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Telecommunications, also called telecommunication, is the exchange of information over significant distances by electronic means.
T-Carrier System T1 (1.5 Mbps) T3 (44.7 Mbps) The T-carrier system, introduced by the Bell System in the U.S. in the 1960s, was the first successful system that supported digitized voice transmission. The original transmission rate (1.544 Mbps) in the T1 line is in common use today in Internet service provider (ISP) connections to the Internet. Another level, the T3 line, providing 44.736 Mbps, is also commonly used by Internet service providers. The T-carrier system is entirely digital, using pulse code modulation (PCM) and time-division multiplexing (TDM). The system uses four wires and provides duplexcapability (two wires for receiving and two for sending at the same time). The T1 digital stream consists of 24 64Kbps channels that are multiplexed. (The standardized 64 Kbps channel is based on the bandwidthrequired for a voice conversation.) The four wires were originally a pair of twisted copper wires, but can now also include coaxial cable,optical fiber, digital microwave, and other media. A number of variations on the number and use of channels are possible. A T1 line in which each channel serves a different application is known as integrated T1or channelized T1. Another commonly installed service is a fractional T1, which is the rental of some portion of the 24 channels in a T1 line, with the other channels going unused. In the T1 system, voice or other analog signals are sampled 8,000 times a second and each sample is digitized into an 8-bit word. With 24 channels being digitized at the same time, a 192-bit frame (24 channels each with an 8-bit word) is thus being transmitted 8,000 times a second. Each frame is separated from the next by a single bit, making a 193-bit block. The 192 bit frame multiplied by 8,000 and the

additional 8,000 framing bits make up the T1's 1.544 Mbps data rate. The signaling bits are the least significant bits in each frame.

What is MiFi? MiFi is a portable broadband wireless device about the size of a credit card that combines functions of a modem, router and access point. The internal modem accesses a wireless signal and the internal router shares that connection among users and devices. MiFi is sometimes called a personal hotspot. MiFi was designed to simplify setting up a small local area network (LAN). The device supports five users and can also network Wi-Ficapable devices including digital cameras, notebooks, MP3 players and gaming systems. A MiFi device could be used to set up an ad-hoc network with a shared Internet connection anywhere with cellular connectivity. Here are some of MiFi's other features:

Storage capacity. The ability to host applications. Support for EV-DO or UMTS/HSDPA 3G technologies. Four hours active use, forty hours standby before the internal battery needs to be recharged. Can be configured for automatic email synching and virtual private network (VPN) connection. Support for remote management.

Novatel, who developed MiFi and trademarked the name, call their associated product line "Intelligent Mobile Hotspots." Novatel markets the devices, which require a data plan, through carriers. According to Novatel, MiFi stands for "my Wi-Fi" and is pronounced as "my-Fi." A wireless service provider (WSP) is a company that offers transmission services to users of wireless devices (handheld computers and telephones) through radio frequency (RF) signals rather than through end-to-end wire communication. Generally, a WSP offers either [1] cellular telephone telephone service, [2] personal communication service (PCS) service, or [3] both. The term also seems applicable to satellite television and Internet access providers. Wireless is a term used to describe telecommunications in which electromagnetic waves (rather than some form of wire) carry the signal over part or all of the communication path. Some monitoring devices, such as intrusion alarms, employ acoustic waves at frequencies above

the range of human hearing; these are also sometimes classified as wireless. The first wireless transmitters went on the air in the early 20th century using radiotelegraphy (Morse code). Later, as modulation made it possible to transmit voices and music via wireless, the medium came to be called "radio." With the advent of television, fax, data communication, and the effective use of a larger portion of the spectrum, the term "wireless" has been resurrected. Common examples of wireless equipment in use today include:

Cellularphones and pagers -- provide connectivity for portable and mobile applications, both personal and business Global Positioning System (GPS) -- allows drivers of cars and trucks, captains of boats and ships, and pilots of aircraft to ascertain their location anywhere on earth Cordless computer peripherals -- the cordless mouse is a common example; keyboards and printers can also be linked to a computer via wireless Cordless telephone sets -- these are limited-range devices, not to be confused with cell phones Home-entertainment-system control boxes -- the VCR control and the TV channel control are the most common examples; some hifi sound systems and FM broadcast receivers also use this technology Remote garage-door openers -- one of the oldest wireless devices in common use by consumers; usually operates at radio frequencies Two-way radios -- this includes Amateur and Citizens Radio Service, as well as business, marine, and military communications Baby monitors -- these devices are simplified radio transmitter/receiver units with limited range Satellite television -- allows viewers in almost any location to select from hundreds of channels Wireless LANs or local area networks -- provide flexibility and reliability for business computer users

Wireless technology is rapidly evolving, and is playing an increasing role in the lives of people throughout the world. In addition, ever-larger numbers of people are relying on the technology directly or indirectly. (It has been suggested that wireless is overused in some situations, creating a social nuisance.) More specialized and exotic examples of wireless communications and control include:

Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM) -- a digital mobile telephone system used in Europe and other parts of the world; the de facto wireless telephone standard in Europe General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) -- a packet-based wireless communication service that provides continuous connection to the Internet for mobile phone and computer users Enhanced Data GSM Environment (EDGE) -- a faster version of the Global System for Mobile (GSM) wireless service Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) -- a broadband, packet-based system offering a consistent set of services to mobile computer and phone users no matter where they are located in the world Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) -- a set of communication protocols to standardize the way that wireless devices, such as cellular telephones and radio transceivers, can be used for Internet access i-Mode -- the world's first "smart phone" for Web browsing, first introduced in Japan; provides color and video over telephone sets

Wireless can be divided into:

Fixed wireless -- the operation of wireless devices or systems in homes and offices, and in particular, equipment connected to the Internet via specialized modems Mobile wireless -- the use of wireless devices or systems aboard motorized, moving vehicles; examples include the automotive cell phone and PCS(personal communications services) Portable wireless -- the operation of autonomous, batterypowered wireless devices or systems outside the office, home, or vehicle; examples include handheld cell phones and PCS units IR wireless -- the use of devices that convey data via IR (infrared) radiation; employed in certain limited-range communications and control systems

Modem Modulation and Demodulation A computer with an online or Internet connection that connects over a regular analogphone line includes a modem. The term modem is derived by combining beginning letters from the words modulator and demodulator. In a modem, the modulation process involves the conversion of the digital computer signals (high and low, or logic 1 and 0 states) to analog audio-frequency (AF)tones. Digital highs are

converted to a tone having a certain constant pitch; digital lows are converted to a tone having a different constant pitch. These states alternate so rapidly that,if you listen to the output of a computer modem, it sounds like a hiss or roar. The demodulation process converts the audio tones back into digital signals that a computer can understand. directly.

Bandwidth -- In computer networks, bandwidth is often used as a synonym for data transfer rate - the amount of data that can be carried from one point to another in a given time period (usually a second). This kind of bandwidth is usually expressed in bits (of data) per second (bps). Occasionally, it's expressed as bytes per second (Bps). A modem that works at 57,600 bps hastwice the bandwidth of a modem that works at 28,800 bps. In general, a link with a high bandwidth is one that may be able to carry enough information to sustain the succession of images in a video presentation. It should be remembered that a real communications path usually consists of a succession of links, each with its own bandwidth. If one of these is much slower than the rest, it is said to be a bandwidth bottleneck. byte (B) -- A sequence of adjacent bits (binary digits) that can be operated on as a unit by a computer; the smallest usable machine word; nearly always eight bits, which can represent an integer from 0 to 255 or a single character of text. In most computer systems, a byte is a unit of data that is eight binary digits long. A byte is the unit most computers use to represent a character such as a letter, number, or typographic symbol (for example, "g", "5", or "?"). A byte can also hold a string of bits that need to be used in some larger unit for application purposes (for example, the stream of bits that constitute a visual image for a program that displays images or the string of bits that constitutes the machine code of a computer program). In some computer systems, four bytes constitute a word, a unit that a computer processor can be designed to handle efficiently as it reads and processes each instruction. Some computer processors can handle two-byte or single-byte instructions. A byte is abbreviated with a "B". (A bit is abbreviated with a small "b".) Computer storage is usually measured in byte multiples. For example, an 820 MB hard drive holds a nominal 820 million bytes - or megabytes - of data. Byte multiples are based on powers of 2 and commonly expressed as a "rounded off" decimal number. For example, one

megabyte ("one million bytes") is actually 1,048,576 (decimal) bytes. (Confusingly, however, some hard disk manufacturers and dictionary sources state that bytes for computer storage should be calculated as powers of 10 so that a megabyte really would be one million decimal bytes.) According to Fred Brooks, an early hardware architect for IBM, project manager for the OS/360 operating system, and author of The Mythical Man-Month, Dr. Werner Buchholz originated the term byte in 1956 when working on IBM's STRETCH computer. Broadband -- In general, broadband refers to telecommunication in which a wide band of frequencies is available to transmit information. Because a wide band of frequencies is available, information can be multiplexed and sent on many different frequencies or channels within the band concurrently, allowing more information to be transmitted in a given amount of time (much as more lanes on a highway allow more cars to travel on it at the same time). Related terms are wideband (a synonym), baseband (a one-channel band), and narrowband (sometimes meaning just wide enough to carry voice, or simply "not broadband," and sometimes meaning specifically between 50 cps and 64 Kpbs). Various definers of broadband have assigned a minimum data rate to the term. Here are a few:

Newton's Telecom Dictionary: "...greater than a voice grade line of 3 KHz...some say [it should be at least] 20 KHz." Jupiter Communications: at least 256 Kbps. IBM Dictionary of Computing: A broadband channel is "6 MHz wide."

It is generally agreed that Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) and cable TV are broadband services in the downstream direction. Kbps -- In the U.S., Kbps stands for kilobits per second (thousands of bits per second) and is a measure of bandwidth (the amount of data that can flow in a given time) on a data transmission medium. Higher bandwidths are more conveniently expressed in megabits per second (Mbps, or millions of bits per second) and in gigabits per second (Gbps, or billions of bits per second). bit (binary digit) -- A unit of information expressed as either a 0 or 1 in binary notation. Coined by John Tukey in 1946 as an abbreviation of

binary digit, probably influenced by connotations of small portion. First used in print 1948 by Claude Shannon. Smartphone -- A smartphone combines telephony and computing in a single device. The term "smartphone" did not appear until 1997, when Ericsson described its GS 88 "Penelope" concept as a "Smart Phone". A smartphone is a mobile phone built on a mobile operating system, with more advanced computing capability and connectivity than a feature phone. The first smartphones combined the functions of a personal digital assistant (PDA) with a mobile phone. Later models added the functionality of portable media players, low-end compact digital cameras, pocket video cameras, and GPS navigation units to form one multi-use device. Many modern smartphones also include high-resolution touchscreens and web browsers that display standard web pages as well as mobile-optimized sites. High-speed data access is provided by Wi-Fi and Mobile Broadband. The mobile operating systems (OS) used by modern smartphones include Google's Android, Apple's iOS, Nokia's Symbian, RIM's BlackBerry OS, Samsung's Bada, Microsoft's Windows Phone, HewlettPackard's webOS, and embedded Linux distributions such as Maemo and MeeGo. Such operating systems can be installed on many different phone models, and typically each device can receive multiple OS software updates over its lifetime. A mobile operating system, also referred to as mobile OS, is the operating system that operates a smartphone, tablet, PDA, or other digital mobile devices. Modern mobile operating systems combine the features of a [1] personal computer operating system with [2] touchscreen, [3] cellular, [4] Bluetooth, [5] WiFi, [6] GPS mobile navigation, [7] camera, [8] video camera,

[9] speech recognition, [10] voice recorder, [11] music player, [12] Near field communication, [13] personal digital assistant (PDA), and other features. The most common mobile operating systems are:

Android from Google Inc.[4] (free and open source)[5]

The Galaxy Nexus running Android 4.0.1 Android was developed by a small startup company that was purchased by Google Inc. in 2005, and Google continues to update the software. Android is a Linux-derived OS backed by Google, along with major hardware and software developers (such as Intel, HTC, ARM, Samsung, Motorola and eBay, to name a few), that form the Open Handset Alliance.[6] Released on November 5th 2007, the OS received praise from a number of developers upon its introduction.[7] Android releases prior to 2.0 (1.0, 1.5, 1.6) were used exclusively on mobile phones. Most Android phones, and some Android tablets, now use a 2.x release.

Android 3.0 was a tablet-oriented release and does not officially run on mobile phones. The current Android version is 4.1. Android releases are nicknamed after sweets or dessert items like Cupcake (1.5), Frozen Yogurt (2.2), Honeycomb (3.0), Ice Cream Sandwich (4.0) and Jelly Bean (4.1). Most major mobile service providers carry an Android device. Since the HTC Dream was introduced, there has been an explosion in the number of devices that carry Android OS. From Q2 of 2009 to the second quarter of 2010, Android's worldwide market share rose 850% from 1.8% to 17.2%. On 15 November 2011, Android reached 52.5% of the global smartphone market share.[8]

The Apple iPad tablet computer uses a version of iOS. bada from Samsung Electronics (closed source, proprietary) This is a mobile operating system being developed by Samsung Electronics. Samsung claims that bada will rapidly replace its proprietary feature phone platform, converting feature phones to smartphones.The name 'bada' is derived from , the Korean word for ocean or sea. The first device to run bada is called 'Wave' and was unveiled to the public at Mobile World Congress 2010. The Wave is a fully touchscreen running the new mobile operating system. With the phone, Samsung also released an app store, called Samsung Apps, to the public. It has close to 3000[9] mobile applications. Samsung has said that they don't see Bada as a smartphone operating system, but as an OS with a kernel configurable architecture, which allows the use of either a

proprietary real-time operating system, or the Linux kernel. Though Samsung plans to install bada on many phones, the company still has a large lineup of Android phones. BlackBerry OS from RIM (closed source, proprietary) This OS is focused on easy operation and was originally designed for business. Recently it has seen a surge in thirdparty applications and has been improved to offer full multimedia support. Currently Blackberry's App World has over 50,000 downloadable applications. RIM's future strategy will focus on the newly acquired QNX, having already launched the BlackBerry PlayBook tablet running a version of QNX and expecting the first QNX smartphones in early 2012.[10] iOS from Apple Inc.[4] (closed source, proprietary, on top of open source Darwin core OS) The Apple iPhone, iPod Touch, iPad, and second-generation Apple TV all use an operating system called iOS, which is derived from Mac OS X. Native third party applications were not officially supported until the release of iOS 2.0 on July 11th 2008. Before this, "jailbreaking" allowed third party applications to be installed, and this method is still available. Currently all iOS devices are developed by Apple and manufactured by Foxconn or another of Apple's partners. S40 (Series40) from Nokia (closed source, proprietary) Nokia uses S40 OS in their low end phones (aka feature phones). Over the years over 150 phone models have been developed running S40 OS.[11] Since the introduction of S40 OS it has evolved from monochrome low resolution UI to full touch 256k color UI. Symbian OS from Nokia and Accenture[4] (open public license) Symbian has the largest smartphone share in most markets worldwide, but lags behind other companies in the relatively small but highly visible North American market.[12] This matches the success of Nokia in all markets except Japan. In Japan Symbian is strong due to a relationship with NTT DoCoMo, with only one of the 44 Symbian handsets released in Japan coming from Nokia.[13] It has been used by many major handset manufacturers, including BenQ, Fujitsu, LG, Mitsubishi, Motorola, Nokia, Samsung, Sharp, and Sony Ericsson. Current Symbian-based devices are being made by Fujitsu, Nokia, Samsung, Sharp, and Sony

Ericsson. Prior to 2009 Symbian supported multiple user interfaces, i.e. UIQ from UIQ Technologies, S60 from Nokia, and MOAP from NTT DOCOMO. As part of the formation of the Symbian OS in 2009 these three UIs were merged into a single OS which is now fully open source. Recently, though shipments of Symbian devices have increased, the operating system's worldwide market share has declined from over 50% to just over 40% from 2009 to 2010. Nokia handed the development of Symbian to Accenture, which will continue to support the OS until 2016.[14]

The Palm Pre running HP (formerly Palm) webOS. HP purchased Palm in 2010. Windows Phone from Microsoft (closed source, proprietary) On February 15th, 2010, Microsoft unveiled its nextgeneration mobile OS, Windows Phone. The new mobile OS includes a completely new over-hauled UI inspired by Microsoft's "Metro Design Language". It includes full integration of Microsoft services such as Microsoft SkyDrive and Office, Xbox Music, Xbox Video, Xbox Live games and Bing, but also integrates with many other non-Microsoft services such as Facebook and Google accounts. The new software platform has received some positive reception from the technology press.[15][16][17]

OS Customer Satisfaction
According to a Readers' Choice Awards survey conducted by PC Magazine in 2012, iOS and Windows Phone customers gave their phones a rating of 8.7 on a 0 (extremely dissatisfied) to 10 (extremely satisfied) scale, an improvement of 0.3 and 0.6 points respectively. Android received a 7.9 (the same rating it received in 2011), followed by webOS (7.7), Symbian (7.4) and Blackberry OS (6.8).[42] The biggest reasons given by readers when asked why they chose their mobile phones are as follow: operating system (51%) and 4G capability (51%) for Android, quality of email experience (46%) for Blackberry, availability of apps (63%) for iOS and operating system (78%) for Windows Phone. Bluetooth -- The word "Bluetooth" is an anglicised version of the Scandinavian Bltand/Bltann, the epithet of the tenth-century king Harald I of Denmark and parts of Norway who united dissonant Danish tribes into a single kingdom. The idea of this name was proposed by Jim Kardach who developed a system that would allow mobile phones to communicate with computers (at the time he was reading Frans Gunnar Bengtsson's historical novel The Long Ships about Vikings and king Harald Bluetooth).[4] The implication is that Bluetooth does the same with communications protocols, uniting them into one universal standard. Bluetooth provides a secure way to connect and exchange information between devices such as faxes, mobile phones, telephones, laptops, personal computers, printers, Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers, digital cameras, and video game consoles. It was principally designed as a low-bandwidth technology. MPOE (Minimum point of entry) -- The closest logical and practical point within the customer domain for the placement of a demarcation point (demarc), which sets the boundary of responsibility between the PSTN carrier and the customer. In a high-rise office building, for example, the MPOE typically is defined as a point of the entrance cable 12 inches from the inside wall. PSTN -- Synonymous with PSTS (Public Switched Telephone System). The generic term for the domestic public telephone network, which is traditionally is a public utility providing a circuit-switched network optimized for voice communications. The PSTN comprises all of the telecom infrastructure, including inside plant (ISP) and outside plant (OSP) owned by the carrier or carriers. Customer premises equipment

(CPE) and other equipment and facilities owned by end users are considered private and, therefore, not part of the PSTN.

AT&T Notes

AT&T Mobile Business Agreement

The AT&T Mobile Business (AMB) Agreement extends additional savings to meet the unique needs of small businesses like yours. Leverage small business pricing on AT&T's wireless plans, equipment, and services with an AT&T Mobile Business Agreement.

Easy Eligibility
To sign up, your company must have a valid Federal Tax ID Number (aka Employer Identification Number) and at least one (1) Corporate Responsibility User (CRU). As soon as your company has an approved Agreement, you and your employee users can start taking advantage of plans and support designed especially for small businesses.

Additional 8% Service Discount

As your company grows, you can take advantage of an additional benefitmonthly savings on qualified wireless service. Specifically, when your company maintains a minimum of five (5) or more employee users (with at least 1 CRU) subscribing to wireless service, your company can receive an 8% service discount off the monthly service charge of your CRUs' eligible voice and data plans priced at $30.00 or higher.* And, when you and your qualified CRUs save on wireless service, your qualified individually liable employees can save, too. Specifically, employees who activate as Individual Responsibility Users (IRUs) on eligible plans priced at $30.00 or higher with a 2-year service agreement can also receive an 8% discount off the monthly service charge for their qualified plan(s).

Additional Business Benefits

As a small business customer with an AT&T Mobile Business Agreement, you're automatically enrolled in the AT&T Exclusively Business program. This means you can take advantage of the combined benefits offered under the program (such as waived activation fees for qualified users) and your Agreement. Together, they provide added savings and value that center on your specific business needs.