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DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING ENGINEERING GRAPHICS TWO MARKS Q&A UNIT I Conic sections:

1. When the cutting plane is perpendicular to the axis of the cone, the curve of

PLANE CURVES AND FREE HAND SKETCHING

intersection obtained is a CIRLE


2. When the cutting plane is passing through the apex and base of the cone, the curve of

intersection obtained is an ISOSCELES TRIANGLE.


3. When the cutting plane is inclined to the axis of the cone, the curve of intersection

obtained is an ELLIPSE.
4. When the cutting plane is inclined to the axis of the cone and parallel to a generated,

the curve of intersection obtained is a PARABOLA.


5. When the cutting plane is inclined at a axis very small angle with the axis or parallel

to the axis, the curve of intersection obtained is an HYPERBOLA 6. Define Eccentricity: A conic is defined as the locus of a point which moves in a plane, in such a way that the ratio of its distance from the focus to its distance from the directrix is always a constant .This constant ratio is called as eccentricity and is represented by letter e Eccentricity e = Distance of the moving point from focus Distance of the moving point from directrix

7. Ellipse: An ellipse is also defined as a plain curve generated by a point which moves in such a way that, at any position the sum of its distance from two fixed points is always a constant .The fixed points are called as foci and the constant is equal to the major axis of the ellipse.

UNIT II

PROJECTION OF POINTS, LINES AND PLANE SURFACES

1. Define the term projection. The image of an object to the plane. 2. What are the different types of projections? Based on number of views: Orthographic projections (2D) Pictorial projections Based on number of views: Projections Points Projections of straight line Projections of plane Projections of solid
3. Define the term Horizontal Plane

(3D)

A plane which is located in horizontal direction is called as Horizontal Plane (HP) 4. Define the term Vertical Plane. A plane which is located in vertical direction is called as Vertical Plane (VP) 5. Define reference line. It is the intersecting line of the HP and the VP at right angles 6. What are the types of quadrants? First, Second, Third and fourth quadrant. 7. What is the location of the first quadrant? Above the HP and In front of the VP 8. What is the location of the second quadrant? Above the HP and behind the VP 9. What is the location of the third quadrant? Below the HP and behind the VP 10. What is the location of the fourth quadrant? Below the HP and In front of the VP
11. Define front view (Elevation)

The view direction is parallel to the HP and perpendicular to the VP. 12. Define top view (Plan). The view direction is parallel to the VP and perpendicular to the HP. 13. Show the comparison chart for the projections of points

S. No

Quadrant

With respect to points data HP VP In front Behind Behind In front

With respect to XY line Front View Above Above Below Below Top View Below Above Above Below

1 2 3 4

I II III IV

Above Above Below Below

Projections of Straight line 14. Define the term straight line. It is the shortest route to join any two points. 15. What are the different positions of a straight line? Parallel to both the HP and the VP Parallel to the HP and perpendicular to the VP Parallel to the VP and perpendicular to the HP Inclined to the HP and Parallel to the VP Inclined to the VP and Parallel to the HP Inclined to both the HP and the VP

16. Define the term True Length. The actual length of the straight line is called as TL. 17. Define traces of a straight line. A point of intersection of the line with the HP and the VP. 18. Define Horizontal Traces (HT) of a straight line. A point of intersection of the line with the HP. 19. Define Vertical Traces (VT) of a straight line. A pint of intersection of the line with VP. 20. Give the different notations for the projections of straight line. True Length (TL) Apparent Front View (AFV) Apparent Top View (ATV) True inclination (angle) with the HP = = = = a b1 ab ab

21. What are all the conditions of Traces can be obtained in a straight line.

Inclined to the HP and Parallel to the VP Inclined to the VP and Parallel to the HP Inclined to both the HP and the VP

only HT no VT only VT no HT both HT and VT

22. What are all the conditions of Traces cant be obtained in a straight line?

Parallel to both the HP and the VP

here no HT and VT

23. What are the different methods used in the projections of straight line?

Rotating line method (all kinds of problems) Rotating Trapezoidal plane method (only for determine TL) Auxiliary inclined Plane method (AIP)

24. Define the plane. It is a two dimensional object having length, breadth only. Here thickness can be neglected (t= 0) 25. What are different conditions of the plane? Surface is Perpendicular to the HP and parallel to the VP Surface is Perpendicular to the VP and parallel to the HP Surface is Perpendicular to both the HP and the VP Surface is inclined to the HP and Perpendicular to the VP Surface is inclined to the VP and Perpendicular to the HP Surface is inclined to both the HP and the VP 26. What are the different types of lamina? Square, rectangular, Triangular, Pentagon, Hexagon and Circle

UNIT-III 27. Define the term solid.

PROJECTIONS OF SOLIDS

It is a 3 dimensional object having length, breadth and thickness (height) 28. What are the different types solids? According to Physical appearance: Polydehra Prisms, Pyramids Special solid (Cube) Cylinder Cone Special solid (Sphere)

Solids of revolution

29. What are the different types of prism and pyramid? Prism: Square Rectangular Triangular Pentagon Hexagon 30. What is meant by horizontal solid? A solid which is kept at horizontal position, then it is called as horizontal solid. 31. What is meant by vertical solid? A solid which is kept at vertical position, then it is called as vertical solid. 32. What is meant by oblique solid? A solid has its axis inclined to its base (HP), when it rests on the HP on its base. 33. Define frustum of the solid. A sectional plane is parallel to the base (HP) and perpendicular to the axis of the solid and removes the upper portion. 39. Define truncated solid. A sectional plane inclined to the base and on removing the upper portions of the solid. Pyramid: Square Rectangular Triangular Pentagon Hexagon

40. Give the examples for frustum and truncated solids. Dustbin = Frustum of a cone (Sectional Shape = Circle) Truncated of a cylinder (Sectional shape = Ellipse) Artificial water cane =

41. What are the positions of the solids? Axis perpendicular to the HP and parallel to the VP Axis perpendicular to the VP and parallel to the HP Axis parallel to both the HP and the VP Axis inclined to the HP and parallel to the VP Axis inclined to the VP and parallel to the HP Axis inclined to both the HP and the VP

42. Give the true shape of the different positions of the straight-line. Condition of the straight line Axis perpendicular to the HP and 1 parallel to the VP Axis perpendicular to the VP and 2 3 4 parallel to the HP Axis parallel to both the HP and the VP Axis inclined to the HP and parallel to the VP Axis inclined to the VP and parallel 5 to the HP Axis inclined to both the HP and 6 the VP ---Side View First project Top View (Plan) First project Front View (Elevation) Front View (Elevation) Top View (Plan)

S. No

True shape

UNIT- IV

SECTIONS OF SOLIDS

43. What is meant by section of solids? When an object has more invisible details and complicated shape, a section plane or cutting plane may be assumed suitably, to cut the object, As a result of cutting, a portion which is usually of the smaller size, between the observer and the cutting plane is assumed to be removed.. This process is known as section of solids. 44. What are the various positions of the cutting plane? The positions of cutting planes are:

Cutting plane perpendicular to HP and parallel to VP. Cutting plane perpendicular to VP and parallel to HP. Cutting plane perpendicular to both HP and VP. Cutting plane inclined to HP and perpendicular VP. Cutting plane inclined to VP and perpendicular to HP

45. How to represent the cutting plane? The cutting plane or section plane is always represented by their traces 46. What is meant by sectional view? The cutting plane is an imaginary plane. The view of an object with cut portion is projected on to a reference plane and is known as the sectional view. 47. How to observe cut portion when projected on to a reference plane? The cut portion is observed as a straight line when it is projected on to a reference plane to which the cutting plane is perpendicular. 48. What is true shape of section & how it is obtained? The actual shape of the cut portion is known as true shape of section. It is projected and obtained in a principle reference plane or auxiliary plane which is parallel to the cutting plane. 49. What is apparent section? In a view where the cut portion is not seen as its true shape is known as apparent section.

50. How to represent true shape of section or apparent section? The cut portion projected and obtained in the apparent section or true shape of section is represented by uniformly spaced hatched lines. These hatched lines are approximately inclined at 450 to the principle outer lines. They have a uniform space 2 to 3 mm between them. 51. How to obtain the true shape of section? When a cutting plane cuts a solid, the cut portion is removed and the section with new corners or points is obtained on the sides or edges of the solid. These points are obtained in the projection and joined in proper sequence to draw the section in that view. 52. Mention the basic shape of true shape of following solids? True shape of the prism = The basic shape of the base of prism with different size. True shape of the pyramid = The basic shape of the base of pyramid with different size. True shape of cone & cylinder = The elliptical shape.
53.

What are the items to be included in the solution of the particular solid

under sectioning? The solution gives i.The cutting plane with particular angle which is mentioned in the question, ii) Sectional top view, iii) Front view and iv) the true shape of the section. Development of surfaces 54. What is meant by development of surfaces? The surface (faces and bases) of an object which is opened out and laid on a flat plane is called as the development of surfaces of that object. 55. How to develop the square prism? Its faces are seen as four rectangles of same size and two square bases. 56. How to develop the square pyramid? Its faces are seen as four triangles of same size and shape, the base is a square.

57.

In which fields the development of surfaces is involved very much?

The knowledge in development of surfaces is required in sheet metal work to make funnel, hopper, etc., like the thin metal sheet, chimney, boiler shell and so on from thick metal sheet. To fabricate these objects, the development of the object is drawn on the metal sheet, then cut and folded to form the required object. 58. What is meant by double curved surfaces? A surface generated by revolving a curved surface about a straight line in a plane is a double curved surface. Double curved and warped surfaces such as sphere, ellipsoid, etc., are developed approximately. 59. What are the single curved surfaces? Cylinders and cones. 60. Mention the methods used to draw development of surfaces? Parallel line method Radial line method Zone method Lune method Triangulation method.

61. Explain the procedure of parallel line method to develop the surfaces? The parallel line method is used to draw development of prisms & cylinders. In this method two stretch-out lines whose length is equal to the base circumference (perimeter) are drawn parallel to each other with the gap between them is equal to the axis length or height of the solid and the faces are marked on it. The bases are also opened out and drawn in an arbitrary position.
62.

Explain the procedure of Radial line method to develop the surfaces?

The radial line method is used to draw development of pyramids & cones. In this method, an arc is drawn with the radius equal to the true length of the slant edge of a pyramid or the generator of a cone, to get the development of the surfaces.

63. Explain the Zone method to develop the surfaces? The zone method is an approximate method to draw the development of a sphere. In this method, the sphere is cut into many slices(zones) and they have the approximate shape of a frustum of a cone. These frustums are developed to get the development of the sphere. 64. Explain the Lune method to develop the surfaces? The lune method is also an approximate method that is used to draw the development of a sphere. In this method, the sphere is cut into many lunes, and jointed to get the sphere. 65. Explain the Triangulation method to develop the surfaces? The triangulation method is used to draw the development of transition pieces. A solid with bottom and top bases of dissimilar and different shapes is called as a transition piece. For example, consider a transition piece of bottom base, a square and top base, a circle. It is developed by imagining the surfaces consisting of many triangles. 66. Mention the procedure for finding the subtended angle? Subtended angle = (r/R) x 3600 Where r = base circle radius in mm R = true length of generator in mm

UNIT -V

ISOMETRIC AND PERSPECTIVE PROJECTIONS

67. What is meant by pictorial projection? Pictorial views show all the three dimensions of an object which are useful to understand, about that object. 68. What are the various types of pictorial projection? i. ii. iii.
69.

Isometric projection Oblique projection Perspective projection Mention the use of Isometric & Oblique projections?

Isometric & Oblique projections are commonly used to prepare the pictorial view of smaller objects and they are commonly used in Mechanical, Production, Automobile, Aerospace and Chemical Engineering to show the machine components. 70. Mention the use of Perspective projections? Perspective projection is commonly used to prepare the pictorial view of larger objects and commonly used in Architecture and Civil engineering. The picture drawn in perspective drawings can be compared with the photographic picture of an object taken using camera. In perspective projection, the picture of the object is obtained in a plane known as the picture plane by assuming that the view is taken from a specific point known as the station point.
71.

What is the relation between isometric length & true length?

Isometric length = 0.82 * true length.


72.

Explain about isometric scale.

In isometric projection, the true length may be converted in to isometric length, by multiplying it with 0.82. But the graphical conversion scales are recommended for the accurate conversion. The diagram showing the conversion of true lengths into isometric lengths is called as Isometric scale.

73. Explain the principle of isometric projection.

In isometric projection, isometric lengths (0.82 * true length) are always used to prepare the drawing. Isometric projection of an object is usually drawn using the orthographic projection which is drawn using isometric scale. It can be drawn directly by multiplying 0.82 with lengths of all the edges. 74. Explain about the isometric view. In isometric view, true lengths are used to prepare the drawing, neglecting the foreshortened lengths of all edges of the object. The overall size of the isometric view of an object is 22.5% ((1/0.81649)=1.225) larger than the isometric projection. The method of drawing isometric view is same as isometric projection. The isometric view is also known as isometric drawing, 75. What are the methods used to draw isometric view/ isometric projection. The following two methods are used to draw the isometric view/ isometric projection of an object using the orthographic projections i) ii) Box method Co-ordinate method.

76. Explain about box method 1. A rectangular or square box of suitable size is used to enclose the object in suach a way that some of the corners or edges touch the box sides. 2. Draw the isometric projection/ view of the box using the isometric axes. 3. Then mark the corners of the object with reference to the box sides and corners by measuring their distances from the orthographic projections 4. Join the visible edges of the object by drawing dark lines to complete the isometric projection/ view. This method is commonly used. 77. Explain about Co-ordinate method? 1. The corners of the object are marked in isometric projection/ view by considering their co-ordinates or offsets from the isometric axes or isometric line which lies in the same isometric plane. 2. Join and show the visible edges to complete the isometric projection/ view by drawing dark lines.

78.

What shape is the isometric view of circle & what are the methods used to

draw it? The isometric view of circle is an ellipse, and it is drawn using two methods
i)

Method of points

ii) Four-centre method.

PERSPECTIVE PROJECTION
79.

What is the various perspective elements used to draw the perspective

view? The reference planes, their positions, the positions of the observer and various perspective elements which help to draw the perspective view of an object are listed below i) Ground plane ii) Station point iii) Ground plane iv) Ground line v) Horizon plane vi) Horizon line etc.,
80.

Define the terms Ground plane, Picture plane, Horizon plane, central

plane, Auxiliary ground plane. Ground plane (GP): This is a horizontal reference plane on which the object for which the perspective drawing is to be obtained is placed. Picture plane (PP): This is a vertical reference plane. The perspective view is obtained on this plane when the object is viewed from the station point. It is usually placed between the object and the station point. The front view of the object is assumed to be projected on it, if necessary. To draw the perspective drawing. Horizon plane (HP): This is also a horizontal reference plane which is parallel to GP and passing through the station point. Central plane (CP): This is also a vertical reference plane, passing through the station point and perpendicular to both GP and PP (also perpendicular to HP and AGP) Auxiliary ground plane (AGP): This is also an imaginary horizontal reference plane which is parallel to GP and HP but is placed above the station point. The top view of the object is assumed to be projected on it when drawing the perspective view. 81. Define the terms, Station point, Ground line, Horizon line, Axis of vision, Visual rays Station point (SP): The view point from which the object is viewed to get the perspective drawing is called as the station point. The observers eye is considered as the station point. Ground line (GL): The vertical picture plane and the horizontal ground plane intersect each other in a straight line which is known as the ground line.

Horizon line (HL): The vertical picture plane and horizon plane intersect each other at right angles in a straight line and is called as horizon line. Axis of vision (AV): A line passing through the station point and perpendicular to the picture plane is called the axis of vision or perpendicular axis. Visual rays: These are imaginary lines drawn to join various corners of the object to the station point (SP) which pierce the picture plane. These piercing points are marked in top view and are projected to front view to get the perspective projection of an object. 82. Mention the types of perspectives. There are two types of perspective which are commonly used, i) ii) Parallel perspective or One point perspective Angular perspective or Two point perspective

83. Define Parallel perspective. When an object is positioned in such a way that one of the principle faces (eg., base or face of a solid) is parallel to the picture plane, the perspective view obtained is called as Parallel perspective or One point perspective 84. Define Angular perspective. When an object is positioned in such a way that the principle faces are inclined to the plane, the perspective view obtained is called as Angular perspective or Two point perspective. 85. Mention the methods used to draw the perspective projection/view. i) ii) Visual ray method Vanishing point method

86. Explain the procedure of visual ray method? In visual ray method, the top view and front view (or side view) of the object and position of the station point(SP) in both the views are located. Then visual rays from SP connecting various corners of the object in top and front views are drawn. The piercing points of these ray with picture plane are marked in top and projected to front view to get perspective projection of the object.

PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS Ellipse: Ellipse curve are used in the construction of bridges, dams, arches, pressure vessels, manhole in boilers, stuffing boxes, glands and the reflectors used in auto mobiles Parabola: Parabolic curves are used in the construction of bridges arches, road sections, parabolic reflectors, the trajectory of thrown object or missile, wall brackets, radial drilling machine. Hyperbola: It is used in design of channels, cooling towers. Cycloid: Cycloid curves are used in the design of gear tooth profiles and the design of conveyer for mould boxes in foundry shops. Epic clod: It is used in the design of profiles of gear tooth system. Hypocycloid: It is used in the design of profiles of gear tooth system, design of flat disk cam profile for metal cutting machine tools In volute: Gear tooth profile, involutes shape in cam, impeller of the centrifugal pump.