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Power System Protection S.A.

Soman Zones of Protection Zone 1 Protection


Zone 1 Setting

Power System Protection


S.A.Soman
Department of Electrical Engineering IIT Bombay

Infeed and Outfeed Effects Zone 2 and Zone 3 Setting Overlap Problem for Zone 2 Problem of Load Encroachment
Solution for Load Encroachment

Setting of Distance Relays

Summary

Setting of Distance Relays


Power System Protection S.A.Soman Zones of Protection Zone 1 Protection
Zone 1 Setting

1 2

Zones of Protection Zone 1 Protection Zone 1 Setting Infeed and Outfeed Effects Zone 2 and Zone 3 Setting Overlap Problem for Zone 2 Problem of Load Encroachment Solution for Load Encroachment Summary

3 4 5 6

Infeed and Outfeed Effects Zone 2 and Zone 3 Setting Overlap Problem for Zone 2 Problem of Load Encroachment
Solution for Load Encroachment

Summary

Setting of Distance Relays


Power System Protection S.A.Soman

Zones of Protection
Zones of Protection Zone 1 Protection
Zone 1 Setting

A distance relay has to perform the dual task of primary and back up protection. The primary protection should be fast and without any intentional time delay. Back up protection should operate if and only if corresponding primary relay fails. Distance relays are provided with multiple zones of protection to meet the stringent selectivity and sensitivity requirements.

Infeed and Outfeed Effects Zone 2 and Zone 3 Setting Overlap Problem for Zone 2 Problem of Load Encroachment
Solution for Load Encroachment

Summary

Setting of Distance Relays


Power System Protection S.A.Soman Zones of Protection Zone 1 Protection
Zone 1 Setting

Infeed and Outfeed Effects Zone 2 and Zone 3 Setting Overlap Problem for Zone 2 Problem of Load Encroachment
Solution for Load Encroachment

Summary

Setting of Distance Relays


Power System Protection S.A.Soman Zones of Protection Zone 1 Protection
Zone 1 Setting

Zone 1 of Protection Zone 1 provides the fastest protection. There is no intentional time delay. Operating time can be of the order of 1 cycle. It is set to cover 80% of the line length. It is because of the difculty in distinguishing between faults which are close to bus B.

Infeed and Outfeed Effects Zone 2 and Zone 3 Setting Overlap Problem for Zone 2 Problem of Load Encroachment
Solution for Load Encroachment

Summary

Setting of Distance Relays


Power System Protection S.A.Soman Zones of Protection Zone 1 Protection
Zone 1 Setting

1 2

Zones of Protection Zone 1 Protection Zone 1 Setting Infeed and Outfeed Effects Zone 2 and Zone 3 Setting Overlap Problem for Zone 2 Problem of Load Encroachment Solution for Load Encroachment Summary

3 4 5 6

Infeed and Outfeed Effects Zone 2 and Zone 3 Setting Overlap Problem for Zone 2 Problem of Load Encroachment
Solution for Load Encroachment

Summary

Setting of Distance Relays


Power System Protection S.A.Soman Zones of Protection Zone 1 Protection
Zone 1 Setting

Zone 1 does not cover the entire length because of the following Limited accuracy of CT and PT because of
Partial or complete saturation of CT during fault. It results in errors in measurement of apparent impedance. This makes it difcult to determine fault location at the boundary accurately.

Infeed and Outfeed Effects Zone 2 and Zone 3 Setting Overlap Problem for Zone 2 Problem of Load Encroachment
Solution for Load Encroachment

Working of numerical algorithms is prone to errors because of


Model limitation of transmission line. Transients accompanied with the fault.

Summary

Setting of Distance Relays


Power System Protection S.A.Soman Zones of Protection Zone 1 Protection
Zone 1 Setting

Infeed and Outfeed Effects Zone 2 and Zone 3 Setting Overlap Problem for Zone 2 Problem of Load Encroachment
Solution for Load Encroachment

With only local measurements and a small time window, it is difcult to determine fault impedance accurately. The impedance seen by the relay for fault F will depend upon the current contribution from the remote end. Thus, IBF ZR = xZl + ZF + ZF IAF

Summary

There are infeed and outfeed effects associated with working of distance relays.

Infeed and Outfeed Effects


Power System Protection S.A.Soman Zones of Protection Zone 1 Protection
Zone 1 Setting

Infeed and Outfeed Effects Zone 2 and Zone 3 Setting Overlap Problem for Zone 2 Problem of Load Encroachment
Solution for Load Encroachment

Consider relay R1 for a fault F. IBF = IAB + IED

Summary

Setting of Distance Relays


Power System Protection S.A.Soman Zones of Protection Zone 1 Protection
Zone 1 Setting

Hence, VR1 = IAB Z1 + xZl2 IBC VR1 IAB = Z1 + xZl2 + xZl2 IED IAB

Infeed and Outfeed Effects Zone 2 and Zone 3 Setting Overlap Problem for Zone 2 Problem of Load Encroachment
Solution for Load Encroachment

If there is an equivalent generator source at E, then it feeds the fault current. Thus IAB and IED are in phase. This is known as infeed effect. Thus relay R1 perceives fault to farther away from its actual location. If there is an equivalent load at bus E, relay perceives fault to be at a point closer than its actual location.

Summary

Setting of Distance Relays


Power System Protection S.A.Soman Zones of Protection Zone 1 Protection
Zone 1 Setting

Setting of Zone 2
Zone 2 protection is delayed by coordination time interval. Zone 2 is set to 120% of primary line impedance. It also provides back up protection to a part of the adjacent line. If ZP + 1.5ZB > 1.2ZP , where ZP and ZB are the positive sequence impedance of primary and the shortest back up line, then zone 2 is set to reach 50% of shortest back up line. Else if the shortest back up line is too short then Z2 is set to 1.2ZP .

Infeed and Outfeed Effects Zone 2 and Zone 3 Setting Overlap Problem for Zone 2 Problem of Load Encroachment
Solution for Load Encroachment

Setting of Zone 3
It is set to cover the longest remote line. It is set up to operate with a time delay of 2CTI.

Summary

Setting of Distance Relays


Power System Protection S.A.Soman Zones of Protection Zone 1 Protection
Zone 1 Setting

Infeed and Outfeed Effects Zone 2 and Zone 3 Setting Overlap Problem for Zone 2 Problem of Load Encroachment
Solution for Load Encroachment

Summary

Setting of Distance Relays


Power System Protection S.A.Soman Zones of Protection Zone 1 Protection
Zone 1 Setting

Overlap Problem for Zone 2 If the reach of Z2 of relay R1 is extended too much, then it can overlap with Z2 of relay R3 . Both R1 and R3 will compete to clear the fault. In order to avoid this situation Z2 of relay R1 has to be further slowed down by CTI. This will further delay the fault clearing time in 20% region of primary line. It is not possible to avoid this overlap problem when the shortest line to be backed up is too short. In such situations, pilot relaying can be used to improve speed.

Infeed and Outfeed Effects Zone 2 and Zone 3 Setting Overlap Problem for Zone 2 Problem of Load Encroachment
Solution for Load Encroachment

Summary

Setting of Distance Relays


Power System Protection S.A.Soman Zones of Protection Zone 1 Protection
Zone 1 Setting

Infeed and Outfeed Effects Zone 2 and Zone 3 Setting Overlap Problem for Zone 2 Problem of Load Encroachment
Solution for Load Encroachment

Summary

Setting of Distance Relays


Power System Protection S.A.Soman Zones of Protection Zone 1 Protection
Zone 1 Setting

Load Encroachment Problem

Infeed and Outfeed Effects Zone 2 and Zone 3 Setting Overlap Problem for Zone 2 Problem of Load Encroachment
Solution for Load Encroachment

The apparent impedance seen by the relay R for the steady state positive sequence model of a transmission line is given by, ZR = |Vi |2 |Vi |2 = 2 (Pij + jQij ) 2 Pij jQij Pij + Qij

Summary

Setting of Distance Relays


Power System Protection S.A.Soman Zones of Protection Zone 1 Protection
Zone 1 Setting

The following conclusions can be derived from the equation: Quadrant of ZR in the R-X plane correspond to the quadrant of apparent power Sij in Pij Qij plane. The apparent impedance seen by the relay is proportional to square of the magnitude of bus voltage. The apparent impedance seen by the relay is inversely proportional to the apparent power owing on the line. During peak load conditions, these effects will reduce the apparent impedance seen by the relay to a small value to fall within Z2 or Z3 characteristic. Then the relay will pick up and trip the circuit after its time dial setting requirements are met and the relay is said to trip on load encroachment.

Infeed and Outfeed Effects Zone 2 and Zone 3 Setting Overlap Problem for Zone 2 Problem of Load Encroachment
Solution for Load Encroachment

Summary

Setting of Distance Relays


Power System Protection S.A.Soman Zones of Protection Zone 1 Protection
Zone 1 Setting

1 2

Zones of Protection Zone 1 Protection Zone 1 Setting Infeed and Outfeed Effects Zone 2 and Zone 3 Setting Overlap Problem for Zone 2 Problem of Load Encroachment Solution for Load Encroachment Summary

3 4 5 6

Infeed and Outfeed Effects Zone 2 and Zone 3 Setting Overlap Problem for Zone 2 Problem of Load Encroachment
Solution for Load Encroachment

Summary

Setting of Distance Relays


Power System Protection S.A.Soman Zones of Protection Zone 1 Protection
Zone 1 Setting

Solution for Load Encroachment Loads have large power factor and hence Zapp R with large X ratio. But faults are more or less reactive in nature and X ratio is high. R In order to prevent tripping on load encroachment, relay characteristics are modied by excluding an area in R-X plane corresponding to high power factor.

Infeed and Outfeed Effects Zone 2 and Zone 3 Setting Overlap Problem for Zone 2 Problem of Load Encroachment
Solution for Load Encroachment

Summary

Setting of Distance Relays


Power System Protection S.A.Soman Zones of Protection Zone 1 Protection
Zone 1 Setting

Summary Setting of distance relays for zone 1 protection Zone 2 and zone 3 setting Infeed and outfeed effects Overlaping problem Load encroachment problem and its solution

Infeed and Outfeed Effects Zone 2 and Zone 3 Setting Overlap Problem for Zone 2 Problem of Load Encroachment
Solution for Load Encroachment

Summary