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ANALYSIS OF LOSSLESS
NONUNIFORM TRANSMISSION LINES
WITH POWER-LAW CHARACTERISTIC
IMPEDANCE FUNCTION

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2. S. Y. Seidel and T. S. Rappaport, 914 MHz Path Loss Prediction Models for Wireless Communications in Multioored Buildings, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagat., Vol. 40, Feb. 1992, pp. 207 217. 3. S. F. Mahmoud and J. R. Wait, Geometrical Optical Approach for Electromagnetic Wave Propagation in Rectangular Mine Tunnels, Radio Sci., Vol. 9, Dec. 1974, pp. 1147 1158. 4. O. Landron, M. J. Feuerstein, and T. S. Rappaport, A Comparison of Theoretical and Empirical Reection Coefcients for Typical Exterior Wall Surfaces in a Mobile Environment, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagat., Vol. 44, Mar. 1996, pp. 341 351. 5. R. J. Luebbers, Finite Conductivity Uniform GTD versus Knife Edge Diffraction in Prediction of Propagation Path Loss, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagat., Vol. AP-32, Jan. 1984. 6. Ph. Mariage, M. Lienard, and P. Degauque, Theoretical and Experimental Approach of the Propagation of High Frequency Waves in Road Tunnels, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagat., Vol. 42, Jan. 1994, pp. 75 81. 7. W. Honcharenko, H. L. Bertoni, and J. L. Dailing, Mechanisms Governing Propagation Between Different Floors in Buildings, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagat., Vol. 41, June 1993, pp. 787 790. 8. Y. Hwang, The Diffraction at the Edge of a Uniform Impedance Surface, Ph.D. dissertation, Dep. Elect. Eng., Ohio State University, Columbus, 1973. 9. R. G. Kouyoumjian and P. H. Pathak, A Uniform Geometric Theory of Diffraction for an Edge in a Perfectly Conducting Surface, Proc. IEEE, Vol. 62, Nov. 1974, pp. 1448 1461. 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. CCC 0895-2477r98

ANALYSIS OF LOSSLESS NONUNIFORM TRANSMISSION LINES WITH POWER-LAW CHARACTERISTIC IMPEDANCE FUNCTION

1

Figure 5 Electric eld in a tunnel versus the distance between the Tx and Rx

Duolong Wu1 and Chengli Ruan1 Institute of Applied Physics University of Electronic Science and Technology of China Chengdu, Sichuan 610054, P.R. China Recei ed 24 July 1997; re ised 26 September 1997

about 30 m. The transmitting antenna is xed in the middle of the main tunnel, while the receiving antenna is being moved away from the middle of the main tunnel into the branch tunnel. A relative dielectric constant r1, 2 s 10 and a conductivity s 0.01 Srm are assumed. We note a rather good agreement between the measured and predicted results along the whole path, no matter whether the receive antenna is in the line-of-sight or the nonline-of-sight regions of the tunnel complex.

IV. CONCLUSION

ABSTRACT: The exact analytical solutions of lossless nonuniform transmission lines (NTLs) with a characteristic impedance function Zc (x) s Z0 (1 q kx)y are obtained. The two-port ABCD matrix and se eral numerical examples of the scattering matrix S of the NTLs are gi en. 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Microwave Opt Technol Lett 17: 195 197, 1998. Key words: transmission lines; nonuniform; lossless; characteristic impedance; impedance matching I. INTRODUCTION

In this paper, a new rigorous diffraction coefcient formula for a two-impedance wall right-angled wedge has been described. The utility of the rigorous diffraction coefcient formula has been demonstrated through its application to predict propagation in typical NLOS environments.

REFERENCES 1. V. Erceg, A. J. Rustato, and R. S. Roman, Diffraction around Corners and Its Effects on Microcell Coverage Area in Urban and Suburban Environments at 900 MHz, 2 GHz, and 6 GHz, IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol., Vol. 43, Aug. 1994, pp. 762 766.

Rustogi presented a linear transmission line LNTL., and obtained its ABCD parameters w1x. The expressions for the step response of a whole class of nonuniform transmission lines NTLs. with the characteristic impedance function Zc x . s Z0 1 q x . 2 n , n s 0, 1, 2, . . . , were deduced from the Laplace transformation w2x. Lu w3x proposed a new technique for analyzing general NTLs, and corrected several errors concerning LNTL in w1x. NTLs have been widely used by microwave engineers. It is worthwhile to study a class of ideal NTLs with a characteristic impedance function Zc x . s Z0 1 q kx .y , where is a real number. The method can be

MICROWAVE AND OPTICAL TECHNOLOGY LETTERS / Vol. 17, No. 3, February 20 1998

195

used to analyze the same class of lossy NTLs and their transients.

II. ANALYTICAL SOLUTION FOR A CLASS OF NTLS

as d2V dx

2

k k

dV dI

1 q kx dx 1 q kx dx

q q

Vs0 I s 0. 2.

Consider the ideal lossless nonuniform transmission line in Figure 1. Its characteristic impedance and propagation coefcient are Zc x . s Z0 1 q kx . s r

y

d2I dx

2

x g w 0, l x 1.

V x . s z w A1 J u . q A 2 Y u .x I x . s jZy1 z w A1 Jy u . q A 2 Yy u .x 0 3.

where x is the position along the NTL, k is the slope constant, is a power constant of 1 q kx ., l is the length of the NTL, is the angular frequency, and is the velocity of the guided wave. For the TEM mode of propagation, the voltage V x . and the current I x . of the NTL can be written

where J u. is the Bessel function of the rst kind of order and Y u. is the Bessel function of the second kind of order y . Their relations are as follows: s 1 y . r2, s 1 q . r2, z s 1 q kx, us z, s rk. 4.

The constants A1 and A 2 of Eq. 3. can be determined by the boundary conditions. Letting V0 s V 0. and I0 s I 0., we obtain the following expressions: A1 s

Figure 1 NTL section

y1 y1

.w V0 Yy .w V0 Jy

. q jZ0 I0 Y . q jZ0 I0 J

.x .x 5.

A2 s y

Figure 2 Comparison of < S11 <, < S21 <, phase arg S11 ., and arg S21 . of the NTLs Z0 s 25 , Z l . s 275 , and l s 0.1 m.. Note that curves 1, 2, 3 are identical to s y1, y2, y3, respectively. a. Comparison of < S11 <. b. Comparison of < S21 < no mark for curve 3.. c. Comparison of phase arg S11 . no mark for curve 2.. d. Comparison of phase arg S21 . no mark for curves 1, 2, 3.

196

MICROWAVE AND OPTICAL TECHNOLOGY LETTERS / Vol. 17, No. 3, February 20 1998

. where . s J .Yy . y Jy .Y . s 2r also see w4x.. Using the above results, the ABCD matrix for the NTL can be written as zl 2 j j 2 zl 2 Z0 zl 2

III. CONCLUSION

As Bs Cs Ds

wJ

. Yy u l . y Y .Y ul . y Y

. Jy u l .x . J u l .x . Jy u l .x . Y u l .x 6.

This paper has given the exact analytical solutions of lossless nonuniform transmission lines with a characteristic impedance function Zc x . s Z0 1 q kx .y . The two-port ABCD matrix is obtained. Several numerical examples of the scattering matrix S of the NTLs have been given.

REFERENCES 1. O. P. Rustogi, Linearly Tapered Transmission Line and Its Application in Microwave, IEEE Trans. Microwa e Theory Tech., Vol. MTT-17, Mar. 1969, pp. 166 168. 2. H. Curtins and A. V. Shah, Step Response of Lossless Nonuniform Transmission Lines with Power-Law Characteristic Impedance Function, IEEE Trans. Microwa e Theory Tech., Vol. MTT-33, Nov. 1985, pp. 1210 1212. 3. K. Lu, An Efcient Method for Analysis of Arbitrary Nonuniform Transmission Lines, IEEE Trans. Microwa e Theory Tech., Vol. 45, Jan. 1997, pp. 9 14. 4. M. Abramowitz and I. Stegun, Handbook of Mathematical Functions, Dover, New York, 1970.

Z0 z l

wJ

w Jy w Yy

. Yy u l . y Yy . J u l . y Jy

where z l s z l . and u l s u l .. Under the condition ) 1, the ABCD parameter matrix can be obtained as follows: zl 2 j j 2 zl 2 Z0 zl 2

As Bs Cs Ds

w Yy

. J u l . y Jy

. Y u l .x . Jy u l .x

Z0 z l

w Jy

. Yy u l . y Yy . J u l .x

wJ wJ

.Y ul . y Y . Yy u l . y Y

. Jy u l .x .

7.

1

From 6. 7., AD y BC s 1 is obtained. As we expected, the lossless NTL is a reciprocal two-port network. For s y1, the NTL becomes an LNTL, and the above results coincide with those in w3x. For k s 0, the NTL should become a uniform transmission line. For the LNTL, Lu proved that the above assumption was correct w3x. For the general case in this paper, using the following asymptotic forms 8. of the Bessel functions also see w4x., we obtain that the ABCD parameters of the NTL for k s 0 are identical to those of a uniform transmission line as follows:

Qinhong Zheng,1 Weigan Lin,2 Fuyao Xie,1 and Jingtian Li1 Department of Physics Yunnan Normal University Kunming 650092, P.R. China 2 University of Electronic Science and Technology of China Chengdu 610054, P.R. China Recei ed 1 September 1997

J x. ; Y x. ;

( (

2 x 2 x

cos x y sin x y

y y

/ /

x x

ABSTRACT: This paper describes a new approach to the solution of 2-D boundary- alue problems. A new method, the multipole theory (MT) method, is presented for the capacitance of arious slab lines deri ed from three fundamental coaxial structures, which also allows the calculation of the e en and odd capacitance of coupled slab lines. Excellent agreement with results obtained pre iously is demonstrated. 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Microwave Opt Technol Lett 17: 197 200, 1998. Key words: multipole theory; slab line; capacitance 1. INTRODUCTION

8.

k0 k0 k0 9.

l.,

D s cos l . ,

k 0.

Therefore, the above results of the NTL for k s 0 are correct in this paper. Figure 2 shows a comparison of the normalized S-parameters S11 and S21 of the NTLs for s y1, y2, y3 that have the same length and outputrinput impedance ratio. Figure 2 also clearly exhibits that the phase of S21 almost does not change with . For ) 1, the same conclusions are correct.

Coupled-bar slab lines are extensively used in many UHF and microwave lters. How to determine their capacitances has long been a subject of great interest. Over the past decades, laborious work has been performed on them, and remarkable achievements have been made w1 9x. In this paper, a new method, the multipole theory MT. method, is presented for calculating the capacitances of the various slab transmissionline structures.

2. MULTIPOLE THEORY OF CALCULATING 2-D ELECTROSTATIC FIELD BOUNDARY-VALUE PROBLEM

Zheng w10x described a new electromagnetic eld computation method the multipole theory of electromagnetic eld computation, and proved that there is an analytical solution of innite series convergence for the electrostatic eld

MICROWAVE AND OPTICAL TECHNOLOGY LETTERS / Vol. 17, No. 3, February 20 1998

197

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