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Oune 10, 1992

Memorandum for Record Subject: SOSUS SYSTEM - Surge Protectors


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INTRODUCTION _._.

High Voltage (H.V.) carbon block and gas discharge protectors are used throughout the SOSUS SYSTEM SB/SD-C/FDS Front-End cable shore equipment These protectors are utilized in the various High Voltage Power Plants (HVPP), the Power Separation Filter (PSF) cabinets and in the Current Protection Panels (CPP) as deployed since the 1960 time frame. Many of these protectors have now failed in place, have operated as intended and been replaced or they have been declared Manufacturer Discontinued (M.D.) by WECO/AT&T over the years. Any protector failure or fault has always been considered a very serious event and was immediately investigated for resolution. Under certain conditions, the possibility exists that very high potentials could occur between the various ground systems interconnected in the HVPP's, PSF's and CPP's. These conditions are: 1. Lightening discharges near the buried cable patch that couple into the system. A sudden break in the Ocean Ground (O.G.) cable while the HVPP is operational. A sudden break in the ocean cable coaxial outer or inner conductor or return tape conductor. Loss of current regulation and safety controls in the HVPP. Failed components, particularly current shunts, and loose wire connections.

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The purpose of the various protectors deployed is to minimize personnel and equipment damage when these faults occur. This memo is part of a series, related to the SOSUS Front-End, that document modifications implemented over a 18 year time span. Many of the protectors deployed have been replaced and/or are M.D. and will need to be addressed in the future. This

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memo is divided into six parts. In view of the fact that these parts are considerable, a brief listing could help the reader select topics of interest. Topics that are addressed in this historical memo include: Part 1 2 3 4 5 6 Protector Deployment Protector Application G840324 CPP Design Gas Tube Protectors Carbon Block Protectors Long Term Maintenance Concerns

This technical information is intended to facilitate future repairs, provide additional insight and to support future M.D. studies. The information contained herein is based upon numerous MER's, field reports, M.D. activity, problems resolution, and studies by the author conducted over a long time period. The contents of this memo are intended to supplement the technical manuals but all AT&T CO manufacturing drawings are still considered proprietary. This work was documented as part of N00039-92-C-0003, the FY'92 Sea & Shore Contract, Task 4.08 Investigation of M.D. equipment. PART 1 PROTECTOR DEPLOYMENT All of the various protectors used in the SB/SD-C/FDS Front-End's are AT&T/WECO KS type or apparatus coded devices. These codes were not specifically designed and manufactured for use in the SOSUS systems. They were designed for use in the former BELL SYSTEM commercial telephone circuits and all manufacturing drawings are considered as AT&T Proprietary Information. This memo does not address the numerous semiconductor circuit protectors such as ZENERS, MOV's and TRANSORB's or fuses/circuit breakers, etc., used in the SB/SD-C/FDS and MULTIPAIR cable systems. This memo, through illustrative examples, functional description, electrical characteristics, brief operating theory, and simplified block and pictorial schematics, is intended to address only the SPARK GAP (CARBON BLOCK) and GAS TUBE type of protectors used. The following devices are discussed in detail:

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CODE

TYPE

VOLTAGE 3500V 500V 800V 1250V 500V 60V 60V 70V 500V 3000V 5500V 8500V

NOTES OLD 99A TYPE 2B2A INSERT (2) 2B2B INSERT (2) 2B2E INSERT (2) *RADIUM BROMIDE *AMERICIUM (AM241) *BARIUM BROMIDE 331RL INSERT (2)

118A 123A1A 123A1B 123A1E KS-16169L2 458C 204A F-52571 125EW 126A1G 126A1J 126A1M

CARBON CARBON CARBON CARBON CARBON GAS (ARGON) GAS (ARGON) GAS (ARGON) GAS (ARGON) CARBON CARBON CARBON

*RADIO ACTIVE GAS ADDED TO INITIATE IONIZATION These devices are utilized in the following HVPP, PSF and CPP application: SB SYSTEM (PSF is P/O HVPP) A. GA11628AHVPP VI F-52571

Shunt protector across CR1, CR2, SHI, SH3 and SH4 from Ocean Ground (G3) to -H.V. BUS PSF return tape enclosure to Building Ground (G2) Ocean Ground to Building Ground

PI P2

123A1B

123A1A

It should be noted that some older HVPP's may utilize the F-51107 tube in place of the F-52571 and the 11 IB Protector in place of the 123A1B. The former devices were M.D. B. KS19856 CPP P3 PI & P2 118A KS-16169L2 Cable armor to Building Ground Building Ground to Ocean Ground

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C.

KS-20806
PI P2 to P8

CPP (Sites 2100, 3100) 123A1A


118A

Building Ground to Ocean Ground Cable armor to Building Ground (six cable systems and one G3 cable)

SD-C SYSTEM A. GF44812 HVPP

SGI SG2
SG3.1 &3.2

126A1M

P/O GF44814 Converter, 8500 V Current Regulator 1 protector P/O GF44814 Converter, 8500 V Current Regulator 2 protector X Option, 3000 V Y Option, 5500 V Z Option, 8500 V Converter output protector shutdown Converter cabinet, across shunts R63, R64 protection Converter cabinet +H.V. BUS to Frame Ground P/O GF44815 Load Transfer, Ocean Ground to Frame Ground P/O GF44815, Resistor Load Bank Protection to Frame Ground

126A1M

126A1G 126A1J 126A1M

SG4

123A1A

SG5 SGI SG2


B. GS71802
Fl F2 F3

123A1A

123A1A

123A1E

PSF

123A1A 123A1A 123A1A

PSF shield to Frame Ground Ocean Ground to Frame Ground CFLTS to Frame Ground

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C.

KS20405 PI SGI to 7

CPP (G644096 at sites 6300, 1600) 123A1A 118A Ocean Ground to Frame Ground Cable armor to Frame Ground

FDS/UWS A. G840324

CPP
125EW 118A FDS/UWS HVPP Ocean Ground to Frame Ground Cable armor to Frame Ground

PI SGI to 7
B. J86929A SG801

123 123

SG801

+H.V. to Frame Ground 123 fuseless station protector with 365 type inserts. Til Industries, Inc. Same as SG801

The 123 protector from Til Industries, Inc. is not addressed in this memo . as it is a commercial item. PART 2 PROTECTOR APPLICATIONS A. SD-C SYSTEMS Under certain conditions, the possibility exists that high potentials could occur between the three ground systems in the HVPP, PSF and CPP cabinets. These conditions are (1) lightning discharges near the cable path and (2) a sudden break in the Ocean Ground cable while the cable power plant is in operation, and (3) a sudden break in the coaxial cable outer conductor or return tape conductor, and (4) component failure in the H.V. current path. Surges in G3 (Ocean Ground) may also occur with a sudden, total loss of H.V. cable power. A break in the cable will also cause the potential of the submarine cable return tape or O.G. to rise relative to Building Ground. To limit these voltages, 123AlA type carbon protector blocks are connected between the three ground systems. These protectors arc over at approximately 500 volts and immediately drop the voltage to a much lower value. It should be noted that failed 123A type protectors may become permanently shorted and could cause artifacts. Others will partially fail due to oxidation or corrosion. Most will fail as a short and others will only partially conduct. The 123 type protectors are

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unique from the other spark gaps in that they permanently become shorted upon firing one time. Slight arcing may not necessarily cause a permanent short. The H.V. Dummy Load has additional overvoltage protection in the GF44815 Load Transfer Cabinet. The SG2 protector is used to protect the circuit should the TEST LOAD VOLTAGE ADJUST FINE potentiometer (R15) open. The SG2 (123A1E) protector is designed to fire at approximately 1200 V dc, thus preventing a high direct current voltage from appearing at the Test Load Control leads. The SGI spark gap (123A1A) protector is used to prevent the (G3) Ocean Ground from floating too high above the (G2) Building Ground bus. The SGI is designed to fire at approximately 500 volts. Leakage in these devices will affect the test load current and voltage readings, and fault resolution can become a challenge. The Ocean (sea) Ground (G3) bus in the LOAD TRANSFER BAY also has a bank of low impedance R.F. coupling capacitors to Frame Ground. Ten Sprague .47 pF capacitors are connected in parallel to shunt all power line, 20 kHz and R.F. frequencies to ground (G2) at this point. These ten capacitors C14.1 thru C14.10 or Sprague 196P474910S4 type capacitors are rated at 600 V dc. They are of an extended paper foil construction, selected for extremely low direct current leakage. Also, located at this junction in the O.G. (G3) bus is an AT&T 123A1A Protector. This protector (SG2) is rated for Ocean Ground (O.G.) to arc-over at 500 V dc to protect the HVPP from a sudden "OPEN" in the O.G. path to the PSF. It should be noted the CPP, PSF and each Converter also have the 123A1A protector from O.G. (G3) to F.G. (G2). Experience has shown that any differences in the ground return cable current meter readings (130 mA dc) in the HVPP and the CPP (Ref. I) may be due to failure in these components. It is recommended to suspect in the following order: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Shunts in HVPP & CPP 123A1A Protector Leakage (HVPP/PSF/CPP) Capacitor (C14) Leakage (HVPP) Capacitor C7 & C8 Leakage (PSF) Current Meter Calibration or Faults Ocean Ground Connections

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Although theoretically close to earth potential, extreme caution should be exercised when working on any portion of the Ocean Ground (G3). Always short the G3 system to G2 with the shorting switch located in the Current Protection Panel prior to working on the Ocean Ground. A suitable shorting strap connected from G2 to G3, installed in the immediate fault area, would also be advised when working on the 123A1 type protectors. The 123A1A protectors have a small, fixed, gap set for the 500 V dc breakdown level. Due to age and corrosion, this gap may only partially close and units have also been replaced for current leakage problems. The gap in the 123A1B protector is set at 800 V dc and the 123A1E is set at 1200 V dc. Very abnormal CPP and HVPP meter readings will result from a partially fired protector. Design and operational details of the 123 A type protector will be discussed later in this memo. Each Current Regulator 1 and 2 in the GF44814 Converter cabinet is protected with 126A1M 8500 V spark gaps and its associated circuitry. Each output Current Regulator (CR) circuit is provided with a spark gap type protector circuit comprised of spark gap, SGI, resistors R5.1, 5.2 and R6.1, 6.2, and high voltage relay PS1 for output CR1. Again, CR2 has identical circuitry. If the voltage developed across the regulator exceeds the firing voltage of SGI (8500 to 8900 volts) the protector fires, developing the necessary voltage across the lower divider resistance, R6.1, 6.2, to operate relay PS1. Resistors R5.1, 5.2 and R6.1, 6.2 also serve to limit the maximum current through the spark gap protector. Operation of relay PS 1 actuates the protector alarm and shutdown circuits which will be described in Appendix A and B.
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The Converter cabinet protector network consists of two 126A1 type spark gap type protectors SG3.1 and SG3.2 connected in parallel, resistors R24.1, 24.2 and R25.1, 25.2, and high voltage relay PS3. Parallel connection is for reliability reasons only. This circuit functions exactly as does the Current Regulator protector circuit, operating relay PS3 when a Converter overvoltage condition exists. Spark gaps SG3.1 and SG3.2 as well as resistor R24.1, 24.2 are chosen according to options X, Y, Z on the Converters output voltage. Spark gaps SG3.1 and SG3.2 are connected in parallel to provide redundancy so that the PS 3 relay is operated whenever the Converter output voltage exceeds the firing potential of either protector. Operation of relay PS3 actuates protector alarm and shutdown circuits which will be described separately in

Appendix A. Spark gaps SG3.1, SG3.2 will fire at the following voltages dependent upon the option chosen: OPTION FIRING VOLTAGE RANGE (VOLTS)

X
Y

2900 - 3200
5700 - 6000

8500 - 8900

Spark gap SG4 (123A1A) prevents excessive voltage from being developed across the cable current ground return meter and recorder (it fires at approximately 500 volts). Spark gap SG5 (123A1A) prevents the point to which it is connected from rising more than 500 volts above the Frame Ground. The one GAS TUBE protector used in the SD-C SYSTEM is circuit application VI in the GS71850 Impedance Matching Network of the PSF cabinet. This radioactive tube is designed for arcing at a low voltage (70 V dc), high current (1200 A) and a very fast reaction time (< 2 ps). The tube is intended to protect the 75 ohm R.F. transmission path from the PSF to the DEMUX system from any catastrophic fault. Design details of the GAS TUBE will be addressed later in this memo. B. SB SYSTEM HVPP In the SB system the PSF is an integral part of the HVPP. In the HVPP three separate ground circuits are provided, namely Building Ground, Ocean Ground, and return tape conductor. The Building Ground is connected to the frameworks, pullout units, shield cans of the potted apparatus that are grounded on the circuit, the control battery positive leads, and one side of each alternating current supply at the source. The return tape is the outer conductor on the coaxial cable. The Ocean Ground is used for the negative (-H.V.) metallic ground return circuit common to the direct current cable supplies. The only 123A1A protector used is to limit any surges in O.G. to F.G. to 500 V dc. If the 123A1A fires or fails in place, a permanent connection will result. Partial failures will be very disruptive in the cable current return path readings and artifacts may result. A gas tube, (VI) F-52571 is connected from the negative Regulator output (-HV BUS) directly to Ocean Ground. This tube is normally nonconducting but if an open occurs in the normal ground path through

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the various shunts the tube will fire at between 70 and 100 volts and will sustain at about 10 volts. Thus, preventing loss of cable current and the consequent appearance on the low voltage apparatus and wiring up to 3000 volts from the positive regulator supplies. With the tube conducting, the (CABLE CURRENT METER) in the Ground unit, and the (CABLE CURRENT) recorder will read either zero or less than normal current. A minor audible alarm will occur together with lighted lamps (CABLE ALARM CURRENT) and (RELAY TBL OR ALT FUSE ALM). If this occurs, the circuits should be repaired without delay. The first step should be to ground the (NEGATIVE) bus with a temporary jumper lead to the framework. This should extinguish the glow discharge in the gas tube. After repairing the faulty wiring or apparatus, remove the jumper. If the gas tube does not fire again and the meters read properly, the trouble has been corrected. PART 3 CPP DESIGN AND APPLICATION Every SOSUS coaxial cable system shore station utilizes a Current Protection Panel. All of the panels are very similar in design and function. The various CPP's are deployed as follows: UNIT KS19856 KS20806 KS20405 G644096 G840324-l,2 SITES SB SITES SB SITES 2100, 3100 SD-C SITES 7100, 6200 4400, 139W SD-C SITES 6300, 1600 FDS/UWS SITES 1, A, B CAPACITY 1 CABLE, 285 mA 6 CABLES, 285 mA 6 CABLES, 160 mA 6 CABLES, 160 mA -1, 6 CABLES, 300 mA -2, 3 CABLES, 300 mA

All of the above units were originally designed for use with the BELL SYSTEM SB, SD, SF, SG and SL commercial ocean cable telephone systems. Design changes evolved due to M.D. components, shunts, meters, protectors and switches and to changes in system cable current. A general description of the CPP's follows with exceptions noted for the G840324 unit used in the FDS/UWS system. Details of the FDS/UWS CPP are contained in drawing G840324 and in simplified form in Figures 1, 2 and 3. The purpose of the CPP panel is to detect faults in the Ocean Ground to power bay current path in the SB, SD, SF, SG and SL Ocean Cable Systems. It is intended for

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use in terminals employing a single Ocean Ground (G3) for returning system current from a maximum of six communication systems, none of which has a system current exceeding 300 milliamperes. The panel is housed in a metal cabinet and consists of a scaled system current meter, a Building Ground to Ocean Ground leakage meter, polarity and system selector switches, and seven detachable aluminum boxes containing a 118A lightning protector. Six of the boxes, intended for use in grounding lightning surges on a similar number of armored communications cables, contain a noise suppression capacitor. The remaining box, used for grounding lightning surges on the armored Ocean Ground cable, has no capacitor. The KS19856 CPP is intended for only one cable system and the G840324 CPP has no polarity switch. All units have a shorting interlock switch (O.G. to F.G.) that must be closed in order to expose the O.G. BUS and SHUNT assemblies. The large cabinet is sealed, locked and wall shock mounted. The CPP also provides the means for detecting a partial or complete diversion of system return current from the intended Ocean Ground path. These conditions are indicated by a significant difference in reading between the ground return current meter in the HVPP and the system current meter in the CPP. A leakage current meter between the Ocean Ground and Building Ground provides the facility to check the existence of faults in the Ocean Ground to HVPP path. The panel is intended for use in SB, SD, SF, SG and SL Ocean Cable Systems having terminals employing a single Ocean Ground (G3) for returning system current from a maximum of six communication systems. None of these cables will have a system current exceeding 300 milliamperes. The G840324 CPP also has a voltage meter to measure differences of up to 15 V dc between O.G. and F.G. The meter is protected with back-to-back ZENER diodes rated at 15 V dc. Nominal O.G. to F.G. voltages should be in the 2-3 volt range. All systems contain a 1 ohm, 20 watt shunt in series with the Ocean Ground return and its respective power supply. Connection from the shunt to the appropriate scale on the system current meter is made through the proper deck and position on the system selector switch. A shorting switch which connects Building Ground to Ocean Ground is provided for use when shunt repair or replacement is necessary. A 123A1A protector is connected between Building Ground and Ocean Ground to provide a ground path for lightning surges entering the cabinet on the Building Ground bus. The G840324 CPP uses a 125EW protector in this application. The G840324 CPP has a special bracket mounted on each of the six shunts. This bracket enables replacement of a faulty shunt without shutting the system down. The G840324 CPP is a FDS/UWS non-developmental item that provides voltage and current metering of the Ocean Ground cables and transient protection of the Ocean

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Ground cables and power/signal cables. It has the following operational interfaces and functions. (REF. 2). Number of Operational Interfaces Interfaces AWG #6 stranded copper wire to the armor of the system cables. 6 Wire shall be less than 50 feet long. AWG #6 stranded copper wire to the armor of the Ocean Ground cable. 1 Wire shall be less than 50 feet long. AWG #6 stranded copper wire of appropriate coaxial cable to the Ocean Ground (G3). Appropriate coaxial cable to the HVPS. 6 #2 AWG stranded copper wire to Building Ground (G2). 1 Wall connection brackets 1.37-1.39 inch openings for conduit connections and cable entry of all cables except the Ocean Ground cables which have a single 2.5 inch opening. Functions The CPP provides transient protection to the armor wires of the Ocean Ground cable and the power/signal cables as follows: 3500 volt breakdown devices between armor wire connections and G2 ground. A 500 volt breakdown device connected between G2 and G3 grounds. The CPP provides metering on the ground cables as follows: DC leakage current between G2 and G3 grounds. 200 mA and 2 A scales. The DC leakage current is measured by shorting the G3 ground to the G2 Building Ground and measuring the resulting current DC voltage between G2 and G3 grounds. 15 volt scale. Push to test meter. DC system current on each system. 200-300 mA scale. The current is selectively metered on individual Ocean Ground cables.

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PART 4 GAS PROTECTORS The excellent reliability of the BELL SYSTEM sealed gas surge limiter (SGSL) devices has been long demonstrated by results of millions of devices deployed since 1960. Gas protectors are used in the SOSUS system to protect personnel and equipment from high energy surges. The cables are charged normally in the 2000 to 4000 V dc range. When a fault occurs a high energy ringing transient is initiated. Because of the high energy and high reliability required, SGSL devices are utilized. The transient caused by a fault consists initially of a rapid rise in voltage V'=dv/dt. The gas protector is required to limit the voltage rise to limiting value VL. The protector then turns on to a low impedance. The voltage drops abruptly from VL to a low arc voltage VA. While in the arc mode a high current surge passes through the protector. Calculated current discharge waveforms for the Bell System SB Cable, from (REF. 3), are given in Figure 4A. With V'^xlO'v/s, VL should not exceed 2000 V. For the SD-C LUSC application the objective is a maximum VL of 2100 V at V1=3Kl09v/s. The expected SD-C LUSC surge current waveform is given in Figure 4B. Similar conditions were predicted for the older SB cable system (FIG 4A). In those portions of any cable system operating at more than about 2000 volts to ground, a fault resulting in the grounding of the center conductor produces sever electrical transients. These transients propagate through several repeaters to either side of the fault before being attenuated to a safe level. If no protection was provided, damage to shore station components would be probable, and HVPP failure would be possible. Two types of gas tubes were developed to provide the desired protection. Both types are electrically symmetrical diode type gas tubes, designed to conduct current in either direction. Both are of the cold cathode variety, requiring no power in the standby condition. Cutaway views of the two tubes follow along with detailed technical descriptions. A. 458C TUBE (SD-C/LUSC SYSTEM) The 458C tube is bridged across the 75 to 46 ohm Z match transformer in the GS71850 unit of the SD-C/LUSC PSF. The 458C tube has two functions. These are: (1) in the event of a fault on the cable causing an abnormal current to flow through the PSF, the tube will fire and conduct the current, preventing damage to the DEMUX and to other parallel low-voltage components; and (2) if an PSF power path opens, the rising voltage will fire the gas tube, holding the DEMUX circuit voltage at a safe level. The cable voltage is then turned down by the HVPP sensing circuitry. The

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minimum firing voltage of the gas tube is set slightly above the maximum voltage required by the DEMUX circuitry for this operation so that the tube does not refire. For surge protection service, the tube is designed to pass a charge of 0.6 coulomb at a peak current of 75 amperes in either direction. This provides a reasonable margin for the maximum reverse surge which would occur in a near-shore repeater with a fault on the shore side. It is also reasonable for the maximum forward surge which would occur at the one-half voltage to ground point with a fault on the seaward side of that repeater. For a SD-C system of maximum length, the charge passed in either case is approximately 0.5 coulomb (the charge stored in a 100 mF capacitor at 5 kV). The magnitude of the peak surge current in the PSF circuit is less than 50 amperes under either condition and well within the capability of the tube. The tube has a nominal breakdown voltage of 60 volts, and being located inside the power separation filters where the rate of rise of the transient voltage is relatively slow, the voltage rises only a few tens of volts above breakdown before the tube fires. Glow condition is established within five microseconds at a tube drop of about 70 volts. In less than 500 ms the cathode is heated sufficiently by ion bombardment to cause a transition to arc condition, giving a tube voltage drop of about 10 volts. In this mode, as an ionically heated cathode device, the tube can conduct the large surge transient or the normal cable current as required. The power dissipation in the tube at normal cable current is approximately 5 watts. Tube life in this condition is more than 1000 hours, providing ample margin over the estimated maximum time required to replace a tube. As a surge protection device the tube can conduct more than 50 maximum-energy surges without going out of firing voltage limits. The fundamental characteristics and ratings are given in Table I.

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TABLE I 458C COLD CATHODE, GAS-FILLED ELECTRON TUBE (REF. 4)

Maximum ratings average cathode current surge cathode current coulombic charge surges 5 mA 1500 A 1.5 millicoulombs 50 max.

shelf life
conducting life at 5 mA ambient temperature shock - 5 ms Electrical data breakdown voltage sustaining voltage breakdown time -500 V breakdown time -4 kV/us

20 years (min.)
200 hours (min.) -10 to +50C 50 g

60 V 10 V 5 us max. 0.7 ps max.

The structural details of the 458A are shown in Fig. 5. The two identical cathanodes are mounted on a high-alumina ceramic disk, one on either side, with the cathanodes facing each other through an aperture in the support disk. Each cathanode is a square nickel cup with integral mounting tabs. The facing surfaces are coated with a thin layer of emissive oxides of barium and strontium, activated during tube processing by means of a high-frequency discharge to develop super-emissive cold cathodes. The "nutmeg grater" shaped perforations perform two functions: (1) the hollow cathode effect of the small depressions increases the emission efficiency and life; and (2) they allow a visual observation, during testing, of the glow over the cathode surface to determine the uniformity of emission and cathode coverage. A small boss is provided at each corner of the cathanode to limit and position the contact area on the ceramic disk. This provides a leakage path of greater than 1000 megohms between the elements, even after the sputtering of the cathode material due to high-current arcs. A barium getter is used in all 458C tubes. The gas filling in the 458C tube is 1 per cent argon and 99 per cent neon at 60 torr pressure. The plane-parallel electrode geometry at a 0.030-inch spacing gives a

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nominal breakdown voltage of 60 V and a sustaining voltage at 5 mA of 10 V. One microcurie of radium bromide is used as a priming to insure sufficient initial ionization for high-speed operation in the absence of light. The 204A tubes used in the PSF's at sites 1600 and 6300 contains 1.1 microcuries of Americium (AM^j) isotope. The 204A tubes are very similar electrically and perform the same function. The radioactivity is required to ensure fast turn on when a fault occurs. The 458A tube is bridged across the transmission path at the output of the PSF, just inside the power separation filters. The most severe voltage surge the tube is required to handle is that caused by a short circuit fault in the adjacent cable power path. In the higher voltage portions of the system this surge voltage may rise to a value of more than four kV in approximately one us. Since it is desirable to limit the voltage on many of the transmission path DEMUX components to less than 500 V, a very fast tube is required. The signal path tube is designed to fire in from 0.2 to 0.3 us on a 4 kV per us transient, limiting the surge to the transmission path to a theoretical maximum of 800 V. The charge shunted by the gas tube is a substantial portion of the charge stored in the high voltage capacitors of the PSF, and may be as much as 1.5 millicoulombs. The discharge is oscillatory in nature and lasts about 10 ps. The peak current through the tube on the first swing may be as high as 1200 A. These high currents are carried by the tube in the metallic arc mode of conduction at a tube drop in the order of 10 V. The ability of the tube to pass such surges is tested in a circuit equivalent to that in a PSF. The size of the capacitors is doubled, however, to insure an adequate testing margin. In this test each tube is surged ten times in each direction with a total integrated charge of 4.5 millicoulombs and a peak current of 1800 A. The tube is conservatively rated to pass 50 maximum cable surges. In use in the PSF the tube is not required to carry continuous current. B. F-52571 TUBE (SB SYSTEM)

The F-52571 Gas Tube is referred to as a power bypass gas tube device (Fig. 6). The tube application, previously described, requires that the SB cable return current (-H.V.) be continuous if any one of the 5 shunts should fail. To protect against an open circuit in the return path, such as shunt failure, an additional device is required to bypass the line H.V. current. This bypass must be a high resistance under normal operating conditions since any current taken by this device will introduce meter errors. If an open circuit occurs, the bypass must carry the full cable current. At full current, the voltage drop should be small to avoid excessive localized power dissipation in the device. The device should recover when

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power is removed so that false operation by a transient condition will not permanently bypass the shunts. A gas diode, using an ionically heated cathode, has been used since the late 1950's to meet these requirements. By making the breakdown voltage safely greater than the drop across the shunt string, no power is taken by the tube under normal HVPP operation. In the event of an open circuit in any shunt, the voltage across the tube rises and breakdown occurs. Full cable current is then passed through the gas discharge. Removal of power from the cable allows the tube to deionize and recover in the event of false triggering by transients. The cathode is a coil of tungsten wire coated with a mixture of barium and strontium oxide. A cold cathode glow discharge forms when the tube is first broken down. This discharge has a sustaining voltage of the order of 70 volts. The glow discharge initially covers the entire cathode area. Local heating occurs and some parts of the oxide coating begin to emit electrons thermionically. This local emission causes increased current density and further increases the local heating. The discharge thus concentrates to a thermionic arc covering only a portion of the coil. The sustaining voltage is then on the order of 10 volts. Mechanically the tube was designed to minimize the possibility of a short circuit resulting from structural failure of tube parts. Fig. 6 shows the construction of the tube. The glass envelope and stem structure which had previously been developed for the hot cathode repeater tubes were used as a starting point for the design. The anode is a circular disk of nickel attached to two of the stem lead wires. To provide shock resistance the supporting stem leads are crossed and welded in the center. To protect against weld failure, a nickel sleeve is used at each end of the cathode coil. It is crimped to hold the coil mechanically in place and then welded at the end for electrical connection. At the end of the coil, as well as in all other places where it is possible, a mechanical wrap is made in addition to spot welding. An additional precaution is taken by inserting an insulated molybdenum support rod through the center of the cathode coil. The filling gas is argon at a pressure of 10 mm Hg. To provide initial ionization, 1 microgram of radium in the form of radium bromide was placed on the inside of the tube envelope. All materials were procured in batches of sufficient size to make the entire lot of tubes and carefully tested before being approved for use. The tubes were fabricated in small groups and a complete history was kept of the processing of each lot. For detailed study of tube performance, a number of electrical tests were made. These involved measurements of breakdown voltage, operating voltage as a glow discharge at low current, current required to cause the transition to a thermionic arc, the time required at the cable current to cause transition to the low voltage arc, and the sustaining voltage at the full current.

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All tubes were aged by operating at 250 milliamperes on a schedule which included a sequence of short on-off periods (2 min. on, 2 min. off) followed by periods of continuous operation. A total of 150 starts and 300 hours of continuous operation were used. Following this aging schedule the tubes were allowed to stabilize for a few days and then subjected to a 2-hour thermal treatment or pulse at 125C. Special, close tolerance F-52571 tubes were used in SB cable repeaters. It was required that no more than a few volts change in breakdown voltage occur during this thermal pulse before a tube was considered as a candidate for use in repeaters as a heater bypass protector. After aging and selection as candidates for repeaters, tubes were stored in a light-tight can at 0C. Measurements were made to assure stability of breakdown voltage and breakdown time. The quality of each group of 12 tubes was further checked by continuous and on-off cycling life tests. The fact that none of these tubes has failed on the cycling tests at less than 3,500 hours and 1,500 starts and no tube on continuous operation has failed at less than 4,200 hours gives assurance that system tubes will start once and operate for the few hours necessary to repair a defective shunt. Long-term shelf tests of representative samples at 70C and at 0C give assurance of satisfactory behavior in the system (Ref. 5). C. 125EW GAS TUBE (FDS/UWS CPP)

The 123EW gas tube type protector is used in the G840324 FDS/USS CPP. This device functions as a replacement for the M.D. 123A1A protector previously used to protect OG to FG surges above 500 V dc. Physically the unit is depicted in Fig. 12 and consists of two 331RL gas tube devices. A 331RL gas tube consists basically of a discharge gap between two metal electrodes sealed in a ceramic or glass envelope containing an inert (Argon) gas or combination of gases at reduced pressure. A discharge gap of given spacing will spark over in a gas at reduced pressure on a considerably lower potential than at normal atmospheric pressure. The large gap spacing typically used in this gas tube greatly reduces the possibility of the electrodes becoming permanently short circuited, or partially conducting as a major mode of failure in the 123A1A. When the gas tube is subjected to a surge voltage exceeding its static breakdown voltage, (500 V) the gas will ionize and form a conducting path across the discharge gap. The path will sustain at a voltage considerably lower than the static breakdown voltage. Removal of the voltage restores the discharge gap to an open circuit condition. Two 331RL inserts comprise one 125EW unit as depicted in Fig. 12.

18.

The characteristics of this gas tube plus its higher price as compared to the old 123A1A protector blocks indicate that gas tube application to HVPP facilities, should not be done indiscriminately. Based on favorable reports of field experience with gas tubes, it is strongly recommended that future cost studies be undertaken, especially in heavy lightning areas, to determine if substantial savings would accrue through use of 125EW gas tubes to replace 123A1A carbon blocks. Studies have confirmed that substantial savings have resulted from their use, especially in high lightning areas (Ref. 6). Specification of 125EW gas tubes may be considered in the following HVPP situations: (a) As substitutes for carbon block protectors at remote HVPP terminals where frequent interruptions caused by permanent grounding of the blocks on lightning discharges create a maintenance problem. (b) On long cable systems where requirements for low overall noise and continuity preclude use of carbon block protectors, and the large number and remote location of protectors would create a maintenance problem if carbon blocks were used. (c) At applications where frequent interruptions caused by permanent grounding of carbon blocks on lightning discharges would create an expensive maintenance problem. (d) At existing (or planned) NAVFAC's where lightning exposure and/or intermittent power induction surges have caused (or are expected to cause) maintenance problems if carbon blocks were used. (e) The 123A type protector housings are M.D. If the 2A2 type inserts (carbon) are M.D. in the future all 123A carbon protectors should be replaced with 125EW type units. Each 125EW protector used two AT&T 331RL type gas tubes permanently sealed into the plastic protector block. Repairs or replacements of the 331RL type inserts are not possible. Failed units of the 125EW requires an entire new protector. The AT&T Technologies, Inc. 331RL gas tube protector provides substantially longer service lifetime than 3-mil carbon block or earlier gas tube designs. The 331RL gas tube will provide surge protection at voltage levels comparable to carbon blocks even if the gas envelope should vent to the atmosphere. In addition, at the end of its service life, the mode of ultimate failure for the 331RL is a short circuit. The fail-safe features of the 331RL (when incorporated in its protector unit) make it unnecessary to place carbon blocks or back-up gaps in parallel with the protector unit in the CPP.

19.

The 331RL gas tube is incorporated in the AT&T Technologies 125EW protector units to fit the appropriate protector wells. The operating characteristics of the 331RL gas tube are shown as listed below: OPERATING CHARACTERISTICS FOR 331RL ELECTRON (GAS) TUBE

CHARACTERISTIC Direct Current Breakdown Voltage Time for Current Turn-Off* Surge Limiting Voltage t Insulation Resistance

VALUE 315 Volts Mean 275 Volts Minimum 150 Milliseconds Maximum 550 Volts Typical 100 Megohms Minimum

Time for device to clear momentary transient when device is exposed to 150 volt, one ampere source capability (1 ohm/volt supply with 1 uF capacitor across the tube). tRate of rise: 100 volts/microsecond The 321RL gas tube protector units are UL listed for use in UL listed customer terminal protectors manufactured by AT&T Technologies, Inc. The 123EW can be used as direct replacement for the 2A2A and 2B2A carbon block protector units, respectively. The 123EW contains the 331RL gas tube surge protectors and fusible discs and provides lightning and ac fault protection in the CPP. The gas tube is mounted in a drawn brass cap, threaded for insertion into 7/16-inch wells of all AT&T Technologies multi-pair protectors, terminal blocks, and cable terminals. Typical applications for the 331RL units are the 125EW type single pair fused protector and other AT&T configurations.

20.

PART 5 CARBON BLOCK PROTECTORS


The carbon block protectors used in the SOSUS system are divided into three main groups. They are: 1. 2. 3. ARC-OVER - One Time Operation (123A, KS16169L2) ARC-OVER - Multiple Firing (118A) ARC-OVER - Multiple Firing (Relay protector shutdown)(126A)

A. 123A TYPE PROTECTOR The 123A type carbon block protectors are used throughout the SB/SD-C HVPP and PSF. Their circuit application and functions have been previously described. The 123A types are as follows: UNIT 123A1A 123A1B 123A1E VOLTAGE 500 V 800V 1250V INSERT (2) 2B2A 2B2B 2B2E GAP .003 IN .006 IN .010 IN

It should be noted that some older SB HVPP's may utilize a 111A protector in place of the 123A1A. Each 123A protector consists of a base of insulating material equipped with threaded studs and two protector inserts as listed above. When the 123A1A protector is mounted in the PSF, special covers (No. 150B) must be ordered. The 123A is unique in that when arc-over occurs the protector insert element melts and permanent closure occurs, i.e. a short circuit results. The insert must then be replaced with a new unit. In the SB and SD-C HVPP's, discharge devices called protector blocks (123A type) are essentially gaps which discharge in air. They are open circuit devices that pass no significant current at normal operating potentials. Protector blocks are normally connected to or closely associated with the protection of communication circuits, equipment, plant, and personnel. The devices consist of two small carbon electrodes (inserts) which provide a small air gap between a conductor and ground. The arrangement consists of one block entirely of carbon and the other a carbon insert in a porcelain block. The carbon insert is held in place by a lead borate cement and is recessed slightly below the bearing surface of the porcelain to provide the appropriate gap spacing. The gap is formed when the larger carbon block is held against the porcelain bearing surface.

21.

Rectangular protector blocks have been in use much longer than the cylindrical type. Presently, all protection devices are designed to accommodate cylindrical blocks; consequently, rectangular blocks are obsolete. Since both types of protector blocks employ flat surface carbon electrodes, their arc-over characteristics are similar. (Ref. 6) If the potential between the conductors and ground across the carbon electrodes should rise to the point where the arc-over rating of the gap is exceeded, an arc will be established, grounding the line conductor (see Fig. 7 and Fig. 8). If the potential rise is short-lived (such as is caused by a lightning strike), the arc-over will be quenched when the current in the conductor is reduced below approximately 50 mA, allowing the protector to return to its open circuit condition. On longer steady-state discharges of considerable duration (cable faults), the lead borate cement will melt from heat produced by the arc, allowing the spring-loaded carbon block to be moved into contact with the larger carbon block. This results in permanent grounding of the conductor and provides a lower impedance path to ground. When the fault on the conductor is cleared, the carbon block insert must be replaced. In areas of heavy exposure, permanent grounding of blocks can present a maintenance problem of such proportions that special attention is required. The IB-type cylindrical protector insert unit shown in Fig. 8 is now in common use. The cylindrical block assembly is inserted in a threaded metal cap which is screwed into a well under spring loading. The well-type mounting provides moisture protection. Figure 8 shows this type protector insert unit installed in fused and fuseless station protector mountings, respectively. The 2B-type cylindrical protector block thermal shorting feature employs a fusible lead alloy pellet to provide metal-to-metal short-circuiting around the protector blocks under conditions of high, continuous fault current flow. When the pellet melts, it allows the spring-loaded metal platform or metal cage (as applicable) to push both carbon blocks forward until the platform or cage contacts the metal shell or base (ground). This action forms a path capable of carrying steady state current in the order of 30 amperes rms per protector unit. Figure 8 shows the operating sequence for the 2B-type protector insert units, respectively. The thermal shorting feature prevents overheating damage to the protector mountings and hastens operation of fusible elements if provided elsewhere in the line (i.e., fuses, bridle wire, fuse cable). These fusible elements protect plant, personnel and avoid fire hazards. The different codes of each type of protector unit may be identified by differences in cap shape or by letter marking on the cap. The 2B protector insert units are interchangeable. The 2B insert is 1/2 inch thread diameter.

22.

If melt down does not occur, the 123A1A units have a very long, proven operating life. The ability of a protector to discharge current without developing a permanent short improves very rapidly with an increase in gap spacing, as may be noted from the curve in Fig. 9. For example, widening the gap from 0.003 inch to 0.006 inch will increase its duty life 4 to 5 times. For a given gap spacing, protector shorting is roughly a function of current magnitude and length of discharge time. Protectors will handle relatively large lightning surge currents without permanent short circuiting because of the short discharge time, but on abnormal steady-state discharges, such as may occur during a power fault, they become permanently shorted at rather low discharge values. This does not materially affect maintenance, however, because protectors are not frequently exposed to abnormal steady-state potentials. When they are, it is an indication of an abnormal plant condition that requires investigation.
A

For the protection of SOSUS terminal and switching center equipment where discharge currents are generally limited by considerable impedance, protector gaps have a nominal spacing of 0.003 inch. This gap does not introduce excessive corrosion or maintenance except in cases of exceptionally high exposure to humidity. For the protection of other HVPP circuit, it is generally preferable from the protector block maintenance standpoint to employ 0.006 inch or 0.010 inch gaps which are capable of discharging much higher currents without becoming permanently short circuited. Most partial failures involve the 123A1A because of its smaller air gap (.003 IN.). Fault diagnosis is very difficult with a partially failed insert as discussed previously. Some failed units have exhibited a "holdover" characteristic to sustain arcing at a very low voltage. When a discharge is once initiated in a protector gap, the discharge will sustain until the magnitude of the discharge voltage and current drops below the critical sustaining value of the protector. The signal potentials and currents in a communication circuit are normally well below the critical value; therefore, after the abnormal potential that initially operated the protectors dissipates, arcing in the gap will be extinguished. However, the protectors may not clear after the initiating surge has attenuated if a steady-state potential of appreciable magnitude is present. Such steady-state potentials are characteristic for certain types of carrier systems where power for remote repeaters is transmitted over the communication conductors. Failure of a protector to clear, or to "hold over" as it is frequently called, ultimately results in permanent short-circuiting of the gap and operation of power fuses. Holdover is the continuing discharge of current across the air gap of a protector block after the initiating surge has passed and is dependent on the steady-state voltage, current, and air gap spacing. Studies of the holdover characteristics of the commonly used 2B2-type cylindrical protector blocks with 3-mil and 6-mil gaps, where current is limited by series resistance, have revealed the voltage-current relationship as shown in Fig. 10. Voltage

23.

is the open circuit voltage across the terminals of the protector; current is the short circuit current available at the protector terminals. The circuit design trend toward use of steady-state voltages in excess of 48 V dc has increased emphasis on the understanding and control of holdover. Since steady-state voltages and currents on Ocean Ground must be held within certain limits for numerous design reasons, the information presented in Fig. 10 is of greater interest. Where steady-state voltages and currents exceed the critical value, the power source should include circuitry intended to prevent holdover of the associated protector blocks. B. KS16169L2 PROTECTOR

The KS16169L2 Spark Gap protector is used in the SB SYSTEM KS-19856 CPP. These low voltage (-50 V dc) protectors consist of a molded round phenol-plastic cap incorporating a metal shell equipped with a pair of protector blocks. The KS16169L2 unit consists of two inserts: a WECO 32A protector and a 33B protector. The completed assembly is shown in Fig. 11. Upon failure these units should be replaced with 125EW units. These protectors are designed for use only with the KS-16170 protector mounting. The LIST 2 unit was designed for use in the commercial BELL SYSTEM SB and SD submarine cable shore stations. They provide for a high voltage and abnormal surge current protection between Ocean Ground (G3) and Building Ground (G2) fields. C. 126A1 PROTECTOR

The 126A1 Type spark gap protectors are used only in the SD-C HVPP. Each unit consists of two large, curved carbon electrodes mounted on special electrodes. The electrodes are feed-though insulators assembled on a porcelain disc in a metal base. The unit is equipped with a glass dust cover which is threaded into a plastic base. The entire assembled unit is shown in Fig. 13. Terminals are arranged for H.V. lead solder connections. In order to maintain the specified corona free levels of 10,000 V dc, from terminal to terminal, threaded chrome metal caps are provided to cover the solder connections. Also, chrome corona dome nuts are used to cover the threaded rods holding the carbon blocks in place. The following factory settings are made: UNIT 126A1G 126A1J 126A1M GAP .025 .055 .085 VOLTAGE 2500-2800 V dc 5700-6000 V dc 3500-8900 V dc

24.

Special H.V. test equipment is required to properly set this gap in the factory. It is not possible to repair a faulty 126A1 type protector in the field. The only known mode of failure has been crushed or broken glass covers or loose carbon blocks. Thermal changes will cause the carbon blocks to become loose over a long time period. Arcing in the gap is a function primarily of the adjusted spacing. The temperature, pressure and humidity will also have a minor affect. The 126A1 type were only manufactured in the WECO-KY and BU plants. Units are now only available from the AT&T-GC Department 1120 Engineering Model Shops. The following protrietary items comprise one 126A1 type protector (Fig. 14): ITEM A-581462 Type Protector Assembly A-581465 Requirements, testing A-581276 Plugging Compound P-17E800 Brass Cap, Rod P-17E801 Cap, Dome P-17E802 Cap, Lead P-17E803 Plate P-17E804 Block, Carbon P-17E805 Washer P-17E807 Cap, Fixture Assembly P-17E808 Cap, Fixture P-420690 Washer P-205653 Screw P-480346 Nut, HEX RM-651956 Insulator RM-781071 Dome Globe RM-6L12624 Epoxy Compound P460847 Washer Cork Sealing Gasket D. 118A LIGHTENING PROTECTOR QTY

AR 2 2 2 1 2 2 1 1 2 2 2 2 1 AR 2 1

The 118A protector is designed specifically as a high current lightening protector. The protector assembly is depicted in Fig. 15. Each unit consists essentially of three curved carbon blocks, having a .030 in. gap. The blocks are mounted on a porcelain base and enclosed in a shield can. One electrode is intended to be connected to frame ground and the other two connected to the coaxial cable outer shield. The 118A has No. 8 gauge insulated wire leads to properly conduct lightening surges. The device is rated and tested at a 3500 V dc sparkover rating.

25.

The ability of this protector to prevent a large rise of potential in the CPP, reduces the stress on associated smaller 123A1 type units. The carbon blocks serve as excellent R.F. insulators of the cable shield, can conduct up to 10,000 A of surge current and block dc current for corrosion control. Due to its rugged, simple design no failure of 118A units have ever been experienced by the author. The complete assembly of the 118A protector is describe in AT&T drawing A-777058. All 118A devices are used in the various CPP's deployed. In the CPP all USA's are individually enclosed in a metal shield box. This shielding is required due to the unpredictable high voltages and current associated with a lightening strike to the outer cable shield. The cables are vulnerable only on the land link that could be up to a mile in length at some SOSUS sites. Repairs are not possible on damaged units, hence, the entire assembly must be replaced. PART 6 PROTECTOR MAINTENANCE/TESTING Protector devices used in the SOSUS System are inherently very reliable, long lasting and maintenance free. Long term (20 years) reliability is realized through very rigorous manufacturing controls, inspection and testing. Field testing is not practical for the H.V. carbon block devices due to the high voltages involved. Appendix B details an approach for testing of the 126A1 TYPE protectors. This test is recommended to be conducted only by personnel familiar with the SD-C HVPP, its capabilities and to be very familiar with safe H.V. testing procedures. Testing of the lower voltage GAS TUBES is much safer and practical. The F-52571 tube used in the SB HVPP is relatively easy to test. The test should be conducted at least every year as normal PMS checks. This test is detailed in the GA11628A Installation Test Specification T-150-957 paragraph 3.03 in., Steps 1 to 8. This procedure consists of: Turning down all Regulators and Switching to (MAN) control. Throw the (EMERGENCY CABLE SHORTING) switch to (FINAL). After checking that the cable current and voltage are zero, pull out the Ground Unit. Disconnect the (LOAD +) terminal lead on the Recorder, (SH3) shunt Leave the unit pulled out so the gas tube (VI) is visible. Slowly turn up Regulator 1 by turning its handwheel manually while watching the gas tube. Observe that at some point a glow discharge occurs in the tube. Initially this should be a blue glow throughout the tube, later changing to a violet glow concentrated on the cathode (small coiled element). The glow may shift along the length of the cathode at random. Leave the (CONTROL) switch at (MAN) and raise the output until the (V1-V2 VOLTS) meter reads 300. Using the (CABLE CURRENT ADJUST FINE) control set the cable current to 225 mA and check that the (CABLE CURRENT METER) in the Ground

26.

unit and the (CABLE CURRENT) Recorder read zero. Connect a KS-14510 or equivalent voltmeter temporarily across the gas tube at its terminals. Check that the reading does not exceed 15 volts. The tube should now be operating in the arc discharge region as depicted in Fig. 16. In order to understand the stages of gas ionization, consider a gas filled tube such as the F-52571 with a thermionic type cathode. At low anode potentials, kinetic energy acquired by the electrons is insufficient to ionize gas molecules by collision. The electronmolecule collisions are elastic. A negative space charge now exists at the cathode, and the plate characteristic of the gas filled tube is similar to that of the space-charge-limited vacuum diode (see Fig. 16). Transition regions are: Electron Avalanche Region As the anode potential of the gas filled tube is increased, ion pairs begin to be produced by electron impact. Now more electrons reach the anode than leave the cathode. Cathode and anode currents are related by L, = I0e~d (REE 7)

where L, is plate current, I0 is cathode current, d is anode-cathode separation, and a is the number of new electrons formed by one electron traveling a distance of one meter through a gas. Electron multiplication is known here an electron avalanche. In the electron avalanche region anode current increases rapidly with increased voltage until the plate characteristic develops a very steep slope. Normal-glow Region (Blue) At the point where the plate characteristic develops a steep slope, the gas breaks down (150 volts) and the gas in the tube begins to glow. Photo emission and ion bombardment of tube elements supplement electron-molecule collision in the body of the gas as a means for increasing production of electrons. The current increases and the voltage drop required to sustain a given level of current decreases. This is the normal-glow region (70 volts) where most gas tubes operate. The fact that the firing (avalanche) potential is higher than the sustaining (normal-glow) potential accounts for the 30 per cent overvoltage required to fire this gas-filled voltage regulator tube. Abnormal-glow Region (VIOLET)

27.

If the anode potential is increased far beyond even the electron avalanche region, the tube enters the abnormal-glow region. This region (200 volts) is an unstable region of relatively high voltage drop and relatively low anode current. The abnormal-glow effect has not been adequately explained. Perhaps photoionization at tube surfaces is a major source of electrons. This photoionization results in a great deal of ionization throughout the tube with much photon activity, although the resulting electrons add little to the anode current Arc Discharge Region If the anode potential of a gas tube is increased above that which causes the abnormalglow region, the gas-tube anode current concentrates itself in a single path, usually the shortest distance from cathode to anode, although existence of a sharp point may tend to concentrate the current path elsewhere. The gas discharge is now very intense and characterized by low voltage (10 volts) and very high current. This is the arc discharge region of Fig. 16. An arc can be struck by moving step by step through all the intermediate stages of anode voltage, but it need not be struck in this manner. As anyone knows who has watched lightning or laid his screwdriver across H.V. hot wires, an arc is provided across the filaments. In the filamentary kind of arc, heavy current is forced to flow across a filamentary conducting path. The filament is consumed by the intense heat, but the current continues as an arc if the conditions of gas pressure, temperature, and applied anode voltage are all favorable. The filamentary arc seems to be the way a defective ceramic tube socket breaks down. Gas leaks due to cracked glass seals are the only known mode of failure in these tubes. As mentioned previously, these BELL SYSTEM protectors are very rugged and reliable. No failure of the 118A devices have ever been experienced by the author. The 126A1 TYPE protectors are prone to the following long term problems (Fig. 14): 1. Loose H.V. wires and connectors 2. Loose corona dome nuts 3. Loose carbon blocks 4. Cracked glass domes All of these problems are related to long-term thermal changes and stress. Repairs, obviously, should only be conducted with the HVPP turned off. The most common protector failures are in the 123A1 type units as discussed previously. Continuity measurement across the 2B inserts should be conducted with much thought. Many protectors of this type are used in the SD-C HVPP and PSF from F.G. to O.G., so that it is hard to find a faulty unit. These inserts should be replaced every ten years or

28.

when abnormal failures occur. It should be noted that replacement of these units is possible with the HVPP operational but care must be exercised. Removing a failed insert, while the HVPP is operational, will suddenly divert the established current flow. This may result in a sudden surge voltage across the insert. A suitable strap wire should be connected across the protector from O.G. to F.G. whenever an insert is removed. The 123A1A unit inserts (500 V) can be tested using an AT&T CO A4H402L1 protector test set using the A4H402L5 (MOD) adaptor. All devices are now listed as manufacture discontinued by AT&T except for the following: (All AT&T CO manufacturing drawings are protrietary) 118A 2B Inserts 125EW AT&T OMAHA AT&T OMAHA AT&T MEXICO

The 126A spark gaps can be manufactured in the AT&T-GC, Department 1121, Engineering Model Shops. The last F-52571 tubes available are retained by the author. Some old residual assets are available in the Cheatham Annex Depot. No spare 458C tubes are known to exist. Caution should be considered whenever old residual assets are deployed. CONCLUSION All spark gap and surge protector devices used in the SOSUS Front-End equipment are vital for personnel and equipment safety. While large in scope this memorandum is intended to cover all devices, along with CPP design, in one publication. While many protectors are M.D. by AT&T CO they still are repairable and/or maintainable. The information contained herein is intended to facilitate long-term life cycle support and M.D. activities in the future. All of the SOSUS protectors, while simple and utilitarian in application, remain gratifingly complex in details, materials and in manufacturing. All protector failures should be viewed by engineering and by the customer as a very serious fault. Techniques for fault insolation, testing and repairing are reviewed. Protector faults can manifest themselves in many strange ways. Problem resolutions can be very perplexing, time consuming and dangerous. It is recommended that all site resident engineering personnel review the contents of this memo and retain it for future reference. Utilization of the AT&T CO A4H402L1 protector test set may expedite resolution of protector failures and return current anomalies.

29.

I wish to acknowledge the support and contribution of numerous AT&T engineering personnel to the contents of this memo. They are too many to mention, retired or lost in memory.

a. /:
A. K. Wittmann Attachments: Appendix A and B Figures 1 to 16 References List of Figures Copy to: S. M. Averyt N. J. Kuczmanski J. G. Peeples R. C. Zak J. J. McGough J. J. Dziadosz R. Dewey G. R. Mueller D. P. Jacobs J.Maxwell A. L. Skipper L. L. Berkowitch M. G. Binkley E. R. Burns A. S. Burrows I. Cruz L. L. Dimmick R. J. Granger J. R. Gregory E. Kiess J. L. Melzer J. J. Papa D. B. Rhue D. C. Ross P. A. Sierk J. E. Swing

- GC 1135 - GC 1135 - GC 1135 - GC 1331 - GC 1135 - GC 1135 - GC 1135 - GC 1135 - GC 1135 - GC 1135 - GC 1135 - GC 1135 -GC1135 - GC 4936 - GC 1 135 - GC 1321 - GC 1320 - GC 1120 - GC 1121 - GC 4932 - GC 1135 -GC1135 - GC 1121 - GC 1324 - GC 1135 - GC 4961

30.

Copy to: (continued) . D. Tollison R. C. Watts W.E.Williams J. A. Workman S.L.Lucas

- GC 1135 -GC1135 - GC 1131 - GC 4961 -GC1100

31.

LIST OF FIGURES

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16.

FDS CPP APPLICATION G840324 VIEW G840324 INTERFACE CALCULATED CABLE DISCHARGE WAVEFORM 458C GAS TUBE F-52571 GAS TUBE 123A TYPE PROTECTOR 2B TYPE INSERT 123A1A LIFE TESTING 2B INSERT HOLDOVER KS-16169L2 PROTECTOR 125EW GAS PROTECTOR 126A1 TYPE PROTECTOR 126A1 INTERNAL ASSEMBLY 118A LIGHTENING PROTECTOR GAS TUBE DISCHARGE CURVES

Al A2

SD-C HVPP PROTECTOR SHUTDOWN CIRCUIT KS-15957L1 H.V. RELAY

32.

LIST OF REFERENCES

1.

SD-C FRONT-END GROUNDING DEPT. 1121 GC A. K. WTTTMANN, SEPT 11, 1989 CURRENT PROTECTION PANEL INTERFACE DEPT. 46234 L. H. STEINHURST, MAY 23, 1991 SG SUBMARINE CABLE SYSTEM, DESIGN INFORMATION S. T. BREWER, FEB 20, 1975 BELL SYSTEM TECHNICAL JOURNAL, JULY 1964 BELL SYSTEM TECHNICAL JOURNAL, JANUARY 1957 TELECOMMUNICATION ELECTRICAL PROTECTION - AT&T EDWARD P. CARTER, 1985 ELECTRON DEVICES AND CIRCUITS, MCGRAW HILL, 1962, J. M. CARROLL

2.

3.

4. 5. 6.

7.

A-l
APPENDIX A

126Al TYPE PROTECTOR SHUTDOWN CIRCUIT

Each Converter cabinet used in the SD-C GF44812 HVPP uses four 126A1 type spark gap protectors. These units are used in association with selected H.V. resistors and the protector shutdown (P.S.) H.V. relay (KS-15957) as depicted in Figure Al. The KS-15957L1 vacuum relays are H.V. DC types (FIG 2A) with two double-throw contacts. The contacts are sealed in a glass vacuum chamber and are activated by the armature of a magnet mounted in the base of the vacuum chamber. The relay is designed for "dead-circuit" switching but may be used for "live-circuit" switching at limited loads and voltage. Solder type terminals are provided. Corona shields are provided on all contact terminals, rated corona free up to 10,000 V dc. Typical specifications are: PHYSICAL SPECIFICATION CONTACT ARRANGEMENT: WEIGHT: TERMINAL STRENGTH: CONTACT MATERIAL: DPDT 8 OZ. MAX. 5 LBS. PULL IN ANY DIRECTION DEGASSED TUNGSTEN

OPERATING SPECIFICATIONS NOMINAL OPERATING VOLTAGE PULL IN VOLTAGE @ 25C: DROP OUT VOLTAGE: MAXIMUM OVER VOLTAGE @ 25C OPERATE TIME:(INCLUDES BOUNCE) RELEASE TIME: CONTACT BOUNCE: LIFE: DIELECTRIC STRENGTH CORONA TEMPERATURE RANGE SHOCK PRESSURE VIBRATION (5-1000 Hz) 48.0 V dc 25 V dc MAX. 1-20 V dc 56 V dc 23 ms MAX. (AT RATED COIL VOLTAGE) 10 ms MAX. 2 ms MAX. 500,000 MECHANICAL OPERATIONS 17,500 V dc 10,000 V dc 0C TO 85C 100 g 100 psig 3g

The supplier is Lear Siegler Jennings Inc. and their part number is RB2A 48N199.

A-2
Figure Al depicts the Protector Shutdown (PS 1,2,3) circuit configuration. For the X OPTION calculations for the relay pull-in voltage, when the SG fires can be calculated as follows: V, = 3000 V\ 4.12JC//735 [ (4.12K//735) + 14.0JT

= 3000V

624

14,624

= 3000V[.043]

= 128 VDC

This voltage will result in a real fast turn-on of the PS relay. The sequence of events are: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. SPARK GAP fires with an over-voltage. PS relay turns ON. The Protector Alarm (PA) relay turns ON. The PA circuit latches until manually cleared. The Inverter Power Operate (IPO) relay turns OFF. The Inverter Power (IP) main contactor relay turns OFF. The -78 V dc powering the Inverter Power Stages A and B is disconnected and the Converter shuts down.

Testing of this circuit is detailed in Appendix B.

B-l

APPENDIX B SD-C HVPP 126A1 PROTECTOR SHUTDOWN TESTING CAUTION: THIS TEST FOR SPARK GAP (SG) ARCING IS NOT NORMALLY PERFORMED IN THE FIELD. EXTREME CARE AND CAUTION BY KNOWLEDGE PERSONNEL MUST BE FOLLOWED. LETHAL VOLTAGES AND CURRENTS ARE AVAILABLE AT MANY TERMINALS IN THE HIGH VOLTAGE (H.V.) COMPARTMENTS THAT ARE EXPOSED. NOTE: THIS TEST IS IN GENERALIZED FORM FOR TESTING SGI IN CURRENT REGULATOR 1. SIMILAR STEPS SHOULD BE FOLLOWED FOR SG2 IN CR2 AND FOR SG'S 3.1 AND 3.2 IN THE CONVERTER OUTPUT. A H.V. D.C. VOLT METER (Ml) WITH SUITABLE H.V. LEADS SHOULD BE AVAILABLE. SHUT DOWN THE HVPP STRAP METER Ml BETWEEN TERMINAL 1 OF MAGNETIC AMPLIFIER AR3 AND TERMINAL E31 IN THE H.V. COMPARTMENT. TERMINAL AR3-1 IS -H.V. AND TERMINAL E31 IS +H.V. IN THE CONVERTER H.V. COMPARTMENT REMOVE: R24.1 & 24.2 R 14.1 & 14.2 R7.1 & 7.2 R16.1 & 16.2 R19.1 & 19.2 R20.1 & 20.2 R21.1 & 21.2 R22.1 & 22.2 STEP 4 DISABLES DISABLES DISABLES DISABLES DISABLES DISABLES DISABLES DISABLES SG3.1 & 3.2 SG2 SLOPE OF CR1 SLOPE OF CR2 CONVERTER DROOP 1 CONVERTER DROOP 2 8% VOLT ALARM 15% VOLT ALARM

STEP 1. STEP 2.

STEP 3.

IN THE LOAD TRANSFER H.V. COMPARTMENT REMOVE: Rl.l & 1.2 DISABLES TEST LOAD VOLTMETER

STEP 5

IN EACH CR1 AND 2 REMOVE DROOP AMPLIFIER 1 AND 2 AND FSLI1 AND 2 CIRCUIT PACKS AND STRAP TERMINALS 35-36 OF DETECTOR 1 AND 3 CONNECTORS. REMOVE THE DETECTOR 8 CIRCUIT PACK (+15% OVERVOLTAGE SHUTDOWN) FROM THE CONVERTER MONITOR SLIDE. STRAP OUT THE RECTIFIER OUTPUT VOLTAGE METER ON EACH CR1 AND 2. SET THE TEST LOAD COURSE ADJUST TO 8400 V POSITION.

STEP 6

B-2
STEP 7 RAISE THE VOLTAGE BY CONTROLLING THE CURRENT ADJUST COURSE POTENTIOMETER IN THE CR1 OR TEST LOAD FINE CONTROL IN THE LOAD TRANSFER BAY.

When Meter Ml indicators between 8500 V and 8900 V, SGI should fire. The firing of SGI may be detected by visual observation and by a reduction in the voltage indicated in Ml. In addition, the firing of SGI may be accompanied by a protector shutdown of CR1. Testing of SG's 3.1 and 3.2 will require moving the leads of Ml to Z3-1 (-H.V.) and Z3-3 (+H.V.). Also, the resistor R24.1 and 24.2 must be reinstalled to enable the turn on of the PS 3 relay. The following should also be noted: OPTION X Y TEST LOAD SETTING 2800 V 5600 V FIRING RANGE 2900 - 3200 V dc 5700 - 6000 V dc

Firing of SG's 3.1 and 3.2 should enable PS3 to initiate a PROTECTOR SHUTDOWN of the entire Converter cabinet.

NEMA ENCLOSURE

SHORTING SWITCH INTERLOCK

M3
G3-G2 VOLTAGE METER

M1
G3-G2 LEAKAGE CURRENT METER

M2 SYSTEM CURRENT METER

SYSTEM SELECTOR

CABLE ARMOR PROTECTORS


G3 PROTECTOR

FIGURE 2 CURRENT PROTECTION PANEL EXPLODED VIEW G840324


AKW 3/9/92

TO 33 OCEAN GROUND ONE PER SITE FDS-DWT

OG

33

Ri R2
R3
+ HV TO PFE CABLE SYSTEM" 4 1.2,3

R6

FCABLE SYSTEM
4,3,6

. +HV TO PFE

R5 R4

Al

TO CABLE SYSTEM I ARMOR TO CABLE SYSTEM ZARMOR

A2

TO CABLE SYSTEM 3 ARMOR TO CABLE SYSTEM 4 ARMOR

TO CABLE SYSTEM 3 ARMOR TO CABLE SYSTEM 6 ARMOR


)A6

A7 I

TO 63 CABLE ARMOR SHIELD

TO G2 BUILDING GROUND

DOOR NOT SHOWN

FIGURE 3 CURRENT PROTECTION PANEL INTERFACE WIRING G840324

CURRENTAMPERES MAXIMUM CURRENT, AMPERES

-t

en

CO

ro

CO CD
CO -< CO H

o o

z m
CO O

ro o o

CO

o o

o
CD

> < H

t
CO CO CO

o o

CO

m o c -n

m o >
33

55
m
33

m a
CO

o o
CO O

o
CO CO

to

m
CO

o
33 Q

o o o o CO o o a> o o
L

0>

o
Q

o> m
O

SEALED METAL ENCLOSURE

2.60"

LEADS ELECTRON TUBE

,- CATHANODE NO. 1

.PERFORATIONS
f, CATHAN0O6

NO, 2

/' ,' METAL CLIP --

,-HIGM ALUMINA / CERAMIC

- - _ EMISSIVE COATING

FIGURE 5 458C GAS TUBE


AKW 3 / o / Q r>

MOUNTING

LEADS CERAMIC BASE GLASS ENCLOSURE

CATHODE (TUNGSTEN) GETTER

SLEEVE

ANODE (NICKEL)

SUPPORTING STEMS

FIGURE 6 F-52571 GAS TUBE

AKW 3/9/92

2B INSERT (FIG. 8)

CARBON BLOCKS

TERMINALS

2B INSERT

1.50'

PHENOLIC BASE

FIGURE 7 1 2 3 A 1 PROTECTOR
AKW 3/9/92

FROM LINE

TO PROTECTED CIRCUIT

BEFORE OPERATION

FUSIBLE PELLET SPACER 32 BLOCK CARBON INSERT OF 33 PROTECTOR BLOCK

PORCELAIN RING NORMALLY HOLDS ONE BLOCK SLIGHTLY A W A Y FROM THE OTHER BLOCK AND THUS

PROVIDES A DISCHARGE GAP

FROM LINE

TO PROTECTED CIRCUIT

AFTER OPERATION

PELLET AND LEAD BORATE HAVE MELTED

FIGURE 8 2B TYPE INSERT


AKW 3/9/92

123A1B

.006

GAP SPACING IN INCHES

.004

.003
123A1A

.002
DISCHARGE CURRENT 700 CREST AMPERES DURATION OF IMPULSE TO HALF VALUE 500 MICROSECONDS

20

40

60

80

100

120

140

160

180

A V E R A G E NUMBER OF OPERATIONS TO SHORT CIRCUIT

FIGURE 9 123A PROTECTOR LIFE TESTING


AKW 3/9/92

CO LU CC UJ

2
HOLDOVER
Z 111

ex.

DC oc

100

200

300

400

500

STEADY-STATE

POTENTIAL (VOLTS)

HOLDOVER CHARACTERISTICS OF

CYLINDRICAL 500VDC

2B2 TYPE PROTECTOR BLOCKS BELOW

FIGURE 10 2B2 TYPE HOLDOVER AKW 3/9/92

DESIGNATION PIN

CAP ASSEMBLY

SPACER

PROTECTOR ASSEMBLY WASHER CARBON PROTECTOR BLOCK PROTECTOR BLOCK KS-16169

.719' PROTECTOR MOUNTING ASSEMBLY KS-16170

CONNECTOR SPRING ASSEMBLY RING

PANEL MOUNT

RING

FIGURE 1 1

PROTECTOR ASSEMBLY AND MOUNTING


AKW 3/9/92

GROUND MOUNTING FLANGE

331RL WIDE GAP GAS TUBE

TERMINAL ASSEMBLY

NUT

WASHERS

SOLDER

PELLET

PROTECTOR CUP ASSEMBLY 331RL

HOUSING

VOLUTE SPRING

COVER

POTTING COMPOUND

GROUND TERMINAL

FIGURE 12 125EW PROTECTOR AKW 3/9/92

r\

VIEW FIG. 14

CARBON BLOCKS

nn
5.68'

GLASS DOME

PHENOLIC BASE

MOUNTING STUDS SOLDER TERMINALS

FIGURE 13 126A1 TYPE PROTECTOR ASSEMBLY


AKW 3/9/92

ADJUSTABLE GAP SEE TABLE A


A

CORONA DOME W A S H E R , SPRING LOCK

NUT HEX

WASHER

BLOCK C A R B O N

PLATE INSULATOR GASKET

CAP FIXTURE ASSEMBLY

WASHER PORCELAIN INSULATOR TABLE A CODE NO. 126A1F


CAP

DIM A

SECTION A-A FIGURE 13


ROD

126A1G

126A1J
126A1M

.020 .025 .055 .085

FIGURE 14 126A TYPE PROTECTOR WITH BULB REMOVED CROSS SECTION (VIEW AKW 3/9/92 A-A)

CARBON ELECTRODES

TOP VIEW

GAP .030 3500VDC

PLASTIC COVER

SLEEVE

MOUNTING BRACKET CARBON ELECTRODES

WIRE LEAD CERAMIC BASE

2.75*

0
2.5"

8 AWG LEADS (3)

FIGURE

15

1 1 8 A LIGHTNING PROTECTOR

AKW
3/9/92

ARC
DISCHARGE

ABNORMAL GLOW NORMAL GLOW DISCHARGE

z ai cc cc
01

TRANSITION

o o

REGION

Z
O 01

10

01

cc cc o o
10 -11
SPACE-CHARGE REGION

GAS AMPLIFICATION

10V

70V
ANODE

150V

200V

POTENTIAL V O L T S

FIGURE 16 F - 5 2 5 7 1 GAS TUBE DISCHARGE

AKW

4H.V.
1

* fc->

P/O H.V.
^-"- ^%-

f\ f\ K 4 n A f T & j ^ h

COMPARTMcf

SG ( g

126A1 (NOTE 1)

<(N<DTE 1)

i>
L2 735 ohms
PS

62

L1

KS-15957L1

?1

PA
-26V

-H.V.

H.V. COMPARTMENT

IPO RELAY

NOTE 1

H.V.P.P. OPTIONS X OPTION Y OPTION:


Z OPTION: 126A1G, 126A1J, 126A1M, 126A1N, 14.0 K o h m , 24.0 K ohm, 37.5 K ohm, 37. 5 K o h m , 3000V 5500V 8500V 8500V

CURRENT REG's

FIGURE A1 PROTECTOR SHUTDOWN CIRCUIT '


AKW 3/9/92

L1

NO 1
_1 - - - -

NC 3

NO *

NC 6

L2

KS-15957L1 RELAY

H.V. TERMINALS

VACUUM

3.60"

ENCLOSURE (GLASS)

BASE

LEADS

COIL RATING LIST NO.

CONTACT RATING LINE SWITCHING


AMP

VOLTS

FREQ

DC RES
OHM10%
735

CLOSED
AMP

CONTACT
CAP. APR.

KV
8

KW 20

DC RES. OHMS
.01

44-52

DC

20

IPS

2 POT

TYPICAL RATING

FIGURE A2 KS-15957L1 H.V. RELAY


AKW 3/8/92