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CENTRAL LUZON COLLEGE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY #1 CBMU, Upper Kalaklan, Olongapo City

College of Nursing and Allied Health Sciences


HEALTH PRACTICES OF MOSLEMS IN MATAIN, SUBIC, ZAMBALES

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Submitted to The Faculty of Nursing Central Luzon College of Science and Technology Olongapo City

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In Partial Fulfillment Of the Requirement for the Degree Bachelor of Science in Nursing

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By: Felipe, Aileen Jennifer E. Imperial, Gayle E. Mamaril, Bruce Kelly E. Sakili, Smyrna S. Sardan, Apple Mhae S.

October 24, 2012

CENTRAL LUZON COLLEGE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY #1 CBMU, Upper Kalaklan, Olongapo City

College of Nursing and Allied Health Sciences

Chapter 1 The Problem and Its Settings Background of the Study There are no specific codes for medical treatment of physical illnesses in the Qur'an. In Islamic tradition the difference between health and illness was, and still is, perceived as balance and imbalance or the Humoral Theory. Moslems have historically sought the Qur'an as a healing source in times of psychological and spiritual distress. When experiencing physical illness, Moslems have also been open to the rituals and medicinal practices of different traditions, including those of nonMoslems. Contemporary Moslems' approach to health care is still strongly based on preventative measures. In many cases, although Moslem patients seek a curative process through surgical or medical means, they still look to their religious and cultural heritage to address their spiritual, social and cultural needs. Preventative healthcare strategies in Moslem experience include: personal hygiene, dietary measures such as the restriction in eating specific ingredients (such as pork and its by-

CENTRAL LUZON COLLEGE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY #1 CBMU, Upper Kalaklan, Olongapo City

College of Nursing and Allied Health Sciences


products, and drinking alcohol), and the avoidance of addictive habits such as smoking tobacco or over-consumption of food. The main idea of this research was really the researchers learning experience on their hospital duty and stay at General Santos City, where almost all patients were Moslems. In this research, the factors that affect the decisions of Moslems in seeking medical treatment will be analysed. This also shows the behaviour of Moslems how they take care of their own health. This study will give the reader a clear view or understanding of the Moslems culture and will help nurses today and in the future by giving them ideas on how to deal with Moslem patients. This will help them to identify the factors that make the Moslems seek for medical help and how the Moslems respond to illnesses or diseases; where they seek medical treatment. This will show ideas on how to make a better nurse-patient relationship when it comes to dealing with Moslems. It will help the nurses to understand the beliefs of Moslem patients and also to respect their beliefs in seeking medical help. Theoretical Framework This page is consisted of relevant theories from the experts which will provide and support the study.

CENTRAL LUZON COLLEGE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY #1 CBMU, Upper Kalaklan, Olongapo City

College of Nursing and Allied Health Sciences


Leininger's theory (1960) is to provide care measures that are in harmony with an individual or group's cultural beliefs, practices, and values. The primary goal of her theory was culturally congruent care. Culturally congruent care is possible when the following occurs within the nurse-client relationship: together the nurse and the client creatively design new or different care lifestyle for the health or well-being of the client.This mode requires the use of both generic and professional knowledge and ways to fit such diverse ideas into nursing care actions and goals. Care knowledge and skill are often re-patterned for the best interest of the clients. Thus all care modalities require co-participation of the nurse and clients working together to identify, plan, implement, and evaluate each caring mode for culturally congruent nursing care. These modes can stimulate nurses to design nursing actions.The practice of transcultural nursing addresses the cultural dynamics that influence the nurseclient relationship. Because of its focus on this specific aspect of nursing, a theory was needed to study and explain outcomes of this type of care. Leininger creatively developed the Theory of Culture Care: Diversity and Universality. Johnson's Behavioral Theory was an early proponent of nursing as a science as well as an art. She also believed nursing had a body of knowledge reflecting both the science and the art. From the beginning, Johnson proposed that the knowledge of the science of nursing necessary for effective nursing care included a synthesis of key concepts drawn from basic and applied sciences. In 1961, Johnson proposed that
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CENTRAL LUZON COLLEGE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY #1 CBMU, Upper Kalaklan, Olongapo City

College of Nursing and Allied Health Sciences


nursing care facilitated the client's maintenance of a state of equilibrium. Johnson proposed that clients were "stressed" by a stimulus of either an internal or external nature. These stressful stimuli created such disturbances, or "tensions," in the patient that a state of disequilibrium occurred. Johnson identified two areas that nursing care should be based in order to return the client to a state of equilibrium. By reducing stressful stimuli and by supporting natural and adaptive processes. Johnson's behavioral system theory springs from Nightingales belief that nursing's goal is to help individuals prevent or recover from disease or injury. The "science and art" of nursing should focus on the patient as an individual and not on the specific disease entity. Johnson used the work of behavioral scientists in psychology, sociology, and ethnology to develop her theory. The model is patterned after a systems model; a system is defined as consisting of interrelated parts functioning together to form a whole (Conner et. al. 1994). Johnson states that a nurse should use the behavioral system as their knowledge base; comparable to the biological system that physicians use as their base of knowledge (Lobo, 1995). The reason Johnson chose the behavioral system model is the idea that "all the patterned, repetitive, purposeful ways of behaving that characterize each person's life make up an organized and integrated whole, or a system" (other). Johnson states that by categorizing behaviors, they can be predicted and ordered. Johnson categorized all human behavior into seven subsystems (SSs): Attachment, Achievement, Aggressive, Dependence, Sexual, Ingestive, and
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CENTRAL LUZON COLLEGE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY #1 CBMU, Upper Kalaklan, Olongapo City

College of Nursing and Allied Health Sciences


Eliminative. Each subsystem is composed of a set of behavioral responses or tendencies that share a common goal. These responses are developed through experience and learning and are determined by numerous physical, biological, psychological, and social factors. Four assumptions are made about the structure and function of each SS. These four assumptions are the "structural elements" common to each of the seven SSs. The first assumption is "from the form the behavior takes and the consequences it achieves can be inferred what drive has been stimulated or what goal is being sought" (Johnson, 1980). The ultimate goal for each subsystem is expected to be the same for all individuals. The second assumption is that each individual has a "predisposition to act, with reference to the goal, in certain ways rather than in other ways" (Johnson, 1980). This predisposition to act is labeled "set" by Johnson. The third assumption is that each subsystem has available a repertoire of choices or "scope of action" alternatives from which choices can be made. As life experiences occur, individuals add to the number of alternative actions available to them. At some point, however, the acquisition of new alternatives of behavior decreases as the individual becomes comfortable with the available repertoire. The fourth assumption about the behavioral subsystem is that they produce observable outcomes-that is, the individuals' behavior (Johnson, 1980). The observable behaviors allow an outsider to note the actions the individual is taking to reach a goal related to a specified SS. In addition, each of the SSs has three functional requirements. First,
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CENTRAL LUZON COLLEGE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY #1 CBMU, Upper Kalaklan, Olongapo City

College of Nursing and Allied Health Sciences


each subsystem must be "protected from noxious influences with which the system cannot cope" (Johnson, 1980). Second, each subsystem must be "nurtured through the input of appropriate supplies from the environment." Finally each subsystem must be "stimulated for use to enhance growth and prevent stagnation." As long as the SSs are meeting these functional requirements, the system and the SSs are viewed as selfmaintaining and self- perpetuating. The internal and external environments of the system need to remain orderly and predictable for the system to maintain homeostasis.

Conceptual Framework Figure 1 showed the factors that affects the Moslems Health Practices. These factors include Cultures, Traditions, Community Rules, Beliefs and their Perception about Hospitalization. These factors may affect the Moslems health practices because they have different perception about health. Their age, gender, educational attainment, tribe and monthly income can also affect their health practice. With their proper understanding on these factors, Moslems can do proper health practices for them to improve their health. The figure on next page will present the paradigm of the study.

CENTRAL LUZON COLLEGE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY #1 CBMU, Upper Kalaklan, Olongapo City

College of Nursing and Allied Health Sciences

HEALTH PRACTICES Factors that Affects Moslems Health Practices Hygiene Nutrition and Diet Maternal Care Child Care Medication Lifestyle

Age Gender Civil Status Highest Educational Attainment Tribe Occupation Monthly Income Where to seek Medical Treatment
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CENTRAL LUZON COLLEGE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY #1 CBMU, Upper Kalaklan, Olongapo City

College of Nursing and Allied Health Sciences

Figure 1 Conceptual Paradigm

Statement of the Problem This study aimed to answer: the health practices of Moslems in Barangay Matain, Subic, Zambales Specifically, this study pursued to answer the following questions: 1. How may the profile of the respondents be described in terms of: 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 Age; Sex; Educational Attainment; Tribe; Occupation; Where to seek medical treatment in times of illness/disease?

2. How may the following factors affect the health practices of Moslems in seeking medical treatment be described in terms of: 2.1 Cultural factors;
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CENTRAL LUZON COLLEGE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY #1 CBMU, Upper Kalaklan, Olongapo City

College of Nursing and Allied Health Sciences


2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 Traditions; Beliefs; Community Rules; and Perception about Hospitalization?

3. What are the Muslims health practices in terms of: 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 Hygiene; Nutrition and Diet; Maternal Care; Child Care; Medication; and Lifestyle?

4. Is there a significant relationship between the health practices that affects the Muslims decisions in seeking medical treatment when group according profile? 5. Is there a significant relationship between the factors and health practices of the Moslems? Statement of Hypothesis Below are the hypotheses which the study attempted to tested. 1. There is no significant relationship between the health practices that affects the Muslims decisions in seeking medical treatment when group according profile
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CENTRAL LUZON COLLEGE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY #1 CBMU, Upper Kalaklan, Olongapo City

College of Nursing and Allied Health Sciences


2. There is no significant relationship between the factors and health practices of the Moslems.

Significance of the Study This study described how factors affected the Muslims decisions in seeking medical treatment. The researchers conducted the study at Barangay Matain, Subic, Zambales were Muslims community is settled. The following will benefit from the study: Hospital will benefit from this study because this research focuses on Muslims patients, how their beliefs and traditions matter in every services offered to them. This will serve as a reference on what services will be applicable to them. A cultural sensitive care will be promoted utilizing this study. Nurses will benefit from this study because this research will be able to identify the interventions which Muslims prefer. The nurse will also have a good interaction with the patient because the nurse will be fully aware of their actions during the nurse patient interaction. The nurse will also promote the wellness of
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CENTRAL LUZON COLLEGE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY #1 CBMU, Upper Kalaklan, Olongapo City

College of Nursing and Allied Health Sciences


Muslim patients because this study will tends to answers the cultural needs of Muslim admitted in a health care facility. The nurses cultural awareness will also be enhanced. Patient will profit to this study because this points to improve the interventions the nurses will render to Muslim patients. Thus, patients concerns will be addressed that will promote high level of awareness and patients wellness. Future Researchers will benefit from this study because this will serve as a guide to discover new learning about factors that affects Muslims when it comes to seeking medical treatment. This study will also serve as a reference for their future studies thus will facilitate enrichment of the future study which is related to this present one. Nursing Students will have an idea on what interventions and services the Muslims prefer during their hospitalization. Thus, this will help them to be a good nurse to their patients on the time they will become professionals. Furthermore this study will also promote culture sensitive care to Muslim patients.

Scope and Delimitation

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CENTRAL LUZON COLLEGE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY #1 CBMU, Upper Kalaklan, Olongapo City

College of Nursing and Allied Health Sciences


This study determined factors affecting the Muslims decisions in seeking medical treatment residing at Brgy. Matain, Subic, Zambales, Muslim Community. Included in this study are the profiles of the respondents in terms of: age, sex, educational attainment, tribe, occupation, monthly income and where they seek medical treatment in times of illness or diseases; the factors affecting the decision of Muslims in seeking medical treatment in terms of : cultural factors, traditions, beliefs, community rules and their perception about hospitalization; the Muslim health practices in terms of: hygiene, nutrition and diet, maternal care, child care, medication and lifestyle; the significant relationship between the factors that affects the Muslims decision in seeking medical treatment when grouped according to: age, gender, educational attainment, tribe, occupation, and monthly income; and the significant relationship between the health practices of the Muslims when grouped according to: educational attainment, tribe, and occupation. The study is limited to the Muslim individuals living in Brgy. Matain, Subic, 67 households are randomly chosen to gather pertinent data thus shed light to this present undertaking. Barangay Matain has been chosen as the study area because the respondents are located at one specific area and the accessibility of the area is easy.

Definition of Terms
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CENTRAL LUZON COLLEGE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY #1 CBMU, Upper Kalaklan, Olongapo City

College of Nursing and Allied Health Sciences


The following terms are defined conceptually and operationally so that readers will be able understand terms which they are not familiar. 1. Quran - the central religious text of Islam, which Moslems consider the verbatim word of God 2. Fasting- primarily the act of willingly abstaining from some or all food, drink, or both, for a period of time. An absolute fast is normally defined as abstinence from all food and liquid for a defined period, usually a single day (24 hours), or several days. Other fasts may be only partially restrictive, limiting particular foods or substance. The fast may also be intermittent in nature. Fasting practices may preclude sexual intercourse and other activities as well as food. 3. Meditation - any form of a family of practices in which practitioners train their minds or self-induce a mode of consciousness to realize some benefit 4. Culture - is a term that has many different inter-related meanings. 5. Beliefs - is the psychological state in which an individual holds a proposition or premise to be true. 6. Traditions - is a ritual, belief or object passed down within a society, still maintained in the present, with origins in the past. Common examples include holidays or impractical but socially meaningful clothes (like

lawyer wigs or military officer spurs), but the idea has also been applied to social norms such as greetings.
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CENTRAL LUZON COLLEGE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY #1 CBMU, Upper Kalaklan, Olongapo City

College of Nursing and Allied Health Sciences


7. Tribe - viewed historically or developmentally, as consisting of a social group existing before the development of, or outside of, states.

Many anthropologists used the term tribal society to refer to societies organized largely on the basis of kinship, especially corporate descent groups.

Chapter2 Review of Related Literature and Studies Review of Related Literature This section is consisted of collection of pertinent readings from foreign and local source, which provided discussions of facts to which the present study is related. This review of related literature and studies focused on the factors which affects the Muslims decisions in seeking medical treatment. Foreign Literature According to Ahmad F. Yousif's(2001) study entitled "Muslim Medicine and Health Care, he stated that the classical Islamic traditions in contrast to modern
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CENTRAL LUZON COLLEGE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY #1 CBMU, Upper Kalaklan, Olongapo City

College of Nursing and Allied Health Sciences


western civilization separates science from religion. Accordingly, one finds that both the Qur'an and the traditions of the prophet Muhammad are saturated with reference to learning, education, observation and the use of reason in all realms of like medicine and health care included.Islam teaches individuals and societies how to live a physically, mentally, and morally upright life. The Islamic legal system, derived from the Qur'an and sunnah (traditions of the Prophet), aims at creating a healthy environment that will have a positive effect on an individual's physical, mental, and spiritual development. At a physical level, the Qur'an and sunnah encourage healthy eating, and at the same time forbid all substances that cause bodily harm: intoxicants, drugs, and so forth. Fruits and vegetables, dates, yogurt, camel milk, natural honey, black seeds, and the like are especially emphasized for their nutritious quality and health benefits. The Qur'an also addresses various diseases, especially of the heart, which often lead to direct or indirect physical and mental ailments. It mentions blindness, deafness, lameness, and leprosy, as well as mental disorders, including psychoses, and neurotic diseases, such as sadness and anxiety. But its primary focus is on moral and ethical diseases. The Qur'an itself is referred to as a book of healing. Muslims today approach Medicine and healthcare in various ways. Some of them completely reject modern medicines. This people refer to use traditional medical

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CENTRAL LUZON COLLEGE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY #1 CBMU, Upper Kalaklan, Olongapo City

College of Nursing and Allied Health Sciences


treatments. We can also find traditional healers today to continue to rely on local herbs ornaments and other organic materials. There are also some Muslims that prepare to use modern medicine while some Muslims believe that prayer Qur'anic recitation, and Dhikr can help them to recover and heal from their illness.

Omar Kasule, dean of the faculty of medicine of the International Islamic University, Malaysia, defines Islamic medicine as a system of basic paradigms, concepts, values and procedures that conforms to, or do not contradict the Qur'an and prophetic traditions. It is universal and can be defined only in terms of values and ethics, not as specific medical procedures or therapeutic agents. In contrast to contemporary views, disease does not always have a negative connotation in Islam. According to the classical Islamic scholar Imam al-Ghazzali, "illness is one of the forms of experience by which man arrives at knowledge of God." Other Muslim scholars argue that falling ill may be Allah's way of forcing the person to rest or care for the body before it deteriorates further. Both medical practitioners and patients must know the limits of the former's capabilities. From a Muslim point of view, life and death are ultimately derived from God. No human can give life or take death away. As such, medical personnel do not have the privilege of saying anything definitive about future prognosis. Instead, they are obliged to assist the patient to the best of their abilities and leave the rest to Allah.
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CENTRAL LUZON COLLEGE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY #1 CBMU, Upper Kalaklan, Olongapo City

College of Nursing and Allied Health Sciences


Such an approach may have a positive effect on reducing the number of medical lawsuits that occur in some countries. Last but not least, Islamic medicine can provide a code of ethics for medical practitioners. Muslim medical personnel are subject to shariah (Islamic law), on both a personal and professional level, but particularly in terms of their obligations towards patients, community, and society. As such, they are obliged to be sincere, remain humble, and constantly strive to seek the pleasure of Allah, with the consciousness that Allah is the All-Knowing. According to Mary Ann Liebert (2006), in her study entitled "Islam and Breastfeeding: Religious and Cultural Traditions", she states that, Islamic religious beliefs and cultural practices in Muslim communities guide women's breastfeeding decisions and are important factors in early infant care and feeding. Helping Muslim women adopt good infant feeding practices requires an understanding of the differences between the religious basis of breastfeeding and the cultural practices followed by some Muslims. Clinicians can help differentiate between religious beliefs and cultural norms to promote breastfeeding in Muslim communities. Ulfat Shaikh, MD, MPH, and Omar Ahmed, MD, from the University of California Davis School of Medicine explain that the Islamic holy book, the Qur'an,
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CENTRAL LUZON COLLEGE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY #1 CBMU, Upper Kalaklan, Olongapo City

College of Nursing and Allied Health Sciences


recommends that mother's breastfeed their children for two years if possible and, in fact, states that every infant has the right to be breastfed. If a mother is unable to breastfeed, she and the father can decide together to have a wet nurse feed the child. "Breastfeeding management is both an art and a science, but for many women it is part of deeply held beliefs about child rearing that stem from their religious teachings. This article will help clinicians understand the religious and cultural basis of Muslim women's views on children and breastfeeding," says Ruth A. Lawrence, MD, Editor-in-Chief of Breastfeeding Medicine, from the Department of Pediatrics, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry. The journal entitled, "Islam and Infant Feeding," describes the importance of privacy and modesty in Muslim culture and suggests that the lack of privacy in hospitals, and especially in neonatal intensive care units might discourage women from breastfeeding. Cultural practices such as substituting honey or water supplements for colostrums could deprive the infant of important nutrients. Similarly, Muslim women who wear veils and have little sun exposure may have low vitamin D levels, putting their breastfed infants at risk of vitamin D deficiency. According to the study entitled "Meeting the Healthcare Needs of American Muslims", the researcher of University of Chicago, American Muslim from India and Pakistan (2012) believed that recovering from illness to a great extent is influenced by
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CENTRAL LUZON COLLEGE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY #1 CBMU, Upper Kalaklan, Olongapo City

College of Nursing and Allied Health Sciences


God. Muslims from South Asia, the Arabs, and African-American Muslims, the role of God and illness and recovery is a primary influence of health care beliefs and behaviour. Outreach and educational programs by health care community, help Muslims to address their concerns and improved their healthcare quality. One example is Ramadan, in which their fasting could affect their health. As Dr.AasimPaleda, assistant professor of Medicine and director of the initiative on Islam and Medicine at University of Chicago, "The idea was to talk about the healthcare values of American Muslims patients and the challenges they face inside the health care system." According to Padela, he looked at Muslims as a conglomerate, or it is like a business firm with different companies, but in their situation, Muslims are one group yet their tribes makes them different form each other. All Muslims believed that God is the only responsible for disease, health and healing. Muslims described illnesses as "a disease of fate". Illnesses are also a trial form God from which sins are removed, a spiritual reward, reminder for someone to improve their health and could also be a sign of personal failure to follow Islam's tenets. Doctors are part of healing but Imams play the important role in disease healing and health. Most of the Muslims consult Imams for counselling and for better understanding of the disease. Improvement of communication between hospitals and their community would be a great help to address concerns of Muslim patients during times of serious illness and could also help Imams on how to educate his community
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CENTRAL LUZON COLLEGE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY #1 CBMU, Upper Kalaklan, Olongapo City

College of Nursing and Allied Health Sciences


about medical issues. Culture sensitivity training for staff is also important for healthcare institutions, providing Halal food and prayer space for Muslim inpatients, and building partnerships with mosques to create health awareness campaigns targeting the community. According to LeBaron (2012) in his study entitled, "Attitudes Towards Cervical Cancer Screening Among Muslim Women: A Pilot Study", Muslim women have low rates of healthcare utilization when it comes to preventive care such as breast exams, mammograms, and cervical cancer screening. Their religious and cultural beliefs such as the value placed on modesty and premarital virginity contributed to reluctance to seek medical attentions. When the researcher conduct a study about this, she has five key informants who identified pelvic and Pap smear screening exams as major source of anxiety for their community, and therefore major barriers to health care, the result are as follows: "Many Muslim women from immigrant backgrounds face challenges in obtaining adequate health care due to some common barriers of language, transportation, insurance, and family pressures. Additionally, many Muslim women resist screening practices that are the standard in the US but which threaten their cultural and religious values. Equally important, many health care professionals contribute to the women's challenges by making inappropriate recommendations regarding physical exams and reproductive health.

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CENTRAL LUZON COLLEGE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY #1 CBMU, Upper Kalaklan, Olongapo City

College of Nursing and Allied Health Sciences


The women were enthusiastic and candid in discussing these highly sensitive and taboo topics." According to a study entitled (2012), "Muslim Breast Cancer Survivor Spirituality: Coping Strategy or Health Seeking Behaviour Hindrance?" the Department of Health Education in Tehran, Iran conducted a study about the Muslims breast cancer survivors. On their study, they found out that spirituality is the primary source of psychological support among these cancer patients. The study showed that all the participants of the study thinks that their cancer attributed to the will of God. Despite of this, these patients used medical treatment in response with their illness.

Local Literature According to an article, "Christian, Muslim anti-RH groups to hold 'Congress of the Faithful' (2011)The Catholic Bishops' Conference of the Philippines (CBCP) said the congress of people of different faiths aims to show the "peoples perspective" on the country's situation.July 25 also happens to be the 43rd year of the "Humanae Vitae," the landmark papal letter about the church's uncompromising stand on birth control.

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CENTRAL LUZON COLLEGE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY #1 CBMU, Upper Kalaklan, Olongapo City

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We, the Prolifers, strongly oppose and will vehemently resist any or all moves by any individual, group or institution to enact the RH bill into law, particularly the senseless spending of billions of pesos on contraceptives in the guise of responsible parenthood and safe sex, the inclusion of sex education in the curriculum for children and minors, virtually usurping the divine responsibility of parents to teach their own children, as we urge our President to exercise his power to veto such, if and when this bill passes both Houses," Abantesaid.The CBCP said several Islamic groups are part of the coalition, including the Imam Council of the Philippines and the Bangsamoro Civil Society Alliance. There are so many verses of the Koran that state about pro-life. Sabisa Koran, dont kill your children by fear of poverty. Huwagmatakot because Allah will sustain you," said Eleem Said Akmad Basher, chairman of the Imam Council of the Philippines. We believe that children are gifts from God, not accidents to be avoided. In nurturing and properly [upbringing] these gifts can we look forward to a bright future," added Bishop Reuben Abante of Baptist group Biblemode. The challenge before us, from the anonymous Filipino father to the highest official in the land, is to provide for these, our children, until they become able. The call for the national leadership is for concrete action that promotes the faster
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CENTRAL LUZON COLLEGE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY #1 CBMU, Upper Kalaklan, Olongapo City

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generation of jobs that Filipino parents can be productive in, and education that helps parents raise children who know and practice good manners and right conduct, not how to avoid pregnancies," Abante said. According to article entitled, "Philippines: Early Marriage Put Girls at Risk", early and arranged marriages are common practice in Muslim culture in the Philippines where about 5 percent of the countrys 97 million inhabitants are Muslim.It is estimated that 80 percent of Filipino Muslims live on the southern island of Mindanao. Muslims have a different set of rules governing marriage, divorce, custody of children, among others. Under Article 16 of the Muslim Code, the minimum marrying age is 15 for both males and females. However, upon petition of a male guardian, the Sharia District Court may order the solemnization of the marriage of a female who has attained puberty though she is younger than 15, but not below 12, Claire Padilla, executive director of EnGendeRights, a legal NGO working for the repeal of this provision, which it considers discriminatory, told IRIN.Religious beliefs ranked highest, with women saying early marriage was in accordance with their religion. This was followed by cultural reasons such as keeping family honour, and economic factors. A small proportion said they married for political reasons like settling or preventing family disputes, or forging political alliances, while others still report being "forced" into the arranged marriage by their parents. According to the 2008
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CENTRAL LUZON COLLEGE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY #1 CBMU, Upper Kalaklan, Olongapo City

College of Nursing and Allied Health Sciences


National Health and Demographic Survey, the maternal mortality rate in ARMM is twice as high as the national average of 162 per 100,000 live births. ARMM has a high unmet need for family planning, with the lowest contraceptive prevalence rate for modern methods at 9.9 percent and traditional methods at 5.2 percent. On average, six out of 10 births take place at home under the supervision of a traditional birth attendant, but in ARMM, that figure is nine out of 10 births, the survey states. Elizabeth Samama, a provincial health officer in ARMM, said having children at a young age poses serious health risks. The body of an adolescent girl is not fully developed. Her uterus and other reproductive organs are not mature or properly equipped to support the development of another human life. The ideal age for conceiving is between the age of 20 and 35, she said. According to the study, "Health Research and Development Priority Agenda Setting Central Mindanao and the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao", out of the total barangays of 1.190 in the region, about 899 or 75.5% have barangay health stations. Based on the 2004 Annual Report, the region has 114 doctors, 190 nurses, 14 nutritionists, 58 medical technologies, 39 dental aids, 53 dentists, 802 midwives, 1 sanitary engineer, 95 sanitary inspectors, 6,760 active barangay health workers (BHWs), and 2,714 trained birth attendants. In terms of health office and facilities, the region has four Provincial Health Offices, 27 government hospitals, 76 private hospitals, 3,237 hospital beds, 47 main health
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CENTRAL LUZON COLLEGE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY #1 CBMU, Upper Kalaklan, Olongapo City

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centres, and 899 barangay health stations. Their crude birth rate has a total of 70,562 live births in 2004. Compared to 2003 report, crude birth rate at 19.32 per 1,000 populations reported a decrease of 0.59 rate points. Approximately 8% of the total live births belong to low birth weight. Births attended by trained and untrained hilots accounted for 45.31% and 7.21% respectively. Sarangani has the highest CBR among the provinces at 20.52 per 1,000 populations, while North Cotabato has the lowest at 17.36 per 1,000 population. Among the cities, Gen. Santos City has the highest at 24.60 per 1,000 populations while Cotabato City has the lowest at 14.26 per 1,000 populations. The crude death rate has a total of 10,814 in 2004 resulted to a rate of 2.96 deaths per 1,000 populations, registering a very slight decrease of 0.03 rate points compared to 2003. Of the total deaths, 62% are males. Male mortality rate was 3.58 per 1,000 male population while that for females was 2.32 per 1,000 female population. Infant mortalilty rate has a rate of 5.82 per 1,000 livebirths, infant deaths accounted for 3.8% of teh total deaths of the region in 2004.this registered 0.53 rate points compared to 2003. South Cotabato has the highest IMR of 6.96 per 1,000 livebirths while North Cotabato has the lowest with 3.20 per 1,000 livebirths. On the other hand, Gen. Santos City has the highest rate with 11.32 per 1,000 livebirth while Kidapawan City has the lowest rate with 2.54 per 1,000 livebirths. The leading causes of IMR were acute lower respiratory infection (rate is 1.05), septicaemia (0.94), prematurity (0.79), congenital anomaly (0.51), diarrhea (0.30). The others include
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CENTRAL LUZON COLLEGE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY #1 CBMU, Upper Kalaklan, Olongapo City

College of Nursing and Allied Health Sciences


bacterial sepsis of newborn, birth asphyxia, sudden infant death syndrome, malnutrition, tetanus neonatorum, and respiratory condition of newborn. The maternal mortality rate, deaths accounted for 0.54% of the total deaths in 2004, witha rate of 0.82 per 1,000 livebirths. An increase of 0.17 rate points compared to 2003. Sarangani has the highest MMR of 1.30 per 1,000 livebirths and Sultan Kudarat has the lowest with 0.48 per 1,000 livebirths. Kidapawan City has the highest rate of 1.02 per 1,000 livebirths while Cotabato City has the lowest with no maternal death reported. The leading causes of MMR are post partum haemorrhage (0.38), eclampsia in pregnancy (0.07), injury of the uterus (0.06), amniotic fluid embolism (0.04) and congestive heart failure (0.04) and retained placenta (0.04). The other causes include congenital malformation, eclampsia in the puerperium, pre-eclampsia and puerperal septicaemia. The top five leading causes of morbidity in the region in 2004 were acute lower respiratory infection (rate is 2,653.52), influenza (965.87), diarrhea (814.23), acute upper respiratory infection (761.43), and bronchitis (355.91). Among the other leading causes are primary hypertension, accident, violence, wounds, anaemia, skin disorders, and tuberculosis. The top five leading causes of mortality were pneumonia (rate is 29.22), cancer all forms (27.58), accident, violence, wounds (26.81), artherosclerotic heart disease (22.68) and cardiovascular diseases (18.81). The other leading causes include respiratory tuberculosis NOS, hypertensive heart disease NOS, diabetes mellitus, end-stage renal disease and septicaemia.
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CENTRAL LUZON COLLEGE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY #1 CBMU, Upper Kalaklan, Olongapo City

College of Nursing and Allied Health Sciences

Chapter 3 Research Methods and Procedures Research Methodology In this study, the researchers used the descriptive method of research. The researchers used this method to deal with how factors that affects Muslims decision in seeking medical treatment. This method described data and characteristics about the population or phenomenon being studied. The aim of the researchers for conducting this study is to identify the health practices of Moslems in terms of hygiene, nutrition and diet, maternal care, child care, medication and lifestyle. From this method of research, the researchers were able to identify and describe the current status of the problem or situation. Three main purposes of research are to describe, explain, and validate findings. Description emerges following creative exploration, and serves to

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CENTRAL LUZON COLLEGE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY #1 CBMU, Upper Kalaklan, Olongapo City

College of Nursing and Allied Health Sciences


organize the findings in order to fit them with explanations, and then test or validate those explanations. Descriptive research utilizes data collection and analysis techniques that yield reports concerning the measures of central tendency, variation, and correlation. The combination of its characteristic summary and correlation statistics, along with its focus on specific types of research questions, methods, and outcomes is what distinguishes descriptive research from other research types. This is the same reason why the researchers choose this design to fit the present study. Data Gathering Procedure The researchers gathered data about the respondents by conducting interviews and by using questionnaires. Questions are based on the literatures, theories, and past studies which served as the basis of the construction of questionnaires. Then the researchers submitted it to their adviser. After series of revisions and corrections, the researchers was able to finalize their questionnaires which pertains to the profiles of the respondents in terms of age, gender, civil status, highest educational attainment, tribe, occupation, monthly income and where they seek medical treatment in times of illness and diseases (hospital, health center, albularyo/hilot, and private clinics); the factors that affects Muslims Decision in terms of cultural, traditions, beliefs, community rules, and their perception about hospitalization; and the Muslims health
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CENTRAL LUZON COLLEGE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY #1 CBMU, Upper Kalaklan, Olongapo City

College of Nursing and Allied Health Sciences


practices in terms of hygiene, nutrition and diet, maternal care, child care, medication, and lifestyle. After all the revisions and corrections were done and with the approval of the Chairman of the Muslim area. The researchers personally administered the questionnaire to the Muslim families. After they have answered the questionnaire they were asked if the questionnaire was clear for them the respondents responds positively on the instruments given. Research Locale The research study was conducted within the Muslim area of Brgy. Matain, Subic, Zambales. The Muslim Area was established in the year 1958. According to Mr. Faisal I. Talib, former chairman of the Muslim community, during those years, the land was mainly a part of the sea and was just then improved later on. It composes of different tribes, namely the Yakan, Samal and Tausug. The community composes of 1,700 individuals, as estimated. It composes of 200 210 houses, in which 2 3 families are residing per house. It was the year 2001, when Mr.Talib became elected as their chairman. According to him, 90% of the population was Muslim tribes and the other 10% was locals of Zambales. Muslims here, majority do fishing for a living.

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CENTRAL LUZON COLLEGE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY #1 CBMU, Upper Kalaklan, Olongapo City

College of Nursing and Allied Health Sciences


Muslim community built a worship area inside their community, where they join together during Fridays to pray. And Friday was the most important day for them. Research Subject This study was conducted at the Muslim Area, Barangay Matain, Subic, Zambales. The respondents in this study were mainly the Muslim families. It is composed of 67 households, who will be available during the administration of questionnaires. The Muslim from this Barangay was chosen as the respondents of the study because researcher supposed that they will be able to yield pertinent information that will give light to this present study. Research Instruments The sampling instrument that was used within the research is convenience sampling. The researchers will use this kind of design because of the respondents' availability and area's accessibility. Convenience sampling is a type of nonprobability sampling which involves the sample being drawn from that part of the population which is close to hand. The researchers conducted the study in this population because, the researchers considered selecting the subjects that are representative of the entire population. The

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CENTRAL LUZON COLLEGE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY #1 CBMU, Upper Kalaklan, Olongapo City

College of Nursing and Allied Health Sciences


researchers chose this sampling design because it is fast, inexpensive, easy and the subjects are readily available. Statistical Treatments of Data The following statistical tools were used on the analysis and interpretations of gathered data. All the inferential result will be tested at 0.05 level of significance.

SlovensFormula.This will be used to determine the ideal sample size to be used in the given population. Where:

n=

N 1 + Ne

Frequency and Percentage. This will be use to determine the profile of the respondents. Where:

Average Weighted Mean. This will be use to determine the extent of the health practices of Moslems in different terms. Where:

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CENTRAL LUZON COLLEGE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY #1 CBMU, Upper Kalaklan, Olongapo City

College of Nursing and Allied Health Sciences

Pearson R. This will be use to determine the significant relationship between the extents of the factors affecting Muslims decisions in seeking medical treatment. Where:

Point

Biserial. This will be use to determine

the significant relationship between the extents of the factors affecting Muslims decisions in seeking medical treatment. Where:

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CENTRAL LUZON COLLEGE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY #1 CBMU, Upper Kalaklan, Olongapo City

College of Nursing and Allied Health Sciences

Chapter 4

Presentation, Analysis, and Interpretation of Data

This chapter presented the analysis and interpretation of the gathered data both in a textual and tabular form. Analysis as per operational distinguishing means that the data gathered need to be appraised to further present in a manner that were could be easily understood. Interpretation on the other hand means that the same data have to be interpreted.

Profile of the Respondents in Terms of Age

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CENTRAL LUZON COLLEGE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY #1 CBMU, Upper Kalaklan, Olongapo City

College of Nursing and Allied Health Sciences


The table and graph below presented the frequency and percentage distribution of respondents according to age.

Table 1 Frequency and Percentage Distribution of Moslem Respondents According to Age at Brgy.Matain, Subic, Zambales Age 20 and below 21-30 31-40 41-50 51-60 61 and above Total Frequency 2 16 20 14 12 3 67 Percentage 3.0 23.9 29.9 20.9 17.9 4.5 100.0

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CENTRAL LUZON COLLEGE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY #1 CBMU, Upper Kalaklan, Olongapo City

College of Nursing and Allied Health Sciences

Moslem Respondents According to Age


4.50% 3% 31-40 21-30 41-50 51-60 61 and above 20.90% 23.90% 20 and below

17.90%

29.90%

Analysis It could be gleaned on Table 1 that out of 67 Moslem respondents two or (3.0%) were at the age bracket of 20 and below; sixteen or (23.9%) were at the age bracket of 21-30; twenty or (29.9%) at the age bracket of 31-40; twelve or (17.9%) were 51-60 age bracket; and lastly 3 or(4.5%) were among 61 and above age bracket.

Interpretation: Table showed that the majority of Moslem respondents in Brgy. Matain were between the age brackets of 31 40 years old. This means that this age bracket, most of them are in their middle of adulthood.

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College of Nursing and Allied Health Sciences


The researchers believed that most people at this age are already mature enough to decide for their family, and as well as work for their families, to provide everything especially their needs, including health needs.

The table and graph below will present the frequency and percentage distribution of Moslem respondents based on their gender.

Profile of the Respondents in Terms of Gender

Table 2 Frequency and Percentage Distribution of Moslem Respondents According to Age at Brgy.Matain, Subic, Zambales

Gender Female Male Total

Frequency 32 35 67

Percentage 47.8 52.2 100.0

Moslem Respondents According to Gender

37

47.80%

Male

CENTRAL LUZON COLLEGE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY #1 CBMU, Upper Kalaklan, Olongapo City

College of Nursing and Allied Health Sciences

Analysis: The Table 2 presents the frequency and percentage distribution of Moslem respondents according to gender. It could be gleaned that thirty-five or (52.2%) were male and thirty-two or (47.8%) were female.

Interpretation: As showed, male population is not merely higher than of that of the female population. This may be because, most of the population here are couples. And during dessimination of questionnaires most respondents are that of the male, this may affect the time the researchers went to the area. Most of the females are at the market.
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CENTRAL LUZON COLLEGE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY #1 CBMU, Upper Kalaklan, Olongapo City

College of Nursing and Allied Health Sciences

The table and graph below will present the frequency and percentage distribution of Moslem respondents based on their civil status.

Profile of Respondents in Terms of Civil Status Table 3 Frequency and Percentage Distribution of Moslem Respondents According to Civil Status at Brgy.Matain, Subic, Zambales

Civil Status Single Married Widow/Widower Separated Total

Frequency 9 43 11 4 67

Percentage 13.4 64.2 16.4 6 100.0

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CENTRAL LUZON COLLEGE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY #1 CBMU, Upper Kalaklan, Olongapo City

College of Nursing and Allied Health Sciences

Moslem Respondent According to Civil Status


6% 13.40% Married Widow/Widower 16.40% 64.20% Single Separated

Analysis: Table 3 shows the frequency and percentage distribution of Moslem respondents according to civil status. Out of 67 respondents, nine or (13.4%) were single; forty-three or (64.2%) were married; eleven or (16.4%) were widowed; and lastly four or (6%) were separated.

Interpretation: The researchers believed that even Moslems practice polygamy, they still believe in the sacredness of marriage. Islam considers marriage as a solemn family

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CENTRAL LUZON COLLEGE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY #1 CBMU, Upper Kalaklan, Olongapo City

College of Nursing and Allied Health Sciences


relationship between a man and a woman, based on mercy and love, same as what Christians and other religions believed.

The table and graph below will present the frequency and percentage distribution of Moslem respondents based on educational attainment.

Profile of Respondents in Terms of Educational Attainment Table 4 Frequency and Percentage Distribution of Moslem Respondents According to Educational Attainment at Brgy.Matain, Subic, Zambales Education Elementary Level Elementary Graduate High School Level High School Graduate College Level Frequency 1 7 16 22 9
41

Percentage 1.5 10.5 23.9 32.8 13.4

CENTRAL LUZON COLLEGE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY #1 CBMU, Upper Kalaklan, Olongapo City

College of Nursing and Allied Health Sciences


College Graduate Vocational Total 9 3 67 13.4 4.5 100.0

Moslem Respondents According to Highest Educational Attainment


4.50% 1.50%

10.50% 32.80% 13.40%

High School Graduate High School Level College Graduate College Level Elementary Graduate

13.40% 23.90%

Vocational Elementary Level

Analysis: Table 4 shows the frequency and percentage distribution of respondents based on educational attainment. One or (1.5%) has attained an elementary level; seven or (10.45%) were elementary graduates; sixteen or (23.9%) attained a high school level; twenty-two or (32.8%) were high school graduates; nine or (13.4%) were college levels same as with college graduates; and three or (4.5%) attained a vocational degree.

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CENTRAL LUZON COLLEGE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY #1 CBMU, Upper Kalaklan, Olongapo City

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Interpretation: It shows that education is also important for Moslems, as this will help improve their life and living condition. To seek knowledge is indeed a sacred duty and is obligatory on every Muslim, male or female. The first word in the Qur'an revealed to Prophet Muhammad was "Iqra" or READ! Seek knowledge! Educate yourselves! Be educated.

The table and graph below will present the frequency and percentage distribution of Moslem respondents based on tribe.

Profile of Respondents in Terms of their Tribe Table 5 Frequency and Percentage Distribution of Moslem Respondents According to Tribe at Brgy.Matain, Subic, Zambales Tribe Yakan Samal Tausug Total Frequency 12 25 30 67
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Percentage 17.9 37.3 44.8 100.0

CENTRAL LUZON COLLEGE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY #1 CBMU, Upper Kalaklan, Olongapo City

College of Nursing and Allied Health Sciences

Moslem Respondents According to Tribe

17.90%

44.80%

Tausug Samal Yakan

37.30%

Analysis: Table 5 shows the frequency and percentage distribution of respondents according to tribe. It shows that out of 67 respondents, twelve or (17.91%) were Yakan; twenty-five or (37.31%) were Samal; and thirty or (44.78%) were Tausug.

Interpretation: It show that majority of the vast population of Brgy. Matain were mainly composed of Tausug. The researchers believed why Moslems went to the pains of
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CENTRAL LUZON COLLEGE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY #1 CBMU, Upper Kalaklan, Olongapo City

College of Nursing and Allied Health Sciences


Luzon, is because, more job opportunities are found here. They look for a job that would provide more of their needs, family and health needs. Tribes do not differ from any other beliefs, traditions, practices, etc. they only differ with their dialects.

The table and graph below will present the frequency and percentage distribution of Moslem respondents based on their occupation.

Profile of Respondents in Terms of their Occupation Table 6 Frequency and Percentage Distribution of Moslem Respondents According to their Occupation at Brgy.Matain, Subic, Zambales

Occupation Employed Unemployed Self-Employed Total

Frequency 28 7 32 67

Percentage 41.8 10.4 47.8 100.0

45 Moslem Respondents According to Occupation

CENTRAL LUZON COLLEGE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY #1 CBMU, Upper Kalaklan, Olongapo City

College of Nursing and Allied Health Sciences

Analysis: Table 6 shows the frequency and percentage distribution of respondents based on their occupation, twenty-eight or (41.8%) were employed; seven or (104%) were unemployed; and thirty-two or (47.8%) were self-employed.

Interpretation: The researchers believed that self employment in this area is really a choice for living. But one reason maybe, their area is surrounded with vast body of water,

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CENTRAL LUZON COLLEGE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY #1 CBMU, Upper Kalaklan, Olongapo City

College of Nursing and Allied Health Sciences


were fishing and selling of fishes were the top jobs in the area. This may affect their diet as well as their ability to provide their health needs.

The table and graph below will present the frequency and percentage distribution of Moslem respondents based on their monthly income.

Profile of Respondents in Terms of their Monthly Income Table 7 Frequency and Percentage Distribution of Moslem Respondents According to their Monthly Income at Brgy.Matain, Subic, Zambales

Monthly Income 500 1,500 1,501 3,000 3,001 5,000

Frequency 5 11 22

Percentage 7.5 16.4 32.8

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CENTRAL LUZON COLLEGE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY #1 CBMU, Upper Kalaklan, Olongapo City

College of Nursing and Allied Health Sciences


5,001 10, 000 10, 000 above Total 16 13 67 23.9 19.4 100.0

Moslem Respondents According to their Monthly Income


7.50% 3,001-5,000 5,001-10,000 10,000 and above 19.40% 23.90% 1,501 - 3,000 500-1,500

16.40%

32.80%

Analysis: Table 7 shows the frequency and percentage distribution of respondents based on their monthly income were, out of 67 five or (7.5%) have an income between 500 1,500; eleven or (16.4%) have an income between 1,501 3,000; twenty-two or (32.5%) have an income between 3,001 5,000, sixteen or (23.9%) have an income between 5,001 10,000; and thirteen or (19.4%) have an income of 10, 001 and above.

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CENTRAL LUZON COLLEGE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY #1 CBMU, Upper Kalaklan, Olongapo City

College of Nursing and Allied Health Sciences


Interpretation: The researchers believed that monthly income contributes a great factor in which Moslems can deal with their health needs. Most people would buy food rather than medicine even if they already feel ill. And thus, this contributes a lot to determine health practices of Moslems in Brgy. Matain.

The table and graph below will present the frequency and percentage distribution of Moslem respondents based on where they seek medical treatment in times of illness or diseases.

Profile of Respondents in Terms of Where They Seek Medical Treatment in Times of Illness or Disease Table 8 Frequency and Percentage Distribution of Moslem Respondents According to the Where They Seek Medical Treatment in Times of Illness or Diseases at Brgy.Matain, Subic, Zambales Where They Seek Medical Treatment

Frequency

Percentage

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Hospital Health Center Albularyo/Hilot/Panday Total 18 41 8 67 26.9 61.2 11.9 100.0

Moslem Respondents According to Where They Seek Medical Teatment In Times of Illness or Disease
11.90% Health Center 26.90% 61.20% Hospital Albularyo/Hilot/Panday

Analysis: Table 8 showed the frequency and percentage of respondents according to where they seek medical treatment in times of disease or illness. It could be gleaned that out of 67 eighteen or (26.9%) seek medical treatment in the hospital; fourty-one or (61.2%) seek medical treatment on health centers; and the other eight or (11.9%) seek medical treatment or attention to the albularyos/hilot/panday.
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CENTRAL LUZON COLLEGE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY #1 CBMU, Upper Kalaklan, Olongapo City

College of Nursing and Allied Health Sciences

Interpretation: Most of the respondents went to the health center in times of illnesses or diseases. The researchers believed that this is the most accessible and somewhat least expensive of all. Moslems considers their body as sacred, as much as possible they don't want any surgical procedures done. Respondents went to the hospital as they also believed that they can get efficient care with regards to their health problems. As showed, some of the respondents still believed in albularyo or panday, which is practiced in their culture or their tradition. They believed that healing remains in the power of Allah.

The table and graph below will present the Factors that Affect the Decision of Moslems in Seeking Medical treatment.

Factors that Affect Moslems Decision in Seeking Medical Treatment Table 9 Mean and Descriptive Rating of Moslem Respondents According to factors that Affect their Decision in Seeking Medical Treatment Factors 1. I strictly follow the culture of Moslems with regards to health practices. Average Weighted Mean 2.81 Descriptive Rating Always

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2. I strictly follow the traditions of Moslems with regards to health practices. 3. I follow what I believe with regards to health promotion and disease prevention. 4. I strictly follow prescribed community rules in seeking medical treatment. 5. I believe that hospitalization can help me cope up with my illness/disease at the same time promotes my wellness. Grand Mean 2.73 Always

2.60

Always

2.33

Sometimes

2.21

Sometimes

2.53

Always

Moslem Respondents According to Factors that Affect their Decisions in Seeking Medical Treatment
Indicator 1 Indicator 2 Indicator 3 Indicator 4 Indicator 5 2.81 2.73 2.6 2.33 52 2.21

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Analysis: Table 9 presents the mean and descriptive rating of respondents according to the factors that affect their decisions in seeking medical treatment. According to Moslems, culture is always a factor that affects their decisions given a mean of two and eighty-one (2.81) which is the highest. Respondents rested Indicator 2 " I strictly follow the traditions of Moslems with regards to health practices.", with a mean of two and seventy-three (2.73), followed by Indicator 3 " I follow what I believe with regards to health promotion and disease prevention.", with a mean of two and sixty (2.60); followed by indicator 4 " I strictly follow prescribed community rules in seeking medical treatment.", with a mean of two and thirty-three (2.33); and lastly indicator 5 " I believe that hospitalization can help me cope up with my illness/ disease at the same time promotes my wellness.", with a mean of two and twenty-one (2.21), which is the lowest, therefore, with a grand mean of two and fifty-three (2.53). It means that these factors always affect their decisions in seeking medical treatment.

Interpretation:

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Moslems strictly follows their cultural traditions as their basis for their decisions in almost everything, as this was ranked the highest in terms of the factors that would affect Moslems decision in seeking medical treatment. Their own belief is also a large factor that affects their decision, which could also be based in their traditions. The community rules is second to the lowest in terms of the factors because maybe it is not applicable to all, especially when money is involve. And lastly their perception about hospitalization is the lowest among the factors. As this could affect their health in many ways, some of them don't usually go to hospitals because on how they perceive the setting would be. Hospitalization for them is not merely an option especially when they can still handle theirselves.

The table and graph below will present the Health Practices of Moslems in Terms of their Hygiene.

Health Practices of Moslems in Terms of Hygiene

Table 10 Mean and Descriptive Rating of Moslem Respondents According to Health Practices of Moslems in Terms of their Hygiene Hygiene Average Weighted Mean
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Descriptive Rating

CENTRAL LUZON COLLEGE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY #1 CBMU, Upper Kalaklan, Olongapo City

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1. Taking a bath during menstrual period 2. Monthly dental check-up 3. Observe proper grooming every day. 4. Observe proper grooming during illness. Grand Mean 1.85 1.69 2.52 2.13 2.05 Sometimes Sometimes Always Sometimes Sometimes

Moslem Respondents Health Practices in Terms of their Hygiene


Indicator 1 1.85

Indicator 2

1.69

Indicator 3

2.52

Indicator 4 0 0.5

2.13 1 1.5 2 2.5 3

Analysis: Table 10 shows the mean and descriptive rating of the health practices of respondents in terms of hygiene. It shows that indicator 1 " Taking a bath during menstrual period.", is given a mean of one and eighty-five (1.85), is rated sometimes a factor in health practices in terms of hygiene, followed by indicator 2 "Monthly dental
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CENTRAL LUZON COLLEGE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY #1 CBMU, Upper Kalaklan, Olongapo City

College of Nursing and Allied Health Sciences


check-up.", with a mean of one and sixty-nine (1.69). Next is indicator 3 " Observe proper grooming every day.", is rated always with a given mean of two and fifty-two (2.52). And indicator 4 "Observe proper grooming during illness.", rated sometimes as a factor in health practices in terms of hygiene with a mean of two and thirteen (2.13). Overall, the highest rated indicator was indicator 3 " Observe proper grooming every day.", with a mean of two and fifty-two (2.52), followed by indicator 4 "Observe proper grooming during illness.", with a mean of two and thirteen (2.13). Next is indicator 1 "Taking a bath during menstrual period.", with a mean of one and eighty-five (1.85), and last was indicator 2 " Monthly dental check-up.", given a mean of one and sixty-nine (1.69). All indicators were rated sometimes, and therefore with a grand mean of 2 (2.05), and shows that health practices in terms of hygiene is sometimes a factor.

Interpretation: Moslems believe that proper grooming every day can keep them to stay healthy and free from illnesses. The Moslems believes that taking a bath during menstrual period can cause them illness or diseases, but as being influenced by other cultures they practice their hygiene during those times an important part of their hygiene,
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College of Nursing and Allied Health Sciences


especially in females. Moslems also practice proper grooming during illness because they believe that this will help them to improve their health condition. Monthly dental check-up is the least thing they do when it comes to their hygienic practices maybe because they think that they can practice dental care at their own houses and it involves money. Islam has placed a strong emphasis on personal hygiene. Other than the need to be ritually clean in time of the prayer but also the need to be clean always as possible. Cleanliness in Moslems is an important part for them. Like for example. Oral hygiene through cleaning of teeth with the use of form of toothbrush called miswak is considered for some.(Wikipedia.com)

The table and graph below will present the Health Practices of Moslems in Terms of Nutrition and Diet.

Health Practices of Moslems in Terms of Nutrition and Diet Table 11 Mean and Descriptive Rating of Moslem Respondents According to Health Practice in Terms of their Nutrition and Diet Nutrition and Diet 1. Consume fruits and vegetable regularly Average Weighted Mean 2.78
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Descriptive Rating Always

CENTRAL LUZON COLLEGE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY #1 CBMU, Upper Kalaklan, Olongapo City

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2. Eat red meats 3. Eat white meats 4. Eating fatty foods 5. Consumes noodles and other salty preserved foods. 6. Consumes at least 8-12 glasses of water every day. Grand Mean 2.03 2.10 1.57 2.16 2.67 2.22 Sometimes Sometimes Sometimes Sometimes Always Sometimes

Moslem Respondents According toHealth Practices in Terms of Nutrition and Diet


Indicator 1 Indicator 2 Indicator 3 Indicator 4 Indicator 5 Indicator 6 0 0.5 1 1.57 2.16 2.67 1.5 2 2.5 3 2.03 2.1 2.78

Analysis: Table 11 presents the mean and descriptive rating of respondents according to health practices in terms of their nutrition and diet. It shows that indicator 1 "Consumes fruits and vegetable regularly", has a given a mean of two and seventyeight (2.78); indicator 2 "Eat red meats" has a given mean of two (2.03); indicator 3

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CENTRAL LUZON COLLEGE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY #1 CBMU, Upper Kalaklan, Olongapo City

College of Nursing and Allied Health Sciences


"Eat white meats" with a given mean of two and ten (2.10); indicator 4 "Eating fatty foods" with a mean of one and fifty-seven (1.57); indicator 5 " Consumes noodles and other salty and preserved foods" has a given mean of two and sixteen (2.16); and lastly indicator 6 "Consumes at least 8 12 glasses of water every day" has a given mean of two and sixty seven (2.67). Overall, respondents rated indicator 1 "Consumes fruits and vegetables regularly" as the highest with a given mean of two and seventy-eight (2.78); next to it is indicator 6 "Consumes at least 8 12 glasses of water every day" with a given mean of two and sixty-seven (2.67), both indicator 1 and 2 has a descriptive rating of always; indicator 5 "Consumes noodles and other salty and preserved foods" is next with a given mean of two and sixteen (2.16); followed by indicator 3 "Eat white meats" with a given mean of two and ten (2.10); next is indicator 2 with a given mean of two (2.03); and lastly indicator 4 "Eating fatty foods" is the lowest with a given mean of one and fifty-seven (1.57), all indicators 2, 3, 4,and 5 has a descriptive rating of sometimes. Therefore, with a grand mean of two and twenty-two (2.22), nutrition and diet was always observed with regards to their health practices.

Interpretation: Moslems practice proper diet by eating fruits and vegetables daily because they believe that these foods can help them prolong their life. They also do hydration
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CENTRAL LUZON COLLEGE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY #1 CBMU, Upper Kalaklan, Olongapo City

College of Nursing and Allied Health Sciences


practices by drinking 8-12 glasses of water a day because they believe that enough water intake can help them to do their work normally. Moslems also keep meats on their diet but Most Moslems prefer white meats than red meats. They believe that sufficient intake of meats can keep them in shape and keep them strong. Moslems also eat foods with preservatives because it is more economical and they only spend less money with these foods. Eating fatty foods is not a great option for them when it comes to nutrition and diet because they believe that foods rich in fat cause Hypertension.

The table and graph below will present the Health Practices of Moslems in Terms of Maternal Care.

Health Practices of Moslems in Terms of their Maternal Care

Table 12 Mean and Descriptive Rating of Moslem Respondents According to Health Practices of Moslems in Terms of Maternal Care Maternal Care 1. Prenatal Check-up Average Weighted Mean 1.55
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Descriptive Rating Sometimes

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2. Family Planning 3. Consumes nutritious foods during pregnancy 4. Intake of vitamins. 5. Complete Immunizations 6. Listens to soft music during pregnancy. 7. Takes time to talk to your baby and stroke her abdomen. Grand Mean 1.43 1.79 1.82 1.84 1.43 1.73 1.66 Never Sometimes Sometimes Sometimes Never Sometimes Sometimes

Moslem Respondents According to Health Practices in Terms of their Maternal Care


Indicator 1 Indicator 2 Indicator 3 Indicator 4 Indicator 5 Indicator 6 Indicator 7 0 0.5 1.43 1.55 1.43 1.79 1.82 1.84

61
1.73 1 1.5 2 2.5 3

CENTRAL LUZON COLLEGE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY #1 CBMU, Upper Kalaklan, Olongapo City

College of Nursing and Allied Health Sciences

Analysis: Table 12 presents Mean and Descriptive Rating of Moslem Respondents According to Health Practices of Moslems in Terms of Maternal Care. It shows that Indicator 5 "Complete immunization" has a given mean of one and eighty-four (1.84); indicator 4 "Intake of vitamins" with a given mean of one and eighty-two (1.82); next to it is indicator 3 "Consumes nutritious foods during pregnancy" has a given mean of one and seventy-nine (1.79), followed by indicator 7 "Takes time to talk to your baby and stroke her abdomen" with a given mean of one and seventy-three (1.73);followed by indicator 1 "Prenatal check-up" with a given mean of one and fifty-five (1.55); and lastly both indicators 2 "Family Planning " and indicator 6 "Listens to soft music during pregnancy" has a given mean of one and forty-three (1.43). Indicators 1, 3, 5, and 7 has a descriptive rating of sometimes and indicators 2 and 6 has a descriptive rating of never. Therefore, with a grand mean one and sixty-six (1.66) and a descriptive rating of sometimes.

Interpretation:

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CENTRAL LUZON COLLEGE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY #1 CBMU, Upper Kalaklan, Olongapo City

College of Nursing and Allied Health Sciences


Moslems practice maternal care by doing Prenatal Check-up. They believe that this will help them complications during their pregnancy. They also consume nutritious foods during pregnancy believing that this will help the mother and the unborn child to be healthier during and after pregnancy. Moslems also practice vitamins intake because they believe that this will help the mother to cope up with the vitamins and minerals lost during pregnancy. Some Moslems also practice family planning maybe because they believe that having family planning will help in improving maternal health. Moslems seldom practice talking to their babies and stroking their babys abdomen because they believe that this wont affect the babys health. Last among the practices is listening to soft music during pregnancy maybe because they believe that this wont help in the health of their unborn child.

The table and graph below will present the Health Practices of Moslems in Terms of Child Care. Health Practices of Moslems in Terms of Child Care

Table 13 Mean and Descriptive Rating of Moslem Respondents According to Health Practices in Terms of Child Care Child Care 1. Practice Breast Feeding Average Weighted Mean 2.06 Descriptive Rating Sometimes

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CENTRAL LUZON COLLEGE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY #1 CBMU, Upper Kalaklan, Olongapo City

College of Nursing and Allied Health Sciences


2. Practice Bottle Feeding 3. Mixed Feeding 4. Bring the child for Clinic visit 5. Brings the child for immunization 6. Provides child with nutritious foods 7. Allow child to play 8. Employ discipline and rules Grand Mean 1.67 1.76 1.87 1.93 2.27 2.18 2.39 2.01 Sometimes Sometimes Sometimes Sometimes Sometimes Sometimes Sometimes Sometimes

Moslem Respondent According to Health Practices in Terms ofChild Care


Indicator 1 Indicator 2 Indicator 3 Indicator 4 Indicator 5 Indicator 6 Indicator 7 1.67 1.76 1.87 1.93 2.27 2.18 2.06

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CENTRAL LUZON COLLEGE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY #1 CBMU, Upper Kalaklan, Olongapo City

College of Nursing and Allied Health Sciences

Analysis: Table 13 presents the Mean and Descriptive Rating of Moslem Respondents According to Health Practices of Moslems in Terms of Child Care. The respondents rated indicator 8 Employ discipline and rules as their top priority with a mean of two and thirty-nine (2.39). Second is Indicator 6 Provides child with nutritious foods with a mean of two and twenty seven (2.27). Next is Indicator 7 Allow child to play with a mean of two and eighteen (2.18), followed by Indicator 1 "Practice breast feeding" with a mean of two and zero three (2.06). This is followed by Indicator 5 Brings child for immunization with a mean of one and ninety three (1.93), Indicator 4 Bring the child for clinic visit with a mean of one and eighty seven (1.87). Second to the last is Indicator 3 Mixed Feeding with a mean of one and seventy six (1.76). The last is Indicator 2 Practice bottle feeding with a mean of one and sixty seven (1.67). Therefore, with a grand mean of two and zero one (2.01), the Moslems rated child care as sometimes.

Interpretation:
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CENTRAL LUZON COLLEGE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY #1 CBMU, Upper Kalaklan, Olongapo City

College of Nursing and Allied Health Sciences


The researchers believed that as human nature, all people feed their children nutritious foods. It is always a priority as human beings. Child care is always essential as human beings, like Christian they also cherish their children much as their selves. In terms of feeding the child, breastfeeding is practice by most of them, one reason would be it will cost people nothing, and they believe that breastfeeding is a lot healthier than formulated ones. The researcher also believed that child care could widely affect their child's promotion of wellness, s an example, complete immunization as all people knew, that this is essential for a child, to serve as protection to their body and make their immunity strong, but by not being concerned with simple things like this might lead to some serious problems in later years of their children's life.

The table and graph below will present the Health Practices of Moslems in Terms of Medication.

Health Practices of Moslems in Terms of Medication

Table 14 Mean and Descriptive Rating of Moslem Respondents According to Health Practices of Moslems in Terms of Medication
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CENTRAL LUZON COLLEGE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY #1 CBMU, Upper Kalaklan, Olongapo City

College of Nursing and Allied Health Sciences


Medication 1. Uses herbal medication 2. Uses Generic Medicines 3. Uses Branded Medicines 4. Consult a physician for proper prescription 5. Self-medicate Grand Mean Average Weighted Mean 2.31 2.13 1.82 2.09 2.39 2.15 Descriptive Rating Sometimes Sometimes Sometimes Sometimes Sometimes Sometimes

Moslem Respondents According to Health Practicesin Terms of Medication


Indicator 1 Indicator 2 Indicator 3 Indicator 4 Indicator 5 0 0.5 1 1.82 2.09 2.39 1.5 2 2.5 3 2.31 2.13

Analysis: Table 14 presents the mean and descriptive rating of respondents according to health practices in terms of medication. In Moslem's view, medication practices is sometimes a factor that affects their health, with a grand mean of two and fifteen

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CENTRAL LUZON COLLEGE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY #1 CBMU, Upper Kalaklan, Olongapo City

College of Nursing and Allied Health Sciences


(2.15), in which indicator 5 "Self-Medication", is the highest rated, given a mean of two and thirty nine (2.39), followed by indicator 1 "Uses Herbal Medicines", with a mean of two and thirty one (2.31); next is indicator 2 "Uses Generic Medicines", with a mean of two and thirteen (2.13); then followed by indicator 4 "Consult physician for proper prescription.", with a mean of two (2.09), and last is indicator 3 "Uses Branded Medicines.", given a mean of one and eighty two (1.82). All indicators are in sometimes range, thus is not always a factor in their health promotion.

Interpretation: Self-medication is the practice of most people, as people are a bit knowledgeable and a bit more familiar with the different kinds of medications we have, they treat their own illness. As long as they can tolerate what they feel about their health condition, they won't bother seek help to a doctor or a health professional. By using herbal medicines, as all people know that it really cost less of your money or most of the times it will cost you nothing, but they believe that it is a lot more effective than those of medicines which are chemically made, thus help them improve their conditions. The researchers believed that Moslems view about healing is not

merely the usage of medicines but prayer is the most powerful of all.

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CENTRAL LUZON COLLEGE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY #1 CBMU, Upper Kalaklan, Olongapo City

College of Nursing and Allied Health Sciences


The table and graph below will present the Health Practices of Moslems in Terms of Lifestyle.

Health Practices of Moslems in Terms of Lifestyle

Table 15 Mean and Descriptive Rating of Moslem Respondents According to Health Practices of Moslems in Terms of Lifestyle Lifestyle 1. Smoking 2. Drinking alcoholic beverages 3. Exercise everyday 4. Monitor Weight 5. Watch diet intake Grand Mean Average Weighted Mean 1.78 1.84 1.76 1.58 1.61 1.71 Descriptive Rating Sometimes Sometimes Sometimes Sometimes Sometimes Sometimes

Moslem Respondents According to Health Practices in Terms of their Lifestyle


Indicator 1 Indicator 2 Indicator 3 1.78 1.84 1.76

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CENTRAL LUZON COLLEGE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY #1 CBMU, Upper Kalaklan, Olongapo City

College of Nursing and Allied Health Sciences

Analysis: Table 15 presents the mean and descriptive rating of Moslems health practices in terms of their lifestyle. In Moslems' view, on lifestyle is sometimes a factor that affects their health with a grand mean of one and seventy-one (1.71) in which, indicator 2 "Drinking alcoholic beverages" is rated as the highest of all given a mean of one and eighty-four (1.84), followed by indicator 1 "Smoking" with a mean of one and seventy-eight (1.78). Next is indicator 3 " Exercise every day" with a mean of one and seventy-six (1.76), followed by indicator 5 "Watch diet intake" with a mean of one and sixty-one (1.61). And indicator 4 "Monitor weight" is last on the list given a mean of one and fifty-eight (1.58). All indicators were in sometimes range.

Interpretation: The researchers believe that their area would likely to contribute for their lifestyle. As residents are so close to each other, they are likely to gather most of the
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CENTRAL LUZON COLLEGE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY #1 CBMU, Upper Kalaklan, Olongapo City

College of Nursing and Allied Health Sciences


time, then drink and smoke together. Their smoking and drinking habits is really a great factor that would affect their healthy condition and as well as their income. Moslems don't watch their monitor or diet as they believe that if they control their selves to eat much or less they will get sick or feel ill. The researcher believed that if habits like smoking or drinking alcohol will not be likely to be controlled or lessen, health problems would possibly occur in the later years of their life. Lifestyle greatly affect person's health.

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