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MINIATURE COMPLIANT GRIPPERS WITH VISION BASED FORCE SENSING

BY SIDDHARTH KASHYAP MT10CDM002

O OBJECTIVE B J I INTRODUCTION E N C T D DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF GRIPPER T R E I O S MMESOSCALE PROTOTYPING V D I E U G S MMICROMANIPULATION C N O I T S C I V VALIDATION AND TESTING A C R O A N A O N L D C CONCLUSION L M I O E A D A N R REFERENCES N A N C P E I T A L R F

OBJECTIVE
Develop cost effective miniature grippers. Capability to manipulate biological objects. Force estimation using a new technology. Ability to vary stiffness of gripper.

INTRODUCTION
What is biological cell manipulation ? Types of techniques.

NONCONTACT TYPE

CONTACT TYPE

Cell trapping using radiation pressure of the lasers Optoelectrostatic rotation


Magnetic twisting cytometry Magnetic tweezers

NON-CONTACT TYPE

Micro grippers Micro capillary

CONTACT TYPE

DESIGN OF GRIPPER
Two approach have been used to arrive at the two different types of grippers. 1) Intuitive design approach 2) Topology optimization approach

INTUITIVE DESIGN
The initial design was conceived intuitively. Finite element model created and checked in MATLAB. Gripper was modeled in Solid Works. Stress concentration and deformation patterns were analyzed in COMSOL MultiPhysics, For analysis purposes, one of the gripper jaws was considered fixed to calculate the overall jaw displacement. After several iterations, an improved gripper design was selected on the basis of -Mechanical efficiency

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Topology Optimized Gripper Design


The statement of the topology optimization is-

Where, MSE :- Mutual strain energy numerically equal to the output displacement SE K U,V :- Strain energy which is measure of stiffness :- Stiffness matrix of the FEM :- Displacements for actual loading

F Fd

:- Actual applied load :- Unit dummy load

Ai :- Areas of cross-section of frame elements V* :- Allowed volume of material to be used

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MESOSCALE PROTOTYPING OF THE GRIPPERS


W Wire Cut EDM i r e C P u Photolithography h t o E t D o M V li Vacuum Casting For PDMS a t c h u o u g m r

W-EDM METHOD
The material used for manufacturing by w-edm was spring steel. The dimension of the gripper to be manufactured was 11mm x 11mm x 0.5mm It was possible to achieve dimensional tolerance of 20 m.

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PHOTOLITHOGRAPHY METHOD
This technique was used to manufacture gripper. The process involves following steps: 1) It involves use of two conjugate dry film photo masks; a spring steel sheet. 2) Spring steel sheet is coated with photoresist. 3) Sheet is placed between the masks to get UV exposure on both sides. 4) Both sides are etched simultaneously to decrease the undercut thick

FABRICATION USING VACUUM CASTINGThis method we use polydimethylxsiloxane (PDMS) as the gripper material because of certain advantages Steps involved under this method are as follows: 1) The molds were cut out of 2mm thick spring steel sheet using w-edm method. 2) Molds were properly attached on the substrate. 3) PDMS gel and 10% binder mixed and poured in the molds after degassing in a vacuum chain.

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MICROMANIPULATION
Micromanipulation Setup - It includes an inverted microscope of Olympus and two XYZ stages. - Two rigid metal tubes were used to suspend the gripper. - The movement of tubes was controlled using a joystick. Experiments The experiments were conducted on various biological entities and several motions such as roll, stretch, move, pick etc were performed.

Spherical zebra fish egg cell (0.7mm dia). Ellipsoidal drosophila embryos (0.2mm wide and 0.5mm long). Yeast ball (dia< 1mm). Hibiscus pollen (0.1mm dia).

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FORCE SENSING VALIDATION


The basis for the criterion is the sensitivity matrix of the estimated forces with respect to measured displacements. In order to get the correct sensitivity matrix, spurious forces have to be suppressed. To avoid extensive computation, forces were applied in a sequence at desired locations (labeled as locations B) A set of displacement vectors at measured locations (labeled these locations M).

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When force sensing was done on zebra fish egg cell similar points were taken and various forces were computed using the CCD camera.

Computed forces on zebra fish egg cell-

CONCLUSION
Grippers presented can grasp and manipulate biological objects smaller than 1 mm in diameter and immersed in aqueous medium. Two variants were designed intuitively, while the second type was designed using topology optimization. The experimental setup and how we grasped and manipulated zebra fish egg cells, drosophila embryos, yeast balls, and grains of pollen have been described. Forces applied were estimated.

REFERENCES
Miniature compliant grippers with vision based force sensing by Annem Narayana Reddy, Nandan Maheshwari, Deepak Kumar Sahu, and G. K. Ananthasuresh. T. N. Bruican,M. J. Smyth, H. A. Crissman, G. C. Salzman, C. C. Stewart, and J. C.Martin, Automated single-cell manipulation and sorting by light trapping, Appl. Opt., vol. 26, pp. 53115316, 1987. M. Nishioka, S. Katsura, K. Hirano, and A. Mizuno, Evaluation of cell characteristics by step-wise orientational rotation using opto electrostatic micromanipulation, IEEE Trans.

K. J. van Vliet, G. Bao, and S. Suresh, The biomechanics toolbox: Experimental approaches for living cells and biomolecules, Acta Mater., vol. 51, pp. 58815905, 2003. A. Yeung and E. Evans, Cortical shell-liquid core model for passive flow of liquid-like spherical cells into micropipettes, Biophys. J., vol. 56, pp. 139149, 1989. H.-Y Chan and W. J. Li, Design and fabrication . of a micro thermal actuator for cellular grasping, Acta Mech. Sin., vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 132139, 2004. N. Chronis and L. P. Lee, Electrothermally activated SU-8 microgripper for single cell manipulation in solution, J. Microelectromech.

F. H. C. Crick and A. F. W. Hughes, The physical properties of the cytoplasm: A study by the means of the magnetic particle method, Exp.Cell Res., vol. 1, pp. 3780, 1950. K. Kim, X. Liu, Y Zhang, and Y Sun, . . Nanonewton force-controlled manipulation of biological cells using a monolithic MEMS microgripper with two-axis force feedback, J. Micromech. Microeng., vol. 18, no. 5, pp. 18, 2008. M. Puig-de-Morales, M. Grabulosa, J. Alcaraz, J. Mullol, G. N. Maksym, J. J. Fredberg, and D. Navajas, Measurement of cell microrheology by magnetic twisting cytometry with frequency domain demodulation, J. Appl. Physiol., vol. 91, pp. 11521159, 2001

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