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Q1.

Nitrates, such as ammonium nitrate, are added to soil to help plant growth.

(a)

When rain falls nitrates dissolve and can end up in drinking water.
Nitrates in drinking water can stop respiration in babies. This only happens if there is a lot
of nitrate in the drinking water.

Plants use nitrates for growth. Humans need plants. Should large amounts of nitrates be added
to soil?
Give two reasons for your answer.
Answer ......................................................................................................................
Reason 1 ....................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
Reason 2 ....................................................................................................................
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(2)

(b)

The amount of nitrogen in a nitrate compound is important.


(i)

How many nitrogen atoms are there in the formula of ammonium nitrate, NH4NO3
..........................................................................................................................
(1)

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(ii)

Calculate the percentage of nitrogen in ammonium nitrate, NH4NO3.


(Relative atomic masses: H = 1; N = 14; O = 16)
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..........................................................................................................................
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Percentage of nitrogen in ammonium nitrate = ........................................... %
(3)
(Total 6 marks)

Q2.

(a)

The flow diagram shows the stages in the production of nitric acid.

Give the names of the compounds labelled as A, B and C on the flow diagram.
Choose names from the box.

ammonia

nitrogen

nitrogen dioxide
monoxide

nitrogen

A ........................................................................
B.........................................................................
C ........................................................................
(3)

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(b)

Use the flow diagram to help you name two raw materials used to make nitric acid.
............................................................... and ...............................................................
(2)

(c)

Reaction 1 uses a catalyst.


(i)

How does a catalyst help this reaction?


...........................................................................................................................
(1)

(ii)

Draw a ring around the name of the catalyst used in reaction 1.


copper

iron

platinum

vanadium
(1)
(Total 7 marks)

Q3.

Ammonium nitrate and potassium chloride are both salts. They can be made by
neutralisation reactions.
Choose substances from the box to complete the word equations for the formation of
these two salts.

ammonia
potassium nitrate

hydrochloric acid
water

nitric acid

potassium hydroxide

ammonia + ........................................ ammoniumnitrate + water


..................................+hydrochloricacidpotassiumchloride+..........................
(Total 3 marks)

Q4.

Nitric acid can be neutralised by alkalis to make salts.


(i)

The salt called potassium nitrate can be made from nitric acid.
Complete the word equation for this neutralisation reaction.
Choose the correct substances from the box.
hydrogen
potassium hydroxide

oxygen

potassium chloride
water

nitricacid+................................potassiumnitrate+................................
(2)

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(ii)

Ammonium nitrate is another salt made from nitric acid.


Which one of the following is the main use of ammonium nitrate? Draw a ring around your
answer.
dye

fertiliser

plastic

fuel
(1)

(iii)

Complete this sentence by choosing the correct ion from the box.

H+

NH4+

NO3

O2

OH

The ion that makes solutions acidic is ............................................................ .


(1)
(Total 4 marks)

Q5.

Chromatography was used to compare three of the colours used to coat the chocolate
sweets.

What do these results tell you about these three colours?


..............................................................................................................................................
..............................................................................................................................................
..............................................................................................................................................
..............................................................................................................................................
..............................................................................................................................................
(Total 3 marks)

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Q6.

Chromatography was carried out on a sample of soft drinks to check that they contained only
colours that were safe. This is the result.

Safe colours

Colours from the soft drinks

What conclusions about the safety of the colours in the soft drinks A, B, C and D can be made from
the results shown by chromatography?
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
(Total 2 marks)

Q7.

The result of a process used to detect and identify the colours in two foods, A and B, is
shown.

(i)

Describe the differences between the colours used in food A and food B.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(2)

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(ii)

Tick ( ) the name of the process used to detect and identify colours in food.
Process

( )

chromatography
extraction
hardening
(1)
(Total 3 marks)

Q8.

(a)

Ammonia has the formula NH3. It is made from nitrogen and hydrogen.

How many atoms are in an ammonia molecule? ..........................................


(1)

(b)

The diagrams show the electron arrangement in nitrogen and hydrogen.

Which diagram below, A, B, C or D, represents an ammonia molecule?

Write your answer in the box.

Diagram
(1)

(c)

Ammonia dissolves in water to form a solution with a pH of 10.


What does this pH value tell you about ammonia solution?
........................................................................................................................
(1)

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(d)

In industry a large amount of ammonia is neutralised by an acid to make ammonium


nitrate.
(i)

What type of substance is ammonium nitrate?


Tick ( ) one box.
acid

alkali

base

salt
(1)

(ii)

Which acid is added to ammonia to make ammonium nitrate?


Tick ( ) one box.
hydrochloric

citric

nitric

sulfuric
(1)

(iii)

Draw a ring around the main use of ammonium nitrate.


fertiliser

lubricating oil

medicine

plastic
(1)

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(e)

Instant cold packs are used to treat sports injuries.

One type of cold pack has a plastic bag containing water. Inside the bag is a smaller bag
containing ammonium nitrate.
The outer bag is squeezed so that the inner bag bursts. The ammonium nitrate dissolves
in the water. This process is endothermic.
Explain why the bag becomes cold.
........................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................
(2)
(Total 8 marks)

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