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CHAPTER 3 Process program in execution Batch system executes jobs Time-shared system has user programs, or tasks A process

ess includes: o Program counter current activity o Stack contains temporary data (function parameters, return addresses, etc) o Data section contains global variables Process State As a process executes, it changes state: new: The process is being created running: Instructions are being executed waiting: The process is waiting for some event to occur ready: The process is waiting to be assigned to a processor terminated: The process has finished execution Process control block -also called a task control block o Process state - The state may be new, ready running, waiting, halted, and so on. o Program counter - The counter indicates the address of the next instruction to be executed for this process. o CPU registers - The registers vary in number and type, depending on the computer architecture. o CPU-scheduling information - This information includes a process priority, pointers to scheduling queues, and any other scheduling parameters. o Memory-management information - This information may include such information as the value of the base and limit registers, the page tables, or the segment tables, depending on the memory system used by the operating system o Accounting information - This information includes the amount of CPU and real time used, time limits, account numbers, job or process numbers, and so on. o I/O status information - This information includes the list of I/O devices allocated to the process, a list of open files, and so on. Process Scheduling Queues o Job queue consists of all processes in the system o Ready queue - processes residing in main memory and are ready and waiting to execute o Device queue list of processes waiting for a particular I/O device Schedulers -carries out selection process

o Long-term or job scheduler selects processes and loads them into memory for execution; should be brought into ready queue o Short-term or CPU scheduler selects which process should be executed next and allocates CPU Long-term scheduler controls the degree of multiprogramming. Processes can be described as either: I/O-bound processspends more time doing I/O than computations, many short CPU bursts CPU-bound processspends more time doing computations; few very long CPU bursts Context switch -When CPU switches to another process, the system must save the state of the old process and load the saved state for the new process via a context switch -Context-switch time is overhead; the system does no useful work while switching -Time dependent on hardware support Process Creation Parent process create children processes, which, in turn create other processes, forming a tree of processes Processes are identified and managed via process identifier or PID. Resource sharing -Parent and children share all resources -Children share subset of parents resources -Parent and child share no resources Execution -Parent and children execute concurrently -Parent waits until children terminate Address space -Child duplicate of parent -Child has a program loaded into it UNIX examples -fork system call creates new process -exec system call used after a fork to replace the process memory space with a new program Process Termination Process executes last statement and asks the operating system to delete it (exit) -Output data from child to parent (via wait) -Process resources are deallocated by operating system Parent may terminate execution of children processes (abort) Child has exceeded allocated resources

-Task assigned to child is no longer required -If parent is exiting Some operating system do not allow child to continue if its parent terminates All children terminated -cascading termination Interprocess Communication Processes within a system may be independent or cooperating Cooperating process can affect or be affected by other processes, including sharing data Reasons for cooperating processes: -Information sharing -Computation speedup -Modularity -Convenience Cooperating processes need interprocess communication (IPC) Two models of IPC: Shared memory - a region of memory that is shared by cooperating processes is established Message passing - useful for exchanging smaller amounts of data, because no conflicts need be avoided Cooperating Processes Independent process cannot affect or be affected by the execution of another process Cooperating process can affect or be affected by the execution of another process Advantages of process cooperation: -Information sharing -Computation speed-up -Modularity -Convenience Synchronization Message passing may be either blocking or non-blocking Blocking is considered synchronous -Blocking send has the sender block until the message is received -Blocking receive has the receiver block until a message is available Non-blocking is considered asynchronous -Non-blocking send has the sender send the message and continue -Non-blocking receive has the receiver receive a valid message or null Buffering

Queue of messages attached to the link; implemented in one of three ways 1. Zero capacity 0 messages. Sender must wait for receiver (rendezvous) 2. Bounded capacity finite length of n messages. Sender must wait if link full 3. Unbounded capacity infinite length Sender never waits Communications in Client-Server Systems Sockets -defined as an endpoint for communication Remote Procedure Calls Remote procedure call (RPC) abstracts procedure calls between processes on networked systems Stubsclient-side proxy for the actual procedure on the server The client-side stub locates the server and marshalls the parameters The server-side stub receives this message, unpacks the marshalled parameters, and performs the procedure on the server Remote Method Invocation Remote Method Invocation (RMI) is a Java mechanism similar to RPCs RMI allows a Java program on one machine to invoke a method on a remote object Pipe acts as a conduit allowing two processes to communicate. CHAPTER 4 A thread is a flow of control within a process. Single and Multithreaded Programming Benefits of Multithreaded Programming: 1. Responsiveness - Multithreading an interactive application may allow a program to continue running even if part of it is blocked or is performing a lengthy operation, thereby increasing responsiveness to the user 2. Resource sharing - Processes may only share resources through techniques such as shared memory or message passing. 3. Economy - Allocating memory and resources for process creation is costly. Because threads share the resources of the process to which they belong, it is more economical to create and context-switch threads. 4. Scalability - The benefits of multithreading can be greatly increased in a multiprocessor architecture, where threads may be running in parallel on different processors. A single-threaded process can only run on one processor, regardless how many are available. Multithreading on a multi-CPU machine increases parallelism. Multicore Programming Multicore systems putting pressure on programmers, challenges include:

Dividing activities - involves examining applications to find areas that can be divided into separate, concurrent tasks and thus can run in parallel on individual cores. Balance - While identifying tasks that can run in parallel, programmers must also ensure that the tasks perform equal work of equal value. Data splitting - Just as applications are divided into separate tasks, the data accessed and manipulated by the tasks must be divided to run on separate cores. Data dependency - The data accessed by the tasks must be examined for dependencies between two or more tasks. Testing and debugging - When a program is running in parallel on multiple cores, there are many different execution paths. User Threads -Thread management done by user-level threads library Three primary thread libraries: POSIX Pthreads - refers to the POSIX standard (IEEE 1003.lc) defining an API for thread creation and synchronization. Win32 threads Java threads managed by JVM; typically implemented using the threads model provided by underlying OS Kernel Threads -Supported by the Kernel Examples: Windows XP/2000, Solaris, Linux, Tru64 UNIX, Mac OS X Multithreading models Many-to-one -Many user-level threads mapped to single kernel thread One-to-one -Each user-level thread maps to kernel thread Many-to-many -Allows many user level threads to be mapped to many kernel threads -Allows the operating system to create a sufficient number of kernel threads Threading Issues Semantics of fork() and exec() system calls Thread Cancellation terminating a thread before it has finished - Asynchronous cancellation terminates the target thread immediately - Deferred cancellation allows the target thread to periodically check if it should be cancelled

Signal Handling - Signals are used in UNIX systems to notify a process that a particular event has occurred. A signal handler is used to process signals. Thread Pools Create a number of threads in a pool where they await work Thread Specific Data allows each thread to have its own copy of data Scheduler Activations provide upcalls (a communication mechanism from the kernel to the thread library) Windows XP Threads Implements the one-to-one mapping, kernel-level Each thread contains: -A thread id -Register set -Separate user and kernel stacks -Private data storage area The register set, stacks, and private storage area are known as the context of the threads The primary data structures of a thread include: -ETHREAD (executive thread block) -KTHREAD (kernel thread block) -TEB (thread environment block) Linux Threads Linux refers to them as tasks rather than threads Thread creation is done through clone() system call clone() allows a child task to share the address space of the parent task (process) CHAPTER 5 CPU SCHEDULING Basic Concepts Maximum CPU utilization obtained with multiprogramming CPUI/O Burst Cycle Process execution consists of a cycle of CPU execution and I/O wait CPU burst distribution CPU Scheduler Selects from among the processes in memory that are ready to execute, and allocates the CPU to one of them CPU scheduling decisions may take place when a process: 1. Switches from running to waiting state 2. Switches from running to ready state 3. Switches from waiting to ready 4. Terminates

Scheduling under 1 and 4 is nonpreemptive All other scheduling is preemptive Dispatcher Dispatcher module gives control of the CPU to the process selected by the shortterm scheduler; this involves: -switching context -switching to user mode -jumping to the proper location in the user program to restart that program Dispatch latencytime it takes for the dispatcher to stop one process and start another running Scheduling Criteria CPU utilization keep the CPU as busy as possible Throughput # of processes that complete their execution per time unit Turnaround time amount of time to execute a particular process Waiting time amount of time a process has been waiting in the ready queue Response time amount of time it takes from when a request was submitted until the first response is produced, not output (for time-sharing environment) Optimization Criteria -Max CPU utilization -Max throughput -Min turnaround time -Min waiting time -Min response time Shortest-Job-First (SJF) Scheduling Associate with each process the length of its next CPU burst. Use these lengths to schedule the process with the shortest time Two schemes: -nonpreemptive once CPU given to the process it cannot be preempted until completes its CPU burst -preemptive if a new process arrives with CPU burst length less than remaining time of current executing process, preempt. This scheme is known as the ShortestRemaining-Time-First (SRTF) SJF is optimal gives minimum average waiting time for a given set of processes Priority Scheduling A priority number (integer) is associated with each process

The CPU is allocated to the process with the highest priority (smallest integer highest priority) -Preemptive -nonpreemptive SJF is a priority scheduling where priority is the predicted next CPU burst time Problem: Starvation low priority processes may never execute Solution: Aging as time progresses increase the priority of the process Multilevel Queue Ready queue is partitioned into separate queues: foreground (interactive) background (batch) Each queue has its own scheduling algorithm -foreground RR -background FCFS Scheduling must be done between the queues -Fixed priority scheduling; (i.e., serve all from foreground then from background). Possibility of starvation. -Time slice each queue gets a certain amount of CPU time which it can schedule amongst its processes; i.e., 80% to foreground in RR -20% to background in FCFS Multilevel Feedback Queue A process can move between the various queues; aging can be implemented this way Multilevel-feedback-queue scheduler defined by the following parameters: -number of queues -scheduling algorithms for each queue -method used to determine when to upgrade a process -method used to determine when to demote a process -method used to determine which queue a process will enter when that process needs service Multiple-Processor Scheduling -CPU scheduling more complex when multiple CPUs are available -Homogeneous processors within a multiprocessor -Load sharing -Asymmetric multiprocessingonly one processor accesses the system data structures, alleviating the need for data sharing

Real-Time Scheduling Hard real-time systems required to complete a critical task within a guaranteed amount of time Soft real-time computing requires that critical processes receive priority over less fortunate ones Thread Scheduling Local Scheduling How the threads library decides which thread to put onto an available LWP Global Scheduling How the kernel decides which kernel thread to run next Linux Scheduling Two algorithms: time-sharing and real-time Time-sharing -Prioritized credit-based process with most credits is scheduled next -Credit subtracted when timer interrupt occurs -When credit = 0, another process chosen -When all processes have credit = 0, recrediting occurs -Based on factors including priority and history Real-time -Soft real-time -Posix.1b compliant two classes -FCFS and RR -Highest priority process always runs first Algorithm Evaluation Deterministic modeling takes a particular predetermined workload and defines the performance of each algorithm for that workload Queuing models Implementation