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P2 Forces and Motion

Intermediate

70 minutes
70 marks

Page 1 of 16

Q1.

A cyclist goes on a long ride. The graph shows how the distance travelled changes with time
during the ride.

(i)

Between which two points on the graph was the cyclist moving at the fastest speed?
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(1)

(ii)

State one way cyclists can reduce the air resistance acting on them.
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(1)

(iii)

How long did the cyclist stop and rest?


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(1)

(iv)

Write down the equation which links distance, speed and time.
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(1)

(v)

Calculate, in km/hr, the average speed of the cyclist while moving.


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Average speed = .............................. km/hr
(3)
(Total 7 marks)

Page 2 of 16

Q2.

(a)

(i)

The diagram shows the horizontal forces that act on a moving motorbike.

Describe the movement of the motorbike when force A equals force B.


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(2)

(ii)

What happens to the speed of the motorbike if force B becomes smaller


than force A?
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(1)

(b)

The graph shows how the velocity of a motorbike changes when it is travelling along a
straight road.

(i)

What was the change in velocity of the motorbike in the first 5 seconds?
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(1)

Page 3 of 16

(ii)

Write down the equation which links acceleration, change in velocity and time taken.
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(1)

(iii)

Calculate the acceleration of the motorbike during the first 5 seconds.


Show clearly how you work out your answer and give the unit.
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Acceleration = .............................................
(3)

(c)

A car is travelling on an icy road.


Describe and explain what might happen to the car when the brakes are applied.
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(2)

(d)

Name three factors, other than weather conditions, which would increase the overall
stopping distance of a vehicle.
1 ..................................................................................................................................
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2 ..................................................................................................................................
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3 ..................................................................................................................................
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(3)
(Total 13 marks)

Page 4 of 16

Q3.

(a) The arrows in the diagram represent the size and direction of the forces on a space
shuttle, fuel tank and booster rockets one second after launch. The longer the arrow the
bigger the force.
Thrust force

Weight of shuttle, fuel tanks and


booster rockets plus air resistance
(i)

Describe the upward motion of the space shuttle one second after launch.
...........................................................................................................................
(1)

(ii)

By the time it moves out of the Earths atmosphere, the total weight of the space
shuttle, fuel tank and booster rockets has decreased and so has the air resistance.
How does this change the motion of the space shuttle? (Assume the thrust force
does not change).
...........................................................................................................................
(1)

(b)

The space shuttle takes 9 minutes to reach its orbital velocity of 8100 m/s.
(i)

Write down the equation that links acceleration, change in velocity and time taken.
...........................................................................................................................
(1)

(ii)

Calculate, in m/s2, the average acceleration of the space shuttle during the first
9 minutes of its flight. Show clearly how you work out your answer.
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
average acceleration = .............................................. m/s2
(2)

Page 5 of 16

(iii)

How is the velocity of an object different from the speed of an object?


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(1)
(Total 6 marks)

Q4.

(a)

The diagram shows an athlete at the start of a race. The race is along a straight track.

In the first 2 seconds, the athlete accelerates constantly and reaches a speed of 9 m/s.
(i)

Use the equation in the box to calculate the acceleration of the athlete.

Show clearly how you work out your answer.


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Acceleration = ..............................
(2)

(ii)

Which one of the following is the unit for acceleration?


Draw a ring around your answer.
J/s

m/s

m/s2

Nm
(1)

(iii)

Complete the following sentence.


The velocity of the athlete is the .................................................................... of the
athlete in a given direction.
(1)

Page 6 of 16

(iv)

Complete the graph to show how the velocity of the athlete changes during the first 2
seconds of the race.

(2)

(b)

Many running shoes have a cushioning system. This reduces the impact force on the
athlete as the heel of the running shoe hits the ground.

Page 7 of 16

The bar chart shows the maximum impact force for three different makes of running shoe
used on three different types of surface.

(i)

Which one of the three makes of running shoe, A, B or C, has the best cushioning
system?
...........................................................................................................................
Explain the reason for your answer.
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(3)

(ii)

The data needed to draw the bar chart was obtained using a robotic athlete fitted with
electronic sensors.
Why is this data likely to be more reliable than data obtained using human athletes?
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(1)
(Total 10 marks)

Page 8 of 16

Q5.

The diagram shows an athlete at the start of a race. The race is along a straight track.

In the first 2 seconds, the athlete accelerates constantly and reaches a speed of 9 m/s.
(a)

(i)

Calculate the acceleration of the athlete.


Write down the equation you use.
Show clearly how you work out your answer.
Give the unit.
...............................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................
Acceleration = ...........................................
(3)

(ii)

Complete the following sentence.


The velocity of the athlete is the ............................................................
of the athlete in a given direction.
(1)

(b)

Many running shoes have a cushioning system. This reduces the impact force on the
athlete as the heel of the running shoe hits the ground.

Page 9 of 16

The bar chart shows the maximum impact force for three different makes of running shoe
used on three different types of surface.

In this question you will be assessed on using good English, organising information clearly
and using specialist terms where appropriate.
Analyse and evaluate the performance of the running shoes on the three surfaces.
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(6)
(Total 10 marks)

Page 10 of 16

Q6.

The diagram shows an athlete at the start of a race. The race is along a straight track.

In the first 2 seconds, the athlete accelerates constantly and reaches a speed of 9 m/s.
(a)

Calculate the acceleration of the athlete.


Write down the equation you use.
Show clearly how you work out your answer.
Give the unit.
........................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................
Acceleration = ..........................................
(3)

(b)

Many running shoes have a cushioning system. This reduces the impact force on the
athlete as the heel of the running shoe hits the ground.

Page 11 of 16

The bar chart shows the maximum impact force for three different makes of running shoe
used on three different types of surface.

In this question you will be assessed on using good English, organising information clearly
and using specialist terms where appropriate.
Analyse and evaluate the performance of the running shoes on the three surfaces.
........................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................
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(6)
(Total 9 marks)

Page 12 of 16

Q7.

A book weighs 6 newtons.


A librarian picks up the book from one shelf and puts it on a shelf 2 metres higher.

(a)

Calculate the work done on the book. [Show your working].


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(3)

(b)

The next person to take the book from the shelf accidentally drops it.
The book accelerates at 9.8m/s.
Use this information to calculate the mass of the book. [Show your working].
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Answer ................................. kg.
(3)

Page 13 of 16

(c)

If the book was dropped from an aeroplane high in the sky, it would accelerate to
begin with. Eventually it would fall at a steady speed.
Explain, in as much detail as you can, why this happens.
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(3)
(Total 9 marks)

Q8.

A car travels along a level road at 20 metres per second.

(a)

Calculate the distance travelled by the car in 4 seconds.


(Show your working.)
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(3)

(b)

When the brake pedal of the car is pushed, brake pads press against very hard steel
discs.

Page 14 of 16

The force of friction between the brake pads and the steel discs gradually stops the car.
What two effects does using the brakes have on the brake pads and wheel discs?
1

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(3)
(Total 6 marks)

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