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Lesson 1

Nouns and Adjectives


der ReminPlease don't get deceived by the simple appearance of Lesson One.
In fact, it lays the sound foundations of all upcoming lessons and is often referred to later on when your studying gets stuck.

Lesson 1

Nouns
A NOUN is the NAME of anything. 1. John kicked the football through the goal. (goal - a wooden frame) 2. The result was one goal to nil. (goal - a point) 3. His team won a narrow victory. 4. His wish came true. 5. John got excited and drank up a can of beer.

When we WRITE, a noun has to be decided first. a. b. c. d. before after after after a verb. a verb. a preposition. a 'be'. - John kicked v. n. - kicked the football prep. n. - through the goal v. n. - was one goal
n. v.

We put a noun

Lesson 1
2
When we READ, a verb or preposition should catch our eyes first. Then a noun comes next. a. b. c. d. Before any verb we can find a subject noun - John kicked. After a verb we can find an object noun - kicked the football. After a preposition we can find an object noun - through the goal. After a be we can find a complement noun - was one goal. Now turn our thoughts the other way round. Any words or a group of words will be taken as nouns when they are found in these four positions: a. Before a verb. b. After a transitive verb. c. After a preposition. d. After a be. This important concept will help us understand the formation of noun phrases, gerunds (pages 89 - 91) and even noun clauses (pages 150, 155, 237, 310, 312, 324).

Kinds of Nouns:
1. 2.

Lesson 1
A name for a special person, place or company, such as John, Paris, IBM, etc.

1. Proper Noun

Things that we can see 2. Common Nouns and touch, such as a. Concrete Noun book, table,
(countable)

cup, bottle, car, house, etc.

b. Collective Noun
(countable)

A number or collection that we treat as a whole, such as family, mob, flock, army, fleet, etc. Something that we cant touch or see but only feel, such as happiness, success, bravery, energy, wisdom, honesty, etc.

c. Abstract Noun
(uncountable)

d. Mass Noun

(uncountable)

Things that dont have separate units, such as wood, water, gold, cotton, homework, money, advice, travel, weather, jewelry, news, etc. In two pieces of gold, we count pieces.

Note

A common noun is the name used for any one of a class, such as book (concrete), family (collective), happiness (abstract) and copper (mass). It is contrasted with a proper noun, which is used for a special person or place.

Lesson 1
A.
Please put the underlined nouns of the following passage in the boxes below.

nd His Shado The Dog a

a piece of a bridge with ing dog, is cross e his shadow Lucky, a little appens to se eh outh when h hadow to be meat in his m kes his own s ta ow he wants below. He mis in the water ce of meat. N pie he with a bigger ch it. While another dog tries to snat the gs meat and h drops into the other do t in his mout cky piece of mea ver. Sadly, Lu does so, the arkness fore s. appears in d h empty hand water and dis his family wit join y.) goes back to ou are greed erything if y e ev (You may los

Proper

Concrete

Collective

Abstract

Mass

Lesson 1

Why do we classify a noun?


From the kind of noun we can get: (1) its exact meaning, (2) its countable or uncountable nature. This nature will guide us to the correct uses of: (3) articles (a, an, the), (4) verb forms (singular / plural) and (5) adjectives of quantity.

(1) We come to understand the meaning of a noun according to its type.


My cat Beauty does not like fish. (proper noun) Mary is still a beauty in her middle age. (concrete noun) Everybody admires her beauty. (abstract noun)

(2) Countable or uncountable nature of a noun carries a different meaning.

Beer

[U] an alcoholic drink (mass noun uncountable) Beer is sold here. [C] a bottle, can or glass of beer (concrete noun countable) Give us two beers, please. (=two bottles, two cans or two glasses)

(3) Countable concrete and collective nouns take articles (a, an, the); uncountable mass and abstract nouns dont.
mass n.

In a bar the attendants were serving a group of tourists from an India town. Beer brings temporary pleasure to drinkers. (no articles)
abstract n.

concrete n.

collective n.

proper n.

(4) Some nouns in singular number take a singular verb under one meaning, and in plural number take a plural verb for another meaning. Singular
FORCE MANNER PAPER RETURN WATER - strength - method of doing things - sheet - coming back - liquid

Plural
FORCES MANNERS PAPERS RETURNS WATERS - army - politeness - documents - profits - an area of water

The return of the companys former CEO was good news to the staff. The returns on the new investment of the company were encouraging.

(5) Some adjectives of quantity such as many and few are used to qualify countable nouns, while much and little to describe uncountable nouns.
Much beer has been sold during holidays.
mass n.

At the close of business hours, only a few beers were left unsold.

concrete n.

Lesson 1

me! ! r na Know your name you r name! e! ow Kno w you our nam y

Know

First name Christian name

Middle name

Middle name

Last name Last name

GEORGE Ronald
First name Christian name

Wilson WALKER

Reagan BUSH
Surname Surname Family name Family name

Forename Forename (Given Name)

(Given Name)

We usually write: Ronald W. Reagan or Ronald Reagan

Barack Hussein Obama


Teacher: A noun is the name of a person or a thing. Who can give me a noun? First boy: A cow. Teacher: Very good. Another noun?! Second boy: Another cow!

Lesson 1

Nouns: singular and plural


Nouns that refer to only one are singular. Nouns that refer to more than one are plural.
Singular book horse cat
dish bench box buzz ass glass inch potato tomato echo life knife loaf shelf thief dwarf scarf wharf duty army lady city fly body man tooth goose child mouse sheep ox German

Regular

Plural books horses cats


dishes benches boxes buzzes asses glasses inches potatoes tomatoes echoes lives knives loaves shelves thieves dwarfs/ dwarves scarfs/ scarves wharfs/ wharves duties armies ladies cities flies bodies men teeth geese children mice sheep oxen Germans

Exceptions

Nouns that end in a hissing sound (-sh,-ch,-s,-x,-z)

stomachs monarchs
(ch pronounced as k)

Nouns that end in -o

photos pianos casinos hippos

Nouns that end in -f or -fe

proofs beliefs chiefs

Nouns that end in -y

(A vowel before y)

keys days valleys monkeys

Nouns that dont follow any of these rules

Lesson 1
The following nouns are used ONLY in the singular: News / Information Aerobics Physics Garbage / Trash Equipment Baggage / Luggage Furniture Sweets Thanks Riches Goods Fireworks Wages Remains (No news is good news.) (Aerobics is a form of exercise.) (Physics is a science subject.) (Garbage is collected on Wednesdays in this town.) (Our office equipment is said to be up-to-date.) (Too much baggage / luggage is not allowed on the plane.) (The furniture of the home suits the style of the house.) (My sister bought a packet of sweets to suck on her way to school.) (It was thanks to my uncle that I got the job.) (Some people wanted fame, while others were crazy about riches.) (Our company supplies honest goods at honest prices.) (Last night the whole city was entertained with fireworks.) (The little shop pays very low wages per week.) (The remains of yesterdays lunch were still seen lying on the table.)

The following nouns are used ONLY in the plural:

Some nouns in certain expressions must be in plural number:

exchange seats; shake hands; make friends with; take turns; be friends with
E.g. We may change trains at the next station. (NOT train)

Singular cloth (C) clothing (U)

Plural
cloths clothes (C)

Examples
a yard of cloth an item of clothing a suit of clothes

1. In winter people wear heavy clothing like hats, scarves, boots, and overcoats. 2. Many cloths of high quality are used for making fashionable and expensive clothes. Some Final Words on Nouns at this early stage: 1. A noun has first to be classified as countable (concrete and collective) or uncountable (abstract and mass). 2. Countable nouns require articles (a, an, the); uncountable nouns dont. 3. Countable nouns take singular / plural verbs; uncountable nouns only singular. tr. v. n. prep. n. 4. Before a noun we find a transitive verb / preposition, e.g. ... show love, ... in love. After a noun we find a transitive / intransitive verb. E.g. Birds eat worms. Birds fly.
Please refer to Lesson 2.
n. tr. v. n.

int. v.

Lesson 1

An adjective adds information to a noun. We say that the adjective qualifies the noun. Usually an adjective goes before a noun or comes after a linking verb.
(Please see page 19.)

Any word that adds information to a noun is an adjective.

adjective noun
The adjective qualifies the noun.

Adjectives are classified in order to make a neat stacking (arrangement) for a smooth, natural description of a noun. (Please see page 12.)

1. Demonstrative Adjectives
This and these That and those This and that These and those The

(this, that, these, those, the, a(n), etc.)

These adjectives point out people, things, etc. refer to things close to the speaker. point at things less close to the speaker. go with singular nouns. go with plural nouns. goes with both singular and plural nouns.

This house is old. (singular) That house is old. (singular) These houses are new. (plural) Those houses are new. (plural) The school is open. (singular) The children are playing. (plural)

This house

Lesson 1 2. The Possessive (noun in the possessive form used as an adjective)


This kind of adjectives shows ownership. That is Johns car. shows ownership or possession. Johns Johns car = The car that belongs to John. The Possessive answers the question, 'Whose?' Whose car? John's.

Formation of the Possessive: 1. The Possessive of a noun whether singular or plural is formed by adding s to the noun:

the boys book; the kings crown; the familys income; mens club; childrens school; peoples leader 2. When a noun ends in s, the Possessive is formed by adding an apostrophe () after the s: the boys school; the students teacher

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Lesson 1 3. Adjectives of Quantity


some money enough food no sense many days much patience all his wealth whole amount each boy

some money

These adjectives answer the question: How much or how many?

Many goes with countable nouns. (concrete and collective nouns) Much goes with uncountable nouns. (abstract and mass nouns)

Note:

4. Adjectives of Quality (opinion, size/shape/age, color, proper adjectives)


i ii iii iv v vi

a nice man a large city a square table


iii ii

an old car a blue shirt the English language


vi v

iv

a beautiful big round old table a black Japanese car


v vi

ii

iii

iv

thin man

These adjectives answer the question: Of what kind?

Note:

Adjectives of opinion include beautiful, ugly, nice, bad, dirty, good ... .

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Lesson 1

NOUN QUALIFIES ANOTNO R NOU HEUN N A


A noun can be used as an adjective to qualify another noun in order to show the Function or Element of the second noun.

Function: n.
n.

A beauty salon n. adj. A beautiful salon


n.

n.

(A salon that provides beauty services) (A salon that looks beautiful) (A center that provides information) (A talk that gives people helpful ideas)

An information center n. adj. An informative talk

Element:
A gold chain adj. n. Golden hair A silk suit adj. n. A silky voice
n. n. n. n.

(A chain that has the element of gold) (Hair that has bright yellow color) (A suit that is made of silk) (A gentle voice that is like soft silk)

Word order of the adjectives


opinion size shape age color proper adj.

The chairmans two beautiful large round old brown Indian teak
demonstrative possessive

tables.

(1 )

(2)

of quantity

(3)

of quality

(4 )

noun used as adj. to show element

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Lesson 1

Collocation (matching of different parts of speech)


A noun and an adjective are close partners. An adjective can qualify a few nouns, and, likewise, a noun can be qualified by a few adjectives.

Adjectives

Nouns

female vital
(= chief)

{
{

charm a ... dog intuition (= feeling) a ... officer a ... fig-tree a ... role

a ... game

a ... person

clues importance

Adjectives
all-round secondary full-time adult consumer

Nouns

education
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Lesson 1
a rare an extinct an endangered a new the human

species

(singular and plural)

The secret of writing good English lies in a good match between nouns and adjectives. ONLY through extensive reading can a learner acquire such a kind of valuable knowledge.

B.

Please underline all the adjectives in this passage.

Janets family had a big, old house with a beautiful garden, a lot of flowers and many old trees. One morning, Janet came in from the garden. She was a tall, fat woman, thirty years old. It was the hottest day of the year, but she wore a warm, brown skirt and yellow shirt. She went into the kitchen to get a refreshing drink of cold water. Just then the back door opened. And her mother came in. Her mother Molly was a tall, dark woman with gray hair. A black and white dog came into the kitchen after her and ran across to her. She sat down, put her hands on its head and said to Janet, I usually did the same to you when you as a kid were having a sad and depressed look.

10

14

Lesson 1

Comparison of Adjectives
Most adjectives have the positive degree, the comparative degree followed by than to compare 2 things, and the superlative degree preceded by the to compare more than 2 things. All one-syllable adjectives follow the -er / -est pattern. Positive tall quick old big red wet brave cute wide dry sly shy Comparative taller quicker older/elder bigger redder wetter braver cuter wider drier slier /slyer shier /shyer Superlative tallest quickest oldest/eldest biggest reddest wettest bravest cutest widest driest sliest /slyest shiest /shyest

If the vowel of the positive is short, the last consonant is doubled.

If the positive ends in -e, only -r and -st are added.

If the positive ends in -y, it changes to -ier and -iest.

Most two-syllable adjectives, especially those ending in -able, -ful, -ing, -ish, -ive, -less and -ous, take MORE / (LESS) in the comparative and MOST / (LEAST) in the superlative. readable hopeful charming foolish active more readable more hopeful more charming more foolish more active most readable most hopeful most charming most foolish most active

Other two-syllable adjectives follow the -er / -est pattern as the one-syllable adjectives do. clever simple happy friendly cleverer simpler happier friendlier cleverest simplest happiest friendliest

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Lesson 1
However, some two-syllable adjectives can take EITHER -er / -est OR more / most: common; stupid; pleasant; handsome; polite; gentle e.g. Your servant was stupider than I thought. Your servant was more stupid than I thought.

Irregular Comparison
The following Adjectives are exceptions: good bad little much many far better worse less, lesser more more farther/further best worst least most most farthest/furthest

sENTENCE WRITING

Note

We use as...as with the positive degree. John is as fat as Jack. Mary is not as fat as John. We use than with the comparative degree. John is fatter than Mary. This dress is more beautiful than that dress. The is used with the superlative degree. John is the fattest of the three boys. Mary is the most beautiful girl in the class. This is the fastest car on the running track.

MOST can be used without the to mean very. E.g. -The movie was most interesting. -People opposed the bill most strongly.

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Lesson 1

To Learn English (1)


Clear and correct English makes people easily understand you, and they would immediately decide that you are well educated. As a result, they truly respect you: this brings to your career every chance of success. However, to achieve good English, people need some basic tools for the long, steep climb to the goal. These are determination, patience and effort. To begin with, the meaning of a word varies according to what part of speech it is. Often, a different part of speech of a word carries a different meaning:

Examples:
1) The dog was taken ill.
Poverty is an ill. (adjective - sick) (noun - problem)

2) The children are running about. (adverb - in different directions)


The report is about the weather. (preposition - concerning) The movie is about to start. (adjective - soon going)

3) To understand a clause, we first find out its verb and next its subject/object.

Tokyo office costs cost a lot of money. (Cost is a transitive verb, meaning need) (Costs is a plural noun, meaning expenses, subject of the transitive verb cost.) Bush ducks shoe throw in Iraq. (Ducks is a transitive verb, meaning avoids.) (Throw is a noun, object of ducks.) (Shoe is a noun, used as an adjective to qualify throw.)

So English is a language of definition (to read according to rules).

Remarks:
Was taken ill (idiomatic expression) = fell ill Bush ducks shoe throw in Iraq is newspaper English, which usually omits the articles (a,an,the). Traditional English is Bush ducks a shoe throw in Iraq. (Throw is a countable noun, which requires an article.)

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Lesson 2

Lesson 2

Verbs

A VERB tells us something about a person or thing and is the most important word in a sentence. When we write, we first have some nouns in our mind, such as key and door. (Please refer back to page 1.) Then we look for a suitable verb opens to match the nouns like this:

Subject

Verb

A key

(noun)

Object

opens

a door.

(noun)

* Key and door are countable concrete nouns, which need an article a.

Here the noun key governs the verb opens. It is subject (the action doer) of the verb.

The second noun door (the action receiver) is the object governed by the verb opens.

Transitive verb

The verb opens is a transitive verb because it passes the action from the action doer key (subject) to the action receiver door (object). A transitive verb must take an object.

18

Lesson 2

Intransitive verb
The world
Subject

laughs.

Verb

The action verb laughs stops with the action doer world (subject). There is no action receiver (object).

Why is it first and foremost to classify a verb?


The answer is easily seen in the following examples:

1. He stopped to smoke. (= He walked no farther and stood there and smoked.) 2. He stopped smoking. (= He gave up smoking and smoked no more.)
In 1, the intransitive 'stopped' ends with the subject 'he', and 'to smoke' tells us why he stopped. (Please see page 98.) In 2, the transitive 'stopped' means 'quitted' and takes the noun (gerund) 'smoking' as its object. (Please see page 90 for more explanations of gerunds.)
tran. v.

intr. v.

xa More E

mples:

She turned, and dropped the ball. (= She went round and dropped the ball.) She turned and dropped the ball. (= She turned the ball and dropped it.)
tran. v.

intr. v.

Linking verb

(Please see page 100.)

The linking verb be (am, is, are, was, were, been, being, be) is used most frequently. It links a noun or an adjective with the subject to make the meaning of a sentence complete.

Subject John (noun) Subject John (noun)

is (linking v.) is (linking v.)

Complement a doctor. (noun) Complement happy. (adjective)

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Lesson 2

Complements
a For Ex mple:

Both the noun doctor and the adjective happy are complements of is. There are many other linking verbs, such as seem, appear, become, grow, turn, prove, look, come, go, feel, get, etc. They take a noun or an adjective as their complements, NOT as objects.

The weather looks fine.


We can understand the sentence in two ways: The adjective fine is complement of the linking verb looks. The adjective fine qualifies the noun weather.

n.

link. v.

adj.

The weather looks fine.

Noun or adjective?

If we put a noun instead of an adjective after a linking verb, we say the two nouns refer to the same person or thing. John becomes a teacher. (John = a teacher ) So the following sentence is incorrect. John is happiness. John is a man, and happiness is an abstract noun. They are different things. Here we must use the adjective form happy instead. John is happy. ( = happy John / a happy man)

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Lesson 2
Tips A verb in different types suggests different meanings: Play The children are playing.
n. adj.

The wife played the violin badly. The husband played deaf.

n. (obj)

(intransitive are having fun) (transitive performed) (linking pretended)

The following are the most frequently used sentence patterns:


(1) SV (subject + intransitive verb / transitive verb in the passive voice) My dog barked. A rat was caught. (2) SVO (subject + transitive verb + object) The dog killed the rat. (concrete noun) The rat stole some food. (mass noun) (3) SVC (subject + linking verb + complement) The food was cheese. (mass noun) The cheese smelt good. (adjective) (4) SVOC (Please see page 105.) (subject + transitive verb + object + complement) I called the dog a good boy. (concrete noun) The dog made me happy. (adjective) (5) SVOO (subject + transitive verb + object + object) I gave the dog some cookies. Tom handed Susan a present.

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Lesson 2
A.
Please find out the sentence pattern of each of the following sentences.

Example: The tree has been blown away. ( 1 ) SV 1. Someone is coming. 2. She is the champion. 3. Tiffany feels bad. 4. All of the witnesses are being investigated. 5. Tom found his wallet. 6. We showed the official our passports. 7. I found Tom sleepy.

B.

The Goose That Laid the Golden Eggs

In paragraph 1, please write I for intransitive verb, T for transitive verb and L for linking verb. The first one has been done for you. PARAGRAPH 1 (I) The night fell. A farmer came to his gooses nest. He found a heavy, yellow egg there. He felt strange, Someone has played a trick on me. Still, he took it home but was very happy because the egg was a lump of gold.

22

Lesson 2
In paragraph 2, try to look for a noun/pronoun in the FOUR positions: ( 1 ) before a verb, ( 2 ) after a transitive verb, ( 3 ) after a linking verb, ( 4 ) after a preposition. The 1st sentence has been done for you. PARAGRAPH 2 (1) (2) (4) (4) The farmer sold the egg for a handsome sum of money. Every evening the goose laid an egg of gold, and very soon he became a rich man. In paragraph 3, try to write subject for the noun/pronoun before a verb, object after a transitive verb OR a preposition, and complement after a linking verb. PARAGRAPH 3 As the farmer grew rich, he turned greedy man. But he didnt want to get only one egg everyday. He said, Id better cut the goose open to take all the eggs out of her at one time. So he cut open the goose but found nothing. Now he became an unhappy man. (N.B. There is no a before greedy man. Please see turn on page 104.)
subj. subj. compl. subj.

For ONLY, please point out which is a noun and which is a verb in the following sentence.

Shaw saw saws saw saws.

See page 95 for tips.

23

Lesson 2

TRANSITIVE VERBS

NOUNS
discipline custom world peace living standard a persons outlook historic buildings (prevent decay) food (prevent decay)

preserve

conserve
Note:

electricity, water, etc. (not to waste) land, forest or other natural resources (prevent them from damage) historic buildings (prevent decay) food (prevent waste)

Both historic buildings and food can be governed by either preserve or conserve.

Here we can see how an object noun can be governed by several transitive verbs and qualified by several adjectives. If the noun is uncountable, no article is needed. VERBS keep maintain impose lack ADJECTIVES strict, lax tough proper normal NOUN discipline (uncountable)

24

Lesson 2
Likewise, a transitive verb can also govern a few different nouns, and each noun can be qualified by a few adjectives, too. If the noun is countable, an article is needed.

express

main, major, great grave, deep little genuine public growing

(uncountable)

concern

express a

sincere deepest humble public profound

(countable)

apology

Verbs, adjectives and nouns are 3 in 1. And we should not study an English word singly. Verb + (a/ an/ the/ no article) + adjective + noun is a core pattern of sentence-writing. To read more and to consult dictionaries often will help (to) pave the way to success.

C.
Example:

Please say what part of speech each word in italics is in the following sentences. int. v. adj. I spring over the garden gate to pick some spring flowers.

1. Bath the little dog in this bath, and wrap it up with a bath towel. 2. Iron this shirt with an electric iron on this iron table made of iron from the USA. 3. Water this plant with water from these water bottles.

25

Lesson 2

Summary

(At this first stage, it is good enough to understand the following.)

To think this way

Word(s)
(before a verb)

= = =

Subject Object Complement

(before a verb)

Noun

Word(s)
(after a verb / prep.)

Noun =(after a verb / prep.)

Word(s)
(after a linking verb)

= Noun / Adjective
(after a linking verb)
To think the other way

(See P.107.)

Here is a little test for OUTSTANDING learners. Please find out the subjects and objects in the following sentences: EXAMPLES: A wolf walking by the mountains side in the evening saw his own shadow. wolf subject of the transitive verb saw. side object of the preposition by. evening object of the preposition in. shadow object of the transitive verb saw. 1. A frog braver than the rest putting his head above the water cried to the boys loudly. 2. Near an apple tree grew a rose bush. (Please refer to P.294.)

26

Lesson 2
Suffixes Different suffixes can help us easily understand whether a word is a noun, verb or adjective and hence their meanings. (Please try to memorize them.)

Of Nouns
(1) Denoting mainly the agent or doer of a thing.
-ain (-an, -en, -o n)
-ar (-er, -eer, -ier, -ary)

ca pt ai n, mu sic ian , cit ize n, su rg eo n.

scho lar, teac her, engin eer, finan cier, miss iona ry.
)
-er (-ar, -or, -yer)

-ate (-ee, -ey, -y

at to rn ey , com pa ny .
(2)

ad vo ca te , em ploye e,

pai nte r, beg gar , sai lor , em plo yer .

Denoting state, action, result of an action.


-age -ance (-ence)
-dom

marriage , leakage, bondage .

brilliance , assistan ce, excellence, innocence.

fre edo m, wis dom , kin gdo m.

-cy

-ion

-th

-ice (-ise)

fan cy , acc ura cy , ba nk ru ptc y


-ness

act ion , uni on , opi nio n.


-ship

he alt h, gr ow th , st re ng th .
-ment

ser vice, pra cti ce, exe rcis e.

dar kne ss, goo dne ss, swe etn ess , bol dne ss.
-ure

fr ien ds hip , pa rt ne rs hip , ha rds hip .


-ling

punis hme nt, judgm ent, impr ovem ent.


-y

-ty

dif ficu lty , bea uty , cru elt y.

ple asu re, pict ure , tre asu re.

duck ling, darli ng, nest ling.

victo ry, stor y, mise ry.

27

Lesson 2
Suffixes

Of Adjective
-al
-y with the quality of;

-ary

na tio na l, us ua l, fin a l, gr ad ua l, leg a l.

we alt hy , hea lth y,

gre edy nee dy, dirt y.


ble)
-ive

ne ces sa ry , ordin ar y, contr ar y.

-ed having;

-ble (-ible, -a

-lent

gif ted , lea rne d, tale nte d.


-ful full of;

ab le , po ss ib le , . lau gh ab le , se ns ib le

act ive , att ent ive , att rac tiv e.

excelle nt , vio len t, tur bul en t.

-less free from, without;

-ish somewhat like;

hope ful, joyf ul, beau tifu l, fruit ful.

fea rle ss, sha me les s, ho pel ess , sen sel ess .

girlis h, fooli sh, wom anis h.

-ar

-ate

-en made of;

-ous

fam ilia r, sim ila r, re gu lar .

for tun at e, obs tin at e, tem per at e.

woo den, golde n, woo len, eart hen .

dan ger ou s, cop iou s, ted iou s.

Of Verb
-ish (transitive)

publi sh, puni sh, bani sh.

-fy (transitive)

-se (transitive) to make;

sim pli fy , pu rif y, te rri fy , ve rif y.

cleanse, rinse, realise.

-en (transitive) causative, forming;

weak en, sweeten, hard en, wide n, stre ngth en.

28

Lesson 2

To Learn English (2)


An English word must be learned together with other words at the same time. This word-matching, or word-combining is called collocation. Such a close connection among words spreads through the whole language. It includes proverbs, idioms, phrasal verbs, and many fixed expressions.

Examples:

No news is good news. (Proverb) Dancing is not my cup of tea. (Idiom) We ran out of money after our holidays. (Phrasal verb) The story is about love at first sight. (Fixed expression)

There are many types of matching as the following sentence shows.

:Adjective

:Adverb

A very reasonably large company have recently bought 50,000 shares wholly through a leading stockbroker. A very reasonably large company has recently bought 50,000 shares wholly through a leading stockbroker.
subject tran. v. object prep. object

Tips to learn collocations: Adverb very quite utterly fairly Adjective 50,000 large 20% shares (noun) Adverb reasonably very large rather (adjective) quite Adverb wholly partly completely through (prep.) Adverb recently cheaply quickly Adjective a leading large stockbroker (noun)
1. 2.

Through all kinds of reading materials. With dictionaries.

reasonably (adverb)

buy (verb)

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