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Danfoss A/S (PC-CMS / MwA), 03 - 2004 PG00A502 l
The purpose of thls manual ls to show some
examples of the use of Danfoss automatlc
controls for commerclal refrlgeratlon plants.
A slmple, hand-regulated plant ls used as the
startlng polnt of a step-by-step automatlon and a
short descrlptlon of the functlon of each control ls
glven.
Por addltlonal tralnlng materlal we refer to
http://rc.danfoss.com/Sw/PC_Tralnlng/Ln/|ndex.htm
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Danfoss A/S (PC-CMS / MwA), 03 - 2004 PG00A502 l
Contents Page
Hand-regulated refrlgeratlon plant ..................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2
Pefrlgeratlon plant wlth thermostatlc expanslon valve and alr-cooled condenser .......................................................................................................... 3
Pefrlgeratlon wlth Plnned evaporator ................................................................................................................................................................................................ 4
Thermostatlc expanslon valve ....................................................................................................................................................................................................... 5
Thermostatlc expanslon valve wlth dlstrlbutor ....................................................................................................................................................................... 5
Lxpanslon valves................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 6
Thermostatlc expanslon valve, method of operatlon ........................................................................................................................................................... 7
Thermostatlc expanslon valve wlth MOP charge.................................................................................................................................................................... 8
Comblned hlgh and low pressure control ................................................................................................................................................................................. 9
Low-pressure and Hlgh-pressure control .................................................................................................................................................................................. 9
Hlgh-pressure control, method of operatlon.........................................................................................................................................................................l0
Thermostat..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ll
Pllter drler ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ll
Slght glass ...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ll
Automatlc water valve....................................................................................................................................................................................................................l2
Plnned evaporator............................................................................................................................................................................................................................l3
Pefrlgeratlon plant wlth oll separator and heat exchanger......................................................................................................................................................l4
Oll separator .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................l5
Heat exchanger .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................l5
Pefrlgeratlon plant for a larger cold store .......................................................................................................................................................................................l6
Shut-on valve.....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................l7
Solenold valve....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................l7
Key dlagram, control current for refrlgeratlon plant, g. 20 .............................................................................................................................................l8
Motor starters ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................l9
Central refrlgeratlon plant for cold store temperatures above freezlng polnt ..................................................................................................................20
Lvaporatlng pressure regulator...................................................................................................................................................................................................2l
Check valve.........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................2l
Key dlagram, control current for refrlgeratlon plant g. 25 ..............................................................................................................................................22
Pefrlgeratlon plant for freezer dlsplay counter .............................................................................................................................................................................23
Dlnerentlal pressure control .........................................................................................................................................................................................................24
Crankcase pressure regulator.......................................................................................................................................................................................................25
Condenslng pressure regulator...................................................................................................................................................................................................25
Dlnerentlal pressure valve.............................................................................................................................................................................................................26
Lvaporator thermostat ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................26
Key dlagram, refrlgeratlon plant for freezer dlsplay counter, g. 29 .............................................................................................................................27
Maln wlrlng dlagram for contactors ..........................................................................................................................................................................................28
Pefrlgeratlon plant for ventllatlon alr ...............................................................................................................................................................................................29
Danfoss A/S (PC-CMS / MwA), 03 - 2004 PG00A502 2
ManuaI Automation of CommerciaI Refrigeration PIant
Hand-reguIated
refrigeration pIant
A hand-regulated refrlgeratlon plant ls usually
bullt up of these components:
Compressor (l)
Condenser (2)
Lvaporator (3)
|n order to malntaln the cold store temperature t
r

at the deslred level, lt ls necessary to equlp the
plant wlth ad[ustable valves (4) and (5) ln that
changes ln the loads on the evaporator and
condenser under varylng refrlgeratlon demands
can be reckoned on.
Por example, the plant wlll be unable to malntaln
the same temperature summer and wlnter wlth
permanently set regulatlng valves and a
contlnuously operatlng compressor. Thls can
easlly be shown graphlcally, as lllustrated ln g. l.
The full llnes represent summer operatlon and
the dotted llnes wlnter operatlon, (e.g.
condenslng temp. wlnter +25C, summer +35C).
The C-curves represent compressor capaclty,
whlch rlses wlth lncreaslng evaporatlng
temperature t
o
. The L-curves represent eva-
porator capaclty, whlch rlses wlth the lncreaslng
temperature dlnerence t
r
- t
o
between room
temperature (t
r
) and evaporatlng temperature
(t
o
). where the C-curve (wlnter operatlon) and
L-curve (summer operatlon) lntersect each other,
compressor, condenser and evaporator capacltles
are ln equlllbrlum.
As can be seen from g. l, the room temperature
wlll fall from t
r
to t
r
' when refrlgeratlon demand
falls from Q
o
ln summer to Q
o
' ln wlnter. To meet
thls condltlon the capacltles of the compressor,
condenser and evaporator must be ad[usted, for
example by regulatlng the compressor operatlon,
and by throttllng the water now to the condenser
and refrlgerant llquld now to the evaporator.
Plg. l
Danfoss A/S (PC-CMS / MwA), 03 - 2004 PG00A502 3
ManuaI Automation of CommerciaI Refrigeration PIant
Refrigeration pIant with
thermostatic expansion
vaIve and air-cooIed
condenser
|n thls plant an alr-cooled unlt has replaced the
water-cooled condenser. Alr-cooled condensers
are normally used where no coollng water ls
avallable or where the use of coollng water ls
forbldden.
Peplaclng the manual valve ahead of the
evaporator wlth a thermostatlc expanslon valve
(pos. l) ensures that the evaporator ls
contlnuously supplled wlth the amount of
refrlgerant necessary to keep a constant
superheat ln proportlon to the load.
Thls of course presupposes that the selected
expanslon valve sults the evaporator concerned.
A factor here ls that ln condltlons of maxlmum
load the expanslon valve supplles preclsely the
amount of refrlgerant the evaporator ls able to
evaporate. |n addltlon the superheat settlng of
the valve must match the evaporator.
Superheat ls generally understood as belng the
number of C the evaporator has mlnus the
bolllng polnt of the medlum at the exlstlng
pressure and wlth all llquld evaporated.
Superheat ln an evaporator ls dened as
t
l
- p
s
C superheat, where t
l
ls the temperature
measured at the polnt on the evaporator where
the expanslon valve sensor ls placed, and p
s
ls the
pressure measured at the same polnt. (The
relevant pressure ls converted to C).
Por further detalls on superheat, see page 7.
Plg. 2
Thermostatlc expanslon valve
Automatlc expanslon valve
Danfoss A/S (PC-CMS / MwA), 03 - 2004 PG00A502 4
ManuaI Automation of CommerciaI Refrigeration PIant
Refrigeration with Finned
evaporator
Thermostat type KP 6l (l) cuts the fans (2) ln and
out dependlng on the room temperature.
Thermostatlc expanslon valve type TL (3) wlth
external pressure equallzatlon regulates llquld
ln[ectlon ln the evaporator, dependent on the
superheat but lndependent of the pressure drop
across the evaporator.
Llquld dlstrlbutor type 69G (4) dlstrlbute refrl-
gerant llquld equally to the lndlvldual evapo-
rator sectlons.
The compressor ls cut ln and out on the low-
pressure slde of the comblned hlgh and low
pressure control type KP l5 (5) dependlng on the
suctlon pressure. |n addltlon, the hlgh-pressure
slde of thls control glves protectlon agalnst too
hlgh a condenslng pressure by cuttlng out the
compressor lf lt becomes necessary (e.g. when
the ventllator ls defected or the alrnow ls blocked
(dlrt)).
Slght glass type, SGN (6) lndlcates too hlgh
molsture content ln the refrlgerant and too llttle
now to the thermostatlc expanslon valve. The
lndlcator changes colour when the molsture
content ls too great. vapour bubbles ln the slght
glass can mean lnsumclent charge, lnsumclent
sub coollng or partlal clogglng of the stralner.
Plg. 3
Danfoss A/S (PC-CMS / MwA), 03 - 2004 PG00A502 5
ManuaI Automation of CommerciaI Refrigeration PIant
7hermostatic expansion
vaIve
Thermostatlc expanslon valve type T 2, the bulb
of whlch ls placed lmmedlately after the
evaporator, opens on rlslng superheat. Pressure
on the dlaphragm (l) lncreases as bulb
temperature lncreases and pressure under the
dlaphragm lncreases as the evaporatlng
temperature lncreases.
The pressure dlnerentlal, whlch corresponds to
the refrlgerant superheat, manlfests ltself as a
force, whlch trles to open the valve agalnst the
opposlte force of the sprlng (2). |f the dlnerentlal,
l.e. superheat, exceeds the sprlng force the valve
wlll open.
The orlce assembly, wlth orlce (3) and valve
cone (4) can be changed. To sult capaclty
requlrements, there are elght dlnerent slzes to
choose from.
Plg. 4
T 2
7hermostatic expansion
vaIve with distributor
Plg. 5
TL 5 + 69G
Dlstrlbutor type 69G ensures an equal dlstrl-
butlon of refrlgerant to the parallel sectlons of
the evaporator.
The dlstrlbutor can be lnstalled elther dlrect on
the thermostatlc expanslon valve as shown or ln
the llne lmmedlately after lt. A dlstrlbutor ought
always to be tted so that the llquld now through
the nozzle ln the dlstrlbutor plpes ls vertlcal. Thls
ensures that the enect of gravlty on llquld
dlstrlbutlon ls as llttle as posslble. All dlstrlbutlon
plpes must be exactly the same length.
Por evaporators wlth a large pressure drop,
thermostatlc expanslon valves wlth external
pressure equallzatlon must always be used.
Lvaporators wlth llquld dlstrlbutors wlll always
have a large pressure drop, therefore always use
external pressure equallzatlon.
Danfoss A/S (PC-CMS / MwA), 03 - 2004 PG00A502 6
ManuaI Automation of CommerciaI Refrigeration PIant
xpansion vaIves
Upper diagram:
The dlagram shows an evaporator, whlch ls fed by a
thermostatlc expanslon valve wlth lnternal pressure
equallzatlon.
The degree of openlng of the valve ls regulated by:
Pressure p
b
ln the bulb and caplllary tube actlng
on the upper slde of the dlaphragm and
determlned by the bulb temperature.
Pressure p
o
ln the valve dlscharge connectlon
actlng under the dlaphragm and determlned by
the evaporatlng temperature.
Sprlng pressure p
s
actlng under the dlaphragm
and manually ad[ustable.
|n the example shown, the pressure drop ln the
evaporator p ls measured ln C refrlgerant pressure
-l5 - (-20) 5C. Provlded that the valve sprlng has
been manually ad[usted to a pressure p
s

correspondlng to 4C, lt follows - ln order to achleve
equlllbrlum between the forces actlng over and
under the dlaphragm - that
p
b
p
o
+ p
s
~ -l5 + 4 -llC.
That ls, the refrlgerant has to be superheated by
- ll - (-20) 9C before the valve beglns to open.
Lower diagram:
The same evaporator coll, but thls tlme fed by a
thermostatlc expanslon valve wlth external Pressure
equallzatlon connected to the suctlon llne after the
bulb.
The degree of openlng of the valve ls now regulated
by:
Pressure p
b
ln the bulb and caplllary tube actlng
on the upper slde of the dlaphragm and
determlned by the bulb temperature.

Pressure p
o
- p ln the evaporator outlet actlng
under the dlaphragm and determlned by the
evaporatlng temperature and the pressure drop
ln the evaporator.
Sprlng pressure p
s
actlng under the dlaphragm
and manually ad[ustable.
Provlded that, as stated above, pressure drop p ln
the evaporator corresponds to 5C and sprlng
pressure p
s
ln the valve to 4C refrlgerant pressure, lt
follows that p
b
p
o
- p + p
s
~ -l5 - 5 + 4 -l6C.
That ls, the refrlgerant now has to be superheated
by -l6 - (-20) 4C before the valve beglns to open.
The amount of charge ln the evaporator and hence
lts capaclty become hlgher slnce a smaller portlon of
the evaporator surface ls used for superheatlng.
Plg. 6
ConcIusion:
Thermostatlc expanslon valves wlth external pressure equallzlng must always be used for evaporators wlth a
large pressure drop. Lvaporators wlth a llquld dlstrlbutor wlll always have a large pressure drop, therefore
always use external pressure equallzatlon.
Danfoss A/S (PC-CMS / MwA), 03 - 2004 PG00A502 7
ManuaI Automation of CommerciaI Refrigeration PIant
7hermostatic expansion
vaIve, method of operation
Plg. 7
The thermostatlc expanslon valve ls controlled by
the dlnerence between bulb temperature t
b
and
evaporatlng temperature t
o
. The valve opens
when the temperature dlnerentlal rlses, t
b
- t
o

t, l.e. when refrlgerant superheat rlses the valve
wlll have a larger openlng rate. See g. 6.
Solld curve p
o
and dotted curve p
b
glves vapour
pressure for the refrlgerant and charge
respectlvely. Chaln-dotted curve p
o
+ p
s

represents the refrlgerant vapour pressure curve
p
o
onset ln parallel wlth a constant sprlng
pressure p
s
, the factory settlng for example.
At a glven evaporatlng temperature, t
o
, a pressure
p
o
+ p
s
acts under the valve dlaphragm and trles
to close the valve. Pressure p
b
acts over the
dlaphragm and trles to open the valve.
The gure shows equlllbrlum between p
o
+ p
s

and p
b
at evaporatlng temperature t
o
and bulb
temperature t
b
respectlvely. Practlcally speaklng,
dlnerentlal t
b
- t
o
, the statlc superheat, ls the
same wlthln the entlre worklng range of the valve
from t
o
' to t
o
".
That ls to say, lrrespectlve of the evaporatlng
temperature operated wlth lnslde the worklng
range, the thermostatlc expanslon valve wlll
regulate llquld ln[ectlon so that refrlgerant
superheat after the evaporator ls held to the
value determlned by sprlng pressure p
s
. |f the
dlnerentlal between bulb temperature t
b
and
evaporatlng temperature t
o
ls less than the statlc
superheat t, the valve ls closed (t
b
- t
o
< t, p
b
<
p
o
+ p
s
)
|f the dlnerentlal between bulb temperature t
b

and evaporatlng temperature t
o
ls greater than
the statlc superheat t, the valve ls open (t
b
- t
o
>
t, p
b
> p
o
+ p
s
).
|f the dlnerentlal between bulb temperature t
b

and evaporatlng temperature t
o
ls equal to the
statlc superheat t, the valve ls [ust about to
open or [ust about to close (t
b
- t
o
t, p
b

p
o
+ p
s
).
Danfoss A/S (PC-CMS / MwA), 03 - 2004 PG00A502 8
ManuaI Automation of CommerciaI Refrigeration PIant
7hermostatic expansion
vaIve with MDP charge
Plg. 8
|t can sometlmes be deslrable to use a
thermostatlc expanslon valve wlth a llmlted
worklng range - for example, ln refrlgeratlon
plant wlth only one evaporator where coollng
from a completely or partlally temperature
equallzed condltlon occurs only as an exceptlon
(after repalr or defrostlng).
Por such plants lt may be cheaper to use a smaller
compressor motor dlmensloned ln accordance
wlth the load after coollng down. However,
durlng coollng down such a motor wlll become
overloaded and cut-out on the thermal overload
protectlon.
To ellmlnate thls rlsk, a thermostatlc expanslon
valve wlth a MOP (Maxlmum Operatlng Pressure)
charge can be used. Thls pressure-llmlted valve
wlll only begln to open at a low evaporatlng
temperature, t
MOP
, slnce the charge ls adapted to
produce a bend ln the vapour pressure curve P
b
.
Thls means that statlc superheat t ls very hlgh at
evaporatlng temperatures hlgher than t
MOP
, l.e. ln
practlce the valve wlll remaln closed untll the
compressor has reduced the suctlon pressure
sumclently to ensure that the electrlc motor ls
not overloaded.
Danfoss A/S (PC-CMS / MwA), 03 - 2004 PG00A502 9
ManuaI Automation of CommerciaI Refrigeration PIant
Combined high and Iow
pressure controI
Low-pressure side (LP):
The LP connector (l0) ls connected to the suctlon
slde of the compressor. when pressure falls on
the low-pressure slde the clrcult between
termlnals 2 and 3 ls broken. Turnlng the LP
splndle (l) clockwlse ad[usts the unlt to cut out
(break the clrcult between termlnals 2 and 3) at a
hlgher pressure. Turnlng the dlnerentlal splndle
(2) clockwlse ad[usts the unlt to cut ln agaln
(make the clrcult between termlnals 2 and 3) at a
smaller dlnerentlal.
Start pressure stop pressure + dlnerentlal.
LP slgnal functlon between termlnals A and 8.
High-pressure side (HP):
The HP connector (ll) ls connected to the
dlscharge slde of the compressor. when pressure
rlses, on the hlgh-pressure slde the clrcult
between termlnals 2 and 3 ls broken. Turnlng the
HP splndle (5) clockwlse ad[usts the unlt to cut
out (break the clrcult between termlnals 2 and 3)
at a hlgher pressure. The dlnerentlal ls xed.
Stop pressure start pressure + dlnerentlal.
Low-pressure and High-
pressure controI
Plg. 9
KP l5
Comblned hlgh and low pressure control
type KP l5 has a slngle-pole changeover
swltch (l2).
Plg. l0
Low-pressure controI type kP 1
Contalns a slngle pole changeover swltch (SPDT),
whlch breaks the clrcult between termlnals 2 and
3 when pressure ln the bellows element (9) falls
(on falllng suctlon pressure), l.e. the connector
(l0) must be connected to the suctlon slde of the
compressor.
Turnlng the range splndle (l) clockwlse ad[usts
the unlt to cut ln - to make the clrcult between
termlnals 2 and 3 at a hlgher pressure. Turnlng
the dlnerentlal splndle (2) clockwlse ad[usts the
unlt to cut out agaln - to break the clrcult
between termlnals l and 2 at a smaller
dlnerentlal.
Start pressure stop pressure + dlnerentlal.
High-pressure controI type kP 5
|s bullt up ln the same way. 8ellows, sprlng and
scale are of course sultable for the hlgher
worklng pressure. |n thls case, the swltch breaks
the clrcult between termlnals l and 2 when
pressure rlses ln the bellows element (9), l.e.
when condenslng pressure rlses (the connector
must be connected to the dlscharge slde of the
compressor ahead of the shut-on valve).
Turnlng the range splndle clockwlse ad[usts the
unlt to cut out - to break the clrcult between
termlnals l and 2 at a hlgher pressure. Turnlng
the dlnerentlal splndle (2) clockwlse ad[usts the
unlt to cut ln agaln - to make the clrcult between
termlnals l and 2 at a smaller dlnerentlal.
Stop pressure start pressure + dlnerentlal.
Danfoss A/S (PC-CMS / MwA), 03 - 2004 PG00A502 l0
ManuaI Automation of CommerciaI Refrigeration PIant
High-pressure controI,
method of operation
Hlgh-pressure control type KP 5 ls connected to
the hlgh-pressure slde of the refrlgeratlon plant
and stops the compressor when the condenslng
pressure becomes too hlgh. The control contalns
a pressure-controlled slngle- pole changeover
swltch (SPDT) where the contact posltlon
depends on the pressure ln the bellows (9). See
g. ll, drawlngs A and 8.
vla the ad[ustlng splndle (l) the maln sprlng (7)
can be set to exert a sultable counter- pressure to
the bellows pressure. The down-ward resultant of
these two forces ls transferred by a lever (2l) to
the maln arm (3), one end of whlch ls tted wlth a
tumbler (l6).
The tumbler ls held ln posltlon on the maln arm
by a compresslve force, whlch can be ad[usted by
uslng the splndle (2) to change the pull from the
dlnerentlal sprlng (8).
The forces from the bellows pressure, maln sprlng
and dlnerentlal sprlng are thus transferred to the
tumbler (l6), whlch wlll tllt when the forces come
out of equlllbrlum because of changes ln the
bellows pressure, l.e. the condenslng pressure.
The maln arm (3) can only take up two posltlons.
|n one posltlon a force ls exerted on each end of
the arm and creates opposlte torques around lts
plvot (23). See drawlng A. |f the bellows pressure
decreases, the maln sprlng exerts an lncreaslng
force on the maln arm. Plnally, when the counter
torque from the dlnerentlal sprlng ls overcome,
the maln arm tllts and the tumbler (l6)
lnstantaneously change posltlon so that the
compresslve force of the dlnerentlal sprlng lles
on a llne near the arm plvot polnt (23). The
counter-torque from the dlnerentlal sprlng thus
becomes almost zero. See g. ll, drawlng 8.
The bellows pressure must now rlse to overcome
the force from the maln sprlng because the
sprlng force torque around the plvot polnt (23)
must also fall to zero before the snap system can
return to lts lnltlal posltlon.
On falllng bellows pressure (see g. ll, drawlng
A), the maln arm moves lnstantaneously to the
posltlon shown ln g.ll, drawlng 8 when the
bellows pressure ls reduced to the stop pressure
mlnus the set dlnerentlal pressure.
Conversely, the maln arm moves lnstantaneously
from the g. ll, drawlng 8 posltlon to the g. ll,
drawlng A posltlon when the bellows pressure
has rlsen to the stop pressure start pressure +
dlnerentlal pressure. See also text for gs. 9 and
l0 regardlng ad[ustment of type KP.
The contact system ls speclally deslgned so that
the make contact travels at the lnltlal speed of
the snap actlon untll lt reaches the xed contact,
whlle the break contact separates from the xed
contact at the maxlmum speed of the snap
actlon. The system has been made posslble by
the use of a small strlker (l9) and accurately
matched contact sprlngs.
The contacts (20) make wlth a smaller force than
they break, whlch means that ln practlce bounce
durlng make ls ellmlnated. The holdlng force
durlng make ls exceptlonally hlgh. At the same
tlme the system glves an lnstantaneous break
functlon so that the holdlng force ls malntalned
l00% rlght up to break. Por these reasons the
system ls able to operate wlth hlgh currents and
lts functlon ls not lmpalred by shocks. Compared
wlth tradltlonal deslgns, the system has glven
exceptlonally good results ln practlce.
Plg. ll
Danfoss A/S (PC-CMS / MwA), 03 - 2004 PG00A502 ll
ManuaI Automation of CommerciaI Refrigeration PIant
7hermostat
Plg. l2
KP 6l
Thermostat type KP 6l, whlch has a slngle pole
changeover swltch (l2), makes the clrcult
between termlnals 2 and 3 when bulb
temperature rlses, l.e. when room temperature
rlses.
Turnlng the range splndle (l) clockwlse, lncreases
the cut-ln and cut-out temperature of the unlt.
Turnlng the dlnerentlal splndle (2) clockwlse
decreases the dlnerentlal between cut-ln and
cut-out temperatures.
FiIter drier
Plg. l3
DML / DCL
Pllter drler type DML / DCL has a slntered charge,
a so-called solld core (3). Thls ls pressed by the
sprlng (2) agalnst the polyester mad (4) and
corrugated perforated plate (5).
The charge or core ln the lter drler conslsts of
materlal whlch enectlvely removes molsture,
harmfull aclds, forelgn partlcles, sedlment and
the products of oll breakdown.
Sight gIass
Plg. l4
SG|
Slght glass type SG| / SGN has a colour lndlcator
(l) that changes from green to yellow when the
molsture content of the refrlgerant exceeds the
crltlcal value. The colour lndlcatlon ls reverslble,
l.e. the colour changes back from yellow to green
when the plant has been drled, e.g. by replaclng
the lter drler.
Slght glass type SG| ls for CPC, slght glass type
SGN ls for HPC and HCPC (P 22).
Danfoss A/S (PC-CMS / MwA), 03 - 2004 PG00A502 l2
ManuaI Automation of CommerciaI Refrigeration PIant
Automatic water vaIve
Plg. l5
wvPX
Automatlc water valve type wvPX opens on
rlslng pressure ln the bellows element (l), l.e.
when condenslng pressure lncreases (the
connector on the bellows houslng must be
connected to the refrlgerant slde of the
condenser).
Turnlng the hand wheel (2) counter clock-wlse
tlghtens the sprlng, whlch means that the valve
wlll open at a hlgher condenslng pressure. |f the
hand wheel ls turned clock-wlse the valve wlll
open at a lower condenslng pressure.
Danfoss A/S (PC-CMS / MwA), 03 - 2004 PG00A502 l3
ManuaI Automation of CommerciaI Refrigeration PIant
Finned evaporator
Plg. l6
The nned evaporator ls deslgned for forced alr
clrculatlon over the parallel evaporator colls. The
alr clrculatlon should always be on the counter
now prlnclple so that the evaporator colls are
unlformly loaded. Therefore the relatlon between
alrnow and refrlgerant now ought always to be as
shown ln the upper gure.
|n thls way the largest temperature dlnerence
(see rlght hand gure) ls ensured between the alr
t
l
and the evaporator surface t
f
at the refrlgerant
outlet of the evaporator. That ls to say, refrlgerant
superheat t wlll be rapldly anected by a change
ln the temperature of the lncomlng alr (the load)
and wlll thereby rapldly glve a slgnal to the
thermostatlc expanslon valve to change the
llquld ln[ectlon.
|t ls lmportant that the evaporator colls are
unlformly loaded. Por example, wlth a downward
vertlcal alrnow through the evaporator, the
lncomlng alr wlll load the rst evaporator colls
more than subsequent colls. The rear colls wlll be
the least loaded and wlll therefore determlne to
what degree the thermostatlc expanslon valve
opens. |f a small amount of refrlgerant llquld from
the rear evaporator colls passes the polnt where
the bulb ls located, the valve wlll close desplte
the fact that the rst colls requlre a supply of
refrlgerant llquld because of a larger load, l.e.
brlsker evaporatlon.
The thermostatlc expanslon valve bulb must not
be lnnuenced by false enects, such as alrnow
through the evaporator and the bulb must
therefore be placed on the suctlon llne outslde
thls alrnow. |f thls ls not posslble, the bulb has to
be lsolated.
Note that a thermostatlc expanslon
valve wlth external pressure
equallzatlon ls used.
Danfoss A/S (PC-CMS / MwA), 03 - 2004 PG00A502 l4
ManuaI Automation of CommerciaI Refrigeration PIant
Refrigeration pIant with
oiI separator and heat
exchanger
Plg. l7
|n prlnclple, ln refrlgeratlon plant the oll should
remaln ln the compressor. Out ln the system lt
wlll do more harm than good because lt wlll
lmpalr the capaclty of the evaporator and
condenser. Also, lf the oll level ln the crankcase
becomes too low, there wlll be a rlsk of
lnsumclent compressor lubrlcatlon.
The best protectlon agalnst these dlsadvantages
ls the lnstallatlon of an emclent oll separator, type
OU8 (l).
Purthermore, a heat exchanger type HL (2) oners
the followlng advantages:
Superheatlng the suctlon gas provldes
greater protectlon agalnst llquld knock ln
the compressor and counteracts formatlon of
condensate or frost on the surface of
unlnsulated suctlon llnes.
Sub coollng the refrlgerant llquld counter-acts
the formatlon of vapour, whlch wlll reduce the
capaclty of the thermostatlc expanslon valve.
Operatlng economy wlll often be lmproved
because sources of loss such as un-
evaporated llquld drops ln the suctlon gas
and lnsumclent sub coollng of the refrlgerant
llquld are completely or partlally ellmlnated.
Danfoss A/S (PC-CMS / MwA), 03 - 2004 PG00A502 l5
ManuaI Automation of CommerciaI Refrigeration PIant
DiI separator
Plg. l8
OU8
Hot hlgh-pressure gas ls supplled to the oll
separator type OU8 through the connector (l).
The gas then nows around the oll tank (2) and
through the lter (3) where the oll ls separated.
The vapour, now poor ln oll, leaves the oll
separator through the upper connector (4).
Separated oll ls collected ln the bottom of the oll
tank (2), whlch ls kept heated by the lncomlng
vapour. |n thls way the separated oll ls stored ln a
warm condltlon, l.e. wlth the lowest posslble
refrlgerant content.
A noat valve (5) regulates oll return to the
compressor.
Heat exchanger
Plg. l9
HL
Heat exchanger type HL has been deslgned wlth
a vlew to achlevlng maxlmum heat transmlsslon
at mlnlmum pressure drop. The outer splral-
formed chamber (4) leads hot refrlgerant llquld ln
a now counter to the now of cold refrlgerant
llquld ln the lnner chamber (3). 8ullt ln to the
lnner chamber are onset n sectlons.
Heat exchanger type HL ls manufactured ln brass
and copper and has very small dlmenslons ln
relatlon to lts heat transmlsslon capaclty. The
splral formed outer chamber (4) forces the hot
refrlgerant llquld over the entlre heat
transmlsslon surface and prevents the formatlon
of condensate on the outer [acket. The bullt-ln
onset n sectlons ln the lnner chamber (3)
produce turbulent now ln the refrlgerant vapour.
Heat transmlsslon from llquld to vapour ls thus
very enectlve. At the same tlme, pressure drop ls
kept down to a reasonable level.
Danfoss A/S (PC-CMS / MwA), 03 - 2004 PG00A502 l6
ManuaI Automation of CommerciaI Refrigeration PIant
Refrigeration pIant for a
Iarger coId store
Plg. 20
Complete refrlgeratlon plant for a larger cold store wlth temperature above freezlng polnt
To ensure enectlve shut-on of the llquld llne
durlng compressor standstlll perlods, solenold
valve LvP (l) has been lnstalled slnce bulb
temperature may be expected to rlse more
rapldly than evaporatlng temperature and cause
the thermostatlc expanslon valve to open.
Protectlon agalnst overcharglng the evaporator
durlng compressor standstlll perlods ls provlded
by maklng the solenold valve close at the same
tlme as the compressor ls stopped.
The llquld llne ls equlpped wlth type G8C (2) or
8ML manual shut-on valves to make replacement
of the lter drler easy.
Pressure on the hlgh and low-pressure sldes of
the compressor can be read on the pressure
gauges shown. The pressure gauges can be shut
on wlth the three-way valves type 8MT (3).
Danfoss A/S (PC-CMS / MwA), 03 - 2004 PG00A502 l7
ManuaI Automation of CommerciaI Refrigeration PIant
SoIenoid vaIve
Plg. 2l
LvP
Solenold valve type LvP ls a servo-controlled
electromagnetlc shut-on valve. Through
equallzlng holes (2) the upper slde of the
dlaphragm (l) ls pressure-equallzed wlth the
valve lnlet pressure on the underslde. when
current energlzes the coll (3) the pllot orlce (4) ls
opened. Thls orlce has a larger through-now
area than the total area of the equallzlng holes.
Pressure over the dlaphragm ls reduced by the
now through the pllot orlce to the valve outlet
slde and the larger lnlet pressure on the
underslde llfts the dlaphragm. when the coll ls
de-energlzed, the pllot orlce closes and the
dlaphragm ls drawn onto the valve seat as the
pressure over lt lncrease through the equallzlng
holes.
Shut-o vaIve
Plg. 22
8M
Shut-on valves types 8M have a trlple dlaphragm
seal (l) of stalnless steel. A thrust shoe (2)
prevents dlrect contact wlth the splndle (3). The
sprlng (4) together wlth the pre-stressed
dlaphragm ls able to hold the valve open at
operatlng pressures down to P
e
-l bar.
The counter seat ln the cover (5) prevents the
lngress of molsture. The valves are avallable ln
stralght, and
l
/
4
" T verslons. Plow through the slde
port of the T verslon can be shut on leavlng the
end ports permanently open.
Danfoss A/S (PC-CMS / MwA), 03 - 2004 PG00A502 l8
ManuaI Automation of CommerciaI Refrigeration PIant
key diagram, controI current
for refrigeration pIant, g. 20
Plg. 23
The dlagram must be read from top to bottom
and from left to rlght. The lndlvldual clrcults are
drawn so that no leads cross. Power-consumlng
components are shown at the bottom of the
dlagram. These lnclude relay colls ln the motor
starters, solenolds colls, regulatlon motors, etc.
Motor starter thermal relays P are shown ad[acent
to the contacts between termlnals 95 and 96.
Manual reset S ls also shown. Pelay auxlllary
contacts K between termlnals l3 and l4 are
shown at the top of the dlagram. Deslgnatlons
l3, l4, 95, 96, etc. correspond to those contalned
ln Danfoss lnformatlon on contactors and motor
starters.
Pelay colls Kl serve the auxlllary contacts
between termlnals l3 and l4. The auxlllary
contacts are drawn ln thelr de-energlzed coll
posltlon. Under the neutral wlre and each relay
coll there ls an lndlcatlon of ln, whlch clrcult the
assoclated auxlllary contacts, can be found.
Termlnal deslgnatlon l3-l4 ls, by denltlon,
always a make contact (NO), whlle termlnal
deslgnatlon ll-l2 ls always a break contact (NC).
The key dlagram should be read as follows: when,
on rlslng cold store temperature, thermostat type
KP 6l cuts ln (when swltches Sl and S2 are made)
between termlnals 2 and 3, relays Kl and K2 ln
motor starters type C|T pull ln and start the
evaporator fans. At the same tlme the assoclated
auxlllary contacts ln clrcults 3 and 4 are made.
Pelay K3 ln compressor motor starter type C|T
pulls ln lf the comblned hlgh and low pressure
control type KP l5 ls made between termlnals 2
and 3, and lf swltch S3 ls made. The compressor
starts and at the same tlme the auxlllary contact
ln clrcult 5 connects current to coll L ln the LvP
solenold valve ln the llquld llne. The solenold
valve opens and refrlgerant llquld ls ln[ected lnto
the evaporator, regulated by thermostatlc
expanslon valve type TL.
Danfoss A/S (PC-CMS / MwA), 03 - 2004 PG00A502 l9
ManuaI Automation of CommerciaI Refrigeration PIant
Motor starters
Plg. 24
The Danfoss motor starter range up to 420 A ls
made up of modules. |t conslsts of a baslc module
(contactor type Cl) onto whlch up to four
auxlllary contact blocks (type C8) can be cllpped
as necessary. There ls also a range of thermal
relays (type T|). The left-hand dlagram shows a
motor starter wlth start- stop / reset functlon. The
start contact (type C8-S) carrles the termlnal
deslgnatlon l3-l4. The rlght-hand dlagram shows
a motor starter wlth stop/reset functlon,
controlled vla a thermostat, pressure control, or
slmllar.
The motor starters are equlpped wlth a thermal
relay havlng three lndlrectly heated blmetals.
Through a cut-out mechanlsm the blmetals break
the bounce-free swltch between termlnals 95
and 96 ln the event of overloadlng. Large current
asymmetry between the three motor phases
actlvates a bullt-ln dlnerentlal cut-out, whlch
ensures an accelerated trlp - as dlstlnct from what
occurs under a normal symmetrlcal overload. The
cut-out ls partly temperature-compensated, up
to a temperature of 35C lt compensates for any
rlse ln the amblent temperature not arlslng from
overloadlng.
The motor starters are avallable ln several
verslons. The examples shown are tted wlth a
manually lockable stop and reset for the thermal
relay, l.e. the starters must be manually reset after
thermal cut-out.
The modules are based on thermoplastlc (C|) and
8akellte/thermoplastlc (T|), and all maln and
auxlllary contacts are made of a speclal sllver
alloy. All steel parts are enectlvely corroslon
protected.
Soft starter type MC|| and clrcult breaker type CT|
are also avallable from Danfoss.
Danfoss A/S (PC-CMS / MwA), 03 - 2004 PG00A502 20
ManuaI Automation of CommerciaI Refrigeration PIant
CentraI refrigeration pIant
for coId store temperatures
above freezing point
Plg. 25
Temperature and relatlve humldlty play a
slgnlcant role ln the keeplng of foodstuns and
the varlous categorles of ware must be stored ln
the most favourable condltlons. There ls use
therefore for cold stores havlng dlnerent
temperatures and humldltles, not only the room
temperature but also the evaporatlng
temperature must be under control.
|n the example shown, the followlng
temperatures mlght be consldered:


The room temperature ln all 3 cold stores are
controlled wlth KP-62 thermostats openlng and
closlng the LvP solenold valves.
Two evaporatlng temperature regulators type
KvP (l) throttle the suctlon llne after the
evaporator ln the +8C and +5C stores so that
the evaporatlng temperatures are malntalned at
+3C and -5C respectlvely.
Comblned hlgh and low pressure control type KP
l5 (2) cuts the compressor ln and out at a sultably
low suctlon pressure to malntaln evaporatlng
temperature ln the 0C store at -l0C.
Durlng compressor standstlll, check valve type
NPv (3) prevents refrlgerant from the evaporators
ln the +8C and +5C stores condenslng ln the
coldest evaporator, l.e. the one ln the 0C store.
Check valve type NPv (4) anords protectlon
agalnst refrlgerant condenslng ln the oll
separator and compressor top cover lf these
components become colder than the evaporator
durlng plant standstlll perlods.
Poom temp. Lvaporatlng temp.
vegetable store +8C +3C
Sllced meat and
salad store
+5C -5C
Meat store 0C -l0C
Danfoss A/S (PC-CMS / MwA), 03 - 2004 PG00A502 2l
ManuaI Automation of CommerciaI Refrigeration PIant
vaporating pressure
reguIator
Plg. 26
KvP
Lvaporatlng pressure regulator type KvP opens
when pressure rlses on lts lnlet slde, l.e. when
pressure ln the evaporator rlses (lncreaslng load).
Turnlng the regulatlng screw (l) clockwlse
compresses the sprlng (5) and lncreases the
openlng pressure, l.e. evaporatlng temperature
rlses. The regulator has a bellows (l0) of the same
dlameter as the valve plate (2). Thls means that
pressure varlatlons on the outlet slde of the
regulator have no enect on the automatlc
regulatlon of the degree of openlng slnce
pressure on the top of the valve plate ls balanced
by pressure on the bellows. The regulator also
lncorporates a damplng devlce (ll) so that
pressure pulsatlons ln the plant do not anect the
functlon of the regulator.
To make ad[ustment of the valve easler, lt ls tted
wlth a speclal pressure gauge connectlon (9),
whlch makes lt posslble to t or remove a
pressure gauge wlthout rst havlng to empty the
suctlon llne and evaporator.
Check vaIve
Plg. 27
NPv
Check valve type NPv ls avallable ln stralght or
angle verslons wlth nare as well as solder
connectlons. Solely the pressure drop controls
the functlon of the valve across lt.
/37TUSBJHIUXBZWFSTJPO
The valve plate ls tted to a brake plston (l),
whlch ls held agalnst the valve seat by a weak
sprlng (2). when the valve opens, the volume
behlnd the brake plston becomes smaller. An
equallzlng hole (slot) allows the refrlgerant to
slowly escape to the outlet slde of the valve. |n
thls way the movement of the plston ls broken,
an arrangement that makes the check valve well
sulted for llnes where pressure pulsatlons can
occur.
Danfoss A/S (PC-CMS / MwA), 03 - 2004 PG00A502 22
ManuaI Automation of CommerciaI Refrigeration PIant
key diagram, controI current
for refrigeration pIant g. 25
Plg. 28
Thermostat type KP 62 ln the +8C room controls
solenold valve Ll type LvP ln the llquld llne whlle
the two other thermostats type KP 62 ln the +5C
and 0C rooms respectlvely control motor starters
Kl and K3 type C|T for the evaporator fans, and
solenold valves K2 and K3 type LvP ln the llquld
llnes.
Comblned hlgh and low pressure control type KP
l5 controls motor starter K4 type C|T for the
compressor motor.
A condltlon for thls functlon ls that manual
swltches Sl, S2, S3 and S4 must be made.
The compressor motor ls thus only lndlrectly
controlled by the room thermostats and ls able,
for example, to run for some tlme after all the
thermostats have cut out.
However, slnce lt ls unllkely that all the room
thermostats wlll cut out at the same tlme, thls
form of control wlll result ln some after-eva-
poratlon, whlch can be advantageous as regards
llquld hammer ln the compressor but
dlsadvantageous as regards the end of a
refrlgeratlon perlod. when a room thermostat
cuts out, sllght evaporatlon wlll stlll contlnue and
the charge ln the evaporator concerned wlll
become smaller. when the room thermostat cuts
ln agaln, the enect of the smaller charge wlll be
to make lt more dlmcult for un-evaporated
refrlgerant to enter the suctlon llne durlng the
sudden prlmlng at the beglnnlng of the
evaporator-operatlng perlod.
Danfoss A/S (PC-CMS / MwA), 03 - 2004 PG00A502 23
ManuaI Automation of CommerciaI Refrigeration PIant
Refrigeration pIant for
freezer dispIay counter
Plg. 29
As thls plant operates most of the tlme at low
evaporatlng temperatures, lnterrupted only by
automatlc defrostlng once or twlce every 24
hours, lt ls advantageous to have an electrlc
compressor motor of a slze correspondlng to
normal operatlng condltlons, l.e. relatlvely small
load at low suctlon pressure.
However, after a defrostlng thls small motor
would be overloaded and there would be a rlsk of
motor burn-out. As a safeguard agalnst thls rlsk a
crankcase pressure regulator type KvL (l) ls
lnstalled whlch rst opens when suctlon pressure
ln front of the compressor has been reduced
sumclently to avold overloadlng the motor.
Pegulatlng system KvP (2) + NPD (3) ls used to
malntaln a constant and sumclently hlgh
condenslng pressure ln the recelver on alr-cooled
condensers at low amblent temperatures.
Durlng wlnter operatlon the amblent tempe-
rature falls and wlth lt the condenslng pressure of
the alr-cooled condenser. The KvP regulates
dependent on the lnlet pressure and beglns to
throttle when the pressure drops below the set
value. As a consequence, the condenser becomes
partly charged wlth llquld and lts enectlve area ls
reduced. |n thls way the requlred condenslng
pressure ls re-establlshed.
Slnce the actual regulatlng task durlng wlnter
operatlon ls to malntaln the recelver pressure at a
sultably hlgh level, the KvP ls comblned wlth a
type NPD dlnerentlal pressure valve lnstalled ln
the bypass llne shown. The NPD beglns to open
at a dlnerentlal pressure of l.4 bars. when the
condenslng pressure falls, the KvP beglns to
throttle. Thls lncreases the total pressure drop
across the condenser + KvP. when thls pressure
drop reaches l.4 bars, the NPD beglns to open
and thus ensures that the recelver pressure ls
malntalned.
As a rule-of-thumb, lt can be assumed that the
pressure ln the recelver ls equal to the pressure
set on the KvP mlnus l bar.
Durlng summer operatlon, when the KvP ls fully
open, the total pressure drop across the
condenser and KvP ls less than l.4 bars. Therefore
the NPD remalns closed.
The charge can collect ln the recelver durlng
summer operatlon. Therefore the plant must be
equlpped wlth a sumclently large recelver. The
KvP can also be used as a rellef valve between
the hlgh-pressure slde and low pressure slde to
protect the hlgh pressure slde agalnst too hlgh a
pressure (safety functlon).
The pressure-lubrlcated compressor wlth oll
pump ls protected agalnst oll fallure by
dlnerentlal pressure control type MP 55 (4). The
control stops the compressor lf the dlnerentlal
between the oll pressure and suctlon pressure ln
the crankcase becomes too low.
A type 0778 thermostat ls lnstalled ln the counter,
wlth lts sensor located ln the cold room. |f the
temperature rlses above the set value, a slgnal
lamp llghts up.
Danfoss A/S (PC-CMS / MwA), 03 - 2004 PG00A502 24
ManuaI Automation of CommerciaI Refrigeration PIant
DierentiaI pressure controI
Plg. 30
MP 55
Dlnerentlal pressure control type MP 55 ls used as
a safety pressure control on pressure-lubrlcated
refrlgeratlon compressors. After a xed tlme
delay the control stops the compressor ln the
event of oll fallure.
The oll pressure element "O|L (l) ls connected to
the oll pump outlet and the low-pressure
element "LP (2) ls connected to the compressor
crankcase. |f the dlnerentlal between oll pressure
and pressure ln the crankcase becomes less than
the value set on the control, current to the tlme
relay ls cut ln (contact T
l
- T
2
made, see wlrlng
dlagram).
|f contact T
l
- T
2
remalns made for a lengthy
perlod because of a fall ln pressure ln relatlon to
the pressure ln the crankcase (suctlon pressure),
the tlme relay cuts out the control current to the
compressor motor starter (tlme relay contact
changes over from A to 8, l.e. control current ls
broken between L and M).
The mlnlmum permlsslble dlnerentlal pressure,
l.e. the mlnlmum oll pressure at whlch under
normal operatlon the dlnerentlal pressure control
sustalns current to the tlme relay cut on (contact
T
l
- T
2
broken), can be set on the pressure
ad[ustment dlsc (3). Clockwlse rotatlon lncreases
the dlnerentlal, l.e. lncreases the mlnlmum oll
pressure at whlch the compressor can stlll run.
The contact dlnerentlal ls xed at 0.2 bars.
Therefore, current to the tlme relay wlll be rst
cut on durlng start, when the oll pressure ls 0.2
bars hlgher than the mlnlmum allowable
dlnerentlal pressure. Thls means that at
compressor start the oll pump must be capable
of lncreaslng the oll pressure to 0.2 bars more
than the set mlnlmum permlsslble oll pressure
before the end of the tlme delay. Contact T
l
- T
2

must break so qulckly after start that the tlme
relay never reaches lt's A to 8 changeover polnt
(break between L and M). See also key dlagram,
g. 35.
Danfoss A/S (PC-CMS / MwA), 03 - 2004 PG00A502 25
ManuaI Automation of CommerciaI Refrigeration PIant
Crankcase pressure
reguIator
Plg. 3l
KvL
Crankcase pressure regulator type KvL opens on
splndle (l) clockwlse tlghtens the sprlng (5) and
falllng pressure on the outlet slde, l.e. on falllng
the regulator then beglns to regulate at a hlgher
pressure ahead of the compressor. Turnlng the
pressure on the outlet slde.
Condensing pressure
reguIator
Plg. 32
KvP
Condenslng pressure regulator type KvP opens
when pressure on lts lnlet slde rlses, l.e. when
condenslng pressure rlses. Turnlng the splndle (l)
clockwlse tlghtens the sprlng (5) and lncreases
the openlng pressure so that the condenslng
pressure rlses.
Llke the prevlously mentloned evaporatlng
pressure regulator type KvP, all regulators are
tted wlth a pressure-equallzlng bellows (l0) to
ellmlnate pressure varlatlons on the lnlet slde of
type KvL and the outlet slde of type KvL All
regulators are also tted wlth a damplng devlce
(ll) so that pressure pulsatlons ln the plant do
not anect regulator functlon.
Danfoss A/S (PC-CMS / MwA), 03 - 2004 PG00A502 26
ManuaI Automation of CommerciaI Refrigeration PIant
DierentiaI pressure vaIve
Plg. 33
NPD
Dlnerentlal pressure valve type NPD beglns to
open at a pressure drop of l.4 bars and ls fully
open at 3 bars. when the valve ls lnstalled as a
bypass, lt ensures that the recelver pressure ls
malntalned.
The contact system ln evaporator thermostat
type 0778 makes on rlslng temperatures. Turnlng
the range splndle clockwlse lncrease the cutln
temperature of the thermostat, l.e. the
temperature at whlch the slgnal lamp llghts up.
vaporator thermostat
Plg. 34
0778
Danfoss A/S (PC-CMS / MwA), 03 - 2004 PG00A502 27
ManuaI Automation of CommerciaI Refrigeration PIant
key diagram, refrigeration pIant for freezer dispIay counter, g. 29
Tlme swltch P controls changeover contact t,
clrcult 2, whlch makes or breaks control current
to contactors Kl and K2 type Cl for the respectlve
electrlc heatlng elements under the evaporators,
and for the evaporator fans. when K2 ls cut ln, Kl
ls cut out, l.e. the evaporator fans are stopped
durlng defrostlng. At the same tlme, motor
starter K3 type C|T for the condenser fan ls cut
out vla the auxlllary contact (brake contact
between 2l and 22) ln clrcult 4. A slgnal lamp Hl
ls swltched on vla the auxlllary contact (make
contact between l3 and l4) ln clrcult 6. when
motor starter K3 cuts out, the auxlllary contact
(make contact between l3 and l4) ln clrcult 5
breaks and motor starter K4 type C|T for the
compressor ls cut out. Thus, the compressor also
remalns at a standstlll.
Pressure control type KP (l) ls connected so that
lt cuts out on rlslng pressure. Thls cuts out
defrostlng when the suctlon pressure has
lncreased to such an extent that there ls no more
frost on the evaporator. when contactor K2 ls cut
out, motor starter K3, and wlth lt motor start K4
are cut ln vla the auxlllary contacts (make contact
between 2l and 22) ln clrcult 4 and ln clrcult 5
(make contact between l3 and l4). Assumlng
swltches Sl and S2 are made.
Thls starts the condenser fan and the compressor.
At the same tlme, slgnal lamp Hl ls swltched on
vla the make contact between l3 and l4 ln clrcult
6 and slgnal lamp H2 ls swltched on vla the
auxlllary contact (make contact between l3 and
l4) ln clrcult 7. The evaporator fans are started
after a perlod by tlme swltch P cuttlng ln
contactor Kl. Durlng thls delay the compressor ls
able to remove the heat accumulated ln the
evaporators whlle defrostlng was taklng place,
before the evaporator fans are started.
Low-pressure control type KP l (||) ls connected
to control the refrlgeratlon plant durlng normal
operatlon. Hlgh-pressure control type KP 5 stops
the compressor but not the condenser fan when
condenslng pressure becomes excesslve.
A thermostat type 0778 swltches on slgnal lamp
H3 lf the temperature ln the dlsplay counter
exceeds -l8C. The slgnal lamps are connected to
a l2 v battery system so that lamp H3 ls able to
functlon even lf a malns supply fallure occurs.
Plg. 35
Danfoss A/S (PC-CMS / MwA), 03 - 2004 PG00A502 28
ManuaI Automation of CommerciaI Refrigeration PIant
Main wiring diagram for
contactors
Plg. 36
wlrlng dlagram for contactors Kl and K2 type Cl
for the dlsplay counter refrlgeratlon plant, g. 29.
Por key dlagram see g. 35.
The changeover swltch for tlme swltch P controls
the contactors so that one ls cut ln whlle the
other ls cut out. The maln contacts l-2 and 3-4 ln
contactor K2 are each connected to an electrlc
heatlng element. Contactor Kl has four maln
contacts, each of whlch ls connected to a
slngle-phase fan (l-2, 3-4, 5-6,l3-l4).
Danfoss A/S (PC-CMS / MwA), 03 - 2004 PG00A502 29
ManuaI Automation of CommerciaI Refrigeration PIant
Refrigeration pIant for
ventiIation air
Plg. 37
$POUJOVFEPWFSMFBG
An eIectronicaIIy controIIed suction pressure
reguIator type KvS (l) ls lnstalled ln the suctlon
llne. The electronlc regulator recelves slgnals
from a central control unlt, e.g. a PLC, whlch ln
turn recelves slgnals from a temperature sensor
located ln the return alr now from the room ln
whlch the ventllatlon alr ls to be cooled.
The KvS valve opens lf the temperature of the
return alr rlses.
|f the temperature reglstered by the sensor rlses,
the valve opens a llttle more, and suctlon
pressure from the evaporator ls lncreased. At the
same tlme, the pressure drop across the valve ls
reduced as a result of reduced evaporatlon
temperature and lncreased suctlon pressure. Thls
lncreases the capaclty of the evaporator and
compressor.
|f the temperature reglstered by the sensor falls,
the valve closes a llttle more, and suctlon
pressure from the evaporator ls reduced. At the
same tlme, the pressure drop across the valve ls
lncreased as a result of lncreased evaporatlon
temperature and reduced suctlon pressure. Thls
reduces the capaclty of the evaporator and
compressor.
As plant such as thls must be capable of runnlng
lrrespectlve of load, compressor capaclty must be
ad[ustable.
A capacity reguIator type KvC (2) ls sultable for
thls purpose as thls regulator ls able to prevent
suctlon pressure from dropplng to such an extent
that the compressor ls elther shut on by the low-
pressure cut-out or ls sub[ected to suctlon
pressure below the acceptable mlnlmum. Thls ls
achleved by the KvC valve belng set to start
openlng ln order to prevent the above-
mentloned llmlts from belng crossed. Thls hot-
gas bypass transfers some hlgh-pressure gas from
the pressure slde of the plant to the suctlon slde,
thus reduclng refrlgeratlon capaclty.
Thls type of capaclty regulatlon results ln a
certaln degree of suctlon gas superheatlng. As a
result, the temperature of the hlgh-pressure gas
lncreases, thus lncreaslng the rlsk that oll ln the
compressor pressure valves wlll become coked. |n
order to prevent thls, a thermostatlc expanslon
valve type T (3) ls lnstalled ln a bypass between
the llquld llne and the suctlon llne. The valve
sensor ls lnstalled ln the suctlon llne lmmedlately
ahead of the compressor.
|n case of excesslve superheatlng ln thls reglon,
the valve opens and some llquld ls ln[ected lnto
the suctlon llne. when thls llquld evaporates,
superheatlng ls reduced and thus also the hlgh-
pressure gas temperature.
A solenold valve type LvP (4) ls lnstalled
lmmedlately ahead of the thermostatlc
expanslon valve (3) ln order to prevent llquld
refrlgerant from enterlng the suctlon llne when
the refrlgeratlon plant ls shut down.
Danfoss A/S (PC-CMS / MwA), 03 - 2004 PG00A502 30
ManuaI Automation of CommerciaI Refrigeration PIant
IectronicaIIy controIIed suction pressure
reguIator
KvS (l) ls a suctlon pressure regulator, actlvated
by a stepper motor. |t alters the degree of
openlng ln response to slgnals from the LKC 368
regulator whlch transmlts pulses that cause the
valve motor to rotate ln one dlrectlon or the
other dependlng on whether the valve ls to be
opened more or closed more.
Capacity reguIator
The capaclty regulator type KvC opens ln
response to falllng pressure on the dlscharge
slde, l.e. falllng suctlon pressure ahead of the
compressor.
Plg. 38
KvS KvC
Plg. 39
Danfoss A/S (PC-CMS / MwA), 03 - 2004 PG00A502 3l
ManuaI Automation of CommerciaI Refrigeration PIant
Danfoss A/S (PC-CMS / MwA), 03 - 2004 PG00A502 32
ManuaI Automation of CommerciaI Refrigeration PIant
Danfoss A/S (PC-CMS / MwA), 03 - 2004 PG00A502 33
ManuaI Automation of CommerciaI Refrigeration PIant
7he Danfoss product range for the
refrigeration and air conditioning industry
Compressors for refrigeration and air conditioning
These products lnclude hermetlc reclprocatlng compressors, scroll compressors and fan-cooled condenslng
unlts. Typlcal appllcatlons are alr condltlonlng unlts, water chlllers and commerclal refrlgeratlon
systems.
Compressors and Condensing Units
Thls part of the range lncludes hermetlc compressors and fan-cooled condenslng unlts for household
refrlgerators and freezers, and for commerclal unlts such as bottle coolers and drlnks dlspensers . we
also oner compressors for heat pumps, and l2 and 24 v compressors for refrlgerators and freezers ln
commerclal vehlcles and boats.
AppIiance controIs
Por the regulatlon of refrlgeratlon appllances and freezers Danfoss supplles a product range of
electromechanlcal thermostats produced accordlng to customer speclcatlons, electronlc temperature
controls comprlslng models wlth and wlthout dlsplays, servlce thermostats - for servlclng on all refrlgeratlng
and freezlng appllances.
Refrigeration and air conditioning controIs
Our full product range covers all control, safety, system protectlon and monltorlng requlrements ln
mechanlcally and electronlcally controlled refrlgeratlon and alr condltlonlng systems. The products are
used ln countless appllcatlons wlthln the commerclal and lndustrlal refrlgeratlon and alr condltlonlng
sectors.
Produced by Danfoss PC-CMS. 03.2004.MwA
RC00A502