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Application of IACS Common Structural Rules

SORTA 2008
Changwon Son 16 Oct 2008

IACS Common Structural Rules

CSR Oil Tankers


Complete Set of Structural Rules for Double Hull Oil Tankers Length greater than or equal to 150m

CSR Bulker Carriers


Complete set of Structural Rules for SSS (Single Side Skin) and DSS (Double Side Skin) Bulk Carriers Length greater than or equal to 90m

Version

27 October 2008

Slide 2

IACS Common Structural Rules


Background and motivation Key aspects Experience Solutions

Version

27 October 2008

Slide 3

Why CSR ?

To eliminate competition between class societies with regard to structural requirements and standards To employ the combined experience within all societies in IACS to develop a single agreed standard, or set of Rules To ensure that vessels meeting the new standard will be recognised by industry as being at least as safe, robust and fit for purpose as would have been required by any of the existing Rules To ensure sufficient durability throughout the operational life in terms of corrosion margins and fatigue strength To define the minimum state of the structure at which steel renewal is required in order to continue safe operation To embrace the intentions of the anticipated IMO requirements for goal based new construction standards
27 October 2008 Slide 4

Version

What is CSR?

Rules covering structural requirement for Bulk Carriers and Tankers A Rule set utilising state of the art computational methods for more extensive direct calculations Vessels built to CSR shall have overall safety of the hull structure equivalent to or better than that previously achieved by existing rules

Safety level exceeding any IACS members existing Rules

Safety level

IACS CSR Individual society Rules

Requirements
Version 27 October 2008 Slide 5

Q&As and CI(Common Interpretations)


Shipowners and yards
CI is not to result in any change to the scantling

IACS Member
unanimous technical controversial

Question Answer

*PT (T, B)
policy

technical controversial

Each arrow indicates entry into CSR DB Permsec facilitates

Hull Panel
policy

Council
policy
Version 27 October 2008

SG/CSR
Slide 7

Harmonized Structural Rules for Oil Tankers and Bulk Carriers


Long term harmonisation deliverables

Common Rules covering Oil Tankers and Bulk Carriers 3 volumes:


- Common parts for both types - Specific part applicable to Oil Tankers - Specific part applicable to Bulk Carries

Completion of draft 2011


Feedback period Harmonization plan Harmonization work within IACS Implementation

2007
Version

2008

2009
27 October 2008

2010

2011
Slide 8

IACS Common Structural Rules


Background and motivation Key aspects Experience Solutions

Version

27 October 2008

Slide 9

Key Technical Aspects


Design basis Loads Net Thickness Longitudinal strength Hull Girder Ultimate Strength Fatigue Buckling FE Procedure

Version

27 October 2008

Slide 10

Design basis

Narrow double side Single deck Plane, corrugated or double skin bulkheads Arrangement of bulkheads complies with statutory req.

Single deck Double bottom Hopper side tanks Single or double side skin Intended primarily to carry dry cargoes in bulk.
Slide 11

Version

27 October 2008

Design Basis

Design Life : 25 years External Environment


North Atlantic wave environment Air temperature : -15 degree C Sea temperature: 0 degree C

Internal Environment
Specified gravity cargo: Min 1025 kg/m3 (900 for Fatigue) Specified gravity ballast: 1025 kg/m3 Max cargo temperature: 80 degree C Min cargo temperature: 0 degree C Corrosion margins based on 25 years design life

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27 October 2008

Slide 12

Design basis

Owners extras may include:


Vibration analysis Maximum percentage of high tensile strength Additional scantlings dimension above Rule requirements Additional design margins to the Rule loads Improved fatigue resistance Combinations of cargo loading patterns and draught exceeding Rule conditions - Higher cargo density for fatigue evaluation (for ships intended for regular carrying of high density cargoes) -

Owners extras that may affect the structural design are to be clearly specified in the design documentation

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27 October 2008

Slide 13

Loads

Rule formula compares well with wave load calculations Same basis for FE, Local scantling, fatigue Comprehensive (covers all structural items) Rule load formulations for basic load components at 10-8 and 10-4 probability level Design wave approach for Strength assessment
- selected load cases (design waves) - load combination factors

Long-term approach for Fatigue assessment


- Weibull distribution - Stress combination factors
15.0 10.0 5.0 0.0 0.0 -5.0 -10.0

VLCC1 - Heavy Ballast - 0.5L

5.0

10.0

15.0

20.0

25.0

30.0

35.0

40.0

45.0

Direct calc. - 0 speed

JTP P1

JTP P2

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27 October 2008

Slide 14

Loads - Local Scantling & FE analysis


Strength Assessment

Most severe load expected Equivalent design wave approach Selected load cases for maximised responses Rule load at 10-8
*Load
Version

combination factors
27 October 2008 Slide 15

Loads - fatigue
Fatigue Assessment (FLS) Expected load history Long-term distribution approach
AP FP

Location for assessment of combined stress:

Rule load at 10-4


Stress combination factors

Weibul distribution for total stress range


Version 27 October 2008 Slide 16

Direct link between NB and SiO


Design In Service

Corrosion Addition Predicted corrosion in 2.5 years (0.5 mm)

Wastage Allowance

Required Net Thickness

Required Renewal Thickness

Annual Thickness Measurements Annual surveys are required

Version

27 October 2008

Slide 17

CSR Net thickness approach


Net scantling to be maintained through the ship life Corrosion addition corresponding to the corrosive environment added on top of the net thickness Renewal thickness to be identified on drawings at new-building stage
Corrosion addition including owners extra

Wastage allowance 2.5 year diminution

Thickness

Required net thickness

Renewal thickness

New building
Version 27 October 2008

In service
Slide 18

Net thickness approach - example


Bottom plate
2.5 year diminution

Ballast tank (twas-1=1.2mm)

tcorr= twas+0.5mm
= twas-1 + twas-2 + 0.5mm = 1.2 + 1.0 + 0.5 = 2.7 rounded up to 3.0mm Sea water (twas-2=1.0mm)
Version 27 October 2008 Slide 19

Corrosion additions tcorr

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27 October 2008

Slide 20

Local and overall corrosion


Local plates FULL corrosion margin and stiffeners Hull girder incl. H-ULS FEM cargo hold

HALF corrosion margin HALF corrosion margin FULL for buckling capacity FULL in local area

Local FEM HALF overall HALF for local stress Fatigue 0.25 for hull girder stress
Version 27 October 2008 Slide 21

Longitudinal Strength

Define the operational limits of the vessel (loading conditions) Ensure strength of the hull girder : Bending & Shear

450000 400000 350000 300000 250000 200000 150000 100000

+ Limit - Limit LC4 LC5 LC6 LC7 LC8

50000 0 44.8 -50000 -100000 -150000 -200000 -250000 -300000 -350000

65.076

85.352

105.628

125.904

146.18

166.456

186.732

207.008

227.284

247.56

LC9 LC10 LC11 LC12 LC13 LC14

Limits specified by designer for permissible still water bending moment and shear
Limit

-400000

Max Shear Force for CL BHD


20000 Max. limit 15000 Min. limit LC4 10000 LC5 LC6 LC7 5000 LC8 LC9 0 LC10 LC11 -5000 LC12 LC13 LC14 -10000 LC15 LC16 -15000
57.30 89.01 120.72 152.43 184.14 215.85 247.56

Capacity

Shear Force (tonnes)

LC17 LC18

-20000

Distance from AP (m)

Version

27 October 2008

Slide 22

Hull Girder Ultimate Strength

ULS Failure Example


Version 27 October 2008 Slide 23

Hull Girder Capacity


The rule requirement is given in a partial safety format as follows: S MS + W MW MU / R Ms Mw Mu s , w R Still Water Vertical Bending Moment Wave Vertical Bending Moment Ultimate strength in sagging mode are partial safety factors relating to the characteristic values of SWBM and WBM is a factor relating to the characteristic value of ultimate strength capacity

Version

27 October 2008

Slide 24

Hull Girder Capacity

Simplified procedure

1. Based on hull girder net approach 2. Derive ultimate buckling capacity of stiffened deck panels u using advanced buckling procedure (PULS) 3. Derive effective area of the deck Aeff = U/ yd Anet 4. Derive reduced section modulus using effective area Zred 5. Ultimate capacity is given by MU = red yd

Version

27 October 2008

Slide 25

Fatigue Strength Assessment


North Atlantic wave environment 25 years minimum fatigue life Fatigue requirement for the whole cargo area including foremost and aft end cargo tank: longitudinal end connections hopper knuckle between inner bottom and hopper plate at least one transverse frame in midship region
eff eff

1
A d B

F2

F2

eff

eff

2
A d B

F2

F2 (see note iv)

eff

eff

3
A d/2 B

F2

Version

27 October 2008

Slide 26

Fatigue Strength Assessment


ID Connection type Critical Locations A B
1000 B C D E F F2 Stress Range (MPa)

eff

eff

1
A d B

F2

F2

G W

100

eff

eff

2
A d B

F2

F2 (see note iv)

10 1.00E+04 1.00E+05 1.00E+06 N 1.00E+07 1.00E+08

eff

eff

3
A d/2 B

F2

Nominal stress approach for longitudinal connections Hot spot stress approach for hoper knuckle

Version

27 October 2008

Slide 27

Buckling
Category 1: Stiffness and proportions requirements Non-stress based minimum requirements. The requirements are defined as slenderness ratios or inertia requirements

t/s

Category 2: Prescriptive Buckling Requirements Analytical formulas for assessment of the critical buckling stress for individual structural elements

Category 3: Advanced Buckling Analysis (Ultimate capacity control) Based on nonlinear analysis techniques which predict the complex behaviour of stiffened and un-stiffened panels. DNV PULS Code was implemented in the Rule.

Version

27 October 2008

Slide 28

Buckling Modes Graphical presentation


b) Weak stiffener sideways/torsional: High stiffener/small flange

a) Weak/thin plate - strong stiffener sideways: thin plate/wide stiffenerflange

a) + b) effect interacting

c) Weak stiffener out-of-plane: Low stiffener height/long span/small flange: prevented by PULS design principles

Version

27 October 2008

Slide 30

FEM Analysis

Strength analysis by FEM to verify the ship structure is within the class required standard Analysis is required as part of the rules Midship cargo region

Version

27 October 2008

Slide 31

FEM Analysis
Cargo tank Analysis

Minimum covering midship cargo region Minimum 3-tank FE model General mesh size following stiffening system, e.g. 900 mm Model based on average corroded thickness tgross 0,5 tcorr

Objective

Stress level and deflection in primary support members Buckling capability of plate and stiffened panels Hull girder capability

Version

27 October 2008

Slide 32

FEM Analysis Load Cases


Static loads

Still water vertical bending moment (Rule allowable) Still water vertical shear force (Rule allowable) External static pressure Internal cargo and ballast pressure due to gravity Tank over pressure head Structural steel weight

Dynamic loads

Wave vertical and horizontal bending moments Wave vertical shear force External wave pressure Internal cargo and ballast pressure due to accelerations

Version

27 October 2008

Slide 33

FEM Analysis Result Evaluation


Result Evaluation

Verification against acceptance criteria over mid-tank and including extend of transverse bulkhead structure

Version

27 October 2008

Slide 34

FEM Analysis Result Evaluation

S+D /S = 1.25

Version

27 October 2008

Slide 35

FEM Analysis Fine Mesh Analysis


Detail evaluation at high stress areas Openings and main brackets on two typical transverse web frames

Version

27 October 2008

Slide 36

FEM Analysis Fine Mesh Analysis


Openings and main brackets of horizontal stringers and buttress

Bracket heels of horizontal stringers

Version

27 October 2008

Slide 37

FEM Analysis Fine Mesh Analysis


Longitudinal end connections and web stiffeners under maximum deflection

Version

27 October 2008

Slide 38

FEM Analysis Fine Mesh Analysis

Version

27 October 2008

Slide 39

FEM Analysis Fine Mesh Analysis

Version

27 October 2008

Slide 40

IACS Common Structural Rules


Background and motivation Key aspects Experience Solutions

Version

27 October 2008

Slide 41

VLCC
Classification
+ 1A1 Tanker for Oil & CSR

Cargo Hold FE Model

NAUTICUS CONCEPT MODEL

FE MODEL

Version

27 October 2008

Slide 45

Rule Loading Conditions

Version

27 October 2008

Slide 46

Bottom Plate - Buckling

Buckling (Bi-axial)
Transverse Stress
Version 27 October 2008 Slide 47

Hopper & Side Longi. Bhd. Buckling

Transverse / Vertical Stress

Buckling (Bi-axial)
Version 27 October 2008 Slide 48

Typical Webframe

Shear Stress
Version 27 October 2008 Slide 49

No. 2 Stringer

Shear Stress
Version 27 October 2008 Slide 51

No 2 Stringer (Local Fine Mesh)

Version

27 October 2008 Von Mieses Stress

Slide 53

Double Btm. Longitudinals

Von-Mises Stress
Version 27 October 2008 Slide 54

Stress Concentration at Hopper Corner

Version

27 October 2008

Slide 55

Tanker for Oil and Chemicals


Classification
+ 1A1 Tanker for Oil and Chemical ESP CSR E0 BMW-E(s) VCS-2 BIS TMON SPM, CLEAN, Green passport

Local plates and stiffeners


Yielding Buckling Minimum Req.
Plates Beams

Version

27 October 2008

Slide 57

Fatigue check of longitudinals

Version

27 October 2008

Slide 58

Typical connections between corrugated bulkhead and lower stool top

Version

27 October 2008

Slide 59

Cargo Hold Analyses

Capacity Model

F.E Model

Yielding & Buckling check

Version

27 October 2008

Slide 61

Typical Web High Shear

Version

27 October 2008

Slide 62

Transverse Bulkhead - Buckling

Version

27 October 2008

Slide 63

Local Fine Mesh Analyses


Connections between corrugations and lower stool top plate

Version

27 October 2008

Slide 66

Local Fine Mesh Analyses


Deck longitudinal stiffeners and connections to deck transverse girders

Version

27 October 2008

Slide 68

Local Fine Mesh Analyses


Upper hopper connection to stool

Version

27 October 2008

Slide 70

IACS Common Structural Rules


Background and motivation Key aspects Experience Solutions

Version

27 October 2008

Slide 71

How DNV implements CSR

DNV has the best technical knowledge of the new Rules


- Head office and approval centres - Oslo, Shanghai, Busan, Kobe

Early software releases Design reviews together with yards Extensive approval experience

Version

27 October 2008

Slide 72

Software support

The new rule requirements, introduce a radical shift towards more computerisation of the rule formulations and structural assessment. Hence, good software support is critical for any Class to provide timely and rational support to ship-owners as well as designers and shipbuilders.

Version

27 October 2008

Slide 73

Nauticus Hull
Section Scantlings Coating calculations Steel weight calculations

Cargo hold analysis

Sea-keeping analysis Detailed fatigue Hydrodynamic analysis

IACS Common Structural Rules


Background and motivation Key aspects Experience Solutions

Version

27 October 2008

Slide 75

Version

27 October 2008

Slide 76