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Section 3 IED application

Name IAmpComp30 IAmpComp100 UAmpComp5 UAmpComp30 UAmpComp100 IAngComp5 IAngComp30 IAngComp100 Values (Range) -10.000 - 10.000 -10.000 - 10.000 -10.000 - 10.000 -10.000 - 10.000 -10.000 - 10.000 -10.000 - 10.000 -10.000 - 10.000 -10.000 - 10.000 Unit % % % % % Deg Deg Deg Step 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001 Default 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 Description

1MRK 502 030-UEN A

Amplitude factor to calibrate current at 30% of Ir Amplitude factor to calibrate current at 100% of Ir Amplitude factor to calibrate voltage at 5% of Ur Amplitude factor to calibrate voltage at 30% of Ur Amplitude factor to calibrate voltage at 100% of Ur Angle calibration for current at 5% of Ir Angle calibration for current at 30% of Ir Angle calibration for current at 100% of Ir

Table 102:
Name IBase UBase Mode

GOPPDOP Non group settings (basic)


Values (Range) 1 - 99999 0.05 - 2000.00 L1, L2, L3 Arone Pos Seq L1L2 L2L3 L3L1 L1 L2 L3 Unit A kV Step 1 0.05 Default 3000 400.00 Pos Seq Description Base setting for current level Base setting for voltage level Selection of measured current and voltage

3.7.12

Negativ sequence time overcurrent protection for machines NS2PTOC


Function description Negative sequence time overcurrent protection for machines IEC 61850 identification NS2PTOC IEC 60617 identification 2I2> ANSI/IEEE C37.2 device number 46I2

3.7.12.1

Application
Negative sequence overcurrent protection for machines NS2PTOC is intended primarily for the protection of generators against possible overheating of the rotor caused by negative sequence component in the stator current. The negative sequence currents in a generator may, among others, be caused by:

298 Application manual

1MRK 502 030-UEN A

Section 3 IED application

Unbalanced loads Line to line faults Line to ground faults Broken conductors Malfunction of one or more poles of a circuit breaker or a disconnector

NS2PTOC can also be used as a backup protection, that is, to protect the generator in the event line protections or circuit breakers fail to perform for unbalanced system faults. To provide an effective protection for the generator for external unbalanced conditions, NS2PTOC is able to directly measure the negative sequence current. NS2PTOC also have a time delay characteristic which matches the heating characteristic of the generator I22t = K as defined in standard.
where: I2 t K is negative sequence current expressed in per unit of the rated generator current is operating time in seconds is a constant which depends of the generators size and design

A wide range of I22t settings is available, which provide the sensitivity and capability necessary to detect and trip for negative sequence currents down to the continuous capability of a generator. A separate output is available as an alarm feature to warn the operator of a potentially dangerous situation.

Features

Negative-sequence time overcurrent protection NS2PTOC is designed to provide a reliable protection for generators of all types and sizes against the effect of unbalanced system conditions. The following features are available: Two steps, independently adjustable, with separate tripping outputs. Sensitive protection, capable of detecting and tripping for negative sequence currents down to 3% of rated generator current with high accuracy. Two time delay characteristics for step 1: Definite time delay Inverse time delay
2

The inverse time overcurrent characteristic matches I 2 t = K capability curve of the generators. Wide range of settings for generator capability constant K is provided, from 1 to 99 seconds, as this constant may vary greatly with the type of generator.

299 Application manual

Section 3 IED application

1MRK 502 030-UEN A

Minimum operate time delay for inverse time characteristic, freely settable. This setting assures appropriate coordination with, for example, line protections. Maximum operate time delay for inverse time characteristic, freely settable. Inverse reset characteristic which approximates generator rotor cooling rates and provides reduced operate time if an unbalance reoccurs before the protection resets. Service value that is, measured negative sequence current value, in primary Amperes, is available through the local HMI.

Generator continuous unbalance current capability

During unbalanced loading, negative sequence current flows in the stator winding. Negative sequence current in the stator winding will induce double frequency current in the rotor surface and cause heating in almost all parts of the generator rotor. When the negative sequence current increases beyond the generators continuous unbalance current capability, the rotor temperature will increase. If the generator is not tripped, a rotor failure may occur. Therefore, industry standards has been established that determine generator continuous and short-time unbalanced current
2 capabilities in terms of negative sequence current I2 and rotor heating criteria I 2 t .

Typical short-time capability (referred to as unbalanced fault capability) expressed


2 in terms of rotor heating criterion I 2 t = K is shown below in Table 103.

Table 103:

ANSI requirements for unbalanced faults on synchronous machines


Permissible

Types of Synchronous Machine Salient pole generator Synchronous condenser Cylindrical rotor generators: Indirectly cooled Directly cooled (0 800 MVA) Directly cooled (801 1600 MVA) 40 30 30 10

I 22t = K [ s ]

See Figure 119

Fig 119 shows a graphical representation of the relationship between generator


I 22t capability and generator MVA rating for directly cooled (conductor cooled)

generators. For example, a 500 MVA generator would have K = 10 seconds and a 1600 MVA generator would have K = 5 seconds. Unbalanced short-time negative sequence current I2 is expressed in per unit of rated generator current and time t in seconds.

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1MRK 502 030-UEN A

Section 3 IED application

en08000358.vsd
IEC08000358 V1 EN

Figure 119:

Short-time unbalanced current capability of direct cooled generators

Continuous I2 - capability of generators is also covered by the standard. Table 104 below (from ANSI standard C50.13) contains the suggested capability:
Table 104:
Type of generator Salient Pole with damper winding without damper winding Cylindrical Rotor Indirectly cooled Directly cooled to 960 MVA 961 to 1200 MVA 1201 to 1500 MVA 8 6 5 10 10 5

Continous I2 capability
Permissible I2 (in percent of rated generator current)

As it is described in the table above that the continuous negative sequence current capability of the generator is in range of 5% to 10% of the rated generator current. During an open conductor or open generator breaker pole condition, the negative sequence current can be in the range of 10% to 30% of the rated generator current. Other generator or system protections will not usually detect this condition and the only protection is the negative sequence overcurrent protection. Inducing of negative sequence current in a generator can result from any system unbalance and these, in turn, may be caused by: Unbalanced loads such as Single phase railroad load Unbalanced system faults such as
301 Application manual

Section 3 IED application

1MRK 502 030-UEN A

Line to earth faults Double line to earth faults Line to line faults Broken line conductors Malfunction of one pole of a circuit breaker

Open conductors, includes

3.7.12.2

Setting guidelines
When inverse time overcurrent characteristic is selected, the operate time of the stage will be the sum of the inverse time delay and the set definite time delay. Thus, if only the inverse time delay is required, it is of utmost importance to set the definite time delay for that stage to zero.

Operate time characteristic

Negative sequence time overcurrent protection for machines NS2PTOC provides two operating time delay characteristics for step 1: Definite time delay characteristic Inverse time delay characteristic

The desired operate time delay characteristic is selected by setting CurveType1 as follows: CurveType1 = Definite CurveType1 = Inverse

Step 2 always has a definite time delay characteristic. Definite time delay is independent of the magnitude of the negative sequence current once the start value is exceeded, while inverse time delay characteristic do depend on the magnitude of the negative sequence current. This means that inverse time delay is long for a small overcurrent and becomes progressively shorter as the magnitude of the negative sequence current increases. Inverse time delay characteristic of the NS2PTOC function is represented in the equation I 2 t = K , where the K1 setting is adjustable over the range of 1 99 seconds. A typical inverse time overcurrent curve is shown in Figure 120.
2

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1MRK 502 030-UEN A

Section 3 IED application

Negative sequence inverse time characteristic


10000

tMax 1000

Time delay

100

10

tMin

1 0.01

0.1

1 I2

10

100

Negative sequence current


IEC08000355-2-en.vsd
IEC08000355 V2 EN

Figure 120:

Inverse Time Delay characteristic

The example in figure 120 indicates that the protection function has a set minimum operating time t1Min of 5 sec. The setting t1Min is freely settable and is used as a security measure. This minimum setting assures appropriate coordination with for example line protections. It is also possible to set the upper time limit, t1Max.

The trip start levels Current I2-1> and I2-2> of NS2PTOC are freely settable over a range of 3 to 500 % of rated generator current IBase. The wide range of start setting is required in order to be able to protect generators of different types and sizes. After start, a certain hysteresis is used before resetting NS2PTOC. For both steps the reset ratio is 0.97.

Start sensitivity

Alarm function

The alarm function is operated by START signal and used to warn the operator for an abnormal situation, for example, when generator continuous negative sequence current capability is exceeded, thereby allowing corrective action to be taken before removing the generator from service. A settable time delay tAlarm is provided for the alarm function to avoid false alarms during short-time unbalanced conditions.

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Section 3 IED application


3.7.12.3
Table 105:
Name Operation IBase tAlarm OpStep1 I2-1> CurveType1 t1 tResetDef1 K1 t1Min t1Max ResetMultip1 OpStep2 I2-2> CurveType2 t2 tResetDef2 K2 t2Min t2Max ResetMultip2

1MRK 502 030-UEN A

Setting parameters
NS2PTOC Group settings (basic)
Values (Range) Off On 1 - 99999 0.00 - 6000.00 Off On 3 - 500 Definite Inverse 0.00 - 6000.00 0.000 - 60.000 1.0 - 99.0 0.000 - 60.000 0.00 - 6000.00 0.01 - 20.00 Off On 3 - 500 Definite Inverse 0.00 - 6000.00 0.000 - 60.000 1.0 - 99.0 0.000 - 60.000 0.00 - 6000.00 0.01 - 20.00 Unit A s %IB s s s s s %IB s s s s s Step 1 0.01 1 0.01 0.001 0.1 0.001 0.01 0.01 1 0.01 0.001 0.1 0.001 0.01 0.01 Default Off 3000 3.00 On 10 Definite 10.00 0.000 10.0 5.000 1000.00 1.00 On 10 Definite 10.00 0.000 10.0 5.000 1000.00 1.00 Description Operation Off / On Rated generator current in primary Amperes Time delay for Alarm (operated by START signal), in sec Enable execution of step 1 Step 1 Neg. Seq. Current pickup level, in % of IBase Selection of definite or inverse timecharacteri. for step 1 Definite time delay for trip of step 1, in sec Time delay for reset of definite timer of step 1, in sec Neg. seq. capability value of generator for step 1, in sec Minimum trip time for inverse delay of step 1, in sec Maximum trip delay for step 1, in sec Reset multiplier for K1, defines reset time of inverse curve Enable execution of step 2 Step 2 Neg. Seq. Current pickup level, in % of IBase Selection of definite or inverse timecharacteri. for step 2 Definite time delay for trip of step 2, in sec Time delay for reset of definite timer of step 2, in sec Neg. seq. capability value of generator for step 2, in sec Minimum trip time for inverse delay of step 2, in sec Maximum trip delay for step 2, in sec Reset multiplier for K2, defines reset time of inverse curve

304 Application manual