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Support and Movement 1.

The reasons for animals to have a support system is : to support the body to provide body shape to assist body movements. Support system in animals Vertebrates Invertebrates s

a) support the weight of the body b) Give the body its structure and shape c) Produce blood cells d) Protect soft organs of the body such as the heart and the kidneys. e) Act as a base for attachment of muscles. Skeleton Skull Pectoral girdle Pelvic girdle Limb bones Backbone Function protects the brain supports the head and the arm support the whole weight of the body and protect certain organs allows the hand and legs to move easily supports upper parts of the body

Endoskeleton Hydrostatic Exoskeleton skeleton ENDOSKELETON - inside the body EXOSKELETON outside the body HYDROSTATIC SKELETON pressure of the liquid inside the body

Vertebrate (animals) 1. Can be divided into: Type of skeleton Support system Land vertebrate Land Big and strong light but strong, help animals to move Strong pectoral girdle and pelvic girdle Aquatic Small and weak

The functions of endoskeleton are: a) to support the body weight b) to protect the internal organs c) to maintain the shape of the body d) provide points for muscles attachment e) allows free movement Support system in human 1. Humans are supported by an endoskeleton. 2. The endoskeleton of humans consists of 206 bones. 3. The spinal column consists 33 small bone (vertebrae). 4. Weight supported by pelvic girdle. 5. The functions of the endoskeleton in humans include:

Supported by water buoyancy

Aquatic vertebrate

Invertebrate 1. The support systems of invertebrates consist of i. exoskeleton ii. hydrostatic skeleton. Exoskeleton Have hard outer skin The presence of cuticle prevent the insect from growing Hydrostatic Body consist of muscular wall filled with fluid Maintain the shape of the soft-bodied invertebrates

1. Consists of a muscular wall which encloses a body cavity that is filled with fluid 2. This body fluid pushes out and exerts pressure in all 3. directions 4. This body fluid pressure, called hydrostatic pressure gives support and shape to the animal. 5. A type of support system for some invertebrates like earthworm, leech, jellyfish and caterpillar. 6. Functions: (a) Support & maintains body shape as well as rigidity (b) Supports & protects internal tissues & organs (c) Allows invertebrates to bend, straighten & move

2. Also called the external skeleton 3. Hard outer skin or shell of invertebrates 4. Made of cuticle or calcium carbonate 5. Examples of animals: Centipede, ant, crab 6. Functions: (a) Maintain body shape and support body weight (b) Protects internal organs (c) Provides places for the attachment of muscles (d) Allows movement of body parts

Cuticle coated with layer of wax that make it impermeable to water and gives it a shiny look.

1. Thick support roots that grow from the stem above the ground 2. These roots hold the tree firmly to the ground,giving it extra support 3. Examples : Angsana tree, casuarina tree, durian tree Prop Roots 1. Roots which grow from the stem or branches into the ground for support 2. Examples : Banyan tree Pandan plant Maize plant Slits Roots 1. Roots that develop from the main stem and grow into the ground for support. 2. Examples : Mangrove tree

Tendrils 1. Curly string-like structures modified from stems and leaves. 2. Curl and twine round parts of other plants or objects to help the plant to climb 3. Examples : Cucumber Bitter gourd pumpkin Thorns 1. Sharp modified branches that cannot be easily removed 2. Act as hooks to hold on to supports. 3. Examples : Bouganvillea shrub Crown of thorns plant Prickles 1. An outgrowth of the epidermis and can be easily removed from the stem 2. Examples : Rose shrub Twining stems

Non-woody plants

Clasping Roots 1. Roots that grip onto other plants or structures to get support. 2. Examples : Money plant Betel vine (sirih) Aquatic Plants (buoyancy of water)

1. Aquatic plants cannot stay upright on land because their stems are non-woody & soft 2. Aquatic plants can stay upright in water because their weights are supported by the buoyancy of water 3. Some aquatic plants have many air sacs in their stems & leaves. These structures make them light so that 4. they can float on water. 5. Some aquatic plants have tiny leaves to ensure that they are not disrupted by the flow of water. 6. Examples : Lotus Water hyacinth Water lettuce Hydrilla

Example: A crippled person may use a cane, crutches or a walking frame for support.