You are on page 1of 33

Complex Numbers

Advanced Level Pure Mathematics


Prepared by K. F. Ngai
Page 1

Advanced Level Pure Mathematics

Algebra



Chapter 10 Complex Numbers

10.1 Introduction 2
10.2 Geometrical Representation of a Complex Number 4
10.3 Polar Form of a Complex Number 4
10.4 Complex conjugate 8
10.5 Geometrical Applications 11
10.6 Transformation 19
10.7 DeMoivre's Theorem and nth Roots of a Complex Number 22










10
1
2
= i

Complex Numbers
Advanced Level Pure Mathematics
Prepared by K. F. Ngai
Page 2



10.1 Introduction

A Fundamental Concepts

(1) A complex number z is a number of the form bi a + where a, b are real numbers and 1
2
= i .

(2) The set C of all complex numbers is defined by
C= { } 1 and , :
2
= e + i R b a bi a
where a is called the real part of z and ) Re(z a = and
b is called the imaginary part of z and ) Im(z b = .

(3) z is said to be purely imaginary if and only if 0 ) Re( = z and 0 ) Im( = z .

(4) When 0 ) Im( = z , the complex number z is real.

N.B. 1 , , 1 ,
2 4 6 4 5 2 2 4 2 3
= = = = = = = = i i i i i i i i i i i i i i .

Example Solve 0 1
2
= + + x x in terms of i .
Solution







B Operations On Complex Numbers

Let bi a z + =
1
and di c z + =
2
. Then
(1) i d b c a z z ) ( ) (
2 1
+ + + = +
(2) i d b c a z z ) ( ) (
2 1
+ =
(3)
2 1
z z = ) )( ( di c bi a + +
= i bc ad bd ac ) ( ) ( + +
(4)
2
1
z
z
=
di c
di c
di c
bi a

+
+
= i
d c
ad bc
d c
bd ac
2 2 2 2
) (
+

+
+
+
, where 0
2
= z .
N.B. (i) i
i
i
i
i
=

= =
1
1
2
;
Complex Numbers
Advanced Level Pure Mathematics
Prepared by K. F. Ngai
Page 3
(ii)
2
2 2 2 2
2
1 1 1
z
d c d c
di c
di c z +
=
+

=
+
= .
Example If i z 3 2
1
+ = and i z 4 1
2
= , find
(a)
2 1
2z z + (b)
1 2
iz z (c)
2 1
z z (d)
2
1
z
z

Solution

Example Express the following in the form of yi x + , where y x, are real numbers.
(a) ,
2
2
z
z

+
where i z + =1
(b)
u u
u u
2 sin 2 cos 1
2 sin 2 cos 1
i
i
+ +
+

(c)
u u 2 sin 2 cos 1
1
i + +

Solution















Example Find the square roots of the complex number i 4 3+ and i 12 5 .
Solution












Complex Numbers
Advanced Level Pure Mathematics
Prepared by K. F. Ngai
Page 4



10.2 Geometrical Representation of a Complex Number

From the definition of complex numbers, a complex number bi a z + = is defined by the two real numbers
a and b . Hence, if we consider the real part a as the coordinate x in the rectangular coordinates
system and the imaginary part b as the , coordinate y then the complex number z can be represented
by the point ) , ( b a on the plane. This plane is called the complex plane or the Argand diagram. On this
plane, real numbers are represented by points on axis x which is called the real axis; imaginary numbers
are represented by points on the axis y which is called the imaginary axis. The number 0 is represented
by the origin O.







Any point ) , ( b a on this plane can be used to represent a complex number bi a z + = .
For example, as shown in Figure, the
3 2 1
, , z z z represents respectively the complex numbers.
i z i z z 3 4 , 2 , 3
3 2 1
= = =







10.3 Polar Form of a Complex Number
A. Polar Form
A complex number bi a z + = can be represented by a vector OP as shown in Figure.






Complex Numbers
Advanced Level Pure Mathematics
Prepared by K. F. Ngai
Page 5

The length of the vector OP , OP r = , is called the modulus of the complex number z , and it is denoted
by z . The angle between the vector OP and the positive real axis is defined to be the argument or
amplitude of z and is denoted by z arg or amp z .
z arg is infinitely many-valued, that is,
t u k z 2 arg + = , where Z k e .
If z arg lies in the interval t u t s < , we call this value the principal value.

Theorem u cos r a = u sin r b =
2 2
b a r + =
a
b
= u tan
Example Express the complex number i z 12 5
1
+ = and i z 3 3 3
2
+ = in polar form.
Solution






B. Use of Polar Form in Multiplication and Division

Theorem Let ) sin (cos
1 1 1 1
u u i r z + = , ) sin (cos
2 2 2 2
u u i r z + =
(1)
2 1 2 1
z z z z = ,
2 1 2 1
arg arg ) arg( z z z z + = .
Or | | ) sin( ) cos(
2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1
u u u u + + + = i r r z z
(2)
2
1
2
1
z
z
z
z
= ,
2 1
2
1
arg arg ) arg( z z
z
z
=
Or | | ) sin( ) cos(
2 1 2 1
2
1
2
1
u u u u + = i
r
r
z
z

proof








Complex Numbers
Advanced Level Pure Mathematics
Prepared by K. F. Ngai
Page 6
















Example Let i z 3 1
1
+ = and i z 3 3
2
= .
(a) By expressing
1
z and
2
z in polar form, find
2 1
z z and
2
1
z
z
.
(b) Find the modulus and the principal value of the argument of
2
1
2
|
|
.
|

\
|
z
iz

Solution




















Complex Numbers
Advanced Level Pure Mathematics
Prepared by K. F. Ngai
Page 7

Example Prove that if 1 = z and 1 = z , then
z
z

+
1
1
is purely imaginary.
Solution





























Example Show that
2 1
z z + and
2 1
z z are both real , then either
1
z and
2
z are both real or
2 1
z z = .
Solution








Complex Numbers
Advanced Level Pure Mathematics
Prepared by K. F. Ngai
Page 8


10.4 Complex conjugate

A. Complex Conjugate

Definition Let bi a z + = , where R b a e , . The complex conjugate of z , denoted by z is defined as
bi a z =

Theorem Properties of Complex Conjugate
Let z be a complex number. Then
(1) z is real if and only if z z = .
(2) z z = (3)
2
z z z =
(4) z z = (5) z z arg arg = ) 0 ( = z
(6) ) Re( 2 z z z = + (7) ) Im( 2 z i z z =
proof
























Complex Numbers
Advanced Level Pure Mathematics
Prepared by K. F. Ngai
Page 9

Theorem Properties of Complex Conjugate (Continued)
Let
1
z and
2
z be two complex numbers. Then
(1)
2 1 2 1
z z z z + = +
(2)
2 1 2 1
z z z z =
(3)
2
1
2
1
z
z
z
z
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
) 0 (
2
= z

Example Prove that, for any complex numbers
1
z and
2
z .
) ( 2
2
2
2
1
2
2 1
2
2 1
z z z z z z + = + +
Solution








Example Let
i
i
z
+

=
2
1
. Find ) Re(z .
Solution






Example Prove that if 1 = z and 1 = z , then
z
z

+
1
1
is purely imaginary.
Solution









Complex Numbers
Advanced Level Pure Mathematics
Prepared by K. F. Ngai
Page 10

Example Let v u, and w be complex numbers with modulus equal to 1.
Show that if 0 = + + w v u , then 0 = + + wu vw uv .
Solution





















B. Roots of Polynomials with Real Coefficients Occurs in Conjugate Pairs

Let 0 ) (
0 1
1
1
= + + + + =

a x a x a x a x f
n
n
n
n
( 0 =
n
a ) be a polynomial with real coefficients and
degree n ( 2 > ). If bi a z + = ( 0 = b ) is a root of this polynomial, then bi a z = is also a root.













Complex Numbers
Advanced Level Pure Mathematics
Prepared by K. F. Ngai
Page 11


10.5 Geometrical Applications

Vectors Complex Numbers
Addition
) ( ) ( j d i c j b i a

+ + +
= j d b i c a

) ( ) ( + + +
) ( ) ( di c bi a + + +
= i d b c a ) ( ) ( + + +
Subtraction
) ( ) ( j d i c j b i a

+ +
= j d b i c a

) ( ) ( +
) ( ) ( di c bi a + +
= i d b c a ) ( ) ( +
Scalar multiplication R j b i a j b i a e + = + , ) (

R bi a bi a e + = + , ) (

In the set C of all complex numbers, if bi a z + = is regarded as a vector bj ai v + = ; then as far as the
above three operations are concerned complex numbers behave similar to those of vectors.

Geometrical Meaning of the Difference of Two complex Numbers

Suppose the complex numbers representing the points Z and P on the Argand diagram be yi x z + =
and bi a p + = representing the points Z and P on the Argand diagram respectively.
(1) The complex number p z represents the vector PZ ;
(2) The modulus p z represents the length of PZ;
(3) ) arg( p z represents the angle between the vector PZ and the positive x-axis.






Usually, if the point Z on the Argand diagram is represented by the complex number z , we use ) (z Z to
denote it. Therefore, for any four points ) (
1 1
z Z , ) (
2 2
z Z , ) (
1 1
p P and ) (
2 2
p P on the Argand diagram, the
angle u between the vectors
1 1
Z P and
2 2
Z P , as shown in Figure, is given by
u =
2 1
u u
= ) arg( ) arg(
2 2 1 1
p z p z
= ) arg(
2 2
1 1
p z
p z







Complex Numbers
Advanced Level Pure Mathematics
Prepared by K. F. Ngai
Page 12


Theorem Angle between Two Line Segments

Let ) ( ), ( ), (
1 1 2 2 1 1
p P z Z z Z and ) (
2 2
p P be four points on the Argand diagram. If u is the angle between
the line segments
1 1
Z P and
2 2
Z P , then
) arg(
2 2
1 1
p z
p z

= u
u is considered to be positive if it is obtained by rotating anti-clockwise the vector
2 2
Z P representing the
denominator to the vector
1 1
Z P representing the numerator.

Collinear

Theorem Let
3 2 1
, , P P P be three distinct points in the Argand diagram representing respectively the
complex numbers
3 2 1
, , z z z . Then
3 2 1
, , P P P are collinear if and only if =

1 2
1 3
z z
z z
,
Where is a non-zero real number.
Proof










Equation of a Circle

Let A be a point in the complex plane and the complex number corresponding to it be a . The equation of
the circle with A as centre and radius r is given by
, r a z =
where z is the complex number corresponding to any point P on the circle.
This equation is then rewritten as

2
a z =
2
r
) )( ( a z a z =
2
r
a a z a z a z z + =
2
r
Complex Numbers
Advanced Level Pure Mathematics
Prepared by K. F. Ngai
Page 13
) (
2
a a r z a z a z z + + =
This equation is in the form k z a z a z z + + = , where k is a real constant.
Example Find the centre and radius of the circle with equation 4 ) 2 1 ( ) 2 1 ( + + + = z i z i z z in the
complex plane.
Solution















Theorem Given that ) ( ), (
2 2 1 1
z Z z Z and ) ( p P are three points on the Argand diagram. Then
(1)
|
|
.
|

\
|

= Z
p z
p z
PZ Z
2
1
1 2
arg
(2) The three points P Z Z , ,
2 1
are collinear if and only if
p z
p z

2
1
is real.
(3) P Z
1
and P Z
2
are mutually perpendicular if and only if
p z
p z

2
1
is purely imaginary.

Example Let
1
z be a non-zero complex number and i w
2
3
2
1
+ = . If the points B A, and C are
respectively represented by the complex numbers
1 2 1
, wz z z = and
1
2
3
z w z = , show that
ABC A is an equilateral triangle.
Solution







Complex Numbers
Advanced Level Pure Mathematics
Prepared by K. F. Ngai
Page 14



Example Let
1
z and
2
z be two non-zero complex numbers. Prove that if
2 1 2 1
z z z z = + , then
2
arg arg
2 1
t
t + = n z z , where n is a non-negative integer.
Solution




































Complex Numbers
Advanced Level Pure Mathematics
Prepared by K. F. Ngai
Page 15



Example Suppose the vertices Q P, and R of an equilateral triangle represent the complex numbers
2 1
, z z and
3
z respectively.
(a) Show that
2
3
2
2
2
1 1 3 3 2 2 1
z z z z z z z z z + + = + + .
(b) If
2 1
, z z and
3
z are the roots of the equation , 0 3 3
2 3
= + + + r qz pz z show that
q p =
2
.
Solution

































Complex Numbers
Advanced Level Pure Mathematics
Prepared by K. F. Ngai
Page 16



Theorem More Properties on Moduli
Let
1
z and
2
z be complex numbers. Then
(1) z z z z s s ) Im( , ) Re(
(2)
2 1 2 1
z z z z + s + (Triangle Inequality)

Corollary
n n
z z z z z z + + s + + +
2 1 2 1


Proof This property can be proved by using mathematical induction on n .

Example Let
1
z and
2
z be complex numbers.
Prove that
2 1 2 1
z z z z s
Solution







Loci

When a variable complex number z has to satisfy some specific conditions, there is a set of points in the
Argand diagram representing all the possible values of z . The graph of this set of points is called the locus
of the complex number z .

Example Interpret the following loci in the Argand diagram.
(a) r ib a z = + ) ( ) , , ( R r b a e
(b) 1
1
=
+

z
i z

(c) 2 =
i z
z

Solution




Complex Numbers
Advanced Level Pure Mathematics
Prepared by K. F. Ngai
Page 17




















Example If
i z
i z
+

is pure imaginary, interpret the locus of z in the Argand diagram.


Solution





















Complex Numbers
Advanced Level Pure Mathematics
Prepared by K. F. Ngai
Page 18



Example Let o be a complex constant and k a real constant.
Show that the equation k z z = +o o represents a straight line.
Solution






































Complex Numbers
Advanced Level Pure Mathematics
Prepared by K. F. Ngai
Page 19




10.6 Transformation

Translation or Displacement

Definition Let b be a fixed complex number. The function C z b z z f e + = , ) ( is called a
translation.

Example Given a translation f defined by . , 2 1 ) ( C z i z z f e + =
(a) Plot the point ) 3 2 ( i f + .
(b) Sketch the image of the set { } 1 2 : s + e = z C z S under f .
Solution













Enlargement

Definition Let p be a fixed real number, the function C z pz z f e = , ) ( is called an enlargement.

Example Given two enlargements defined by z z f 2 ) ( = and C z z z g e = ,
2
1
) ( .
(a) Plot the point ) 2 1 ( i f + .
(b) Sketch the image of the (i) ellipse ) (E in Figure A under f .
(ii) triangle (T) in Figure B under g .
Solution





Complex Numbers
Advanced Level Pure Mathematics
Prepared by K. F. Ngai
Page 20



Rotation

Definition Let u be a fixed real number. The function C z i z z f e + = ), sin (cos ) ( u u is called a
rotation and u is the angle of rotation.

Example Given a rotation . ), 120 sin 120 (cos ) ( C z i z z f e + =
(a) Plot the point ) 2 ( i f + .
(b) Sketch the image of region R in figure under f .
Solution








Example Let
z
z w
1
3 + = . If the locus of z on the plane z is a unit circle centred at the origin, i.e.
1 = z , show that the locus of the points represented by w on the plane w is an ellipse.
Solution



















Complex Numbers
Advanced Level Pure Mathematics
Prepared by K. F. Ngai
Page 21



Example The complex numbers z and w are represented by points P and Q in an Argand
diagram. If w w z = ) 1 ( and P describes the line 0 1 2 = + x , prove that Q describes a
circle whose centre is at the origin.
Solution





































Complex Numbers
Advanced Level Pure Mathematics
Prepared by K. F. Ngai
Page 22




10.7 DeMoivre's Theorem and nth Roots of a Complex Number

For any real number
2 1
,u u , ) sin( ) cos( ) sin )(cos sin (cos
2 1 2 1 2 2 1 1
u u u u u u u u + + + = + + i i i
In particular, if
2 1
u u u = = , we have u u u u 2 sin 2 cos ) sin (cos
2
i i + = + .
For any positive integer n , by induction on n , the result may be generalized as
u u u u n i n i
n
sin cos ) sin (cos + = + ) (-
and this is known as the DeMoivre's Theorem for integral index.

For any negative integer n , we may let m n = . Then

n
i ) sin (cos u u + =
m
i

+ ) sin (cos u u
=
m
i ) sin (cos
1
u u +

=
u u m i m sin cos
1
+

=
u u
u u
m m
m i m
2 2
sin cos
sin cos
+


= ) sin( ) cos( u u m i m +
= u u n i n sin cos +
Hence, ) (- also holds for negative integers n .

For any rational number n . Put
q
p
n = , where Z q p e , and no loss of generality if q is taken as to be
positive. Then

q
n i n ) sin (cos u u + = u u nq i nq sin cos +
= u u p i p sin cos +
=
p
i ) sin (cos u u +
u u n i n sin cos + =
q
p
i ) sin (cos u u +
=
n
i ) sin (cos u u +
In general, for any real number u , positive number r and rational number n , we have
Complex Numbers
Advanced Level Pure Mathematics
Prepared by K. F. Ngai
Page 23
) sin (cos )] sin (cos [ u u u u n i n r i r
n n
+ = +

The nth roots of a complex number w are the n values of z which satisfy the equation w z
n
= . If we
write u u sin cos i w + = and assuming that the equation is satisfied by | | sin cos i z + = , then
| | u u sin cos ) sin (cos
1
i i
n
+ = + ) (-
| | | | u u n i n i i
n
sin cos ) sin (cos sin cos + = + = +
By equating the real parts and imaginary parts on both sides, we have
| u n cos cos = | u n sin sin =
u t | + = k n 2
n
k u t
|
+
=
2
) (--
where Z k e .
For 1 , , 2 , 1 , 0 = n k , since
n n n
n
n
k
n
u
t
u
t
u t u
+ < +

s
+
s 2
2 2 2

We obtain the n distinct complex roots for ) (- with the values of | obtained in ) (-- .
For 0 < k or 1 > n k , the root obtained is equal to one of the roots mentioned above. Hence, the equation
) (- has only n distinct complex roots.

Theorem DeMoivre's Theorem for Rational Index
Let n be a positive integer and u be a real number. Then
n
k
i
n
k
i
n
u t u t
u u
+
+
+
= +
2
sin
2
cos ) sin (cos
1
, where 1 , , 2 , 1 , 0 = n k

Using the DeMoivre's Theorem, we will have the following properties.
(i)
n m n m
z z z
+
=
(ii)
n m
n
m
z
z
z

=
(iii) 1
0
= z
(iv)
mn n m
z z = ) (



Complex Numbers
Advanced Level Pure Mathematics
Prepared by K. F. Ngai
Page 24


Application of DeMoivre's Theorem to Trigonometry
A Direct application of DeMoivre's Theorem and the binomial theorem, we are able to express
(i) multiple angles such as u n sin and u n cos in terms of u sin and u cos , and
(ii) powers of u sin and u cos back again into multiple angles.
Example Verify that u u u cos 3 cos 4 3 cos
3
=
< Express u u n n sin , cos in terms of powers of u sin and u cos >
Solution











Example (a) Show that ) cos cos 2 ( sin 4 4 sin
3
u u u u =
(b) Prove u u u
u
u
cos 6 cos 32 cos 32
sin
6 sin
3 5
+ = .
For what values of u that the result is not true?
Solution























Complex Numbers
Advanced Level Pure Mathematics
Prepared by K. F. Ngai
Page 25




Example Prove that . 1 cos 18 cos 48 cos 32 6 cos
2 4 6
+ = u u u u
Hence show that the roots of the equation 0 3 36 96 64
2 3
= + x x x are )
18
( cos
2
t
, )
18
5
( cos
2
t

and )
18
7
( cos
2
t
, and deduce that
12 )
18
7
( sec )
18
5
( sec )
18
( sec
2 2 2
= + +
t t t
.
Solution












































Complex Numbers
Advanced Level Pure Mathematics
Prepared by K. F. Ngai
Page 26




B If u u sin cos i z + = , we have
, cos 2
1
u = +

z z ) (
2
1
cos
1
+ = z z u ;
, sin 2
1
u i z z =

) (
2
1
sin
1
= z z
i
u .

As u u n i n z
n
sin cos + = and u u n i n z
n
sin cos =



u n z z
n n
cos 2 = +

, ) (
2
1
cos
n n
z z n

+ = u
, sin 2 u n i z z
n n
=

) (
2
1
sin
n n
z z
i
n

= u .

Example Express u
4
cos and u
4
sin in terms of functions of multiple angles.
Solution














Example Prove u u u u sin 10 3 sin 5 5 sin sin 16
5
+ =
Solution




















Complex Numbers
Advanced Level Pure Mathematics
Prepared by K. F. Ngai
Page 27




Example (a) Prove that 10 2 cos 15 4 cos 6 6 cos cos 32
6
+ + + = u u u u .
(b) Prove that u u u u u 6 cos 4 cos 2 2 cos 2 sin cos 32
2 4
+ = .
Solution
























Example By expanding , ) 1 (
2n
i + show that

2
cos 2 ) 1 (
2
2
0
t n
C
n n
k
n
k
k
=

=
,
2
sin 2 ) 1 (
2
1 2
1
0
t n
C
n n
k
n
k
k
=
+


Solution





















Complex Numbers
Advanced Level Pure Mathematics
Prepared by K. F. Ngai
Page 28




Example (a) Show that u u u u cos 5 cos 20 cos 16 5 cos
3 5
+ = .
(b) Using (a), or otherwise, solve 0 5 cos 20 cos 16
2 4
= + u u for values of u between
0 and t 2 . Hence find the value of
10
3
cos
10
cos
2 2
t t
.
Solution



























The nth roots of a Complex Number

If ) sin (cos u u i r z w
n
+ = = , then )
2
sin
2
(cos
1
n
k
i
n
k
r w
n
t u t u +
+
+
= , 1 , 2 , 1 , 0 = n k .

Example Find the three cube roots of 8 and locate them in the complex plane.
Solution











Complex Numbers
Advanced Level Pure Mathematics
Prepared by K. F. Ngai
Page 29




Example Find the fifth roots of 1 .
Also, interpret the result in the Argand diagram.
Solution
















nth of Unity

Theorem nth of Unity of Their Properties
Let n be a positive integer. Then the equation 1 =
n
z has n distinct roots given by

n
k
i
n
k
z
k
t t 2
sin
2
cos + = ) 1 , , 2 , 1 , 0 ( = n k
These roots are called the nth roots of unity. If we denote one of them by ) 1 (= e , then we have

n
e =1

1 2
1

+ + + +
n
e e e =0

Proof






















Complex Numbers
Advanced Level Pure Mathematics
Prepared by K. F. Ngai
Page 30



Example Let n be a positive integer and
n
i
n
t t
e
2
sin
2
cos + = , find the values of
(a)
1 2
1

+ + + +
n
e e e ,
(b)
1 3 2

n
e e e e ,
(c) ) 1 ( ) 1 )( 1 )( 1 (
1 3 2

n
e e e e
(d) , 1
) 1 ( 3 2 m n m m m
+ + + + + e e e e where Z me .
Solution





























Complex Numbers
Advanced Level Pure Mathematics
Prepared by K. F. Ngai
Page 31


Solution of Equations

Example Solve the equation . 0 1 4 cos 2
4 8
= + u z z When ,
4
0
t
u < < show that the roots occur in
Conjugate pairs.
Solution
















































Complex Numbers
Advanced Level Pure Mathematics
Prepared by K. F. Ngai
Page 32



Example Let n be a positive integer. By solving the equation 0 1
2
= +
n
x , show that
[
=


+ = +
n
k
n n
n
k
x x x x
1
1
)
2
1 2
cos 2 ( t
Hence deduce that
1
4
1 2
sin 2
1
2 1 2
=

[
=

n
k
n
n
k
t and
[
=

=
n
1 k
2 2
)
n 4
1 k 2
csc
2
sin 1 ( n cos t
u
u
Solution














































Complex Numbers
Advanced Level Pure Mathematics
Prepared by K. F. Ngai
Page 33