,cNrorlhpqucsti,'natrtr,,,c,,t 1n.1 at t htr, t, , nnt,,nr
e\prts:,..j
A\),r

Thc reach ot technolosv rDa\ racr or rne m.rrrcr i* rh,,i ;;;;""'j ldck ut clecrriciry. ,"J

Y,,ur ca.te wat

beaitifu

,n,plr nn,l t,,lcv,)ttl

Eugenia Ono 04S22

5l

Does the book

still havc a future?

Traditionally, in the age of feather quills and papyrus, books werl- the only source of information, and writing the only medrod of storing data. Now, with the emergence of various technological devices, some people tbink that the book has gone the way of laser discs and odler obsolete inventions-

Yet, I llelieve that thls is not so. Books heve a certailr old world cham that eldears them to thejr rcaders. In fact, some people pass dowll their books to their children, alld this goes on from gencratio to genention. Some even love their books so much thal they :ue willing fo spend hundreds of dollars leather-binding them, or do the cheaper altemative of fabric-binding.
Books have becomc a symbol of literature itself, and one who reads is given the air of dignity, or so sorne would like to think. Besides being a syrnbol for the leamed, books ride out lhe wave of change as they are tangible. Reading a book is verl different from rcadiog something on a computer screen as a book gives you a sense of ownership, and some identify better with books because of this- Furthennore, books can be revisited over and over at leisure, without the rcader being subject to thc availability of a computer- Websites are often not a hundred percent rcliable either, the dala on the lnternet may not be trustworthy wheaeas a lot more editing work goes ioto a book before it is published. Websites too may not endurc thc test of time and ntany have expericnced fmstration when they type in an URL and see the error mcssagc "page not found". Other thall webmastcrs ooI rctaining their domail, the use of intemet also faoes other problems of spywdre, viluses and wonns. This makcs ajourtey into cyberspacc lcss plcasurablc than it could be and the security a book offers makes it still relcvant in the world loday.

IDfonnation comes fhrough many channels nowadays, ranging tiom thc abovc menlioned Internct to the telcvision. radio and neq/spapers- Howevea, thesc rcdia are more cxpeflsive than books, and not everyonc can affbrd them. With such media, one is unable to a degree to control what one sees, and this may not lr desilable, especially when it causcs children and young people to be exposed to sugges(ive advertisemenls or Pomography. With books. one has a greater degree of control over what one wants to see. Though such media havc thcir tlaws, they do somethirg that books ncve. could achieve aeaching a wide audience in a short span of time. Books take a longer time to process and even best selling novels may not have the reach of the Ielevision or illtcnicr.

This is ot to say that books do not havc a tuture, for bookstores still generate a good incone- In Silgapore, though there are Iwo major companics (Kinokuniya and Borders) vying for the sarne slice of pie, they stilt liavc enough sales to sustain their growlh. This shorvs thet people irre still reading books. Librarics show similal lindings, with crowds coming in to borrow books, and this is especially so during the weekends. ln recent years however, librarics havc startcd a process of going digital and some have started Loani g ouI CD ROMs as wcll as DVDS. Books have the disadvantagc of

52

t
i
being susceptible to atmosphedc conditions and yellow over time ,. besieged by silver woms or other paper eating creatures. The shecr \i,! up is also a major point that even book-lovers calnot ncslect. Other nr,: data like CD ROMS or thumhdrives have srerdily lrorv,r in pot compactness nakes them desirable.
be found in any other medium. no matter_hou advanced. As long as people lovc to read, books will continue to he aror:,

. enduring and this cannot its imperfections, . Every medium has is


ifd ltuh
bricJ.

but I believe that books possr:

it
v

E(onomical \,(t cffcctivc.


Sarah Shi

MS2J

B@oK Qu@TEs:

Ltle

tRat.lstoRmlNG tDEAs HAVE AL\x/Ays ctgmE T(D '(ELIVER V/E N DAI.L H@LmEs

na

rHR(E(],

r.

You cal'T TELL A B@oK By lr': m<gvt. 'Lours A SaFl aN A seer rs Lr(E A GARDEN caRRtED rN THE p@cKET.
- CHTNEsE PR@vE
B@@Ks
RD

aRe rH eutETsr aND rn<osr c@NsrANT oF FRIENDs: THEY ARE THE II]OST ACCTSSIDIE AND 'w'ISEST OF C(EU}{5ELL(Dft. AND THE III@ST PATIENT (EF TEACHERS.
- CHART.Es

V.

lrer

53

Technology has dehumanized us. Discuss'

pax.of our.everyday life jn Undeniably, technology has indeed become an integral infiltrated manv d", 2fi;;;;t. 3orn" t to.i-it as the insidious bug which has slowly looked upon as be ,'.-,*"o oi ou, tit", u" ii social, polirical or economic. Technology can faclories, ,,r5.i".*o.",." ii*iicial rnre igence into machinery and gadgels. ln many can *i fr-,fr" i"ip "f ,".ft"ology, laborious and hazardous work initially done by workers to labour-intensive i. t"pf"*J'*iritLl".atylitactrines. Ftlns have thus seen a shift from r'relfare TheriseoI .r.,;Lll intcnsive invcslment5. leading lo efficiency and grealer social ion wirh ;"i;;";;;; ;".i.;j"rv trr, *u,, a-t'n not be neslecrcd with rr' cumr.ntrn icar a button' of m a level of convenience which merely involves a click ttu" Itt "., free"rrotu"a spreadsheets could now be created easily Howcver' some fear that document Ha.ssle and emotions' i"ifr""f.gy ft". a.ft".irized us' making us dc!oid.of humln interactions as so happening arotind us I fcel that rhese feats are unfounded una indti.."n ,o humans' "u"nts .i"gv rt*, i" fact' bii<lged thc gap across courtries and among i".,
undeniahle rhirl ,inlonnation down of birmcrs' tre ir social' technology has p-iaye<I an important rote iti ttre breaking gadget that has intemet access. oolttical oi econornical_ As joog as one is cquipped with a *"ui"g"' lrom othei countries' cven 'igh! across the globc' :;;.;;;;;;'J;i"it fbr a rru,i*" uni ouu*n".e No longei do feolle need to wdrt lor long periotts of time i^ a be Lcccived ;;1##;;;";.;ut 0"" pui wjth electronic mrll' letters e an .ow .rllr-.""oua lrom the moment i! is sent out- With joumals' blogs' and Photojouranls ii'r'd l""u.n* ""u,.,"'.-"'. ir r\ rrn lunger d hd"lc ke'lrng ut wirh orer+"' 'ii"tt nJrrnwed srld.nurnans calr or learning more about cultures lndeetl, thc grp has rntlced lln ;; r;rJt more aboul each other wilh the hclp of technology as Lon!: as thcy meke cffort to.

""tt

ID this a8e of globalisalion lnd progress ir

i\

livcs albeit The use of chnology, has blought much conveniencc il) our on our petsonal computer' discounting the various viru. aito.ks as well as Trojan horses

ii*" r"ri'^,
would ther

;";;;;;;

rutomitlc lsller macline' which is grrdgets originate t"". tn Japan, ihc place where most silvvy technologicrl a polir:eman This "f""i,""i. ;*" a robot which could relieve the work of i;;;, ,ir.y small flres' "t";devised ..f* fr"l fr""" designed to palrol the strccts daily anci cven Put outconveniences thus that irl.*ai.g tfr" levcl"of safcty in its society- l-ooking at the vanous b)
the neilrest not dehumenize it technoloiy bdngs, one has to say that teclurology erriches life and
gLass Many might be conceored thirt peoPLc who communicrtc- only across a inrerlclions' \krll! and ,oonito. o..n LCb s.reen io their oundr;e lives rnrght laek sucial it e shopprng. or e-billing' since virtually everythioS can be accomplishert onlinc bc ul thelr chats wilh However, while chatting onlioe. users uan now choose to spile is also lvidely eoroticons and display picttres, to showcasc feclings Wcb conferencing or not We should opcnly available. It is only a matter of choice if they choose tt) intcract

";".i(" int",ir"t ,t t'ougt, e_Banldng or just po|

broader perspeLriv(. we the coilvenicnce ir has brought ro our lives from a When as much wilhorrl be able to say that we would iot have cnjoyed tife via the he can eithcr do it clectlonicallv

it

.".tt

transaclions,

--=E

blame technology fol the inftoduction oI loners in society who choose to spend tlieir ir front of a technological box. Instead, we should consider the possibiliry that their could be anti social in the fiIst place. Thus, technology has not made us less as it has made multiple online social ioteractions even across geographical borden

However, ill the long mn, the fact that users of the computer might become of human contact, thus becoming dehumanized, must not be overlooked. in China who are obsessed with playing computer games rue sent by parents to military-based camp in which they are forced fo participate in healfhy physical r, activities and to undergo psychological counselling. This might be a case in point which ' shows that young people today might eventually develop to become ovedy dependent on technology, thus leading to a withdrawn community of youths. However, as long as schools and parents play a part in inculcating ways of leading a balanced lifestyle ir their children. t-his problem would rhcn be ea\rl) be pre!enteLl.

Many fear that the many conveliences that tecfulology introduces to our lives would only make us lose the human fighting spirit ard cause us to becollre complacent and lazy. Peopie might no longer see the nced to work as rnany of their rolcs have been replaced by technological gadgets, and it is nor a necessity to toil fbr rheir fruits of labour anymore. I feel that this is a narrow minded mindset that we should not even consider This is so as competition is prese.rt il1 many diflerent fonns. With recluology pushing our livcs to becomc increasingly fast-paced and more efficicnt, therc is a greater necd to surpass othels by having an even greater love and pussion for everything. Thus, technology does not makc us less hurnan. but instead il brings fbrth another mode of competitiofl_
ln conclusion, as long as propcr rneasurcs arc taken to ensure (hat tcchtrology does not cause huDrans to develop an ovcr rcliance on it, and tltat it is pul to good use, it is unlikely that hurnans will lose their human Iouch with the inctcasing use of technology. The world is still colcerned about the less fonunate, thus showing that we are not devoid of human emotions. The rcsent tsuDami aid effbrt is a testi ony of how the world is able to contribute wilh the help of rechnology. Funds pourcd in quickly fiom users of the Intemet through credit card accoullts in a sho* span of tinle. Voluntccrs could sign up online to assist in tsunarni stl-icken areas. Indeed, globalisation, alongside tecfurology, has only made us more awa.re of currcat affairs and more sensitive {o issues that allect fhe world and ou$clves. Thus, technology has ror only bridgcd the gap across geograplical boundaaies, but also brought many cooveniences and awarcoess to our cvcryday lives. It har not rnudc u* lc.s human irr .-rn] n:ry

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dilferenl

so it's not as tightly argucd as it t:ouk! ht: Tr1- un.d ba tLorc sLtcancr, ct)en as tou' re balan<:ing your view, deal witlt tfu point as a u'holc, ruth(t than a:oming bdck to do it later.
Sheralyn Quek 04521

Ovrall a sound drgument althauglr yotLr discussion J7i1>flops bctv)cen tht two

points

sides

for

55

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To what extent should the government help the poor?

A constantly recuring issue in rhe polirical forums of many counrries is that of the extent to which goverunents should render ..help,, to the poor in society, to elevate their living conditions, if not, to pull them out of pove(y. This was an issue that emerged during the tenure of Silgapore's former prime Minister, Lee Kuan yew, who at that time, vehemently opposed the creation of a welfare state, citing the failure of the United Kingdom's system as a classic example of the disastrou" of rendeing too "orra.qu"n""a much help to the poor and needy.
Whaf constitutes the poor differs across geographical boundaries and societies. In developing countries, thc poor itre those who are unable to jump onto the bandwagon of irdustrialization and they live in appalling condirions with a lack of potable warer, access to proper sanitation atrd access to healthcare and educational faciliti-s. The ,.poorest,, of the poor jn these less developed co0ntries may even be suffering from starvation. ID contrast, the poor of developed countries are relatively better off, lhe cause of thejr pledicament beinS rheir inability to keep up with rhe r.apid rate of economic progress. Gererally, the [)oor in any society are those who do not have access to opportunities which could lift them out of poveny. Hclp fi.om the govemmcnt could come in rn ly fonns such as monctary rewards, rebates, butlding ot infLrstnrclure t.r the poor ancl even fiee job or skills retraining.

Generally agreed is the notion that e goverrurent.s main role is to care anci frovide adequately for its citizcls in arcas such as sccuri(y, tbod and water supplics afld in the economic aae[a. llcnce, {lrc government should afte;npt to a]leviate poverty, on Ihe basis of the noble airls of goverflancc or at lcast, on the rationale that havin!] a significant group of impoverishcd and discontentcd denizcns might be potenlially diststrous to thc natiol in the long run- Ilence, the qucstion lics in just how nluch help is considerecl enollgh. The irnmediate or evenlual aims of providinll assistancc to the poor should be firstly. to elcvate rhcir living cooditions and secondly, to cnabie thc pooi ro cven(ually gain access fo tools or opponuilities fbr self improvclnent so that they cart be productivc citizens and contribute Io the eco{omy_

In rendering help to dre poor, the governnent should balance its needs and the general needs and welfarc of the public with tlre needs of the poor in society. Hencc, the extcnt of hclp thc governmenl should give to thc poor shoukl bc a limite; one and not prolonged assistance, but rather just the sufficient imounr of hclp needecl ro .,push,, the poor out of the track of povcrty. The govemment should withdraw or scale down whcu thc help it givcs is bordering on the urureccssary aod lavish. An iniamous and widclv cited crrmple is that ol thc $eltrrc \rar,.sysrent rn tlr,. U,,ir..t t<,,,gAo,,,. ui,.,. rt," govefiLmenl gave too much oronetary hclp to the needy and as a result, was burdened by fiscal woes duc to an acule shortage n[ tund. llris has lcd !., thc [Jk govcmmenr co prom(sng on thc intcrests of the society at large, by cutting down on ils educalion aod military expe|diture in lieu of the wclllrre staft systcrn. Heirce, a rational yardsfick rcgiuding thc. exlenr of help $at should be given. ;hould be thar help which is nor exccssive and docs llot cornpromisc or unnccessarily burden thc gov;nnncnf and tlte

interests of greater society should be rendered. As such, the government lleeds to exerci5c lrudencc and judAc for ilself the ..nght. arnounr .r f,"fp ;irf,"rfa gi"". it"-. ii exemplified.in [re case of Singapore, where stringenr guidelinei are in plaie fbr people claiming to be poor and wanting to receive help from vaiious social welfare organzation. opporlunities to upgrade and uplift themselves from poverty. A practic"al example is seen in_how [on-govemrnent organizations like World Vision, teach poor farme$ ln sub Sahan Africa new arld improved methods of famiug in order to alleviate povcrty, rather than giving them free loads of crops and buildin; high_rech farms for them. This exarnple summarises the approach govemments should t:tke. Tho main reason why Co-u-:m-"lt: should adopt the suggestecl approach of prudence and giving linited but sufficient help is that it is not beneficial fbr govemment; to rcnder too riruch-assistance as the danger thal they will eventually dreate a welfare stafe is always present. Following the creation of a welfare slare comes the problems of citizens becoming over dependani on the government for a livelihood and hence losing thejr economic resilience and jeopardiing the economic growth of the country in the long run. Furthemore, it is not beoelicial to fhe poor themselves if too much help is rende-red as the poor will then be forever tappcd in the quagmire of poveny anJ not acquire a means of supponing ther.selves' should the govemmeot in the future, choose to withdraw its assista[ce. The essence of rhe extent of help thar should be given lies iD thc phrase, ..teach them lo fish but do oot fistl lor them." Ctich6d it may be,iut it nevcrthelesis ollers worcls of wisdonr required fbr successftrl govcmance and alleviating poverty_

Providilg help to the poor thus means creating or allowing them access to

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Daoiel Yap

5'7

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,{ To what extent is the common man able to affect the country?


Societal change has always been thought of to be brought about by rhe work of a few extraordinary people, who are usually the leades of the masses. It is believed that these people rallied the masses together and pushed them forward with their ideals in mind to create cultural, economic and political changes. However, maoy have failed to take into account the power the commoners possess when they work together to bring about refoms. Furthermore, with the proliferation of democracy as the 'ideal' way to govem, the common man is now equipped with greater power to eftbct changes. Hence, in my opinion, the conrmon man is able to effect changcs in a society to i large extent, especially in today's world.

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Let us look at how the risc of democracy has enabled people to be able to effect econornic changes in a society. Take the recent rejection of the European Union (EU) constitnlion by the French and l)utch for example. The cumulative effect of the majority voting against the constitution has prevented thc EU from being able to push for economic reform and budget changc in France and the Nctherlands. A rcsounding 'No' has even stopped the French Plime Minister form having his way wirh going ahead with implementing the constitution. The pdme ministers of france and Holland cannot do much abott economic refonns now that their people havc objecled. Thus, we can see that the common man is able to cause big changes in the decisions of the govcmnlent as well as intenational organisatio(rs.
Even without democmcy, the commot an is still able to effcct political changes in a society. For instancc. the proletariat managed to ovcltluow the Tsar in the Novcmber l9l7 revolution i Russia. tsack thcn, there rvas no democracy; itnperi:rlist rule donitlated. Howcvcr. that did not stop thc dissatislieal masses tiom coming bgethea to rcvolt againsl the ruling party- The work of the pcople was so power{ul that it could cnd a 'fsarist regirne and replacc it wift a conlmuDist onc. and this is consiclered a tremendous change in society. Therefore, the masses do have the ability to ettect changes in .r soetery, and they can bc more capable than the govcmmen! in doing so, bccause thcy know what kind of life they want to lead.

Bven the day to day actioos alld habits of the commonels are able to cffect changes in e society. What thc contmoDers clo in their daily life can cause cultural changes- Ihc widesprcad use of handphooes by thc pcople in teclnologically advanccd count.ies has changed the way peoplc comtlunicate and relale fo one another_ A black, bulky, walkie talkie look alike has bccn irnproved on bccause o[ demand by consumers and today we havc the small and sleek htndfhone that many use. A major cuLtLrral chaoge thit has bec brought about is the changc fiom calling pcoplc on rhe phooc ro u\ing texr messaSes to communicate. [r1 facl, the extcnt that the common man uses tcxl llessages looks sct to take over thc use of phone calls- Flcnce, wlj can scc Ihat cultural cLanges in a society can be effected by thc nasses themselves.

Howevcr. somc alue tlut cvcn if democracy is adolled in a country, the goverrunent still has thc final say over irajor refonns. fhc CST hikc in Singapore is un

5ll

reforms. However, if the protesfs of the people were strong enough, the would not be able to continue to implement what the people clidnot want. If ..::irotestors of the GST hike wore to do what other people in other countries did, for examplc, standing outside a govemment building to demonstrate peacefully, tlle govemment might change its decision, and once again, the common man would have brought about a change in goven nent decisions.
There are people who also point out that not every country adopts democracy, and some counLries are still ruled by a hard-liDe regime. Nodh Korea for instancc, is still ruled by the infarnous dictator, Kim Joing Il. In this country, no one can rise up rgainsr the govemmelt, or try to effect any changcs. In fact, the pcople from countries ruled by dictatorship may be so brainwashed by propaganda that they may rot wanr to effect changesl Thc governrnents of such coontries have ful aggressive propaganda progra to instill into the milds of the peoplc that they are living a good lifi ind that they arc satisfied with what they have. Howevcr, I believe that no matter how hard the dictators try to oppress and brainwash thc people, it is the pcople themselves who decide whethcr thcy wanl to listen to the government_ For exanplc, despite the propaganda spread in Nodh Korea, there are people who are dissatisfiecl with the govemment and wish to cscape to Soulh Korea- Nevcrtheless, wc do have to acknowlcdge that in coun{ries ruled by hard'line rcgimes. the common lnnn has little or absolutely no power to effect changes in their socielics.

jor

mple ofhow the govemment can take th(3 iinal stand. Although thc public wrcle to the rms of various newspapers such as the Straits Times and Lian He Zao Bao to protcst inst the increase in GST from 3 to 5 percent, the governrnelt nonetheless went ahead their decision. In the end, the people had no choice but to pay for the increased tax. what is the use of giving the common man a voice when he cannot effect changes in a iety? I do acknowledge the fact that sometimes the govenment has the hnai say in

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'Io conclude, lhe comnon man has the ability to cftect societal chenges to a largc extcnl, bccause they have "Ihe power of the masscs,'. 'lhe common ntan, .iusI like any politicai lcader, mulls over what kind of life he wa ts, and comes up with his set of ideals, ancl Just like any other political leadea. his desire lo livc i0 a better world dnves him to want Io effect changes in his society. Although the common man cloes not have high poLitical standing, he, toSethcr with many othcrs just likc him can cause rnajor refoms rvilh their combined powcr. Kudos to the people who choose to contribute thc lilllc p,'v<r rlr,.y l.rsscss to makc wJ\c,.
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Yeo Xiu Wen 0.lS I I

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Politics is invarinbly a dirty bttsiness. Discuss.

Politics involves the campaigning tbr. and holding of government positions, which is carried out by politicians- Politics has often been considercd a difiy business, ard I believe that that is irvariably tlue. This is because humans, engaging in politics, find it difticult to leave out their natural human tendercy towards greed, the hunger for success and making mistakes- Still, there arr: still some instances where politics has not been sullied b1 human nature.

Onc important aspect of politics is the election process, where nominees campaign for thc votes of thc public to gain the right to a post in the govemment
hierarchy. In this political arena, reius the ugly head of man's hunger for success, which makes politics a dirty business. Just last November, the world watched with bated breath as the Ame.ican public trmed up to vote for their President and Vice-President. As the Bush Cheney team prcpared b squarc off against that of Kerry-Edwards, in the months preceding November 200.1, the American public was subjccted to a drawn out caLnpaign by each side to mar the image of the other. The mucl slinging was harsh, with military sefficc callcd inlo question, and changcs io policy stands highlighted. Each tcam wanlcd desperalely lo win, and woulcl do anything b do so. It was this mud slinSing durinU the clcction. caused by the tear$' wish to succeed, that made politics dilly. Ar)olher example of the dirty politics resulting fiom the human wish to succeed in thc clection process was the Watergalc scandal, when then US President Richard Nixo bugged the ofTiccs of his opposition so that hc woLlld kno$, their deepest sccrets and be able Io tlse lhem in fulure eleclions. 'l his lvas a strict violxlion ol tlle law. and was nlet with disgusl aod outrage (Nixol is still considererl 'that crook' by ma y). Another example would bc how. in 1930s Gcrnany. Adolf Hitler's Nazi Party stifled the oplositiorl through threat of vioLence and hencc was able to wiD thc clcction that broughl a Nazi majorily. Hence, il is the rnucl-slinging. underhand mclhods and violence caused by the human wish or hunger to slcceed, that makes politics difty.

Polilics can also becomc invariably dirty duc to the fact that politicians and thejr familics, living uncler public scrutiny, somelimes do rnake mistakes, as humafls are wont to do. Sonre examples would be the Clinton scanclal- IJS Prcsident, Bill Clinton, lrad indccent rclalions wilh i[tem Mo[ica Lewinsky. Other scandals inclucle the numerous sexual scitndxls that dogged US President John fi Kennedy, and the charges oI underage driniing against cur.cnt US Prcsident Georse W. Bush's daughter. Ihese poLiticians, and in sorle cases thcir families, rrradc all Ioo human mistakes that lrlally membc$ ol the iay people would be guilty of as wcll- Howevcr, even tmall indiscretions appear huge when viewed under Ihe microscopc of public opiniorr. and it is in this way that thc politician's human nature of making mistakes makes 1)olitics look dilty. Another way in rvhich poLitics can be consiclercd diny is Lrecruse ol the ruling ly's inabilly to oa[ly our rtre policies it proorisecl. lhis coulcl be (llrc to n variety of facloas- One q,ould bc the lacl that thc politicians sintply olxdc cmpty pro iscs to lhe pubLic. bcing guilty ol another hunran tcndcncics Iyi g. Olien, politir\ fcqLrLrc\ pi

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Germany. where the numerous Dartier aecide on poticies arr;

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C)ne m Jor reison why politics corxprion. rn many places ,."J:o.-T:'t..::1, o:Il" ,:^u::,ll human s,ced, which proces.ed b) orficiars ,j rj,e r"p"*".k;..;;;.,.;:;r;,1;;#:li"iJ;, :: i" oftrcjals Corruftion clso nccurs on r l1'ei 'roo( rh. urhe, ;;yi ,;..;;' 'itl", 'nrrh oflicril\ f,rc(erirrs rnirrr'rr. ro ;''t-' i cnu\c\ oollic\ ri! tr,ri,,,, ,.,,,. ^,^ -,1ill""u Inthrsu:r1.humanr.na"n,v',.t-^s,."Ji causes

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In.conclusion, although there arc sone iastances where polilios rernain wrlcr( lrrrrrrcs rerrr.rrn,lcan rn.l unsullic'l b) lturndn nrture. rnvrrieblr clean x J r. n"t,,,u.:lsp(cts ot hurnan nJrur. lcr,t ru rJrnr polrtr\ir,.\ rnd pl.ric p(,llU(r:' \ j,n,l nr ,.. polirrc, in r . , ,. 1'" ^^ri,.^ ,- - br,l lighr.
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JoAnn Mclina Lopez

6t

Can palriolism be taught?

Living as we do in the modem world, characterized by increasing gLobalization and naterialism, images such as fighting and dying for one's country seem to belong to a distant, more romantic age. Indeed, patriotism, conmonly understood to mean love and a sense of pdde in one's country, as well as a sense of belonging to the country, seems to be under thJeat frorn modem forces, as people no longer draw lines of identification along national lines but increasingly see the world as one miscible entiry. Even our
greatest wars are not so much fought between counfties as against things like zm opposing ideology or terrorism. In this context, many countries have intensified efforts to'1each" patriotism, but societies have lately developed skeptical attitudes as to whether somedling as emotional as patriotism can be transmitted ill a fonnal, organized manner.

To arNwer this question, we need to consider realistic contexts in which the teaching of patriotisrn has been attempted- Typically, countries have incorporated into tfieir nalional syllabus, subjects that aim to acquaint students with the history of their nation and inculcate in thcm a keen appreciation of their roots and culture. Examples of this are Singaporc's implementalion of National Education and lhe USA'S teaching of
nalional history. However, Singaporc's example seems to defy the supposed cffectiveness of tcaching patriotisn. Despite repealed altempts to drum into Singaporean students thc message that we sho[ld fcel proud of our racial harmony, out economic prosperity allcl our sociel stability, recent polls have rcflected trends such as a large majority of young Singaporeans who confessed that they would leave if Singapore faced a war ancl an evcr glowing nunrber of Singaporeals who want to leave for what they perceive to be greener pastu.cs. So why has Sinltapore's attcmpt to leach palriotisn apparently failcd? I believe that rt is precisely the rcpetitive message - drumming that is the paoblem- Palriotism, I feel. is essoDtially an intcnsely emoiional phcnomenon. Ctsting out minds back to iristory, we scc that the ceiebrated iconic images of patriotisrn arc sornewhat fornlnti( William Wallace of Scotland facing rhe English punislunent of drawi g and quallering fbr his fight against EugLish impe|ialisrn; the nlLmerous Chinese generals such as Zheng Cheng Gong glorilied fbr facing loreign invadcrs fcarlcssly; lhe British resilience during the BliIzend most rccently, lhe Germa cuphoria at the teariflg down ofthe Berlin Wall. The arousal ol pahiotism, I would argue, alrvays involves a ccnain degree of romance, and rvhether we like it or not, a cefiain degree of inationality. and thus it would seem incftective to try to communicatc something so charactedzed by intense cmotion and spontaneity {hrough the Logical, rcgimenled medium of the classroomHowever, the olportunities that arise tbr nations Io piu-allel thc great hislorical icons io the narne of palriotism are grcatly reduced in the modem age due to, as exPlored eurLiet, t|cnds of globalizatidl and the dillrtiofl of the nation as a [nit of identification. Docs this mcan then that patriotism is irrclevant today? How exactly can palriotism bc tAughl in a civilian envirorulent devoid of wars or other llrreals thal tend to lhruw citizens fi|rnly behind their connlry? Exa inc the example of USA, we see {hat therc wcre timcs when its cilizens opposcd rathcr than supponed lheir colrntry's involvemcnt in walfare, such as du.irg thc Vietnam war afld more recently the lraq War- Iherefole their patriotisn cirnnol have [reen dedved lrorn thcir nced lo flght a common enenly

tlu.eatening their natiol. However, evcn jn those iimes, alrd in tilnes of peaces, Americans have consistently been known to di:plal a grear sense of pride in their country. some even arlriburing re beginnings or ir in rireir iaucaijo"*E;";i;";;;;, story of teaching palriotism vis A_vis Siogapore,s example, a contr-ast emJrles that might perhaps explain why an ostensiblv similai r,' ,*" ' countries. While Singapore's national educarion .on.ru",fy- i""y"i". messages ttrat predicate love for rhe counrrv on crioical, ,".giur" ."oro^," prosperiry, America's education "'r onJ"'i?,i"I. ,o b" ,rro?" trre stuaents a pride and immense sense of rheh counrr]." ,,.ii".J'0.**."., n stands for. Regardless of whcther these norional idlrritics are rn,gfr, conrcnd rhar rhe LrSA ,hametesst\ abuse\ rhe *,n.,,_",, pelhaps. lhe deplh ol paniotisrn can uorne down to sonlclhing as irrarronrl as thts _ i. a lot more romantic to stand for clemocracy and freedom tLria faa ;. prospenty. Thererorq woutd argue """rr" rtro, .what o" mcutcared. but rhe crirical lacror r. uhar '"" is tauf l)t i.nd how il i. i.p;.1.

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Funhermore, thc tegrhinF oF oatriotism _-,,.,' cannot expect to succeed in a vacuum. Wlat ls taughr i" , cl".rroo-ia".,uy o,,,i i"'ir," ;;il.i1l.l_,T$il]';.1i.."::l*:ll.i::i jJ.': 111,,,;:l countrv nor he(au\c lhcy lra\c becr..rrdoctnna,.j t." g.";, Sr. ur"linn.r ,,,,,,t" classroom, but rather because the oror "u"r, a,iry ri"e,,rro** ri. ,;;;;,,,;,,i'il"";1,:l.tj':i]_::Til:lilJJfi,"f::,;:.:,il.jii: simitarly, srudics have shown rhe Danrih ,. p..f"r" o.arrl.a ," ,n",

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Chua Shirin

04A5

63

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Can patriotism b ttught?

It is increasingly common to hear people complaining about how lifc has k&en a wrong tum for them, and how the best solution would be a welcome change in serdng, otherwise known as migration to greener pastures. patriotism is no longei much of a factor for such decisions in this increasingly modem world, where peopie pursue their own dreams and desires in order to succeed as individuals. Many countries reiy on lonnal education and nationwide initiatives a.s extemal influences to ..teach" patdotism to its citizens. This pride and sense of belonging to one's country, however, can only be instilled in individuals ind not forced into them. Only through the cirizen's personal development and experiences will they be willing to saciihce and contribute to the well being of their country.
The integration of patriotism in formal education has been increasingly popular in many countries today. Howcver, this association of an ideal with the education ouuiculun would creale a rigid and inflexible envjtonment in leaming about holv (o bc patriotic. Patriotism is unique to cach individual. While someone miy love his or her country for its rich history, another mxy be morc aware ond proud of iris or her- role in defending thc counrry. This poFrlar method of creating a subjcct aiming ro instill

patriotism is thus largely ineffective, because too mechanical a systcm would lead to a grudging acceptancc of knowledge and facts inste d of application thtough personal rellection over what has been taught.

of rclatinlt the infbmlation to their Iives in Singapore. They liken Social


education does not achievc its aims. to a largc extent.

Iu Singaporc, National Education has not takcn its true effect on many of the students who are forccd to undcrgo this compulsory module. Most of the students are more intercsted in getting their lacIs right and scoring well for their examina{ions instead
Stuclics to

I{istory, not rcalizing that National EduL3tion r\ Jitiercnt as lr srre\ses thc role ol the individual to the country_ Hencc, tire integmtion of idcals of patriotism into formal

Eflofts to instill pat.iotisft arc largely taken for graoted. As we live ir an increasingly affluent society, we Iend to fbrlJet about the imponant values in life which are essential to cope with the ma.ly problems our lolefathers had to deal with. Hencc. prac(iccs suclr as (he singi[g of the Nalional Anthen] and pledge laking have grown monololrous- It is nol oftcn that you hea. a rousitrg, inspiring chorus of voices whenever people are rcquired to do so- bu( rather, a lacklustcr whimper of words anrl rnumbli[g. Ma[y people hence do not vaLue thcir countay in a way thai is lasting, as patfiotisn has not yel becollle a part oI thcol. but ralher, shown wlren required. Hencc, the nronotony of effbrls to instill patriotism mostly oauses people to take their countr.y for granted, instead ol cultivating a sense of belongtng and rcsponsibility io peoplc_
Palriotisln is largely based on circurnstance alld pcrsonal experience, ilstead of a sel melhod o{ irrs(illing parriotic values in peoplc. Only when pcople realizc rhat rheir country is vulnerabte, woulci Ihey would fecl inclincd to livc up io thcir role as a cilizen_ In rccent vcers. alter the Septctlber I I terrorisl attacks. a nlsh of patriotism infecled thc

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United States, until there was alr overwhelming show of patriotism to the exteot where homes and sfteets were adomed wirh rhe country,s flag. Similarly, during the wa_r againsr SARS in Singapore, Singaporeans exercised dreir role as responsibte, vi;ilant citiz;s by :- Iooking out for one another and havilg the belief that the counhy would emerge victorious with the combined efforrs of the citizens_ Hence, it does not iake ajoumey of education and practice imposed on people to instill patiotism. Rather, patriotism is an ideal which has to grow within individuals through experience, where they can relate to as wellas reflect upon themselver even more elleclively.

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On tho other hand, pat.iotism can be taught through knowledge of a country,s history and achievements. The integration of knowledge about the pasi into the present cuitivatcs a sense of belonging and identity in individuals. Swiss citizens look back on their policy of neutrality during World War II, and are proud about how their small coufltry managed to defend itself despite all the chaos around it. The knowledge of a country's history hence serves as a source of inspiration for people now, and thc only way such knowledgc is available is through education. Hence, to be proud of a country and be ready to defend rhose thi[gs thar you love, you must first have Lrowledgc oI whar there is to be proud ol Ilowever, knowledge without the ability to rellect and relate to the infonnalion gained, is kiowledge wasted. 'Ihc aimr o[ p3i11e11. educrtion are nul tultrlled through just teaching inclividuals how ard why they have to be parriotic, as this knowlcdge $,ould not directly resonatc in theil day to day activitics and lheir own inlerests_ The kriowteclge of patriotism will no doubt be instilled in them. but theia o$,n ycerninll to bc a patriot cxnlrol be taught. The nrcthocls of fonnat education arc hcDce largcLv ineffective. as sludcnts do nol trcat srch cduciltion as all opfortunity to dcvelop lhetnse]ves. bul relher as an opportunilyto gain krowledge and succced. OogoinEt etlbns to insrill pride and a scnse of belonging in citizens are also firtile, as the cntjre process seems nlototonousl causiDg people to take rheir bvc fbr rhe country lightly. patriotisn car only bc inslillc.l through cxperience, and hellce "teaching is not effertrlc Thus, patrrorisitr cannot bc instiiled pu.ely through education, bur musr be left to develop in individuals in ordcr [o|

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suclr ideals to be deeply roorcd.

An itsightful assq - interesting obse^'dtitrls noted. Diana bte (lthman

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Democracy is far from perfect. Why then, does it appeal to the m4iority?

The emergence of capitalism as the eventual winner of the Cold War has l(rd many people to associate democracyj usually the goveming style to accompany the ideology, as being the model of govemance to follow. It helps as well that the idea of.,for the people, by the people" has been adopted by a number of the most mljuential economic and political powers of today. Democracy is not flawless and has its inlerent wea-knesses, but nonetheless, it is still the prefer.ed choice of goveming style for a majo ty oI pcople duc to a host of reasons_

is not a homogeneous polirical model of ltovcnlarce, but insread is also influenced by other styles. The flaw in this is that it may Iead to a blured line between rhe diffcrent idcologies, hence confusing the people as to which sct of ideas thcy are the followcrs of. Despite thar, democraiy appeals to the masses bccause it provides them with opporturitics to forge a sense of b;lo;iing towards the country. It is, undeniably, hurnal nature to walrt to belong and dcmocr.-acy allows a sense of belonging to be fostered through measures like voting and ftee speech. Switzerland practises direct democracy whei.e every person above the age of cighte;n cao excacise hca voting rights and pafticipate in the decision ntaking process al all ievels of govertunent. Through this system, the Swiss dcvelop a strong ser$e of belonging to the commulity because thcy gel aclively involved in the workilgs of thei countay. If one doc-s not have any role lo play in the country, a sensc of oppression might set in and a loss of idcntity and self will result. Hence, people are attracted to cleriocracv because il pr.\i.1..rherl$rthupl\nflujlitrr'.t. lccl lrk, llle) b"lu glotjr(fi coLrnlr).
Secondly, democracy does not boast
bccause the power is not fbcused on a cenbJl trgrk bur ln\terd drviilc.l rntong sevcral groups of pcople. Despite thet, democLacy still appcals to the Dasses because capilllism

The democracy practised today

of a polenlially strong ccnlral authority

is thc only viable oplion as compared to other ideologics like comnlunism, fescism, Iolalitarianism aid autocracy. Fascism and totalitarianism had fallel in thc later-ycars of thc Second World War, discredircd alongside thc fascisr Mussolini and the dictalor Hrrler. Whiist it night have becn popular in the 1930s and I940s, rllc idea of unqlrestioning loyalty does not sit very wcll with the fiercely vocal people of the twenty firsr century. This.at sanle reason explains why autocracy has lost its favor with the majority of thc people today, with the last autocratic govcnrnent having been overthr;wn several decades beforc. Comrnunism, however, is a trickier issue. II ivill not suftice lo say that it dicd ouf atier the Sovicr Union collapscd in 1991 because rjll today, Cuba, Nonh Korea and China arc commulisl rcgirDes_ Evell so. one should realiz.e that the moclel ol conlrnunism adopted in the countries above is a deviaot version of lhe rlodel Karl Marx envisioned. China. for example, is paladoxically comrnunisr in ideology but capitalist ir nalu.e. The explanation for the abscnce ol. lrue , comntullisrn rr simpli rt rs essentially irnpractic{l and hence unsuitable for today,s society. Its loss of favour in nrary once comnlunist countries leaves democracy as lhe doninant moclel of govemance. Thlrs clemocracy appeills to the masses becausc it secnr likc the only viablc option oi

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;,#'T:;,*1:-:::ff"j:'L^^11.1"i alaries. Falling under rhe democrar ic .ptrere of i#,rence _.'""","n" ,i'"';;:"".i';tJl jr,:^:lT:11 rhe.united states, trre rarge numu". democracy appealing because then they would "i:i"n p"opr" be ati" olel yrtets as they always havr. peopl. worlJ pcrsonrl bcnefir. ir woutJ brini H""." a.."..-1'., ppeet. ro rrre masrs. cspecrall) tl thcy are mdde uf ul the rnorrel .pirurcrs hecarr,e ol rhe direct economic benefits that democracy brings.

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;, ,i;,"", these people in power ivil reave rhe decision.oting tn tf," ,""..r"""i", ,n* *.y characteristic of dernocracy might undennitre ,h. giu"r.,ru,.nt:. postion. .t.his is especially so if the have n-ot had p"o. 'rasses "*p.a.ni- *'i,rr'i.,rr*.i."u'r.o n""* *" lesponsibrriry suctaenry-tr,.ust up,,n 1r,"rrr. e i" po"u i, i,::,,j:1 'S-1:,1:--::antl or cermrn). r denrocrrrr( eo\.rnmFnr rhdr !{i, r.riLrcd by ,r," "l's,e ":l:"'i: c.l.\^ yerr. in p.wcr. rh. ;:::'l|^11 alr(r [r.ause rher rtrcrrrs"tr.s drLt r!,r \e.l'r lL) ,._:ill,l::ll" rdex of Llentoelltcy Thc .ejection Dcrevc Ln.th of rhc Wiinrar Republic lncl democr.acy $usnL'r Jtt,duF ro rhc tl.er'\ fl.Lrr.. bur rtso brcrr,.c in rtrc l,;;;,:;;;:,;",, *r",, ,,,, rrrralXy rnd P(oplc dr,l not knuw $h:I to.tlt.rkc ollt ot tl. A{ rll|c i. ,t.,nu.,r.1 still atperts ro rhc nresses becerrsc ir Drovides r5em ",n,,,r involved in wirh ;" ;;p;;;;;;;:; lhc u nr krng5 61 11," .nun,.,
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On the othel hand. democrrcv docs Dot always appeal to the masscs, particularly due to its flaws. One major flaw oldemocracy is rhar it rJixremely susceprible to a week go\ cnrr-nenr and a $eik ;.ovcrnnrrnl do,.s.nnr ncre.srrily

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jr.t.lik" uth". ,yrt.rn. of governmenr, does have its own wcaknesses-^--.- ?"To..u.{, to the masscs more thun in" ottr". Howevcr, it appeals ryrt.." ,ril.*-,ro.i 0""u"." ir, weaknesses do nor pur democracy in such a bad hght.'Hence ii i"iir-"orri*.- ,o b.,r," preferred system of govemance for a majo.ity of tne"peuple lit in" i,ri"r."i,.,"ru .,,""r,*, dictatcs orherwise, jusr tike ir has diciarect rt oi ti," i*,.. io;'';;;;;;,,.,, " "ua
piece,oJ writing. lttt\ tnt i",.1,:.:i!:::: ,::i bu1.,),,ut r\t,tat1, had some ttificulties presettting tht I ltaws rrhita .you i^r [.,] ttt,. d, :tratutitt n1 rt,, .t.tt,n.rari, t,,rrt, ,'::"::i.f I and b t a t ly c o rtv iit. i rt g. Lart g uttg e t:p ^ use is the most sophisticatcd I,\.t reen.v) "_r"t 1l: I
Nur Ilaihana 04s22

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In Singapore, meritocracy is a fngade for elitism- To what extent is this true?


anciert China, many men spelt countless days studying poerns and texts about various aspects of the country, hoping to take the imperial examiratioD and fighting tbr the coveted top posilions to achieve rccognition from the Emperor. Cefltudes after, most of the world has adopted this practice, known as meritocracy. For fhe purpose of this essay, meritocracy is dctined as the rewarding of people who have achieved a certain level of success in theil particular field or study. Elitism is then defined as the belief and practice of creating a group of people deemed to be supe or to others. Throughout thc duration of the essay, we will be looking at meritocracy as a faQade and also at the other uses of it. No doubt it is true lfiat neritocracy leads to elitism, lbr the basjs of merirocracy is

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to separate the so called "better ones" from the "weaker ones", that is, the more successful fiom the not so successtul. If there wcre no fame attrched to being successf[], meritocracy would not exist, for it would prove toa diflicr t to reward those who achicvc
it is the human being's innate characteristic of p de which leads us lo believe that we arc bcttcr tha[ everyone clse. The Chinesc did lrot implement the impcrial etaminatidt systern pureiy to bring joy to thc lirnperor in reading thc candidates' essays. They also waarted to cteate a group of people, who were seen as the "noblc class," lo aid in the running of thc country. lt is because of lhis inhcrcnt nalure of meritocracy. that it can be used as a faqade fbr elitism.
Dcspite lhe cr.:ntion ol a 'noblc class" being an elitist praclice, lneritoctacy has its be efits, and hcnce not shoulcl not bc regarded as mcrcly a feEade for elitism. lfl Singtpore, meritocracy is a pragmatic tool fbr finding leaders for thc country. Due to the basic fact that our poplllalioo does not exceed tive milLion, the tequircntcnt of a highly talentcd workforce and govcrnnle[t is esscntial to the survival of our counlry, econonically or otherwise. As such, the govennnenl employs the technique ol nlcritocracy to sieve oul these talentcd people and train them lor frLture leadership positions. For instance, the Nalional Universily of Singaporc and thc Nanyang Technological Univcrsity ofler opportunities fb. studerts at th(r Junior Collcgc level to take pafi in Science rcscarch programmes at thcir irNlitutions, and most of thc timc. arr exenplary gtade in the scicnce subjects is a prcrcquisile. In this way. the govemolcot is making use of meritocracy to find telent lor the purpose of growth ol'the counhy- This shows thal medlocmcv is not merely a taqade for clitisnl.
success. And with this farne, comes thc creation of elitists and elitism. tbr

Apart from helping the country grow as a wholc, the govenx[ent also helps to improve thc lives of the people, individueliy, or as a whoic. This, il does in various wirys, including thc use of meritocracy. 'l he hcading organization tbr Singapore's education, the Ministry of Educatiol, awauds butsitr-ics and scholarships Io studet{s who are ra[ked in the top 5 to L0 percent of the cohort for acadcmic results, but also fbr thosc from lowe.incorne families- This shows their strong bclicf that educalion can hclp irnprove ono's social sta[ding. Aparl fftrm thet, thc educa{i(m systcn aLLolrs for st ents with cxcclLcnl rcsulls for their fi$t year in Junior Colleges to takc "spccial papers', which coteils

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imponance of lrard work irnd dererminaion.

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mentocracy to help better the people,s lives.

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anv *.i"ir' ""i " ,""i "fr."*tud ofien read\ io un*irringni.i rl govemment did not continuousiv .eward good **L, p""pf.- *r""iAl"""r,o pu.por" in working, and rhere would be no competirio, o.ong.i',ir" p';;pi;. lead ro rhe *"*ry u"""-"tg ,",rrlppv .u.h u, in dre case of rhe former where. everyone was provided wittr iood, shetrer ""; ";;;l ,f* ia-"r.i'.." ,,,u"h o. worked. The peopte evenrually decided ihar !:.,"-til1. one und.o-munism not a good fe,. Anor[er Britain, where people wc.e provided wirh certain bjsic ,"* rcason to worl. They ev(nrusllv bcc

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An atlect of encouragiug rhe population to work hard is that sociery does become hz). In lhis wa) . met itocrecy act. as an imperu. to economic growth becau)e is u5ed to provide incenrives tor oo.a,,ro,f ,"a f,""J" p,.,

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IIr conclusioo, rnerilocracy in itself is a faQade [o. elitislrl, be it in Sin!]apore or otherwisc. Howcver, thc Sirrgaptr.e government has used mcritocracy to -rrio*n country's advantage. n r,"r--r,-"i." rhar whire merirocracy faEade. it is actually an imporranr rool "ooit in the gruwrh oi fie

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Whatcver thc cause, terrorism can never be acceptable. Do you agree? today-an aum ol uncefiainty and even fear drat pervades every corner of modem civilization. This may be attributed to the fact that tenorism has reached a theshold where it is increasingly allencompassing and lethal in nature, making it a sedous threat to the stability of our society. Terlorism ilvolves acts of violence or attempts fo instigate chaos in ordet to achieve a cefiain aim, be it religious or political, or monetarily motivated. Sometimes, these aims embody religious or political ideals that may seem noble, but I believe that attempting to realizc these goals via such socially debilitating and unde unded means undennines whatever nobility there is in these aims and serves only to aggrandize tenorism.

There exists

a ccrtain tension within our global society

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The impact ol terrorism on a society is profbundly adverse and far-reachirg. As its name suggests, terrorism strikes fear into the heatts of people. It leaves an indelible mark on both the society and the individual - the society has ro grapplc wirh rhe perpetual fear of another act of telrorism, while the individual is emotionally scaned. The cffcct of the 9-l I bombing of thc World T.ade Towers tt-anscended the loss of lives and propefiy. Thousands of people who witnessed the honific scenc had to [ndcrgo leflgthy counsellinli. Families [Iad to conterd with thc grief of losing a lovecl one- lhc physical dcstruction and chaos associated with lerrorism is uodeniable. bLll il is essential to unde$tand that the social ramifications reach beyond econo ic irstability, the deslruction oi property alld the loss of livcs. It is far more deep reaching that tllat- What causc, no malter how rightcous it ntcy appear to be, is worth such a sacrifice?
There is a vast m6lange of terrorist faclioas which appear to have a just causc Ihlt is driving them to pcrfbrm thesc acts of violencc. There are eco lerrorists whu stu\'u llr save thc environment through bonbing pollutive factories or sabotage lree-lolJgil1!: operations- There are temorists who scek to altain indefcndcncc fbr thcir state ol to separate from a cou try, such as the IRA and Tanril'ligers, by bombing landnrarks or assassinatil8 ofticials- There are tenorists rvhosc goels are to make religious statcnlcnts lfuoogh bonlbhgs of what dlcy perceive to run contrary to their beliefs, such as the Al Qaeda and Jemaah tslamiyah who claim to be waging a religious wfi known as a jihad. Thcir airn is to make a statement to the authorities or pcople in power thal cannol be igDoled. It is a threat to commit morc acts of terrorism shonld their goals not be attai[ed. What divides terorism from aD open rcbcllion or even war is that terroaisnt is far mc;re insidious in naturc. While both are similar in the sense Ihat thcy arc pcaccivcd as violenl means of achieving an objective, lerrorism appcars to be a morc undcrhandcd rnethod, i$ it strikes the vulncaable and defenceless patls of a society without warning. II is thjs aspect of terrorism that makes it inherelltly unecceplable.

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Terrorisnr is an cxlrcrnc inethod of itchicving e goal. lhele will inevitably lrc altemate means of fulfilling thesc goals which are pcaccful and do noI conle at the expcnse of others- Diplomacy should prcccdc such ac{s oi violcnce. Howevcr. should diplomacy or all othcr rnethods fail. ten-orism should not be a last resorl. Certarlr rrsucs may bc solved by appcaling to lhe lntemati(ntal Cotn of Justice or the flniled NatioDs.

exhausted.

Te(odsm is by far not the most efficacious means of achieving a goal- Thoughout the annals of history, few te.rorists have actually had their way with a g;vornment or people. Despite terrorists in Iraq capturing and beheading several Ame cans, America has itill rot given in to the demands of the terrorists. Although the terrodsts have managed to get countries like Spaio and China to withdraw, it marks an empty victory as their ultimate goal to free Iraq from its invaders is still untrrlfilled. As such, even if there is a worthv cause, terorism should not be a means to achieve thrs cause, even if aU alternatives arl

However, there is a certain degree of subjectivity involved in our perccption of tenorisln- Dr Mahathir infamously labelted America as the ..greatest tenorist,, in reference to America's invasion of kaq and controve$ial foreign policy. To overthrow an evil dictator is undoubtedly a noble goal, but the sacrifice involved in accomplishing this is extremely high. America's precision bombing of Iraq could be perceived as being a more grandiose and acceptable form of terrorism_ Hence, terrodsm may sometimes be a stimulus in a society tbr a change for lhe better. lt carr instigate a change in power, take down dictators, or achieve indepcndence from a country. But to commit illsidious acts of violencc in a society to achieve this is still rnorally unacceptable. Terrorism is something that society has nevea and will never accept. The impact of an act of tetyo.ism shakes the foundations of our society, leavilg a mirk even in its wake that the people in the society still have to live with. Even if the cause is woflhy, it is suaely not wordl such wanton destruction and chaos.'Iherc are always altematives ro terrnfl m. Att., dll Crnillri nc\cr neeJeLl vt^lpncc lo a, hierc hrs gurlr. Etsay is fot:u,^etl ri,ith pettincnt points and illustratiotl Dis(Ltssi(n llnugh Jdit-U comprehen.tiv( (like the inclu.tiotl o.f eco tu-t.orists) is nonetheless not as tleep. Do you not tlifferentiate ttrrorist d d cco-terrorist for exttmple? Whut iJ dOlomacy lalts? Subvcrsion has ahta,rs bet:n uscd in war, e.g the Frcn(h ResistLtn(:( itt\lllll. Do wt: co dcmn them as wtll'? Ldnguuge isfine.
DanielChang 04s63

Is terrorism acceptable as a necessrry evil? Terrorism has plagued the world since time immemorial if Prince John had the use of modem idcas, he would probably have branded Robin Hood a terrorist. But it is only in modem times that the term "terrorism" gaincd a specihc meaniog unique to itself. A terrorist is defined as a person or a group that resofis to violence on the civilian populace to achieve a political end. Modem exanples of tenorist groups would include Al-Qaeda, and the lrish Republjcan Army. With the passing of the September eleven tragedy, global opinion has turned against teirorism- The Bush Doctrine, eannarked by the phrase, "You are either with us or with the terorist", seems to be the plevailing mindsct today. To examine just how acceptable terrorism is, we have to examine it based on two crilerions whethcr it is morally ftcccptable and if it is pragmatically acccptable-

Tc.rorism by its nalure is, intrinsically. morally objectionable. By definition, its vcry objective is the inflicting of maximum casualties on the civilian populatioi in order to ensure that their actions resonate as loudly as possible, so as to fbace thc government to rnake concessions. Tefodsts utilize fear and horror as a weapon in order to coerce lhe govcrrlrncnt to come 1() the negotiatirg table. The elhical problem lies in lhe tact that they kill innocent civilians, insteed of the people who opprcss Ihcnr. Civilians are inostly not culpablc lbr Ihe plighl o[ the lenorists, and punishin!] them to get back ar lhe govemment is unacceptablc- Thc thrce thousand who dicd in the collapse of the TwiD To\r'crs q'cre not respolNible for the evils brought by thc Arnerican (lovcnrnrent on thc Arab world, and to make them bear the blaDre with their lives is rnorally reprehensible, whatever (he

llowcvcr. T believe solDctinlcs the issue o[ lelrorism is nol lhal cleir cul. 'Ielrorisrn is usually co currcnt with govcrnrnc lal opprelsion usulLlly ir tcrrrrfl\t grou| has no legal neans to put its interest or grievanccs I'orth and thus had Io rcsort to rnorc slLbversive mea[s to !]ain a voice. Usually, (he despot in qucstion would tlrst lvrouBht injusticc on a specilic grolrp jll society. and leller them lo lhe yoke of oppression, by de[ying them x voicc. Tcrrorist groups uslraliy spring up as a reaclion to tliis rc|rcssrnn. because they o. their pcople have been trcated !vi1h mindlcss cruelty and iiluslicc- Thc Basquc Nationalist group E1'A, carne about trecause thc Fascist Spa ish Governrncnt under F-rancisco Franc deliberirtely clamped doun on the Basquc hn.quage and denied thcnl sevcral civii liberties. As suclL terrorism, lhough morally wrong as an act in itself, somctimes can be exoneraled by exte uating circumstances. 'l hus thc ceuse miry al rimc\ justify drem.
I.urthemrorc, drc dcfinition of tcrrorism is stitL mllinly Debulous. As lhe clich6 goes, "One man's terrorist is another's frecdom fighter." Yasscr Arafal rnay havc beet a

bloodthirsty tcrrorist to thc lsfaelis, but to thc Pal.stinian people, he was a bcacon of hoPe fbr thcir ernnacipation, atrd the lsracli army, with thcir rcpcatcd incursrors utro Palestinian civilian ierri(ories, were the real terrorists. lhe only differcnce betwecn the lwo was lhcir mcthods ol warfare Arxtat bed to losoi to len()rism becaLrsc lre could not atlbrd lo wage a conventional war. Thc conundrunr is thlrs this: should Ierrorism be consiclered any more unacceptablc vis ir vis othcr mcthods of warlerc. dcspitc simihr

ramifications? I believe lrot. If rheil: cause can be justified by a lack of any iha^els, dren it may stilr be ao acceprable evil- N;lson Ma.,i"ta'" arrican viable l,tario'ut Congress previously resorted to violence against its apartheid regime, n rj trre apartt eia govemment branded fhem as terrorists. I believe, that, with tfre i'enetit oi tundsight, we know befter than to de[ouncg terrorisrn without first considering the backgrouna and the
causes.

On a more practical level, terrodsm has been castigated as a tutile political tool ^ for two reasons. Firstly, tenorism mercly exacerbates tfr""connici anJ'ao"s nothing to resolve it. By killing iturocent civilians, they incur the wrath ol tfre peopte ana govcrnment,_oftentimes leadilg to more rccriminations and a vicious cycle of violence. This.can probably explain why Russia has ody escalated its oper",ion* i.-ifr..toy" _ i, was in response to Chechnyan terorist attacks. Secondly, terrorists tend to ,,overstay theit welcome" and be too extremist to eu.ry..uch o co-prorrise with thcir govemments, as their very roots arc raid in radicalism. The Good nriaay Accoras in Noirt .m rrer"na r., gradualiy being discrcdited because tringc g.oup" *ithin sinn r.in'-an,r tne rrtn Republican Army are persistilg with the uie o-f terrorism even oti"i u f"*" has been nlade between the IRA an.i_ the Northem lrish Govemment, tf,ercly "g.""_.nt rettccting how terorism may be detrimental ro the search for a resolution ,. ifr"

".rlii",

Whilst the above c.ificisms are at times justified, I still believe thal under sone circumstances, terror-isrn may plove to be efficacious in ...otulnf conni"ts, when wr: compare more successfill temofist organizarions likc the ANC and thc East Timorese Liberation Front undcr Xanana Gusnras, with less successfulgroups like Hanras, we see a clcarly disccmable diflerence tllc lon er .Lrc mor. wrlliniro corrrpr.urnrrc. For them, lerrorisnr is Dreant solely to gain attcntion for thei. cause oia ptigfrt, alrd lo bnng their oppressors lo the ncgoriation table. Afier thal is accomprished, i"riori.- *r. abandoned as a political tool. ln the case of the latter, foa example, gr.oups likc Hamas, oitcn thele is a reluctance to even rnovc an inch for prace, thereby futlier enrrenchilg the conflict. Thus, iI is only if terorisn is kept as ju\r on. ou, .f ."ny putrrlcot rnot.. uia tts *i"laer. are willi[g to compromise and abandon it at thc right timc. that terrorisln crn be secn as an acceptable evil on a practical level.

I
I

political tool to ema cipate oppresseti peoples. In a world t.ri.,, lust, tcrrorism might at timcs be a neccssary cvil. yout

rlo acknowledge thc intrinsic dilficulty wc have in accepting rerrorism u.'der a'y circumstanccs, wharever the causc, I sti| b;lievc lt can at times be nio.ally justified by irs very cause- It can also, if rightly used. be a tegitimate

On lhl: whole. while

i t
t
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ly ou"l.",

and power

We!t arguetl Apart ft'on the slight digre)-sio on th. inelI.(titjaness of terrori.rmas (t bol, essay presented a (ogcnt drgume l .tttoitLlltinttcttt)t.isnasa.,n :ess./j,t)..vi.,,

Robin 'feo
0.1.451

'13

Is the lcgalization of gambling a necessary evil?

Gambling, long considered a vice. has always been discouraged. Lotteies, sports betting and games at casinos all do not require much skill or ability; they p.imarily rely on the sheer caprice of chance- The humrur desire to gain wealth and get dch quickly without an equal amount of work put in, tempts men into gambling. Rather than allow widespread propagation of moral vice advocated by illegal gambling syndicates, the govemment needs to intervene via a regulatory and controlled body to curb the unclesimble effects of gambling. It is evident that although the legislation of gambling may not sit well with many, it is essentially a decision made out of necessity.

ln many countries, the revenue fiom legalized gambling is a major source of state revenue- Il constitutes the Cross Domestic Product (GDP) ofa country and these eemings go towards the govenrmcnt budget. This is used to improvc thc infiasfucture of the country, reconstnrct wom out amenities, and providc thc public with benefits. [n Macau, gambiing ancl casino operations account fbr 40olo of thc country's GDP. Also, revenue is commo y dircc(ed to charities or to the needy in the community. Singapore Pools was set up in 1968 to curb illegal gambling aDd is the only legel lottcry operator in Singapore. Sury)lus earnings are devoled lo communily causcs whose outcomes inprove the wellbein!! of lhe conmlunity. Bcncficieries inclucle the National Kidney Founddtion and thc Assisi I{omc and Hospice. Without legnlised gambling, profit takingi; tiom illegal gaming activities would go into the pockcts of gambling syndicates, which would ir tunl finance the developnlcnt of other vice activities. 't'hus, il can be scen that gambling should bc lcgalizcd in order lor lhe govenr0le t to cxerl coollol over ganbling rcvcnues. Consequently, lhis valuable sourcc of rcvenuc could 8rl towards bencflting the public inslead of sLrpporting other vice activi{ies-

ln today's last-paceri society, drc world is conslantly cha[giog end we have to accommoclale change lo slay rclcvant wi$ the timcs. Our economy laccs slagnatiun i[ \ c

do oot keep abreast of cw dcvelopmenls in lhe reg-Lon. lhe legalization of ganbling. in particular, thc ofening ol a casino, would be ideal ilr diveIsitying our economy. IIr rcccnt yeius, tourists havc tlocked lo Malaysia end Australia. indulging in shopping and garnbling within the casinos, thlls gcnerating thc much needed lourisnt dollars to iroosl the ccono(ly- To slay compctitivc as a tourisrlr hub, Singapore has to rcinveot herself. The opcning of a casino within an inteSrxted resort rvould give thc cconomy a vital iniection. Toluist speuding on iiod. lodllin8, shopping ancl gambling would contribule much to thc tour'srll sccto. io a country. It is un|ealislic lo rely solely otl olLr pasl atlftctiols to drew thc crowds back. Hence, a resorl cum casino would add to dlc vibrancy of our citysc{pe, subsequenlly etticing tourists to spend a longer slol'ovcr timLin Srngaporc. thus cffcclively boosting the economy

'lhe lelialization of glorbling would irlso sucgcst regulation so lhrt the inherent problcms slemning fro l gxrrbling can bL: tackled thoroughly. Esselltially, the siturliun
of gambling can be closcly nronitored and controllcd, curbi[g lhe sphcrc of influelce of illcgal syndicales. Given an allernitive. llamblers would most likely palronisc lcgel oLlIlcts as well. An er)rcrdnent lo llle Betring xnd Swccpstake Duties Acl halved betling

'/4

to solve problems at hand. For example, compulsive gamblers could be sent for counselling or to undergo keatments. Responsible gaming woul<t be encoumged, disallowing those below 1 8 years of age from taking part in lotteries and bets. Having gambling legalized would accord flexibility and rigour to the government jointly responsible for eradicating illegal syndicates. .l-his results in better coope_ratio[ between the various organisation and effectiveness in stamping out illegal gambling. At the same time, the govemment would have the resources to plovide counselling alld treatrnenf for compulsive gamblers, ald the iirfluence to promote responsible gaming. The above reasons indicate the necessity oI legalise<.I gambling.

duty to allow Singapore Turf Club ro offer berrer odds and lower prices tor their customers, so as to compete more elfectively \rith illegal gambling opererors. Having the govemrnent play a role in legalizing gambling also implies ihai resources can be
allocated

bodies

However, there aae concems that whell gambling is legalized, the governmelt is sending out a strong social message that gambling is acceptable. Garniling tcnds to extract revenue fiom those least ablc to resist the temptation, in particulally, low,iricome families. Gambling is blamed tbr the illcreasc in broken homes, underrnining the rnoral fibre of the comrnunity and ultimately giving public sanction ro the attitude of gertirg rich without diligence. The main assumption underlying the dctrituertal effects of g:rmbling is that the individual lacks self-rest.aint and gumprion, easily giving in to the temptation of gambling. Ilowevcr, we know this to be unhe. Even with ihe legaiization of gambling, individuals who have the sheer willpower will not succumb to it, nor will they becomc "victims" of gambling. Victimizarion is Dot an issLre whcn rhe individral hrs a sensc of conviction aod a codc of moral principles which he lives by.
can nevcr be totally e\lirpatcd. If exists, by illegal syndicates or run by thc govenrmellt. However, the assurance legalized Sambling gives is that social problems can bc carefully monitored by the relevant checks and bala[ces inplemelted by the govemmenl, so these problems can bc kcpt to a minirnum. Furthermore. eanings from legalized gambli g could bc used to the advantage of thc community thus extenurttng thc dcletcrious cnnstquences of garnbling. Hcnce, I would agree to a large extent that legalization ol gambling is a necessary cvil.

_ ln ttre most praclical sensc, ganbling whclher opcratecl

E)icellent pie(e oJ work. sense af purpose.


Eugenia Ong

Ilse of thc language has improved while you meintain d

cleat-

04s22

75

Thcre is no place for corporal punishment in schools. To what extent do you agree $ ith this rie$?

of a heaviea nature, for example, smokng or vandalisrn, but in sorlc cases. teachers actually deal out punislment for minor issues such as sleeping in class or not handing up work. In over twenty states in America, schools are tie only insriLutions where such physical punishment is still legally sanctioned even milirary camps alrd prisons do not condone using violence to deal with unacceptable bchaviour. personally, I agree very much that there is no place for corporal punishment in schools, and only in the mosI extreme cascs, and as a last resoft, should violence be uscd to discipline.
usually

students who have committed an offence, often choose to deal out caning, spaflkilg and such fonns of physical punishment to discipline the student_ The ..offence" committed is

In many schools across the world today, school authorities, when dealing with

everyone probably laughs at him and looks at hiln in a diflerent lighr now, and hc teels ashamed of himself- F'ootballer Stcven Gerrard once comrnctted on how one incident of caning in front of rhe wholc sludent population in school left him feeling likc ..a loser,' and caused hinr to pass the bulk of his schooldays as an introvert. Thus. I do nor support intlicting injuries on a studcnt as a way to disct)line the studcol and ensurc Ihat the same nristeke is not repcated, as violence o ly seryes Io endanger thc physical and c otional well bciog of the studcnr.

My first reason for disagreeing with co.poral punishment is rhe physical and psychological scars it inflicts on the student. Definitely, caning, spanking;r hitting the student with a foreigr object would leave the student injurcd, bruisetl and in pain. Furthennore, if the student is punished in front of a class. or even the entire school (which is often the casc), tlis public display of thc studenr's problem will have drasric psychological eft'ccts on him. 'lhe stlldent bccomes very self-conscious, thinking that

Secondly. corporal pulishmcnt in schools shoulcl not be suppollcd because it pe.pctuales a cyclc of child abuse. When violence is used to dcal with younger students who have comnitted an offence, it teaches {hc stuclent that it is okav to hit. and the studcnt grows up and continues to hit other llri,plir, cspecrrlly tlrose yourrger than hrnl, as hc lries 11] instill discipline. In Kenya, over the 1970s and l9g0s, many stJries ofstudents gettinS hit, slapped, and thcir heads slamnled against the table arose, and many of Ihc teachcrs inJlictiog such punishments lver.e found to have bccn be hit whcn they wcrc students The brcekillg of this cycle of chilcl abuse is often rhe biggesr -themsclves. probLem faccd by schoot authorities, and many a line, stlrdents lcave school thinking tat it is okay for lhose who care for-them to hil thcm. {nd they perpcluate this vicious cycle. 'l'hus I disagrce with thc usc of coaporal ptLrlishntcol_

Thirdly, with thc use of corporal punishoenl, the teacher loses an important oppodunity.for tcaching a Dlore appropliatc behaviour. More often than oot, hitting the student lor doing somclhing wro[g docs Dol bring about thc dcsired effect ol the student lca(rilg where he has gone wrong and thercby becoming a bclter person. llrslead, thc sltLrlent may stccl himself aea,nst the pain infliccd. shut oll his emoiio,rs, go aboul wirh his pilsl $,ays and rcfuse to cha,gc. ln Antcrica, statistics hevc shown that-with vrole^cc

'/6

used as the way to discipliDe problem students, repercussions have arisen, with there being "more vandalism, truancy and pupil violence,, nr the schools. After getting physically punished by the teacher, the- student oller.efuses to regai<I anytnfg the teacher says further, and in ao act of defiance, continues with his reb_ellious uehaviour. Thus, I see little point in spanking or ca ng when in most situations, the snrdent hanily lislens any\ ay. ald curtrer\elJ drrplays worse behaviour.

I I

However. there is then the issue of..spare the rod and spoil the child,,. Many educato$ choose violence to maintain discipliDe, especially in the classroom, as they find that this is the easiesl way of getting thei messag; acros; to the students. .I.hev believe that once they go soft, and become too lenient, students get the impression tfr.i tfr"f a]-" allowed their own way, and stafi displaying outrageous b-ehaviour. 'personallv. I teel rhar when with exceptionally egretsious conducr, corporrl punishmen; might just .dealing come in handy, but only as a last resort when talking and reasonilg have failed _ and the student's parents should be notified. At the end of the day, thcre is a time antl place lor ever)lhing. Jnd corpnr:tl punishrle t should only br dcrlr u lren cbsoluLcl, co.po.ur pr','ish."",'t r.r,l"ir,.i"-"i.iuiJiffiil,ii'1Ji,i'1'Jii,iHii",iil?; 'r,*ro'r" allowed a regular place in schools.

t t t
I I I

In conclusion. therc is Iiftlc

schools. caning ancl spnnring rn.g"ry i,,il.::::.J:,-.',1[l:,"t,:l^:il!i'#JTi.',1ff.1 they grow up and may tbrce soDte to become immune to pain and hold Iittle rcgard fbl school authorities anynrorc. Very often. using violence on a itudent shuts his ears to thc genuine advicc of thc teacher ind the student may not beconte bettcr disciplilred at the end of it all. Evcry studenr is al i.dividual, ancl sho.kr be lrcatccl .s such, a.cr there arc always altemativcs -- cornrnunity service, talking to corporal pulishmcl]I to make a student leain.

::

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I

y,cl[,orljanized, well argued dnd suffiti?ntb, [.sstty .wasexrmples. Language use was saphisti(Ltted and .epr()prial(_
Jalrice Jcganalhan

ltarkttl up t,itlL

t:oncreta

04s22

I t I
f

Capital punishment versN tlre lile sntence. Discuss.


Human civilisation has always seen life as sacred. rhe beauty ol life being extolled by various major religions. In addiLion, heavy punishmeits are meted to those who would willfully rob it from oLhers. Capital punishment has been, and still is, a method of punishment used in scveral countries for binging retributive justice on those who would cornmit heinous acts such as murder_ The ongoing controversy of capital punishment and its use io a supposedly more humane world of today is a hotly debatcd topic. However, if given a choice, I support the notion thaf those who comrnit heinous acts against humanity should be "scntenced to life" rather than be executed_ The forrnation of a law efforcement agency and the setting up of ajuclicial systern j stice to the people_ Laws, in essence, were created to protect the rights of all humans alike, and in breaching the ',right to life" by depriving another fellow human beirg to continue living, the murderer has effectively sur-rendered that sacred "right to life" and. hence, places htmscll or hersell at the mercy of society at large. Thc rest of society has now the choice of putting thc in[rderer to death, and stooping to the level of cr.irninality o[ the murderer. or imprisoning the c.iminal and allow rehabi litive justicc to take its coursc_ Ia all aspects, by sentencing the criminal to li[e, socicty can also achievc the goal of prcvcatillg lhe cr-iminal from cornmitting further heinous acts and in addition, allow the criminal time to seek recolrrse- ln the famous casc of "Hurrica[e" Cafter, the lack ofcepital punishment in the state of Louisiana allowed him to appeal contilually until a Supteme Courr ruli[g redrcssed his wrongfui conviction by overtuming it due to a lack of evidence againsl him_ ll .nprl;-l lu ish rc t ha,i beerr rrnposed. lrii trglrr rUuld lrJve abruprly. d.d rninn.r.enr

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within each country is for dre purpose of providing

man lvould have been killed, and thc whole sociely would have becn guiily
miscar.iage of juslice-

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ln addition, scnlencing a cri inal to life shows the naturity of a society through its willingncss to subjcct the criminal to rehabilitation. lf one pursues the notion of vengca{ce, then sulely an cyc tbr an eye will leave the whole world bliDd. A life scntcnce does noI just reprcsenl an act ol ntercy, but also rcprcsents the belicf of an elltire so,Jrcr) lhat the course of.iustice does not necessarily have lo bc retributivc. cspccially since thc cooccpt of justice was created by humans, and should ithercntly bc more hunane ll) nature- Why would society lower itsclf to 1he animalistic act of homicidc? One cannot justify capital punishnrc r. or legal killitgs pe. sc, if one wishes for morc civility in thc
Advocates of capilal pudishmcnt ha4) on the fact that capital punishmc|r rr u ntosl effcctivc detcrrent for would-be murderers. Flowever, what srch advocates fail to see is lhat detc[encc only exists in the ntind with logical thought. When most murders llairpcn. it is usually in a fit of rage or hatrcd, when rational thoughr is i valid. In fact, stalistics suggest tlllll cxecutidls ntay even increase viotc t crime rates. From 1952 to 1967, Calitbmia avcraged abou( six cxccutions annually, buI withh the samc period. thc m[rder rate doubled as comparecl ftr thc period of 1968 to l99l when therc were no eKeculions. For a person rvho harbours such deep hatre(l thal he or she has to kill to

7iJ

mav madvcflenrt) inrrucnce 't''' rurure generalrons undermining '"rur( humane sociery.

resolvc his enrotional distress, detearer cloud Ihc mind r" r","^,'.I:'li::

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ellccr"e'peciall) whcrr suc li'""*"i"'rol';'"r;-;;";';;"il;n;;.:#l jlii-ll3'

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cost of supponrnS Lhe murderer lifelime. which L irr"ii"'"i for ar enrirc .,il.ir,iJar lhe mulderel i\ a socieral can nrenace. Howsver, measure ,r,. rurr" consiJerarions "i'rrr,i"lncn i1 rerm\ ol doller\ and cenrs? Economrc ."r1, o"ni .i": *') concems a li[e. arrd r human litr is ar srale. whar ,r'".. *" i,"'r.'r*" ^'l,i:1: ,o''JrX."'u' uunare\ Jusr becar.rse rhet ,." ;^",j^^'llqo'" il" wr 'ysternaticalll e\ecure all dcarh ro$ il.n.""no- ,1,"-ui ,;:i'::i,,il,'.:::'"1 .'."" m'chr Morrt arsu,nenr\ rs,dc. "r ',l"ll1' ':*' may co\l Jnylhing lronr herncen one ro seven miltion n"rr", rmpn\onmenr c;ses' which ",'!.rn "rr"i thou'and E, o'.rrnic .,; j";;::,';: 'o'r around )00 ;:'i lrd ro acruali) p"' ,.i." l. ,"""-:-Da\elrne is that hLrman life i' helond arrl c.sr. " economic considerari;;;;;;;;:,".r s trte aDd c\ecure rhc murttc;er because of t wrong messages about the value ofhuman lif.e. When onc lools at cxp(tal DLr Inry promrs.Lt ctlc(riveness in,lereninp,.lj:']t"i' -: an(l bc ca.rly {qa\cd be,jl,r.r,,t ir. riminrl' rl)c r.re'cy ur deat wirtr rnurdnrcrs rj;;,:;. ";:";: -"" ' lile.irnIris.,ruierr. ue .er ir $hF,i L,\.Lr ro prorecr \o!rcrv rtrer ir ro,, ran ,r.gi. r,,i r,i"'i"linP.,at relribtrli!" lhc rs .,ell a' lh. r, lrabrlirrrrre rrms "r ol ju\ricc. ln ,",0r'L'uxils tt' nnt br r'cn'rl) \(, nr' rL) bc."ou',i.,,ili'" a\ ur lcs. d.renen trJI jl enrr. J rnn\c ,,.r*rr,, ,1"' \rct rn\tJrd. r,"it,t;,,r,, ,nor" i]1.lTpt i'uI1n 1'|l ' irr lrcl of, at,ir.,l Purri.trrrrerrr rs ,r f'1,\'uvc dre'(hcd corr i,, ,",",,, "' ro* "nt.,.en'.'.r 'lie,t. irs ,,tuo.l

t'on""ffi?,1TJ',,1-i$::ttr1f:"',*l mav raise rrre poinr rhat in rhe case of rife the

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il;;$#:::.I"*cts,a ro rrl'r rh( respecro1fbr life and rhererbrc rher ;. .;;;:illo"'lwo Words. ltrst revengg,, .nn ,", nuni.h're,r. lrl "e"a "
ti tit, iLt\rlt,. t' r\
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Ex-criminals ought to be given a second chancc. Discuss.


Even in today's sociefy, where people are generally mole open, ex criminals are still being discriminated against. Very often in television shows, criminals arc ponrayed as big burly rnen, with tattoos all over their bodies. It is no doubt that people eventually develop a negative image of theDr and are less reccptive towards them. However, these people have already paid for their wrongdoings and a_re fully capable of turning over a new leaf. Thus, it is fa that criminals, people who have broken the law in the past, should be given another oppoftunity to live a nomal life again without being discriminatcd against. They should bc teated as part of society, and should be given the right to take olrjobs and to integrate into society once again.

Hurnal beings are not perfect creatures. Every one of us is bound to make mistakes in life. It is then up to the iDdividual to leam and Drove on. At times. some ex criminals could have committed an offe[ce at the spur of the nomel1t, or they wcre under pressure to do it. Take for examplc, a thlteen yca. old girl trying very hard to blr part of the 'cool' crowd. In ordcr to prove hersclf, she could have shopliftcd [nder ILc prcssurc tiom her'fricnds'. Very oftc , soole ofthe crirnes commifted ai.e minor and the oflenders would have aleady learnt their lesson atd are willing to turn over a new leal_ Ihus. it is ollly fair that society givcs them a chancc to do so, illstead o[ condcmning thetn forever.
Fu.lhermore, nany prisons arouud lhe world now providc services to hlrlp prisoners i prove thcmselves while scrving their jail tern. For cxarnple, Singapore Changi Prison has a comprchcnsive progrannDe hilored Io each individual to hcb him or hel rchabilale. Young inmates can choose to conlinue thci. stLdies while othcrs are p.ovided wrth vocational traiting.'lhe innrates lio through religious counselline as wcll as attcnd moral lcssons to hclp theni get back on the righl tlack. With the hcll) of these proSrarnines, criminals havc Lhe potcr(ial (o lcad ir normal litc agirin. ltrercfbrc. socicrl, shoulcl bc tbrgiving ancl open and givc thern another chance. Economic clevelopntcnl is very importalt in cvery counttJ. espccielly in today's society. In order to achieve this. a strong labour tbrcc is nccdecl. If crinrinals are nor givelr a cttance to work. there would bc fewer pcople to contribute to the ecortolny. As mentioned l.eviously, some plisoncrs have gone iluough h.aining cluring thei. slay in lhe prison to cquiP them with skills. Thus, if ernployers are unwillingly b cmploy ex cdminals, sociely will lose out ultimaicly as therc would bc fcwer skiLlerl workcrs io lhe workforcc- ln the Unired Kingdom (UK), one rhird of the mcn under lin.ry have { cri inal reco.d xnd in thc LIS, 1600 ofl'cnders ate being released cacll day lor lhis ycar. Thercforc. therc is a leed to operr up job vacancies to ex criminals or there would bc a serious shortage of labour in future.
Somc peoplc thinl that criminals will repeat thcir offence lLqain and it is nof wise to give thcn anothca chance- This is rr(le, jt rhesc u lr. llrtls f"il i,, ,lr",j' t,, ",t",,rpt lead a nonnal life again. Being trappcd in a vicious cycle. cr.iminals will co rinuc lu commit crimcs if they feel aiscouragea hcciuss lhell xr;nlpt ut tntctsrJriDg lnlo society l,.r.trrlcll .r9.,I, ( fr r( ntly tJrcll bc llrieaii,.rwe\ i,ul l,,tlteDl. Sr.,r,,ii, . gii.r, r,y , .t ,r.

80

in US showed that nearly half end up back in jail because they carnot lind jobs. According to the Depaftment of Justice Bureau of Statistics rlr tiX, Z-ln 3 released iimafes- were_reaffgsted within 3 years. By giving ex_criminals another chance, not only do we help them to change for lhe better but society also benefits ua f"a", ,-o"".rt people are behg victimized by these repeat offende$.
Perhaps it is wise to think twice about giving criminals a second chance as there is possibility fhat they might revert to their old wayJ an<l also because of the social stigrna that a jail sentence carries. Ex-cdminals are often secn as tricky and uffeliable as there -.rln", have been many cases where they betray their employer,s fuust ana uguio.. Thus, companies that employ thcm might be discriminatetl agairrrt "orr,rr_,it as u result. Ho*.ve., this.point might not be valid as loday,s society is becolring nire opcn. Efforrs have been made to change the miodset o[ society. For example in Sing"pore, an island wide campaign was organized to encourage people to be more receptirTe towards ex_criminals. Poste^ have been put up at many bus stops a',d commercials fcaturing inmates at work have beerl broadcast on telcvision as well as in cinemas.
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Since these crimioals have already paid a price for their crime, in tems ofcaning and,rheir..jail temr, they should be ltiven another opportunity to live a normal life agair. Each,and every one of them is t'ully caprble of cbingrng for rhe burrer, csfeciatty since they have received counselling and trntnrnB. N..,nc i, -perle.r lnd cvery,inc should be given a .second chance to makeup for his mistakcs. Furthennore, Iabour is'feeded for the economic development of the country. By clepriving ex caiminals of a chancc to work and contrib[te, both paaties Iose ollt eventually. The tountq, r\ unrble r,, fLospel as nLrch as it could, alrd there would bl3 a strain on rhe laxpayers as money is leedcd 10 rull the prisons. By giving them a second chance, not only do they bc'efit. socicty arso benefits fronr the decrcased crime lale. Valid poitts nwd( it1 Ltnswer lo the questiott_ (iood conchnion. but you nead tu make tet tuin links clear lia greatet eldhoratk)n. Dapfule Ho 04s26

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Sport is taking fun seriously. Do you agree?

Mourirho, the current manager o.f Chelsea Football club made this infamous statement on the eve of a Chdtupions Leagtte clash with his former soccer club, pato, "Give me a choice between spottstrdnship and h)inning, I would definitel! choo.te winninq, at all costs, bt hook or by crook." He sure was dead. serious dbout v,inning although the sdne cannot be said of his interest itr his plalers haying fun.
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It is pertinent to definc lun as enjoying oneself thoroughly, which would defititely ditler to some extent bctween individuals. Sport can then be defined as any form of physical exercisc consisting of certain objectives, which people pafircip:rre iD, such as soccer, golfor even thc Fomula One Grand Prix_
That spoft is taking fun seriously, I would only agree to a certain extent. What I leel is that whcn these spo.ts are recreatioral, nol-competitive and do not involvc any high stakes lo the individual, the statement would apply_ I{owever if this wis rn a competitive sporting arcna, such as thc English Premier League or cvcn the Olympics, the statement wo ld tlot hold. Take for exarnple, Singapore shuttler, I{onald Susilo. As a natiooal reprcsentative for badminton, he could ill afford to havc fun at lhe rccent Athcns Olympics where lhe entire coultry was pillning its mcdal hopes on him. To hirn, he was definitely takilg the competitioa seriously. However, as hc once said, .,When I atn on the (badnrinton) couft, there is no nrore fun, ancl it is all focus. fbc[s and locus i.om then on." With srLcll Eounting prelsure hcapcd on alhletcs. they can barcly affoad 11] have fun
and crrjoy themslves during their rnatches.

This would be duc to the fact that atliletes dcsiae lo win, cspccially dLLe to the garqantual amoullt of money oflered at compcfitioN. 'Ihcy tlain continuously fbr ycars just to take part in e competition where a singlc defea{ usuelly rDeiins tha{ thc athlctc is knocked out of the competition and has to pack his bags and go hone. 'Ihus, the desirc to wir alld the pressurc hcapcd on the:rthlctc by himsclf, his coach, his fans and probably his counlry incvitably takc out the fun elcmcnt in the sport fol the ath]etc who. insteaci, has to teke the spoft seriously.

ln rccent yearsi there have bcen cases of alhletes involved in doping. ilrcluding prorninent cases such as Marion Joncs, an ex,Olympic gold mcdallist in six ttack cvcnts and her ex husband C.J- llunter, also an cx-Olympic discus and short plttt gold medallist. All of thcse athleles takc performancc cnhtncilg drugs such as tcstosterone iust to Bo that cxlra second frster. or extra centimctcr higher_ Can it be said thtt they are taking spofts for furr and yct seriously? Such Machiavellian ways of slepping onlo the winner,s roslrum ce aioLy do not demonstrnte lhis possibility.
Apart fuorn thcse. politics may be intcr-min!{1ed with spon. Events such as the 191J0 Moscow Olynrpics. which thc llnited Srarcs boyco(ted. and rhe 1984 Los Angcles Olympics. when the Russians .etumed the illsult, suggesl that thc ()]ympics was tccking of politics. This occuffcd during the Cold War era, whc America and thc USSR wcre staging a face oiT due 1() the clash of borh idcological and polirical diflerenccs. Anothcr

82

event would be the 1936 Munich Olympics lvhich was politicised by the then notorious dictator, Adolf Hitler, who used it as a platform to showcase Nazi power and his fists of steel. These events serve to show drat sports especial-ly at a highly competitive level constitutes more than just fun. ln fast, some unscrupulous politicians all over the world have hamessed this as a form of power play, and have defeated the purpose of fun in sports by placing their vested intercsfs upfront.

However, for non-competitive or recreational sports, the stakes of parlicipants are not as high as that within the competitive sporting arena. For example, a frieldly soccer match between neighbou.s is a fun-filled one- Even with a few scuffles and arguments that take place which show thal playeN are taking the match seriously, the match seldom tums ugly. At the end of the day, everyone enjoys himself or herself and looks forward to the next match.
place because winning or losing the game is not as impo(anr who have litile to play for anyway. A victory or defeat does not to these sportsmen change the life of these amateur sportsmen as it is not their livelihood; thus they can aflord to have fun. Sport is one of the fbrms of enjoyment they engage in, away from the hustle and buslle of their workplaces. However, those athletes in the cotnpetilive slofting arena have much to gain and lose in every loumameDt they participate in. As sport is the athleics' livelihood, it is clubious if any of thcm is goiog to make a joke out of it or have fun, while fretting whelher they can makc cnds mect or whether they are able to maintain their present world ranKng or status.

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All of these can take

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Various events such as chilrity toumarncnts also cnable participating spottsmen to luve fun wilh a[ element of scaiousncss, due {o lhe fact lhat it is a competition arttca all. However, the nrain objcctivcs of such eveDls are not to win, but rather to raise funds for the needy- Again, rt can blr secn lhal thcse sportsmen have nothing b gain or lose except their own pride. Hcnce they are able to erjoy themselves thoroughly and yct take lliis spon scriously and try to win the racc.

Appreciate jour attempt lo balance \oLtr argument with or oidmPle oJ sPorts incorporating both Jun anal scriou.enes.t. you c.)uld look at how Jun is at the basis of the
prafessional sportsperson's tradc, etc. Jeffrey Ng
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Sporl has fallen short ofifs true ideals.

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this true of today,s world?


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medalist, might be stipped qf liis bronze medal because he was found to have consumed i' on" otrt'" o'" in:'pon. i, is

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orher band, sport has truly done its part in bonding people together. It againJ? Jo-_._"r, oppon"nr. Jusr lasl week. people gathered rogerher in _ff.J ,,f,op. 1"A' .iublou."*, ,o *,.n Srngaporc.rn rabre rennis player. Li Jia w"i. i, ,r,"-."_ilri"i,.i'*""'6,"rn0,"r. ,n,_ untied rhe people a. one counr^/ ro rend rheir supporr on. Despire Li Jiu Wei lrirure ro qucriti. mu1 peopre cril srood by her and ofrered word5 or ercouragenent. Thus, the unity of people through sport is stiil eviA.ni in toauy,. ,o"i"q,.
Dnngs .9" _9. people wirh a common interest, togerher uniting them

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Sport and its ideals have evolved much over the years, along with economic and so(iat dcveloprnenr. sporrsnranshi' and fair play rr*J J..ii""J'"".rr.i ilrough time. Furlhcrmore, the ability of governments tuid.organizatiors to provide economic gains has ire ri,is..spon stirr lalconrftui.aL'.,r," ,t i::f,.T:,:':a "l::":Desf uur(lurg ",0 " ')r sen\e ot belonging Bu!, much has to be done to rcinlro;uce the fruc itlcals !,1 .lon. and to l.cp rh. slrrit ut .p,,n buming.

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Daphne Ho 04s26

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L(Ev y(DuR sp@RT. NEVER D(E IT T(D pLEAsE uas T(D BE YOUR S.

HAs N@THING To Do wtrH sAtR pLA.r. lT Is BouND up \vITH HATRED, IEAL@U5Y. B(DASTFULNESS, DISREGARD (DF ALL RULES AND saDlsrtc PLEASURE IN wtrNEsstNG vt@LNcE. I l.t ergea v/@RDs, IT Is waR MINUS THE SHO@TING. -GEoRGE OR.vELL

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Is it true that competitive sport is

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about fame and money?

Competilive spoft has been closely examined under a mic;oscope in the recent years. The who's who in competitive spofl are frequently appearing in tabloids and even on our own regular broadsheet. It is apt to discuss if competitive sport is all about fame and money, and I have to say that I agree with this stateinent to a latge extent. Competitive sport is defined as sporting activities that have amateur or professional competitors in national, regional or intemational toumaments. Examples iflclude the Olympics, South East Asian Games and the Champions Leagu(j of Europe. Fame is the celebity status accordcd to these competiron. Money is defincd as firstly the cash punped into the competitivc spofis to ircrEasc the staldard of these sports. Secondly, it is defined as monetary i[celtives, in thc fbrm of wagcs, bonuses and endorsement deals, for the sporting individual.
Wc have to face the fact that Ihe coufitrics or clubs with morc digits in thcir baDi( account statcmenfs, geDerally win rnore t-rophies and medals, lhan their poorer counterparts. The pleying fteld is deinitely not level. Counrries rhar channel funds into compctitive spons help to ircrease the spons associations' and coachcs' ability to purchase more cfficient iurd bettcr qualily equipment_ IIence, the pldyers have a bctter standard of training then others who havc to makc do with cheaper equipntcnt. Oftentimcs, countries likc drc United St?tcs and Canada dominatc intenletional conpeLitions bacause oI the sheer fact that they havc the spending power to do so. ln the case of Singaporc, the Foolball Association does not hxvc the nloney to give sky high paychecks fbr a world class. rcno(rrecl coach [nlike in Enltland whcrc thc Football Association pays thc nutional coach Svc0 I}ikkson fbur irillion pounds a year. As such therc is a grcat dispaiity i fbotball in both coultr ies as lhc t\.vo diflcrenl coeches inparl differcnt Ievels oi skills and taclics to thc already vastly dif_fcrcnt national teal1ls_ Ilsse[tially, n]onev (irlks in compctilivc spor(s.

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noncy ligure lalgely in thc competitivc sport individual's life. I he key impoftance o[ natural abilities, id terms of spccd, slrength end skills are oow a distant sccond place Io fdrne and rloncy. Ilorv else can rvc expLilin why fbotball playeas with astrooomically high wages still prccn and pose for advisements to earn moncyl [:laving alrcady :ltlaincd a certalin prestigc for thcir natural abilities and astute rcadirg o1 competitive gamcs, tttese pLayers hungcr fbr more by sig ing endorsement deals. Maoy fbotball playe$ prorlote products that i]Irc cn{irely unrclaled to their alea ol exprr'rrsc. Somc cven appear to pro role unheal(hy prodocls such as beer, fnst iood ancl junk fbod_ For exanrple, English lbotballer, Alan Shcarer, appearcd ir :l MacDooald's lelcvision advertisemcnl. They 1uc uscd unrealistically in such etldo.sc tenl coolracts because they have to follow stlict litncss end diel regimcs, and lhus cannot tcast on srrch unhealthy fbodl Again, we see that nlany spo(ing intlivicluals havc lro qrralns about nlisrcprcscnling Iheir sport and not gi!ing fieir uhosl to thcir sporI, so as Io fu(her lheir celebrity sIa{us and to gct morc supflcneuts to thcir incolncs. lhe classic cxarnple is tsngland football captain Dlvicl Bcckharn uho now h:N quesrionable skills as fcllow countrJfiren lalnpoon hinl for his lack of focus in compctiliods.
Fame and

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Many a times, spots associations in countries have dangled mooetary carrots before the eyes of spofis men and women. In Russia, it is the nonn for these associarions to promise bonuses of a few million roubles to individuals or tearns who wln medals. Money, coupled with the potential increase in fame for trophy-beadng winners, has taken over dre traditional ethos of sports. This ethos which includes values like fair play is ignored irs sports personalities abuse drugs and participate in match-fixing. Jojo Sinciair, a Singaporean bodybuilder, was so athacted to the bonuses offered to he;, that she used illegal drugs to boost her ability to win a medal in the SEA Games_ The rugby players of New Zealand, the world-renowned All Blacks, played to lose in the Rugby Worid Cup Final of 1999, in protest against the Rugby Association withdrawing thei. boruses of $500,000. They were not sedously condemned. Instead, they were lauded as sporting herces as their fame increased with thejr appearances in adveflisements. The fact that th; advertisers were still willing to use these match fixers show that indeed, in competitive sports, fame and money is everything.
However, some people may argue that passiol is a greater motivator than fame and money. Without passion, spofis men and womel would not have the mentality and will powet to push remselves to their very best. For example, we sec this in thc Silgapore gymnastics team. Cymnastics is not exactly a lucrative spofi, unlike badminton and table tennis. Yet the gymnasts havc the drive to perform well in the SEA Games 2003. It is heaftening to see sponing talenrs who t.uly love their sport but the status quo is such that nany playe$ arc more i[terested ilr thc n]oley and fame than anything clse. I havc pointed out clearly that their motivatioll lies in these two arcas as thcy are more than willing to overwrite the ethos of sporls and to ignore the imporlalce ol intense conceotration on their sport. [n addition, sporting powerhouses and the dirccting boards of clubs have shown lhat with cash, they can easily improve their own players, while othets fall far behind- Therefore, I have to conclude that compelitilc sport is all about fanre and money. Clean, organized piece of writing alld choicc of question reflects your knowlecige of thc topicElaine Chan 04A51

With technology, sport is no longer the same. Do you agree?


The Olympics is the bjggest sporting event, attracting thousands oI athletes from

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all over the world, involving countless background crew and requiing an immense amount of planning and preparation. In the lead up to the 2008 Olympics in Beijing, sportsmen are training intensively, in a bid to shave off those 0.5 seconds from dreir timiflg to meet the qualifying standards. Off thc tiack, coachcs are testing out various
machines that can hclp improvc their chluges' strokes. Spofting brands like Nikc and Speedo a.e coming out with their latest aerodynarnic, hydrotech range of apparcl, which they claim cnn maximize the wearers' strength. Nulritionists, too, are lookinlJ to see how they can concoct thc ultimate drink to boost athletes' perfbrmance. Technology, is indeed gennale in the sporlinS arena, and renders sport ot only a test of physical abilitics, but also a battle of sport's conplemenls.

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Equipment is undeniably an epochal factor in an athlete's performance. A look eI oul sporting heroes Lhoroughiy demonstrates this-'Ihey wear customized shocs. shirts and swinrsuits. xnd usc {he ldtesl rackets which boast of greater speed and plecision- h seilinS. morass amounts of rDoncy arc pumped into buying ncwer, faster boals and sails which are shaped blNed on QuanluDr ['hysics. No one is willillg to lakc chanccs and slingc on cquipnrcrrl. Il a rlomeirr lvhcrc cvcn 0.01 seconds counts, nothing bul the best
nrust be used-

Othcr Ihar) thcsc I)lrysicll clcmcnts IhaI can rdd that !itt]c cdgc to the cumlclilur\ and boo\l lheir level of conlidcnce, lecluologi/ has citused traditionll rncthods of coachi g to be phrscd ou1 Conc:re thc drys where praclicc ancl repetition wcr.: drc rule ol the thunlb. ln placc (l1'Ihosc hours swinlming laps. elhlclcs havc beell introdlrced 10 machines rvhich can track do!vn, lo lhe Drinutest of details, thcir perfonnlnce levels. Evcn hcart ratc scnsors rrr coLrsidercd p$s6. q/hxt *,ith Global I'ositiouilg Radar Systcm ((iPRS), which c:r[ trlce r sailor's vclocity, sailing angle and boal eLlgle throughout thc entirc duration ol a racc. Runncrs and iumpcrs irlso nlake rsc ol indoor sifirulalors 10 achieve tlritl perlccl, streamlineci posture. Swiirlrncrs:uc no exception. Sl(lies liave bee madc to try 1() irnitrte lhe molions ol-fast-moving $,a{er animals. Tcchnology has pro pled an cvolulion C}l the win[ing filrnula. An alhlele call no Longer clinch thc gold lrcdJl l,) l rr\, Ilr'tlrn,l. ot r r. c fr.|rrlrron.

I
1l

linrings and iudgmcnts havc always bee e conundrum for \prriing orga izers, all ol-whom airn at hosting a flawlcss cvcnt u|intcrruptcd by discreprncies ol' rcsults. l-ollunately- lechnology has enabled such prot)lcrns Io be rore or less solvcd. Scnsitivc digital scnsors can aulonlaticalll/ recorcl athlclcs'tintinlts, dislances aud speed. In a fieid rvhcre the dittcr.nce lrtweel goLrl and silver nlcdals can be hlitlinc thio, this is cssential. llowcvcr, tcchnology has created competili(xt in lhe spofli0g arLrna. by rrcans ofachieving thc bcst infrastmcturc. Co[ Iries like I)alis. Mad]id :r d Lon&)n boast oftbc latest slalc ol--thc an sladiums. conlplclc $itll srnooth lracks and electronic deviccs, hoping to clinch lhc bi.l to holl lhe 2012 Olympic (;lrncs. lhe crilerion lbr tire hosl country is rlo lonllcr nrcrcly secrrrity lnd rbilily, bur no.,v includcs thc standrrrd of
AccLL.ate

Il

fa(:ilities

88

On the other hand, competitive spoft still essertially boils down to an afhlete,s talent, hard work and passion, which is the true nature ot sport. One cannot cveD dream of crossing thc finishing line frst, even equipped with the most advanced aids, if one does not put in one hundred arld one petcent of cotxnitment. It can be argued that technology can be portayed as an insidious virus that feeds on the spirit of sport and robs it of its es$ence. However, we must first take a look at the definition of sport _ a domail which challenges physical abilitics. Even with the inexorable dse of teclnology, the element of physical ability remains rhe most influential factor that makes a spoflsman.
While tcchnology has ifldeed made spo.t "no longer the satne,', it is clcar that the heart of sport remains unchanged. Technology is merely there to enable atltletes to go swifter, higher and stronger- Technology has brought attention to other arcas conLributiug to sport, such as thc preparation and the cquipment, and made use o[ thesc to rnaximizc the potential of athlcfes. The world of sport is not impervious to the advancements iu teclxrology, and should therefore embrace it and make the tullest use of it, lor technology is here to stay and will cortinue making charges to sport. At least 3 stntng points- Overlooks [ssues like commercialism and cheating.
Fawn Soon 05,{51

SP@RT O u@TE s:

THr mgoars
HAPPINESS

o@NrT nEAN ANYTHING aND THE GL@RY DoESti'T LAST. IT's AtL AB@UT Y@UR HAPPINESS. TTiE NEWIN.PS ARF GOINC T(D COME, BUT MY

IS IUST L@VING TH SPORT AND HAVING FUN PERFORI]IING. 'JACKI J@yNER-KERsEE eu@TEs (Amerrcar ATHLETE, oNE of TH BgsT FEIIIAI.E ATHLfTES IN THE V/ORLD, D.I962)

LossEs. IT Is DeFIND B.r EFF@RT. IF y@u cAN TRUTflFULLY sAy, 'l DrD THE BEsr I couLD, I cAV EVERYTHINc I gao,' 'IueH Y@U'R A .\T/INNR.
@R

VIcrer.v IsN'T DEFIND By vtNs

"\(/ouFca.lc

ScHADLER

89

'tHcal the world! make it a better place.', Can we?


has been said, that as the first ge2fs of the industrial revolution cranked into motion, an invisible clock powered by those gears began a countdown towards the total destruction of nafute. As nations aspired to ever-greater industries we hastened the hands of thc invisible clock. Humanity is consuming the very earfh, in a reckless and dangerous matu1er. The earth is ill and the symptoms are hardly invisible.

)
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It

environmental problem that has captured our attertion is the thinning of the _Ore ozone layer caused by the emission of chlorofluoroc.ubons (CFCS) tiom factories. and ce ain chemicals cornbine with ozone to form va ous other substanccs. The destuction of the ozone layer left a hole in our shield against harmful ultra violet rays from the sun, Ietling thesc ca'cer-causiag rays to rerch rhe surlace ot the (anh. The;ir ls t red with gases rcleased by cngines and factories which trap the sun's heaf contributing to the grcenhouse effect. The resultant risc in global tenperature has wreaked havoc with the climate of various regions making hot places waamer and cold places cooler. In some ilstances, even the reverse has been observed. Cefiair y, the recent recorcl high rainfall aod temleratures in Singapore have been attibuted by scientists and mcteorologist to thc .lrarrge in uerrlrcr pitll,.m\ Laused by rhe incrcased greenllou\e e ir.t.

An average of one football tield-sizcd tract of foresl is bcing clearcd every minute and cveryday- The loss of each and cvery tree is causing incvirsible damage to the cnvironnent. Trees act as natural air- conclitiooers, prodicing oxygen ancl absorbing crrbon dioxide - a strong greenhouse gas. This is o[ top of thc loss -of b;ocliuersity anA \\.ilcllift caused by such destxclion. Judgitg fiorn rnan,s dcstruction of thc fbrests which .cncws the air, much can be told of our unbridlcd grecd and ir$atiablc needs. lt is clear lhat il we c()ntinlre to carry out deforestation al such an aL4rming rate, our edvironmeltal wocs will ol)ly bc exaccrbated.

wildlife, wc are slowly siratgling the rest of Thc sea and other bodics of water has become conieniint dumping sites leading to tragcdies such as the Minanrata Bay incident ir Japan whete newboms suftc.ed ftonl mcrcLrry poisoning clue to contaninatcd fish. The trails of nran,s grecd are visible everywherc - the poisoted air anLl water and massive dcfbrestatio[ Ir many daces of the world. peoplc literally wallow in dirt. Thcse sha ly towos located in garbage dunps are an affronl to human dignity_ It is not right that people shoulcl Iive amongsr squatter and plague when we can build entire mega conur-bations with glearning skyscrapers- Nor roo Long ago, dis:lster srruck a shanr; town in thc philippines whcn tonential rains caused the local mountain of debris and junk to coll:rpse on the people.
what. is wrong with world is thar wc are dcstroying and consumirg ,.--_ _,:^l".lnt, lncrcrslng amounts of its finite resorrrces k) o)eet our necds and yct there rcmain lcgion;

We arc not only killing innocent _ hunranity as wcll-

of sterving. povefty stricken peopre in areas rikc rhe centmr rcgions .f Afiica and North Korca In facI, thc nurnbcr of people below tlre poveny line is giowing.

91)

It is possible, that we could heal rhe world: Is ir possrble rhar we could minirnize ervircnmerral degradarior and human suffe""g

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Stricter laws against illegal toggjng and polturion have. been n"ri-"-.itA"'i"t ui.t, totfry govemmenrs "rj"a. in tursuit of their causes. Brt th" ;;;;ti;l ia,iert e. rhis is prolocol was an agreemcnt enough. The -inrensety K\olo to cut do\ n oI harmtul Fas em_rssions by industrialised nations. yet, the worti,s gr*"r, _ the Unir.d states, has yer to commir itself ro the r,y.," n","".ir.. iir" .i,1ro*"i"ll" rr", u nllrn, hinder economic growth testimony to humun g.""a una ."H.h;.."..

The damage done asdnst earth. has not gone unnoticed.

i;d""i;l1r;;il:

I I I

Brazil recently created the world,s largest rainforest reserve, an area mary times bisser than siosaporc itsen However, illegai,toget;; ;ili ;;;;.;; ]i'tiJi.ine" or tr," reserve. The govemmelt has been accusedof ,*ii.ri vested interest in such acriviries. .l.he pany " iJ'.y", tecu'use tn"y hav. in po*". iJofrfrg"i"a-;o po*"iiur which. lund the political party "o.poni", - creatrng a loop ot self scrving purpose_ h olher ,h. sovemmenr_is siruply powirless ,.' ,ro;;;i,-;;;;;,ti'..". ? ,n. ,un*" -.^":i::i"_rl regloD, govemments not onlv have to lulfill the basic needs of the p"upl" .*i o. agricultural land btrt they arso have to struggle "."oting to provide basic ame.itics of crea. water -" -and power. The prorccd;n ofthe environmeit is siinply not a pri.;t.
People, nations alld govemnlents have clearly recognized that we are incxorab]y heading towads a roral environmenral catastrophei .u"n tn" come irrro,bcrng ro sroq rhe di\ e,r i,,," ,,, ". ip". v., a,. ,o 1;::: llj.:: sEr rnrcresr\. ue rre clearlr holdrrp Lrecl rt nur "5 ,l.,ne rer,.rse .rllcrnpr\ r., n,in,,niz.. irr tire enr' ironmentJl dtnlir'e

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.*irr, many Iayers of social strara of grcar disparity. "u;ln Even uhcn J.," l,"'"lj pr.g.^,r. r". rnarrv l\o\ed) !tncLe attons. tltete ita lanlls rnd paotaatio,,,,t. _*lua.r rfr,nr, exports keeping them shackled.
It is crear that we are abrc to do more, so much .'iorc to hear this carth ard make life for its inhabitants rhar much rnore plcasanr. To ..f,""f ifr" *",ii-"J'."t i, Uo", place" is a high noble aim, an ideal h;ld back by ,h" .Mi;,, ;i';i;;rr.',"'.r. *" r,"u" " willingly bound ourselves with.

Have we done our bcst to ease human suffer.ilg? Statistics have shown that thc gap bc''veen the Jich and rhe poor is wideni,rg una nli.,'.] ,rr"r"

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Lim Yao Jun

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"Scicncc enslaves, the arts liberates." Discuss.


Science, the methodological study of the world around us and the application of knowledge for the bettennent of Man, has always been compared to the arts, the study and approciation of beauty, whether found in a painting or a theatrical performance. The former, due to its stricl guidelines and, well, methodological approach at vicwing things arcund us, has always been perceived to enslave, limiting our space and freedom to think and act creatively. The latter, on the other hand, is viewed by many as a me:ms to free the mind and soul by invoking layers upot layers of thought and self-reflection.

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Many people would agree that the arts do indeed liberate an individual in terms of thought. The arls introduce a spectrum of angles and perspectives to viewing cenain objects and issues, giviDg dre individual ample room to think and explore freely. Take, for instance, the famous picture ofMona Lisa. Though centuries, this pictu.e continucs to engage the nasses, binding countless people to it because of the beauty and nlystcr ious elements it possesses. Science, however, is not given as much regard in the hearts of these people. They see science as opprcssivc and enslaving. The study ol Scicnce has proven lo be very rnuch the case. For instance, in schools, students art taught to follow certain steps closely whcn pedonning science expcriments during paactical lessons. Failure to do so would resuit in dre loss of marks. Under such circumstances. thc studcnts are taught lhat science is a very monotolous and boring subject because they aLe grven very limited opportu ties to exprcss their creativity in the subject. In this light, indeed, the arts liberatc while science enslaves in some waysHowcver, it is the ftrst pan of thc thesis statement that I find faulr wirh. Science in fact gives humans immense opportunity to let their imagilation run freely. Fbr rnstrutcc. il'a pcrson were to talk about laoding on the moon a f-ew ltundred yeals ago, he no doubt woulci bc brandecl an absolute lunatic. However, our gcneration bears witoess to the spectacular achievements of space exploration. This is possible only bccause science gives us the capability to do whatever we so dream- [n this perspective, I think scicncc not only does nol enslavc the human luind, but it facilitates us in our accomplishment of whal we used to think was impossible and allows us to dreaftt even bigger dreanN thall
betbre. Science also liberates hum{ns fronr thc woes of physical coostraints and tiees us, diseascs. Major cor?orations like IBM are already nuking imprcssive headway in improving thc livcs oi miliions world widc through their inteNive rescarch on nanotechnology. tn 1999, IBM successfully rnanipulatcd xenon atorN to lol1n thc ietters "I,B M". lf anytlitg, the futurc looks rosy lbr coltpanies and cvco the proverbial man on the street. With technology a billionlh of a nletrc in size, companjes will run on small computers with the capacily and efficietcy of rno.e Ihan a million computers used at prcsent. The econoory and society cvc|tually. lvill be brought to wholc ncw fiontiers. Also, thc use of scicncc has enabled agricultural production to increase many fold due 1() advanced methods likc hydroponics and aerophonics. as well as the use of lnor.e resiiient caops and more efficienl pesticides. Added 1() this is the relculless improveolents made ill thc tield of medical science, which

I
)

or lrost ol us, fiom pressing problems likc poverty, starvatior and

ll

92

3:^J:::ib,'lg.',:f t l*"j":,1i:t:^tl ilqll possibte blockages.""j"je machines smarr en"o"di.;;i;;#;;; .:".*e "l:1,:"*1" :' Science has given us a *fr,ii" rr"* i""."-.f"fii", ll.^"1,"-.1": Iiberating us from physical corNtraints, poverty, st;ation ana aiseas" itl,ough not entirely) which shackled and enslaved us humans in the past. Hence, ,fi"rri" ao". not enslave
us as is mentioned in the thesis statemenf

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11"

of previously life_rluearenins diseases like smal_pox . has grented r,,*u"r"r.ng."iy.'-i'i;;'fitiie, .etiminaring,more

^:1y,l"jT"

Science has also broken down barriers, be it physical or not, in our modem world to b.ing about globalisation. The Intemet and alr forms of mass meriia, has allowed us to create a 'gl.bal village'. we are now able ro communicate with others alr around the world instantaneously through the Intemet. Through our $atellite broadcasting, we can fiod out what is happenilg at, say, the other side oi the world at the moment rt happens. Science has given us immense freedom in terms of interaction with people fiom other p,uas of the globe. In Singapore, secondary school students are given opportunities to bminstorm ideas for projects with other studeDts from other nations through the intemational competition, Thinkquest. Not only do thcy develop an intcllectual . camaraderie' but they arso learn from each other's culture and broadcn their ho zons_ In this sensc, science should be applaucled for liberatitg us from cultural, physical, and religious barriers_

In conclusion, I am of the firm belief that science does not cnslave us. [n all honesty, science has tieed us i[ nrore aspects tl.nn one and, iD my opinion; it will only contilue to do so irstcad of limiting our-thouShts and actions. p"rsono y. I think thut bo[h thc arls and scielcc are cmcial if the human race is to prosper. With science comes tangible satisfaction and fulfillmcnt. As science co'tillucs to flourish, so too wr our natural propensity to fulfil and achieve non tangible appetencics made ail the [lore distinct with scientilic progress. Hence, science and the aris actually do conlplement cnch other in bringing about our libcration in all respects, whcther physical or mental.
Fluent.and engaging s4'Le of writing. Hov,ever, thcre i.t not enough tliscussion on the ttntl whcther it liberatis. you must givt the lliscussion on the art.t adequate foc6_
a,r.ts. There is too much emphasis on science

Zhen Junjie 04s6.4

I I I t I I I I I I I I

93

t I t I

Any change in society begins in the school. Comment. Oftcn, when a countrv wrnrs 10 change dhection, the first area the govemment the education sysrem. rr is *ry i,"rrJ-i"r'tti. .nua*tr represenf the future of societv and it 1s lmportant to use education to ensure that the fufure as rhe govemmenr sees it. However, white it is ce.rain that school *r;.:i:"-:-t^:"::f l tn socjetv. I have my ,J d ^cy prd(e ror cnange doubts over the claims that any change in sociery begins in schoolonly.

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Many beliefs are builr inro us through schooling. Irl China, for example, the cornmunisr ideotogy is hughr ro srudents y;;;;';e.. j.*ln.iy i"our,rr"., .i*"a schoolirg prcvenrs peulle of diftcrenr " ,."ln'uI""arr"i.#,", .;r"""i, o* *.,, other. As pcopte grolr otder. rhev rend to \ricl ", ,"",. i" ir," u"fi.i, *,.r,',n"r"d",. n",o f"., to since rhey were young, and iiis har,r nrluril wa) ro cltangc socictl wollld bc to e ect the changc irr sclrooll

f; .".. ;J,,d;".r'I;;;"".',i,*ij!li"'ln* *",,'*,

However, even bcfore a chilj enbrs school, his educatiol has, in a way, startcd already. A chitd generallv ontv enters scho"l il;:su,.,", p."_ school seven yexrs of toial dependcnce or ", ".;,,;J;;;;;;;;;": his or her parenti worird n,ake a chird trust his parents more tha' anyonc else. As a rr,ult, not ,,ri1 do ,f," p"r""rr'"i rir" .f.ld aflect his \rlue .)\tern tnJ b.licf\ bclurc lhc.hrl,lcn,",. *frl"f . fr,,, .1"" r;;" chitd is unlikcly ro fiod fautr in much ";i:;;;":.illor, l;': of what .i,,ili],,1t, u* 0","r" and orindsct of (he child is esscorial.rbr ;;;1;;r."o,f,1'i*1i',, ,n" ..," schools in nloulding thc vouth ol., natrul ""v is un.lcurablc. tf," ,nte ,ri. rt," p,r.!ni. ;n str"pi,rg the devctopmcnr of rheiichirdrcn atso e rn,,", ;1,".. ,iriiiili..ii 3n) rhrngc rn sorrery bcgrns onry fio'r school, coinc rhe i:)mtlrr'

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fb,;;; ;i,;;i;;;sr

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re' the child rhar r,u.ring accept their reachilgs aod mav insrejr,r q,r.sri;
also

i"-*,ong, ,r," .nu.i' ,,*r'lr11i'l,l ..o*o,, rh.,rr-if?li-;;",,"j'*i" rr"il ,he .rr(er t,reri'g. ror'.r cjrrrree ,^ *.;,,1, .. portion of the general 'l'lll,:" ''=: 0",,u"orr ety, a _ "",,,^".; ;'j:^:]l:': adult populatlon

-.^ ,r," .r,iri..*",i,,:.'#;J;";;::,i:l:"i"':::11,'T"i.jiffi'lilJ"::ffi:.ii:l,,; tcachers ard parents


chrnse
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*ii cn,rrrrplt.rn,,ronrr\i,srobeconrcacr*ncruiry,i,,;,;;,;;.;,j;;;1 ','n.]."n,n,,,,,,, "ir"'.,i",-, t,. ,,.""i"n,"." ,.r1. or drsLegurd\ rhc,rirn iu(l Ii eas wilholr,

crery schnorrng chiLJ spcrrLLs a rar*e propoftion of his life in school and ar nonrc. .whrrc rtr. lcncrrl srrvironrrrcnt rrurrnd hjrrr

must

I I I

it rh ntc Ln the xtllllr noDulttion, govertmcnts have var.ious lnethods to r.hoo.' frr,rn Srrrgrp,,1,, 1.,,n ul,",. "."-pi.,,,11,q ro,,uu, Jpprod.llr\ hr," b..,, ,"1";.ii;J; thc Sirrg;p1i gr,q.n'.rcrt dcerdpd i^ 51ag;rp,,1.. x (lcancr rrry. ,,", ,,r.u l;"';;:il mcthods the rnass media anct srricr taws. R"p;.;,;;,;il.: ,,,i ,.i"'rl,..il ."0. _o poslers in the srreeh. have drilled inro p."pr", irr" ,.p"n"-^* u*0,",
littc.ing. The campaign has been largety
Singaporc clean. For those who lemaine6l "l',i,.r]iil,"J'," xniJon,,1n16d, there are harsh punrshntenrs

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94

in.society not only help convince the adult ?opuration, but arso further shape re child,s. mindsets-

changes have to start from school_

d changes in sociery thar have to beg1n lrom most narural ""'.^^, T:1":.-l::e-ver. example would be a change in t-he economic structure ()1 ::"9:' lo. socrety. ior wagcs to risc, or laboa standards to improve, schooling is necessary.
a sma group
_

Such

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_ However, in general, it cannot be said drat any ch:rDge in society begins in the school. If the change is to be successfully impt"..nr.O, cir.,rg-. tn*i __'" f-_ Ur p*. of socioty. Most of all, any chalge in society musr O"gil i-. it.-f"ra".ship of the country. l: :,:r!,:-t:::,Jiscusl'iun Mthirpoinrs we supportett. Deen PLtrt ol lht {nnt lu.riun. lt rurltcr weak
st(tnding

The tast paragraph shoutd havt: on its owr.I gioa'1i,,r, ,,""u1 .

Paul Ho 05s31

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CHANGE DoEs N@T NEcEssARrLy assuRE pR{EGREss, BUT PR@GRES5 ImpL.ACABLy ReeutREs cttatcr. EoucalloN ts essENTIAL T(E CIIANGE, EDUCATI@N cREATEs B{ETH Ne\x/ .wANTs AND THE 46ILI.IY T(E SATISFY TH ! ll]. . H ENRy STEELE CommAcR

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CHANGE

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History is dominated by wars. Discuss'


does more History is the very essence of our being and existelce' Historical.study judgments in the rhan Drovide in insight into past events and erables us to make better f"*.J. H'"..v that ietails armed conflict' inrlustrial atlvancements' modem and ancient scrutiny and culhrral deveiopments help us to appreciate our plogress The detailed and unufy.l, of wai*e has made the most significant impact in shapirg our society contributes greatly to the other facets of historical study'

The study of warfare encompasses advancements in cultural- and industrial bordcrs and bc history. It is thro;gh battles that cultural influences can cross transnational ;;;; ;t.g -aiy. F.om the beginning of time, great civilizations such as rhe ancient dle Holy Roman Empirc extend their beliefs, customs and religions egyp,i"*
acquitition of new lands. Islarn was brought to Europe and Asia Minor due to i#ligt Ltr""tia *" n_u*".oua conquests of the Ottomalr Turks Similarly, the Renaissance which was military conflicts
UitttrcJ it, ftofy advanced rapidly throughout Europe due to the many between the Euopcar nations betweer 1494 and 1559

jndrlidual cultural The waging of battles is thus also used Js r rool to Proplgate day Hence' culturirl changes are ancl social oorris ;hich are still bcing enforced till this study can be discussed under warfare which feriptrerat tu histn.ical study as this aspcct of we know today is tlie main factor in influcncing the cultutal diversity in the world

tn addition. war has.also sparked off sotrlc of the grcatcst dcvelolrncnls in ;rnd industrial and technological history Trade was eslablished betwecn colonies diif*",rt c.runL.i". a rJsult of warfarc. For exarnpie, the Holy RorDan lmpire had one "s oiitr" ga"ot.at trade retworks in the lBrh centuly' Rome had a very powerluL arny and cent(rs in rvcr] ,h.uugti i,. continual coDquesls for neighboring laods' established trade

as city iiactluired. This was to elrsure thaf Rome herself had access to as many rcsourccs i() 11 vibrxnl possibte. Frorn therc, tlade took ofi in thc western states which gradually led economy fbr all who participated in it.

7_

Warfare has the grealcst influence on oatiulal progress and is thc primxry cortributor to shiils in Poiitical systcms antl results in greater i tcmation{l cooperatio[ ln ancierlt China, the u;ificatiul of the various warring states was only made possible tkough wadare which saw the Qin ant1y consolidating China's lands and this led to a China in monaichy which ensured grcater uniforrnity. This brought great progress fhr r\ scen in later years. Wars also lecl io Sreatcr intcrnational corsensus and cooperation world War the settiog up of the United Nations Council in 1963 after the corclusion of rwo- rhe'Uit, an international body that is recognizcd' presides over numerous global This is thc issues ancl ensurcs Eireatcr accounlabilily and tolerance between natioos signif-rcaocc of war on iflternational and national Progress' Thirdly, histo|ical accounts of warfare still remain relevant to decision making the mxin today. Becau;e of past experielccs in war' diplomacy ancl delcrrence are now of a countly's oational focus of every country's delerse policy. A large pctcentage

96

budget is devoted to defense and the analysis of strategies of war. Historical studies of war give us infonnation of the strcngth and specializatior of various countdes, military strategies. For example, America focuses on stealth weapons and Russia, submarinei. War crimes and abocities in the past are also noted and this has led to the formation of the International criminal court and the establishmeot of the International Humanitarian Law. The reminder of great suffering during wals has made us realize more than ever today, that peace and tolerance is of utmost importance. These aae the contributions of warfare to historical study that has made and led to the greatest and most important growth irl humanity that severely outweighs the other aspects of history.

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Even then, some would still believe that cultural and industrial history captures the glory and failures of nankind better than the study of warfare, which focuses primarily on the bittemess of man. [n the study of wa.fare, the glory and beauty of culfural advancements are ofte[ undennined and;ndushial leaps and depressions ate also sidelined as war takes center stage. As such, the study of history will never be complete without the study of the nugniticent murals in lhe tombs of the pharaohs or the music and dance of the lndians. Howevcr, I disagree with tiis statemelt as in lookiog at wars in the past, we also study the way countaies finance their wars and note significant artistic strxctures alising from the creatio[ ofdelence structures.
be summed up in general as thc study of warfare as this study has made the greatest contribution in shaping our nations and is also thc most rclevant to today's society. It helps us appreciate our roots and heritage es cultural and industrial developnteots can all be linkecl in coote rvay or anothe. to warfare.

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I I
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ln conclusion. dle hislory of the world can

An exempku! piece oJ writing. A beftef lret:rh.ni made tht.' une at rht h, \! pir, , \ t t tt, n.
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aherndte viewpoints could

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Comment on the state oftraditional arts in your country.
Singapore is a multi racial society where rnzrny races liva h:rnloniously in onc country. For example, Matays, hldians and Chinesc can live togethcr in the sane block of flats- Therefore, there is a wide variety of lladitional arts made available to Singaporeans. Examples arc the wayang, thc traditional Chinese drama, and traditional Malay and Indian dances o| music- However, these forms of traditional afi are losi g thcir significance in present Singapore.

b-d,4

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Traditional arts io Singaporc are losing students who arc willing to leam these of aft. There arc less pcople who are willing to learn as compared to in the past. [n forms the past, probably every race would want to leam their respective forms of traditional itrt as it was passed down from ge eration to generation. Howcver, thcse days, what our graldmothers know might not bc what rve know. Evcn though professional institutiolts the tcaching tradilional arls arc still available, there ale very few takers, especially ^nrong youths. For exarllple, iNtitulions teaching traditional Itdian drnces rnd the mastery of musical instrumerts are in abundancc at Excclsior llotel. I-Iowcvcr. cach time I visit that placc, I realize that thcre is only a handful of sludents in each institution, d they arc pri[rlrrily aduits. It appears that traditional erts have lost lheir appca] to lcarners,
espccially thc youngcr gcnelalionSingaporeans have been exposcd Io various fbnrN of ar1. both modern anci traditional but traditional arts sccnrcd to havc lost thcir appeal to local audiences. Eveu though lhe elderly still appreciale sLrch folms of arl. lhe|c are fe!\, l'rour thc voungcr geieration who would lollow their lbolstcps and nke to the traditio'rel arts. For exalrlple. in the annuai Chincsc ghost fcstival which occurs in thc scvcoth nlonth o[ lhe Chi ese lulral calendar, rneny perlbrmanccs rre pul up. hr lhe past, the nrost cornnloll lcri)rolancc lhat we see rvould be the wayaDg Holvcver. nowadrys, due to thc l.rck ol suppo( ffdn audienccs. the perlbrmallces havc swilchcd liom tr:rdilionri wuyurg to thc nrodclr'pop' and 'rock' pcrformanccs- Thcrcf_orc. traditional afts hevc lost thcir nrass appeal.

The rrass media loo has conlibuted lo the decline in inlcrc\t ill ahe triLditional arls.'Iraditionxl perfonnances that lve often sce broadcast oll lelevision i thc past havc somewhit decrcascd in numbcr- This is inclusivc of 'Art Centrirl'. thc tclcvision charuel specially set up in favor of ihc pcrtbrmio8 arts. ln rcccnt ycars. wc rarcly scc prograNres showing rvayangs, Melay da ccs or Indian music anynrorc. I rccall in nry chil(lhood days, Sunday rrror nings' lelevisi<lrr progranmes wcre usually wayangs pcrlormed in Clnlonese and Teochew, but we clo not see these regulariy these deys- In thc pdst, *,c oftcn had drania scnrls or [rovies witir thelnes revolving around the traditionill afts- For cxanrp]c, productions had plots bllilt around wayang silgers or even Malay danccrs. and q,c oflcn see such plots in these traditional artisles' Iives. However, now sllch thcmes have shiftcd direction; productions lhesc days, n)ore ofte than not, are built on the slories about young pop artistes; pcople iue no longcr intcrcstcd io storylines ol lraditionel irrtistes. Theaefbrc. on the whole, even lhe .nass medit has cerscs trkiDg i tcrcst in dlc tradilionrl arts. Thcy arc losillg fLrblicity.

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emerged as a form of entertainment rbr the of an.a; a form oI relaxari"n a.rJ f-.oUaUfy aaify entedainment. However, these afls have lost their enrenai"-"nt ,uto., ii'_y, *a mu. evolved to become more of a ritual in tradifioml f""lu" o""u.io.r* io, .**pt", traditional Malay and Ltdian dance: or music ate most u, *.Ja;ne*, N"l' "f,"n,""n or Racial Harmony day celebrations, bur no longer car be seen in the i?rm of aaity entertaioment. They are so rarely seen now that we can assume they have lost theit eltertainment value but have become a dtual for festive occasions.

arts , The traditional view probably r'st people. People used to these forms

V..

In my coulrtry, the traditional arts are losing their stnnd and have nearly completely lost their inJluence on the people. There are few takers and audiences who sfill appreciate and lose these forms of art. They are being rapidly displaced by the modem forms of a.t such as .pop' and .rock' muiic, ana .n"lp t op, iances. Traditional 2rrts are no longer as popular as they once were when there were fewer forms of other entertainment.
Goh Xin Yang
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Genetic Patenting
rcsearch of rhe Human Genome projecr, an intemational of scientisl,s, as well as the contrib_utioo of priuu", !"iornii, "o.po."rion., we now have rhe abilitv to isolafe

to the pioneering ,, , collaboration

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the_ genes human diseases. g"o"ti" screening for key breast cancer senes is ut "in_pr., .o_rnon io eullf", iniitio.v. ,"i.nti.r. a chance ro signilicanrly alter an'.l e\ "uay en cure the carl) forms .f .un."r. H"*":;;:::1""; companies also attempt to cash in on-jnvaluubf. oo""ri., of individual senes, and profir from firnher *".k ,h", over : rnillion genome relared patenrs have been f.iied in rtr" U,fr.d (USPTO), parking rhe beginning of a trend of

il;; di;;i;#il,ffi: frili: "i:$ Sij[Ji"1 [T.5:"Ti"li]:,"":'":[Jj which frompr cerrain ll b 1a*-tt, io.

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or;;.i',,';;;;; ;:;,rershrp of a gene. whieh wc att share in our borries. to, hun,"nity and sclf owncrship per,nn;tl). "h;*, , ;.;;i;t.;j
palcnl lrcarment{ thJt tdrg,.r

one ore11rlnr own alr ur pan of -another "f 1-o1lo ,let prtrcurrr

d'p,ica ror ,l::111"ff,,1,1,;;::Ti",#,ni."l",jll:"";,'T: standa.d justificarion for pateuts in comnrcrcial seLtingi; bowevei ii i.*urrusrrut in ir" conrroversy precisely because the subjccr_ ir rooks t"o p","ni i"ot"oa-g.n", ,r" essenriatty a paff of Dafure. a basir: hurJding bloL:k lit . +;-,;;, ;l;;efic

Why patent? Accorcling to NHGRI. provides a srrirregy fbr protecting rnvenlio s rvilhour .errec). b\ ptdntil.tg rhe falenring rrght to cxclu.lc other. frui makrng. using. ztnd sclling any resrs baseLl on drk. gcne"and/or particrrlar rnutations in tlte gene. lhis rnonopoly encouraee. ;it:l-:l 1!:

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all rr.,r..;rrch ,."i1 ,,,d nrL,f".il t hc prerailing hclrct, rs rhai rlr,, ,s ,,, srer -,,.r, , ,.", i,"p,',,,,,i*',r,,i oliill ^",,f",,1. to mankind, rhar rtrere should be no reti"r ", ", "n, irrrerc.r'<rr i,"fJi;-",i,.,'g.i,-)j.,"."u..h. Nonetheless, the primary problem of aru prrcnlljrL l. t,no rn .t"u.top" ci,eap, avartable

as the \.irrrtifrc currlrrunl\ pcer\ rrnre rnr.nrly rluuryh ,t," ,nir.oil.r,". ,.,,,ur", ,,,,, pos\rbihr) or g"rri'g rn o, rhe rcserr.h r. r.i.,rrr. 'n ll;;:;;;J;: :". ,. and Ai.ls rhe"rhcr* nurror ot dL,iror\ hrvirt ven " rtr,,, tr,rr,,t* i,,,r n,,,.1r'lii;',',l.; "".", profiteers seems abhorent. Iostead of ", I,n,,," protc"t,,rg ttr",l: ."r.,o..tr',inu'"airrr"n,. ,n.l"ty perhaps should reconsider rhe social duty of p.i",,r" *friJf,".flor,o ,.y ,o facilirare screnritrc :Lid ir eny wrv rhcv can. ""r..p11."",' For ex:rmpl". ft; H.;"; ;;;,;,re ero.j..r i. a uniqu,.cramplc ot d cornFirnv urr,t ,,rrkc,

o:::, N;" ,ur BsIlcrrc frrentrng lll,^,1:lo ,: """ r;;:;r; , ";,",,"i'l'"#0"",_, Jjr bd.ic:rll) JrLrItng rh.rr e. orrnmrr .elt. letest b.irrc 0".n,,,, th" "pl,,"n,,ng,rr, . tsood h) re.rricrinp ac,.c\s lu rhe ohi.,.r br:irrg p.rrrnrr.,t wf,if. ,, i" i,r. ,fl], do"allow t\uhtic rccci\ rn rhc research :rn,r d";:r;r,;:;;;"h,';,i,;.;1,:;i'll.ll;-"n",, genetic-testing, which we must note is speedlly becomjng the spotlight of research

'Ihe thrusl of the economic algLltrrnt behind gcncrrc latenling is that without patents, lhe lucrativc incenrive ro invcsr r\ould.f,rninii. *t,i.ir-ir',hi, a.,lr".,n"a,"o1 research. However, baruring parenring,acrualty prorecrs rii" p;ii.-;,r;;:;;r;r rn 'uu"_o,r' Senome research, which could becomc *^.t.i ir puu.,i" ..rrrpn^.J .rrifl. ,,, ,.a""..n

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trcalments and screenings for diseases, which are so dangerous ro so rnan! 0.,)t .. ,.r . .,ic of dre pctcnt? Ofrcnlirnes. tlre lime limit on r.lre prtenrs Lsr r; i; that in the inrerim, nothing ca'be ttonero with heatdr problems or diseases which can be traced Uu"t to-g""iri"-ii*,.a"r. o, malfimctions. With calcer on the rise, we can ill afto.d the isolat.a of g"rr"ti" testing, which if it does not fmd an evenrual cure, could ""*.to.ilrltv l;;.; ;_;;;; ;uy to**d, providing a temporary 'crutch,. "r

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this controversy rages on.

. understandably' bioethics are a difficurt balance between the vested intercsts of p.ivate companies, who are answerable to their stockholders -J -o,i'uJt"a lu,t";. wealth, and l}e benefit ot rhe public. who srand to gJin :iny Llegree ;i i.;;;;;.;; i; their standard of life arrd are interested in their heatth. gven ii we ieet that niedicine,s sole prrprrse is lo servc iociery. ue carutot ignore lhc l(glimrle inr.rerr, ofc.,,npa,,,".; tl,u, ,r rs drllrcult to say whrch side has any abrolutc priorily. and wc can only hope to matntJin inc Irnc oarrnce wtthoul comprum;<ing bioethics. lcrhrps thcn il is under.t:Ildablc \ hy
from caping tq
with

It is the patent of genes which allow


Sonya l,iilay 04,451

them to prcvent otler treatmctts that could rival their reel monopobr_

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l0l

TragedJ and Our Response

I
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Wifh regard to the controversy as to whether or not we sfill have discrimination in our wortd, I would say rhe srearesr e;iderce f".,hi";;l;;;;onr1ni"J,.uo;u*uuo" o, womcn or in lingering racism. but in the pt of *V.]rr""r", ,r"rp"nr.

"no_""on

*" li:li:". F.;r;;,".',llliT';,1'i'ii1'"1,:illxx:;'i;"Tf?:'i,,?1,.'i"iill,T?; tragedy looking beyond the numbels ro try and feel fo., .lr"n for, tlr" tragedy on a very ildividual, human level. Whar I nkl *,it i. ,fr",'"ay ,iri."..Jpinr" o ,o."fy extended ro orher rrasedies. Is ir beceuse ""* ,h" H;i;."":;',;;; ;r, iiili"nr rn^ur, in thc whoie of human history? ".,
lf its ghasrriness is in the sr:gering numbers of those k lecr, rher the twenty million kitled in Sralids sulaqs shoul,l.o_ri"nd the faci thar huma s can cooltv anij r:atcula,"dty "u"n,nor" n._*.,i)r, *iasur,"r. i, i" pi";,;;;;";"iu, ,ri"".X',,"..**ion or anolher group of humor,.. .u*,inn death camps ,, if'rfr"v *"r" *"iirlri^'i,nor.,o, ,r""
po,i"ii,

For mosr people, the Holocaust ur eashed by rhe Nazis is probably the ultimate symbol of man's sruesome cn,errv rowtu.cts hi" y"_, on, ,r," hideous evenr still srips our emotion", u ."r.."r.,i" ,"'uri rarely made without a somewhar morbidlv fascinated"na indutg",r." in ,lr" .iilln! i"*,i, N"r, ,"^"" methods. rhe sheer numbers who dier and ", u,,on to say this irl a peioaative maru1e.. or

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was legal becausc thev rverc legillv ago that il was populir bctief in the wesrern world rhar whires ,,verc.u,r",.1:'-tno.lnn* (.r'cry scicnrihcariy rl,Freru'c,t.,,k^r .tirrrrcJ p,.,,1,t.. rnulr L,c..to,r,",n.irnr",,i ,_. i"liu,,liio,, ,n...,,r. thar thc whir(\ As.1 resulr ol rhis widespread *.;.;;;;;;,';; ouloo,,n, ,"* Zealand, AIlica, the Americas anrl almost cvcrywhere elsc whe.. coloniul-.iler. i.po.",t thcil' rule, deliberatc policies rvere rnclertaken at sollle point or othcr to externtrute the "suh-hun)an" c, rlnnr\ed

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ii rrr rjr. u.rr rlre N.rt rs rrscJ llrc t,.ct ul llreu \ r.rinr\ is ighls and thcir far ro make crqfllg5..1hcn th. .f.h;;i;; "obo,rr,r" .OUl ,o Inrke pu'rhc rlrc,rr'prey nt "." Arnerrc,rr Irrdiarr scrrlx rr) rriumphJnr c'ionizcrs rrrd trre rrau,rr,,r or r trirr.sc le;rds on,nrker h) ,t,",, r.,!eiiur.,:h,'uJ,r*,.crrchou,.s,r.cqunri1 ,r n,, ,,,",..ii ;l;';:,:.;;,,';;;1,11,,,.,,,o,,un,, rn powerlully he(JU\c tl h l,,De0ecl rrr ly vcry rrLcml! r"irllrlr lirrrlg nrcllror) lbr \urre, rhen lh( frrrL,.t,,,,,"..,^,- , ^d,,rl'r, wwt an,t. mur(. recellrt). rll. rrras.r. rrs i" R*..J ,; ; ,.::.]:: i. " ' ' ruoan' just to scralc aI the tip of Ihe iceberg' should t tng*i,'*
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our response to this one and our response to the chilling fact that every five minutes, a child dies of starvation in the developing world are vastly different. The sorrow and help stimulated by the horrific genocide and consequence refugee cdsis in the Sudan, or the camage of the Hutu-Tutsi massacres, come nowhere close to the emotions unleashed by the tsunami. Of course, there are heartening increases io the number of humanitarian groups responding to the tragedies of starvation, disease irnd genocide, but when I talk about the lack of rcsponse, I rnean the general public. It is immediately clear to anyone who botheN to look that the dispariry in responses to the tsunami disasfer and, say, the genocide in the Sudan, lies in the extent of mass participation. In the aftermath of the tsunami, alnost everyone I knew had responded to the tragedy in some way, no matter how small, such as by donating to the Red Cross, volunteering services to help pack supplies to fly to the affected are:r, organising their own small fund-raising activity, atfending a memorial seryice, or simply just participating in the observaDce of a few minutes of silence before moming assembly in school. By contrast, I doubt if any more than a minute minority of those unaffiliated to aoy humadtarian organisation have even sedously contemplated the tragedy of the Sudan-

In all the above examplcs, the disparity of response to the different tragedics can be expl:rined, I think, by the disparity in publicity, either bccause of what kind of history we have ir rerited aod how it has been told (for example, rnany survivors of the Holocaust
have commulicate.d thcir experience to posterity through a range of mediums such as books, whereas the Native Americans and Maoris remain largely margilalized fiom the mainstream of historical literature), or by bias made inherent in media covemge by differenl vested intcrests. For example, whilc the co flict in thc Slrdan or in Rwanda, is fraught with political scnsitivities (even a natural disaster such as the 19821 lamine in Ethiopia can be politicised the Wesrcm public wN initially reluctant to give aid because the Ethiopian regime was Marxist), the tragedy o[ the lsunami is la.gely devoid of sinilar sensitivities to inhibit extensive media covctagc.

I I I I I I I

'Ihus, tragcdy, I arn increasirgly convinccd is in the prblicity. Thar, and in thc novelty. To put it crxdcly. we arl: more horrified and outraged whcn innocents are killed in teraorist bomlrings of a train ir Madrid than we are when innocelts at an [raqi wedding celebration are massacred by firing lionr an American helicopter, because, besides the disparity in publicity given to the two eveflts, we are somehow accustomed to peoplc being killcd in thal seemingly god-forsaken land of Saddam Husseifl than we are to Europcans being killed on dreir home soil. Similarly, having Africans die ar grcar rates from starvation and disease seetns to bc a desperately rclentless nom1, whc.eas having rnorc llrrn 20U.000 A.ians nrlcd nut by r rrunami r.. nr.
Many would protest that tragedy is so dcpressingly commonplace in Ihc human condition that iI is impossible to respond to thenl all to the samc cxtcnt. Suff'eri[g in thc forrn of starvation. disease, wars and massacres seem to be morc thc nol]n than the e\ception in history, and rcrnains so in rnuch of thc world. Of course, this is perfectLy valid, but I am not sure it should sit well wilh our conscicnce fo jusl lie back and reserve our sympathetic facuhies for thc odd issue or event that cornes alolg and shoves itslrlf sufficiently info our apadretic faces for us to sit up and take note- I think this is especially so bccause in nuny trxgedies, blamc is intrinsically involved. In a disastcr such as the Dccembcr 2o rsunrnri,

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rar or' hcre was no hu m"" Perper ::, I"TJ" is !r'hen neg"ts\ rhc anotheis man s crime Thrs i;n;;";" our judgemenr, When few other} become. danger9ui.:ltil ::;;;;e agair.r civili"arion' . while emphasis ol rs o":":t t".n t ittta murOer ot lO0O American civilian\ 11, rht "iJlri^n. ftut" ,nn this pan of re worrdr rcdrse ,xr leasr in we in the American inrasion f-rne vicrimsof the r lo lIagedies clo{esl lolnem rIru\65rd neoDle re'pond ^'::-;;i ieeline,, of harred in

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Llir ide, rrLrd that is dengeruus

'fhis is an age in which we-$-o:5.,'s.i-::;':f,:H:iiil:**'::lti:: |ro)'r.s r\e.rlur ir i ar'o'rnrscjl::iJ.;:i;;: ;;il.,.n,,,0",.'..'ni.n'.r,dberwr(n \r:rr( rr rw\\ii rrrth.r: thn e bcllveen relrg'on ano .-.,' inJirrnrcnl'' po*erlul i..li, rn,.nl ol our lim'les\ "i;;,,;. t; I bclrcvc rlrPrc ts rro tnotc --'' n" out t"tponse Lo tr^gedy "u.lt "'"' ou"opu"ity tot Ji''ttintin"ilun' inun
plcbeian myopia and

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I

Sometinles,(loeslhisresponsehayetodowitllpo||u'fuealthas'nt.ut}tasrace?Man'tt ateds LxcePtionul ntlt'urd)).

,'i )itiil"i'"'"^ t" in povcrDt'strit:kcn


Chue Shiin 04A51

104

OTHER Qu@TEs: Education The classroom not the trench _ is the frontier of freedom now and forevermore. -Lyndon B. Johnson
The responsibility for producing an educated citizenry is too important to be to educators. Educatjon i\ everybod] s business. -Thomas J. Brown

leit entirely

I I
I I I

The most violent element in society is iglorance. Emma Goldman Education is lile a double edged sword. It may be turned to dangerous uses if it is not properly handled. -Wu TiDg-Farg
Those who_have been requirccr to memorizc rhe worrd as it is as ir might be.

w l lever create fhe world

-Judith Groch Mass Media

"The owncrs ilnd nlanagcrs of the prcss detemrine which person, which facts, which ver\rL,not lhc t .rr. rnd $ hiclr rdca.5hrll rc:l(h the I,ublic.. -Report by the Commission olr Freedom of the press

I I I

In this century' the mess media have come to rival parents, school, and relieion as fhe mo5l inlluc ttal rn.titulio rn clt,ldrcns Ii\ei -Mcdia and Values Magazine

sfee,lrr ro rc der lineal lhoutht impos\iblcl Calvin Arlrcl ol lhc Derrnged \4utanl Killer Mo .l.r Sno$ Coon(
Censorship reflects a society,s lack of confidence authoitarian regime...
-Justic{r Potter Stewaft

OIL gaeat altar of passive entertaimnenl_._ Besto$, upon ntc thy discordanr lmages at such
l)4r,_.1

ir itself. 11 is the landmark ol an

There's so n uch conredy on television. Does thtt cause comcdv in lhe strcers, -Dick Cavett Govcnnnent and politics
You camot simultaneously prcvent and prcpare fbr war. Aibert Einstein

I I I I I I

I I

We malc rvat lhal we may live in pcace Adstotle wrong' no You're not to be so blind with patriotism that you can't face reality Wrong is matter who does it ol says it.

-/u:
:ffl1

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c.,

Malcolm X

A society that puts eqr.rality...ahead of freedom will lrnd up with neither equality nor
freedomMilton Friedman

Safety' deserye Those who would give up essential Liberty' to purchase a little lemporary neither Liberty nor Saf'ety. Benjanlin Franklin

Law. Cflme and Punishment. deviarce


to I hear rnuch of people's callilg out to punish the guilty' but very few are concome'l clear the ifirocent. -Daniel Defoe

of the laiter' so Jails and prisons are the complement of schools; so many less as you have many more must you have of the tbrmel Horace Mann

will ncver disappea' So long as people, being ill govemed, suffer lronl hunger. clirninals to It is cn'renrcly u[kind to punisll those who' bcing suflcrs from hungcr' arc conPelled violate laws. -Kenkti Hoshi
first give Whatever you think about thc cleath penalty, a system thet will tale life must justice. Jotm L Cuflin, lr., President of the Amedcan Bar Association' to a congressional commirtee in 1991. ls the statc so sir ess that it has the moral authority to kill? Bryan Stcvenso . Director of Equal Justice lnitiative of Alabama. Olof Palme Prize Winner 2000
Sciencc and'fecluoloqv

) -,)

,z

The fault lies nol with our technologies but with our systems' Roger Levian

Relilquishirg lcchnoiogical advancement woutd compa ics. and nations.

be er:onomic suicide

tbr individuals'

106

-Ray Kuflweil, "The Law of Accelerating Retums.,, 2001

A man is truly_ethical only when he obeys the compulsion to help all life which lo assist. and stlrir*s from injuring anyLhing that lives. -Alberr Schweitzer

he

is

All attempts to gain infomation arc modulated parrly by rhe degree rhar rhar information may Iend
-

lo desubilize one's current worldview Larry Hinds

contlnues :: telescope time and space...,, to -Vr'illiam S . Cohen [Secretary of befense]

*""i::::

,*:lT_"]::13:,y-:turized the wortd reducing rhose vast oceans ro mere ponds and ,,:.,-:i1._"ia,smaural sp,nning
o, 6"

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societv IJ[imacy is what makes .1maffiage, not Kithleen Norris


.j
a ceremony, not a piece

ofpaper tiom the state.

Unifomity, therefore, is an essential built-in element of utopian existence, less imporlalt lhrl fiis unilormity remaln permancnr.
Thomas Molnar

and

if is no

Weltare's purpose should bc to elimiinate, as far as possible, the need for its own existence. -Ronaid Reagan

Collective t'ear stiorulates herd insfinct, and rends to produce terocjty toward those who tue not r( tsarJed a\ ntembers ot the llerd. -Beftrand Russell
Traditions are thc guideposts driven deep 1(l our subconsclous mlnds_ The most powerful ones are thosc we can,t even describe, aren,t even aware of. -Ellen Goodnran Human Values
up sonrc nroming and find that everyone was ' ' "_ '' _" - tlle same race, creed itnd color. wc would find some other cause for prciudice b) noon -George Aiken

If we were to waLe

:urything against consciencc even if the state demands it. -AIbeft Einstein Everyone is entitled to their own opinion, bul not their owlr facts

Ne_ver do

-Daniel Pat ick Moynihan Plalo isdetu to me. bul deorer still is rrulh. -AIlstorle
There is no sickness worse for me than \

l
be kind musl lie.

h\

-Aeschylus

'ords that lo

Envircmnent. ecoloev and natural resources


D^onl blow it - good planet. are hard ro lrnJ-Quoted in Time

I thirlk the environment should be rrur l t1'"sov ol otrr nalional securllv. Delense orlr reso rces i5 of iust rs imporlanl o; o"il'h"
-Roben Rcdrordl

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ir it

whar

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here ro dercndl

"We dill nor weave rhe ueb oI life: we are me'ely a strand '' " *! web, wedobou$elv"",i -Chicf Searte

whatever we do to the

fear.,,

'The Amerrcan peoplc hivc


Johnson, Lyndon Baines

.r

rirht to;r that they and thejr childre[ _ir -

can breathe without

)
rhern.

'As soils xre.lcpleted. hunrin health. v; l'rlil) and inrrllli'llc( bronrlrrll, I ouis 8o wilh
World Economic Issues
Po\

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cn). ts the prrenl ol j c\ olution lnd

1
cr lme_

-valrIu..rhomas

' Population. u hen unchecl,ed.

Ro;:;r'

ilcrea\c "' r\6dqrn Jireumerrcirllrlioi

'Produ.lion is rhe only an.wer ro inflaLrorr..


UncsteJ tsowles Lluotes "The

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l d / y-

lrinle of ta,(ation is not rn rhe takir vrrl Kogcrs quor.\ rA-.ri.nn"n,"r,ui]|.ltlrl's ilr the !tdv lhat itssJ\enr
t

9ji/

ler' tanous for his pithy and homesput humour,

"Inecluality. rather thafl want, -anctent Chincse saying

is

te cause oftrouble.,,

Art. Literature and music


Scielce and art belong to the whole world, and before them va[ish the barriers of nationality.
-Goethe

Art does not solve problems but makes us aware of their existence. It opens our
see and our brain lo imagine.

eyes

to

-Magdalena Abakanowicz: Where they have bumed books, they will end in buming human beings. -Heinrich Heine, "Alnansor (1821)"

After silence, that which comes nearcst to expressing the inexpressible is music. - Aldous Huxley
Paradoxically though it may seem, it is none the less true that life imitates art far more than art imitates life. - Oscar Wildc

-)
VocaBULARY Llsr: Haut monde z
Fashionable or high society

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Stratitication z
Social stratification is a sociological term for the hierarcl cal arrangement ofsocial classes, castes, and strata within a society. Reverse discrimination rt Describes discriminatory policies or acts that benefit a historically socio-politically nondominant group (typically minorities), rather than fhe historically socio-politically dominant group.
,r a policy designed to redress pasL discrirninetion a!:aurst women xDd tnrnority groups through measures to imptove their economic and educatioral opportunities; ,'affirmative action has beer extremely cortroversial at1d was challenged in ]978 in the Bakke

Affirmativc action

decision"

Echelon 'r. A level of responsibility o. authority in a hierarchy.

Marrirge blanc n. A narriage without sexual aelations.


Pecking order n. A hierarchy arnong
a group, as

ofpeople, classes, or natiods

Conventionalize t 1: nake conventional or adapt to cotventions; "convcntionalizcd behavior" 2: represeni according to a conventional style; "a stylized female head',
Statism n.

It is thc practice or doctrinc ofgiving


planning and policy.

ccntrelized govertunent contaol over ecouornic

Xenophobia a Denotcs fear of strangers


Class war a
Class conflict is the friction that accompanies social relationships beiwccn mcrnbers or groups ofdiffercnt social classes and thc underlying tensions or antagonisms which exisl

in society.

Proclivity rt

lt)

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li:
...:

||:

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:.

naLural propensity or

inclination; predisposition_

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,".ir,.,

Unalienable right ,l Inalienable righrs are fundamenlal rir' oI speech. duc process, and coual

hduo.tg tlt". righl lo ptaclice religion.


be

freedorn
ro

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ian.rerred

ir'

Probity z
Integrity, honesty.

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i

Inequity tt
Injustice; unfair:ness.

Fallacy 'l A talse notion. a sraremenr or an argulnent based on quality of being deceprivc.
Non sequitur 'l 4tl ltgumcrrt is erllrd a,r/.n

false or invarid inference or fhe

r'.r'"ira

(?xirl ii 1he.,n,.t,,.i.,..r^-.. -.., .

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I
:

,,

the argument is a lallacy bccause the

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r"il"*J.,r_ ioi 0...'r'r"*.

Macrocosnr tr. 'rhe whole of any sphere or depanmcnl of narure or k.,olvlccrgc to which man is rcraf..r ImpecuDiousness 4dJ. Lacking nloney

I
t
I

IDflati()lu
General infiation is a fall in the rnarket value or purchasing power of rnonev within ,n ecodomy, as cortpared to cuarency devalualion which is the fall of the market value of a c[rffency betwecd cconomies

Unaligned Nations n. Nations not allied with any other nation or bloc: neutral Economic libcralism 'l Commonly knowl as ldiss(.2

move lowards a free tnarkel ecoDortlic systenl, ar)d thc sllbscquent mercantilist systerr).

;:ifii:1l']:ili.1*:.".JjJili,-", "* protlu\i rh^ b..r re\utr: (er..ii pjr;ol, i" ", ",r", ,,"'.:i..;,:,1il';;,;iJ;,1'*,.,,*r_a. ofpublc intunnirriun andJU\frcr. Thcconceptol econo ic libcralism undcrpimed the
d",rli;t;i;"

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liirc .Tll(

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Population control tr. Population control is the practice of curtailing population increase' usually by reducing the birth mte. The practice has sometimes been voluntaly, as a response to povery' or out of religious ideology, but in some times and places it has been govemment mandated' This is generally done to try to prevent a believed threat of Malthusian catasffophe, or overpopulation in general.

\,::/

Larceny n. Crime involving stealing. Untler common law, larceny is the 1) trespassory 2) tadd g and aspofiation 3) of the (tangible) personal property 4) of another 5) with the intent to deprive him or her of ir 6) permanently. Judicial mu.derur.
Euthanasia ordered by couft.

Purgatory rr. A flacc or (.rnJilion ol sulfering. e\pialion. or rcmot \e

Victimize v. Made a victim of or punished uniustly


Castigation v. To inflict severe punishment or to crilicize severely. To peralize by flning or demanding fb.feiture, lo acquire by trickery or dcception or to
defraud or swindle.

Mulct t.

]) ')

To execule without a fair tdal, esPecially to hang, as by a mob. Victims of lynchi generally bccn members of groups marginalized by socieLy.

f,ynch r.

1
g have

Nomin:rl punishment n. Punishmenl existing or being something in lrame or fomr but usually not in reality The same nomdal punishment is not, for difterent individuals, the same redl punishment Let thc punishmerlt in question be a fine: the sum that would not be felt by a rich man would be ruin to a poor one.
Falsificatioo is the act of producilg sornething that lacks authenticity and passing it off to other people as authentic.

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Falsilication ,,.

Library science z-

Library and infonnation scicnce (LIS) is the sludy of issues rclatecl to lib|aries This includes academic studies (mosl often surveys) about how library rcsources arc usecl and how people interact with library systems.

112

Tririum z.
The trivium comprised the tlrce subjects taught first in medieval universities, before the quadrivium. In medieval educational theory, the trivium consisted of granrmar, rhetoric, and logic. These were considered preparatory fields for the quadrivium, which was made up of arithmetic, geometry, music, and astronomy. In nrm, tlle quadrivium was considered prepa.atory work for the serious study ofphilosophy and theology. This schema is sometimes referred to as classical education, but it is moa" u""*ut"ly o development of the l2th and l3th centuries mther than a direct descendant of the educalional systems of antiquity.

REFE

RENCf FREIII:

ft Alq!r&l4uta{a$-_eduJltesearall!lltigadbqa11haqfpftp.b0 l.=p6,-ht!d
http ://dictionarv refe(ence.con/

httplTllr wikipedia ore

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