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C o n ten ts

U nit Function Language points and w ritin g skills To the student 1 Describing things
Has/have g o t There is/are Expressing dim ensions M ade of/used fo r Using w ith Clauses w ith when Contractions Size, colour, m aterial, shape, condition

Vocabulary

Page
iv 1

Describing how something works

Passive verbs (present passive) Im peratives (instructions) Clauses w ith as, if In o rd e r to ... Sequence w ords By after a passive verb Using also Clauses w ith w hich, although

Instruction verbs Parts of instrum ents

14

Describing how something is made

Construction, recipes Process verbs Irregular past participles

29

Reporting what someone said

Past sim ple, past continuous, past perfect Reporting speech A fter/before ...~ing Relative clauses w ith who Com paratives and superlatives Connectors Relative clauses w ith w ho, th a t and w hich Paragraph organization W riting style

Reporting verbs Em otions

46

Comparing

Regular and irregular adjectives (com paratives and superlatives)

61

Describing changes

Present perfect, present perfect continuous Clauses w ith because Using because o f this, as a result Reduced clauses

Increase, decrease Faculties and subjects

77

To the teacher Answer key

93 94

To the student
H o w w ill this book help m e?
This book will help you to write better paragraphs in English. 'Better w riting' means w riting that is: more accurate easier to read appropriate to the reader more interesting

W h y is it im p o rta n t to be accurate?
For most kinds of writing it is important to make sure that spelling, punctuation and grammar are correct. If you make mistakes in speech it doesn't usually matter much, as long as people understand your meaning. But when you write, people expect much more accuracy, especially if you are writing as part of your job (letters, reports, etc.) or as part of your studies (essays, examinations, etc.)

W h a t does 'e a s ie r to re ad ' m ean?


This means that the writing is more fluent. The sentences are not too short and not too long. They link together neatly so that the meaning in one sentence is carried into the next, and so on. As a result, it is easy for the reader to 'get the message' - to find out what you want to say.

H o w do I k n o w if m y w ritin g is 'ap p ro p riate'?


Find out about different writing styles. The way you write to a friend is not the same way that you write to a new boss or the head of a college. Learn about formal and informal language. When you write, imagine the reader. What does he or she expect from your writing? That w ill also make your writing more interesting!

H o w can I m a k e m y w ritin g 'b e tte r'?


1. Go through Better Writing and complete all the units. In each unit, the first section ('Looking at text') asks you to look at material other people have written. It picks out language points which are important to understand if you are going to write well, and it gives you exercises to practise that language. The remaining sections of each unit focus on other things which will help you write better. Each unit contains a section on sentence building, ways of joining short sentences together, improving the way you put sentences together to make paragraphs, punctuation, checking (or 'editing') what you have written, and building your vocabulary. Reading helps writing, so read as much as you can in English. Read anything that is interesting and not too difficult for you. Try graded readers, newspapers, magazine articles, information on the Internet and even advertisements or airline brochures. When you read, be aware of different styles of English.

2.

3.

Good luck!

Describing things
Looking a t te x t
Maria, Salah, Yoko and Tony are writing to friends. Read the four paragraphs and match these people with the pictures. W rite their names below the pictures.

Maria is w ritin g a letter to a frie nd in Singapore.

I ve' g o t a/ new mobile/ phone/. I t y q u ite lig h t and/ i t y ym all, yoCty ec^yy t o cowry On/ vwy pocket. I t weicfhy 300g- and/ Cty o n ly 15cm/ I o n I t hcvy a/ blotch leather axye to- protect it. I love it! I com/ keep in/ touch/ w ith my fa m ily and/ frie n d y a l l th e tiMie. I t y g o t large/, lu m tn o u y n u m b e r y Kr I can/ read/ them/ ecvyily vn/ th e dark/. I u&e th e phon e w h e n I go- chopping/. I alto- ta k e i t w ith m e t o th e college, although/1 hcwe to- yw itd v i t off in/ clcvyy!

Salah is sending an e-m ail message to a frie nd in Japan.

My brother bought a jeep a couple of weeks ago. It's in excellent condition, although it's second-hand. I think it's about four years old. It's a Yakono Land Cruiser with air-conditioning and power steering. It's quite fast, and of course it's got four-wheel drive. My brother uses the car when he goes camping in the desert. The air-conditioning is fantastic. It's also got a roof-rack on the top, which is very useful for luggage and water containers. There's also a spare tyre on the back. I hope he'll let me borrow the jeep sometimes!

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Yoko is also sending an e-m ail - to Habiba, a frie nd in Tehran.


I've got a new watch. My cousin gave it to me last week. It's quite attractive, but it's very unusual! It's made of plastic and the style is very modem. I think it's French. The face of the watch is square in shape and it's red with long white hands. It's a very big watch, and the face measures nearly 5cm across! There are no numbers on the face, which is strange. It hasn't got the date on it either. The strap is also red and is made of plastic. I think I like the watch, but I'm not sure!

Tony is w ritin g to a frie nd in Sweden.

I ve' g o t / goody newy. M b ro th e r cvnd/ I // g o t a/ b o a t! We/ b o u g h t i t la ^ t week/. I t n o t new, b u t i t i n good/ c o ru titio n . I th in k / i t loohy b e a u tifu L w i li n g / th ro u g h / the/ waA/ey. I t mcuie/ o f {, i t very lig h t. There/ a/ mctyt in / the/ m id d le / w it h a/ b c u lT h e / b o a t iy a b o u t 5 wv lo n g / a n d / the/ wuvyt iy high/. I t n o t -wv very fayt, b u t we/re/ very happy w it h it. The/ boat: iy w hite/ a n d / the/ iy d a rk / blue/. I ty / iy S u rib ird /. I t qu ite/ a/ good/ /, d o n t you/ thin k/?

Read through the paragraphs again. a. U nderline all the verbs th a t belong w ith got. For exam ple, in line 1 o f M aria's letter, I've g o t should be underlined. b. W hat do you t h in k 's and Ve mean? s= ve =

Language: have g o t/h a s g o t


I have g o t ... You have g o t ... He has g o t ... She has g o t ... It has got ... We have g o t ... You have g o t ... They have g o t ...

L o oking

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Look at these sentences:


1 have got a new watch. (I've got a new watch.) It has got four-w heel drive. (It's got four-w heel drive.) We have got a boat. (We've got a boat.)

We can also say:


1 have a new w atch.
It has four-w heel drive.

We have a boat.
Note: This is more common in North American English.

W rite sentences about Salah's brother, Yoko, Tony and his brother, the jeep and the boat. Use has/have (got). Example: M aria has g o t a n e w m o b ile phone. a. S a lo b y b r c fth e r _______________________________________________________________ b c. d. e. . _____________________________________________

Language: d im e n s io n s
se sentences:
The table is 2.3m long.

1 i

C om plete the table below.


ADJECTIVE NOUN

long w ide

le n ^ p tlv

The table is 2.3m in length. The length o f the table is 2.3m

high thick

Read this paragraph about Kuwait Towers and answer the questions on page 4.

hen visitors come to Kuwait, they should take a trip to Kuwait Towers. It is a beautiful and very famous monument situated on the coast road. It consists o f three tall, thin towers, which are white in colour. It also has three blue spheres.

two spheres. There is a small sphere near the top and a large sphere near the middle. The next-tallest tower is 147m in height with one sphere. The third tower, the smallest, has not got any spheres. Inside the small sphere on the tallest tower there is a viewing area and a restaurant. W hen you go up in the lift, you can see the whole o f Kuwait. It is a wonderful view. The towers and the spheres are used for storing water.

The towers are wide at the base, but at the top they come to a point. They look like three space rockets pointing to the stars. The towers are not all the same size. The tallest is 187m high and has

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a. Look at the fo u r d raw ings above. W hich draw ing show s K uw ait Towers? N ow complete these sentences: b. The m o n u m e n t________________ three to w e rs and three spheres. c. The to w e r s _______________ in co lo u r and the s p h e re s ______________ . d. One s p h e re ______ large and the o th e r_______________________ . e. The tow e rs and spheres ____________________storing water.

S e n te n c e building
Put these sentences into the table below. Put the words in the correct order first. a. the back / engine / got / has / boat / a sm all / at / our b. has / tw o / the sides / at / CD player / speakers / m y / got c. go t / the fro n t / have / at / shirts / tw o pockets / these

What? Theyjeep

Verb (have/has got) hcvy %ot

What?
C roxyf-rctoh V

Where? cm/ the/ top

Look at the pictures on page 5. Make a sentence in your notebook about each picture Follow this pattern:

What?

Verb (have/has got)

What?

Where?

L oo king

a t

T ext

S entence

B uilding

red c irc le

the Japanese flag We can also describe things using there.

camera

buses

T here T h ere

Verb (be)

What? C roxyf-rctcks V

Where? on/ to p o f the/ je e p

. .

Rewrite the sentences about the three pictures using there. Put them in the table above.

Language: m ade o f/u s e d fo r


Look at these sentences. Underline the verbs.
This sh irt is made o f cotton. These boats are made of fibreglass. The to w e r is used fo r storing water. The spheres are used fo r storing water. These kinds o f verb consist of tw o parts: to be (is, are, was, etc.) + the past participle form (made, used, bu ilt, e tc j

N ow complete these sentences using these materials: metal rubber plastic paper

a. A c r e d i t c a r d / __________________________________________ b. A k n i f e _________________________________________________ c. E v w e lo p e y _________________________________________________ d. T y r e y ___________________________________________________ W hat are the above things used for? Choose from the list and w rite a sentence about each in your notebook. sending letters covering w heels cutting thin gs 5

paying fo r goods and services

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Joining ideas
Language: w ith
Bus

se

The w atch is red. It has got w h ite hands and a red strap

We can jo in them using with.

First part of the sentence


The w atch is red

w ith w ith

What?
w h ite hands and a red strap.

N ow match these sentences. Use w ith to join the sentences. The jeep is new. The w atch is oval. The phone is sm all. The boat is green. a. T h e / je e p uy n e w w it h y _ b. c. d. It has large, lum in ous num bers. It has tin te d w in d o w s and po w er steering It has a w h ite m ast and a red sail. It has silve r hands and a gold strap.

W rite a sentence about each of these things in your notebook. Use with. M y w atch Our ho use/flat/apartm ent The classroom

W h e n clauses
Look at the sentence in the table below. Then look at Maria's and Salah's paragraphs in Exercise 1 on page 1. Find tw o sentences which have when clauses and w rite them in the table below.

Who?
We/

Verb

What?
th e / bxycvt

When?
w h e w we/ gfo

U nderline the verbs in the w hen clauses. For exam ple, w hen we g o fishing. 6

J oining

I deas

P u n ctuation

Add when clauses to these sentences. W rite the sentences on the lines below. a. I usually take a camera w ith me. b. M y brother carries w ater on the roof-rack. c. M ario never uses his m obile phone. d. Yoko uses her com puter.

First part of the sentence


1 alw ays w ear m y new w atch

When clause
w hen 1 go to the university.

a . _______________________________________________________________________________ b . _______________________________________________________________________________ c. ________________________________________________________________________________ d . _______________________________________________________________________________ Check y o u r sentences. U nderline the verbs in the when clauses.

Remember that it is also possible to begin a sentence w ith the when clause. Example: When it rains in Beijing, ... Find tw o sentences beginning w ith when clauses in the paragraph about Kuwait Towers on page 3. W rite them in the table below.

When clause W h en /1 go- t o the/ urtiA/erzity,

Last part of the sentence I cd w o yy w e a r m y new watch/.

Punctuation
Language: c o n tra c tio n
Look: It's g o t ... = It has g o t ..
but

It's very big. = It is very big. j

It's made ... = It is made ...

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Add punctuation and capital letters to this paragraph. its got a m em ory but it hasnt got a brain its rectangular in shape and quite thin it looks like a briefcase and is about the same size its very easy to carry as it is made mostly o f plastic and only weighs about 5kg w hen you open the lid you find a screen and a keyboard inside people use these machines w hen they are travelling w hat is it H ow m any sentences are there? ____ W hat is it? It's a ____________________ .

B e tte r paragrap hs
Look at paragraph A and paragraph B and answer these questions. a. H ow m any sentences are there in paragraphs A and B? A _____ B b. U nderline th in g s in paragraph B th a t are diffe re n t fro m paragraph A. The firs t has been done fo r you. c. W hich paragraph do you th in k is b e tte r? _____ W hy? I have got a new watch. The new watch was a present from my sister. Her name is Sarah. My sister is always very kind to me. The watch is oval in shape. It has a white face. The strap is black. The watch is waterproof. I go to the beach at weekends. I wear the watch then. I have got a new watch. It was a present from my sister, Sarah. She is always very kind to me. The watch is oval in shape with a white face and a black strap. The watch is waterproof and so I wear it when I go to the beach at weekends.

Complete this paragraph describing a car. Use the words below. there w hen w hen also got it it so and w ith

I'm th in kin g o f selling m y car, w hich is about six years old. It's a Gazelle, (a)_______ it's in quite good con dition . The co lo u r is grey (b)______ dark blue stripes along the sides. (c)_______ 's go t a su n -ro o f and electric w indo w s. I like to open the su n -ro o f (d)________ the w eather is not to o hot. The engine is 2 litres, w hich is average size. Inside the car everything is black, (e)_______ is a CD player and very good air-co n d itio n in g . The seats are made o f real leather and (f)_____ ^ the y are very com fortable. It's (g)______ fo u r new tyres and the spare tyre is ( h ) _____ in excellent con dition . I hope to get about $4,000 fo r the car, (i)______ I decide to sell (j)_______ .

P u n c tu atio n

B etter

P a r a g r a p h s

F ree

W riting

Complete this paragraph. Use the information in the picture to help you. A frie nd gave me a very beautiful and unusual present last week. It's a model o f a (a)_______ and rider and is (b)_____ o f iron. The base is (c)___________ in shape and measures about 40cm (d)_______ and 25cm (e)_________ . The (f)_________ of the base is 5cm. The (g)__________ of the m odel is about 50cm. It's very heavy and (h)_________ m ore than 10kg. (i)_______ 's a man on the horse. He's (j)_______ a sw ord in one hand and a (k)________ in the other.

__Free w r it in g ________________________________
Choose one of these watches. W rite a paragraph about it in your notebook. Use Maria's paragraph on page 1 as an example.

Look at this drawing of a boat. W rite a paragraph in your notebook describing the boat.

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Look at the information in the table. It describes a new car. W rite a paragraph about the new car for the readers of an automobile magazine. Use your notebook. Model Size Engine size Maximum speed Air-conditioning Power steering Made in Price Extras
Gazelle 5 seater 2.5 litres 160kph

/ /
Korea D 12,000 2 years free service

Think about a m onum ent in the country where you live. W rite a paragraph in your notebook describing it. W hat does it consist of? How big is it? W hat is it made of? W hat does it look like? Is it used for anything?

Use this checklist to edit your writing in Exercises 19-22.

AST

19

Exercise 20 21

22

H ow m any sentences are there? H ow m any fu ll stops (.) are there? Does every sentence begin w ith a capital letter? Does every sentence have a verb? Have you checked y o u r spelling? Can you make y o u r w ritin g better?

_J E d itin g ______________________ _______________


Check the spelling, punctuation and grammar in this puzzle. There are ten mistakes. It is got four legs, b u t it can t walk It has rectangular in shape and there is a leg at each corner. It measure about a m etre in haight. the top is 1.8m long and 70cm waide and has a thickness o f 4cm. O urs is made for wood, b u t sometimes they are m ade o f plastic or glas. In our house we keep it in the dining Room. W hat is it? It's a __________ .

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W riting

E diting

V o c a b u l a r y

B uilding

There are no mistakes in this paragraph, but how can you make it better? Rewrite the paragraph in your notebook. These words w ill help you: he it w ith and so w hen

My frtevxdy Yu ha& g o t cu n&w radio. Yu b o u g h t the/ radio- a/ few d a y y ago-. The' r a d io Vy black/. The/ r a d io h a y O' red/ handle'. Yu Idc&y the/ r a d io very much/. The/ r a d io Ly very light. Yu c a w take/ the/ r a d io everywhere/. He/ h a y a/ shower. He/ tdk&y the/ r a d io wCth/ him/.

V o cab u lary building


Describing size
Put these words and phrases in order. Start w ith the smallest. quite big very big not very big big

Use the words and phrases above to w rite sentences in your notebook about towns and cities you know.

Describing colours Language: c o lo u rs


It's black. The co lo u r is black. It's black in colour.

Complete the colours in the list. a. The sky at night is b_____ . c. The sea is a b rig h t b_.......... . e. W hat a beautiful y______ dress! b. The w alls are w ________ in colour. d. The colo ur of the sky that evening w as r. f. If you m ix c) and e) you get g________ .

g. If you m ix b) and d) you get p________ .


11

Describing m a te ria ls
W hat materials do you know? Add to this list. It's made o f ... cotton silk m etal plastic wood gold

N ow w rite a sentence for each in your notebook. Example: This s h irt is m ade o f cotton.

Describing shape Language: shape

It's square.

It's square in shape.

It's shape is square.

N ow match these pictures w ith the adjectives in the list.

Describing condition
Put these words in order in the list below. C quite good It's in b c u l/ It's i n _____ It's i n _____ ve ry good not ve ry good good

con dition . con dition . con dition .

It's i n ________________ condition. It's in ---------------------------- condition. It's in &>cceXley\ con dition .

V o c a b u l a r y

B uilding

Use these clues to complete the crossword below. Most of the words are in this unit.

ACROSS

2. This statue is v e ry m odern i n ___. (5 letters) 5. T h e _ o f th e sail is tria n g u la r. (5) _ 7. T h e ___o f o u r boat is a bo ut 4m. (6) 9. M y w a tc h ___g o t a round face. (3) 10. A co m p u te r has a screen and a _ . (8) _ _ 12. T h e re _ _ tw o w a te r containers on the ro o f o f the jeep. (3) 13. In the m id d le o f the Japanese f la g _______ a red circle. (5,2) 14. W ith a m o b ile phone it's easy t o _ in touch w ith people. (4) _ 17. I have a new w atch. M y b ro th e r g a v e ___w atch to m e last week. (3) 18. The p o p u la tio n o f E gypt is 58.6 m illio n - that's ___60 m illio n . (6) 19. I take m y lap to p c o m p u te r w ith m e ___I go on a trip . (4) 20. You use y o u r ___s to see. (3) 21. There are 100cm in o n e ___. (5)

DOWN

1. 2. 3. 4. 6. 8. 11. 13. 15. 16. 17. 19.

This carpet is v e r y ___. It m easures 3cm. (5 letters) I'll give W illia m the m essage w hen I ___him . (3) W il! y o u ___m e b o rro w y o u r boat fo r an hour? (3) This room i s ___ in shape. It m easures 5.5m by 5.5m. (6) I b o u g h t a new C D ___last week. (6) The boat is v e ry lig h t. It is m ade o f fib re ___. (5) A t n ig h t it i s ___. (4) The op po site o f 1 D ow n. (4) A m o b ile ___is ve ry useful w hen you are aw ay fro m hom e. (5) Is th a t n e c k la c e ___o f gold? (4) It's im p o rta n t to carry a s p a re ___w h e n you drive in the desert. (4) M y frie n d and I have b o u g h t a new je e p .___are v e ry happy w ith it. (2)

13

Describing h o w som ething w o rk s


Looking a t t e x t
Read about mobile phones, then label the diagram below. Use these words: telephone exchange norm al telephone base station

A mobile phone
A mobile phone, or cellular phone, is a very useful appliance. You can use it anywhere - at home, at college, in the street or in a car (but not when you are driving!) W hen you make a call to a friend, a signal is sent by your phone and collected by a base station. This is a special aerial which is situated on the top of tall buildings or hills. There are many of these aerials throughout a country or region, and they form a netw ork of cells which covers the whole area. The signal from your phone is then transferred to a cellphone exchange. If your friend has got an ordinary telephone, the signal is then passed to a normal telephone exchange. From there the signal is sent to their telephone and your friend receives your call. Its easy! m obile phone
V I/i '" S I

r*

Language: passive verbs


Look at sentences a) and b). Under
a) The phone sends a signal.

e verbs.
b) A signal is sent by the phone.

The verb in sentence b) is a passive verb. We often use passive verbs w hen we explain h o w som ethin g (like a m obile phone) works. a passive verb = to be + the past participle form to be = is/are/w as/w ere/m ust be/can be, etc. past participle = (regular) received/transm itted, etc. (irregular) sent/m ade/built, etc. 14

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N ow complete the tables.

What?
a. The/ phoney

Verb

What?

What?
b.

Passive verb

By what? by the/ phones.

Read the paragraph about mobile phones again. a. U nderline all the passive verbs. The firs t one (is sent) has already been done fo r you b. There is one when clause. U nderline it. c. There is also one clause beginning w ith if. U nderline it. d. Find it in line 2, This in line 6 and there in line 14. It here means a m o b ile phone. W hat are the m eanings of the other tw o w ords? This = ________________ there = __________________

Read this paragraph about answering machines. Who records the messages? a. The outgo in g message is recorded b y ________________________________ . b. The incom ing message is recorded b y ________________________________ .

An Answering M achine
Weve got a new answering machine at home. Its very useful and its easy to use. First of all, someone living in the house has to record a message on the machine. This is called the outgoing message. Usually people say something like Hello. This is Athens 987 6543. Were not at home at the moment. Please leave a message after the bleep. When you go out, switch the machine on. When callers phone you, they hear your message and they can then leave a message for you if they want. The incoming messages are recorded onto your machine and stored. A display on the machine shows you how many messages youve got. When you get home, press the play button and listen to your messages. The messages can be played again and again if necessary.

Read the paragraph again. a. The passive verb is called is underlined. U nderline all the other passive verbs in the paragraph. b. There are three w hen clauses. U nderline them . c. W rite an outgo in g message fo r y o u r phone. ------------------------------------------------------

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Language: in s tru c tio n s


instruction s and underline the verbs.

*..

W hen w e describe ho w som ethin g w orks we often give instructions. Look at these

a. S w itch on the answ ering m achine w hen you go out. b. Leave a message after the 'bleep'. c. Press the 'p la y ' button w hen you w an t to listen to yo u r messages. I We use the in fin itiv e fo rm o f the verb (w ith o u t to) fo r instructions: to sw itch on ... = switch on ...

N ow w rite sentences a), b) and c) in the table below.

Verb
a. b. c.

What?

When?

Read this paragraph about a juice extractor.

The Pulpex Juice Extractor


Congratulations on choosing a Pulpex Juice Extractor! It is made of extra-strong plastic and is guaranteed for five years. A juice extractor is a healthy way of enjoying fruit and vegetables. This is how it works. First of all, the fruit and vegetables must be washed carefully under a tap. They should then be peeled (if necessary) and cut into small pieces. The machine is then switched on and the pieces are pushed carefully into the feed tube using the pusher (do not use your fingers!). As the machine spins around, juice is separated from the pulp in the pulp collector. The juice flows from the outlet in the pulp collector and is collected in the juice jug. pulp collector feed tube

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a. U nderline the passive verbs. b. Put the diagram s below in order by num bering them 1-6.

c. N ow w rite these past participles under the pictures: ( collected w ashed cut sw itched on pushed peeled

Read the last part of the text about the juice extractor. If the pulp container becomes full, switch off the machine, remove the lid and clean out the container. Finally, in order to enjoy a delicious drink full of vitam ins, rem ove the jug and po u r the juice into glasses.

a. U nderline the/Y clause. b. U nderline the phrase beginning w ith in o rd e r to. c. Find fo u r instructions and w rite them in yo u r notebook. Follow this pattern:

Verb
Switch off

What?
the machine. 17

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__I S e n te n c e b u ild in g _______________________


These sentences all have passive verbs. First put the words in the correct order and then w rite them in the table below. They describe how a portable CD player works. a. co m p a rtm e n t / inserted / R6 batteries / into / are / tw o / the b. placed / the / CD tra y / a / is / on / CD c. closed / m ust / lid / firm ly / the / be d. the fro n t o f / the CD player / headphones / are fitte d / the / to e. are / over / the / the / ears / placed / headphones f. pressed / the / is / button / 'p la y ' g. can / as required / the / be / vo lu m e / adjusted

What?
The/ lid / a. b. c. d. e. f.

Passive verb
by re m o v e d /

How? Where? When?


fro m / th e / b a tte r y c o m p a r t m e n t

g-

Rewrite the sentences in the table above as instructions. Use your notebook. Example: Rem ove the lid fro m the b a tte ry com partm ent. Look at these pictures. W rite a sentence in your notebook about each picture using a passive verb. Use the verb in brackets.

Example: (cool) F ood/ Cy c o o le d / i>v cv r e f r ig e r a t o r .

18

S entence

B uilding

J oining

Ideas

bushes

a. (link)

b. (plant)

c. (connect)

d. (open)

Joining ideas

The fru it and vegetables are washed. They are cleaned. The fru it and vegetables are washed and cleaned. The m achine is sw itched off. The pulp is rem oved. The m achine is sw itched o ff and the pulp rem oved

N ow join these sentences in the same way. Use your notebook. a. The vegetables are peeled. They are cut into sm all pieces. b. The signal is sent to an aerial. It is then tra n sm itte d to a telephone exchange. c. The phone is made of plastic. The case is made of leather. d. The o u tgo in g message is recorded. The m achine is sw itched on. 19

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Language: as cla uses (time)


ow that tw o things are happening at the same tim e we can use an as clause o f time.

When (A s ... ) A y y o w / i n t o the/ ^ ^/,

Last part of the sentence y o u r voice/ Ly reco rd ed /

Find another example of a sentence w ith an as clause in the paragraph about the juice extractor on page 16. W rite it in the table above.

Language: i f clauses

If... I f you / w o n t t o lis te w t o the/ wiewx\/,

Last part of the sentence the/ p la y b u tto n /

Note: I f and as clauses can be added to the beginning or the end o f a sentence. Look at the paragraph about mobile phones on page 14. Find an example of a sentence w ith an i f clause. W rite it in the table above. Add clauses to these sentences. Remember th at the clause must contain a verb. a. As c u s to m e rs _____________________________ , th e y are film e d by video cameras. b. Please rem em ber to lock the d o o r if y o u __________________________________ . c. If pa sse n g e rs_________________________ d. As passengers e. If y o u ________ th e y should go to the Lufthansa offices. ____ , th e y m u si sho w th e ir tickets. you should see a doctor.

Language: in o rd e r to ...
We use in o rd e r to + verb (or ju s t to + verb) to tell us w h at som ething is for In order to open the package, cut the corner w ith a knife.

20

Match these parts of sentences. Then w rite the sentences in the table below. In order to make a phone call, To clean pulp fro m the extractor, In order to record the o u tgo in g message, To take good photographs, ... the am oun t o f lig h t m ust bemeasured. ... speak into the m icrophone. ... the required num ber is keyed ... the lid m ust be rem oved. in.

W hat for? [In o rd e r to ...) In/ o r d e r to- y ta r t the/ m achine/, To- d e a r v the/ m uchlne/,

Last part of the sentence tu rn / the/ co n tro l/ to- n u m b e r 1 o r 2 the/ p o w er vnu&t be/ ywCtched/ o ff

P u n c tu a tio n ______________________________
A p ostro phes
W hat is the difference between these sentences? a. The student's books are on the desk. b. The students' books are on the desk.

W hat is the difference between these sentences? W rite them out in full. c. The secretary's i l l . _________________________________________ d. The secretary's got a fe v e r._________________________________________

Add apostrophes where they are needed. Some sentences do not need any changes. a. The dogs got some bad cuts on its leg. b. Im afraid the radios broken. c. The gir;s are studying Physics and Economics. d. Its situated at the top o f a hill. e. Theres a flag at the to p of the building. f. Messages are sent by com puters. g. The machines sw itched o ff at the m om ent. h. Five teachers have th e ir desks in this room . Its called the teachers room.

U n i t

T w o :

D e s c r i b i n g

How

S o m e t h i n g

W o r k s

Clauses
Find the clauses in these sentences. Add a comma if one is needed. a. If the caller is in an underground car park it m ay be im possible to use the m obile phone. b. W hen the tape is fu ll no fu rth e r messages can be recorded on the answ ering machine. c. In order to avoid dam age to the m achine stones m ust be rem oved fro m fru it. d. Contact y o u r local dealer if you have problem s w ith y o u r new television. e. As the d o o r closes the lig h t inside the re frige rato r goes off. f. In order to keep a com pact disc in good co n dition it should be kept in its cover. g. W hen som eone leaves a message on the answ ering m achine a num ber appears on the disp la y panel. h. The juice is separated fro m the pulp as the fru it is pushed into the feed tube.

B e tte r p arag rap h s


Read this paragraph about a hair drier.

The Superdry hair drier is easy to use and very light in weight. It comes in an attractive black canvas case. The drier has a very powerful motor which draws air into the machine and forces it out through a specially designed nozzle. (1) The air passes over the electric heater. The hot air is then forced out. There are two speeds and three levels o f heat warm, hot and very hot. First o f all, (2) make sure your hands are dry. Select the speed and heat settings you want by turning the arrow. Hold the drier about 10cm from your hair and switch the machine on. (3) Use your styling brush to style your hair. Finally, (4) switch the machine o ff

Add these four clauses to the paragraph by matching them w ith positions1-4. Then w rite the paragraph out in full in your notebook. w hen y o u r hair is d ry ... as you m ove the d rie r over y o u r h a ir ... 22 in order to avoid electrocution as air is draw n into the d r ie r ...

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

P nctuation u

B etter

P a r a g r a p h s

Complete this passage about a solar cooker. Use the words and phrases in this list. ( V is placed in order to if begins and so is used fo r are reflected avoid m ust be turned consists of when

A solar cooker (a)_________ cooking in dry, sunny countries. It is particula rly useful in countries w here fuel is expensive. It (b)_________ a curved m irro r w ith a stand fixed to the m iddle of the m irror. The cooker is set up in an open space facing the sun. The m irro r is curved, (c)________ _ the sun's rays (d) _____ by the m irro r and concentrated onto

the stand. ( e ) _ ______a pan containing w ate r (f)__________ on the stand, it becom es hot. As the pot gets hotter and hotter, the w ate r (g)__________ to boil, (h)___________ get m a xim um heat, the m irro r (i)___________ fro m tim e to tim e so that it continues to face the sun. (j)________ the food is ready, the pan m ust be rem oved carefully. To (k)_______ getting b u rnt w h ile rem oving the pan, the cook m ust make sure the m irro r is not facing the sun. 23

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S o m e t h i n g

W o r k s

Read these sentences about a camera. Put them in the correct order (the first and last sentences are already in position). Then w rite the paragraph out in full in your notebook.

How a camera works


I. This automatic camera is very simple to use. a. W hen you are ready, press the button on the top of the camera. b. The film winder and the flash are powered by the batteries. c. If there is not enough light, the flash will operate automatically as you take the picture. d. You can then see what the picture will look like. e. At the end you must make sure that the film is wound on. f. It consists of a lens, a button, a viewfinder, a flash and an automatic focus. g. Inside the camera is a film and two batteries. h. In order to take a photograph, look through the viewfinder. i. This opens the shutter and lets in the right amount of light. II. The camera is now ready for the next picture.

__Free w r it in g _______________________________
Read the paragraph about mobile phones on page 14 again. N ow look at the diagram below. Explain w h at happens when you phone someone w ith a mobile phone from an ordinary telephone. Use your notebook.

24

B etter

W riting

F ree

W riting

Explain how a steamer is used to cook food. Look at this diagram to help you. Use your notebook.

W rite a paragraph in your notebook about an instrument or electrical appliance that you own - for example a calculator, an alarm clock, a radio or a pager. Draw a diagram of the instrument and explain w h at it consists of and how it works. When you have finished, show it to someone else in the class to read. Use this checklist to edit your writing in Exercises 23-25.

: ST J H ow m any sentences are there? How m any fu ll stops (.) are there? Does every sentence begin w ith a capital letter? Does every sentence have a verb? Have you checked y o u r spelling? Can you make yo u r w ritin g better?

23

Exercise 24 25

25

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T w o :

D e s c r i b i n g

How

S o m e t h i n g

W o r k s

. E d itin g _____________________________________
Check this paragraph for spelling, punctuation and capital letters. There are ten mistakes. W rite the corrected paragraph out in full in your notebook.

w ater-w heely are/ a/ very old/ form/ o f w ater power They cun/ be/ m atd/ o f wood/ or metal/. They are/ found/ i n m an y country o f the/ world/, fo r example/, the/ city o f /, in/ yyria/, iy fa m o u y fo r i t 17 wooden/ water-wheely. W ater-wheely are/ located/ on/ fa^t-fLowOng/ river or ytreumy. a s the/ river flowy the/ wheel/ iy tu rn ed / by the/ power o f the/ water. The/ power iy uyed/ to- take/ watre/ from/ the/ rOver for farm ing/.
There are ten grammatical mistakes in this paragraph. Underline the mistakes and correct them . Then w rite the paragraph out in full in your notebook.

A com puter i t iy a/ very powerful/ in strum ent. Some/ com puter are/ heavy / iy placed/ o n deshy. O ther com putery are/ quite/ ymalb and/ c a n carried/ in/ the/ pocket. A com puter have/ m an y d iffe re n t &. In fo rm a tio n / are/ given/ to- the/ com puter and/ a/ bet o f instructions, called/ a/ programme/. The/ com puter iy tell/ w h a t to d o by the/ programme/. A com puter iy con^tyty o f a/ m on ito r w ith a/ screen/, a/ heyboard/, a/ dlyk/ drive/, and/ a/ /. The/ keyboard/ a nd/ the/ / ewe/ / for getting/ inforwuxtion/ into- the/ com puter. The/ o u tp u t' i t iy bhowvv o n com puter screen.

__V o cab u lary b u ild in g ___________________


Instru ction verb s
Match the instruction verbs w ith the drawings. C press push w a it sw itch o ff rem ove listen lift cut

26

E diting

V o c a b u l a r y

B uilding

P arts o f an in s tru m e n t
Label this diagram of a computer. Use these words: screen m o n ito r m ouse keyboard p rin te r speaker jo ystick disk camera disk drive

27

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Look at the questions below. The missing words are all found in this unit. W rite the answers in the puzzle below and find the vertical word. It is the name of a famous city in the Middle East.
a. I n _____to record a m essage, speak into th e m icrophone . b. A n _____receives sig n als fro m telephones. c. The m a c h in e ____ be sw itch e d o ff w h e n it is cleaned. d. A _____phone is an o th e r w o rd fo r a m o b ile phone. e. Light f. g. In an is let in to a cam era th ro u g h a _____ . extractor, ju ic e is separated fro m t h e _____ . Ju ice i s _____in a ju ic e ju g.

h. T o ____ the vo lu m e , use th e v o lu m e c o n tro l knob.

t
a.
b. c. d. e. f. ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ _____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____

o-

d/
____ ____ ____ ____ ____

&

r
____ ____ ____ ____

_____ ____ ____ ____ ____

____

____

____

gh.

___ ___ ___ ___

28

Describing h o w som ething is m ade


Looking a t te x t
Read this paragraph about how hummus is made.

Hummus is a very popular dish in Greece, Turkey and many parts of the Arab world. It is made from chickpeas and sesame-seed paste and it is very easy to make. First of all, the chickpeas have to be soaked for several hours. Then they are drained and placed in a pressure cooker. They are covered with water and a teaspoon of bicarbonate of soda is added. They are steamed for about 20 minutes until they are soft. The chickpeas are then drained and the juice is kept. A few chickpeas are put on one side for a garnish. The rest of them are put into a blender and some of the juice is added. The chickpeas are mixed in the blender until a soft puree is formed. As the chickpeas are mixed, salt, crushed garlic and tahina paste are all added. Finally, lemon juice is added. By this time the mixture should be smooth and creamy. In order to serve the hummus, the mixture is poured into a dish, olive oil is added and the extra chickpeas and an olive are placed on top. Paprika and chopped parsley can be added as decoration around the edge of the dish. Hummus is usually served at room temperature with hot bread.

Put the pictures below in the correct order by numbering them 1-6. Then w rite these past participles under the correct pictures. poured drained soaked steam ed served m ixed

Look at the paragraph again. Underline the passive verbs. The first three have been done for you. 29

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Language: seq u e n ce w o r d s
describe the steps in how w e make som ething we use first first of all then now next m eanwhile after that lastly finally

Circle the sequence words in the paragraph about hummus.

Underline the following in the paragraph about hummus: a. tw o u n til clauses b. one as clause c. the phrase in o rd e r to

Read this passage about building roads. the road can be laid using crushed rock. After that a layer of concrete is put on top of the foundations. A machine called a spreader then adds the top surface layer, which consists either of concrete or asphalt. The latter is a dark, sticky substance produced from petroleum. Lastly, road markings must be painted on the road surface and road signs added.

Building a road
The Irohazaka Driveway in Japan is famous for its wonderful views. The road, which was named after a poem by a 9th. century Buddhist monk, takes visitors to the Kegon Waterfalls near Tokyo. It cuts through high mountains and has a total of 48 very sharp hairpin bends. It is a marvellous engineering project. But how can such a road be built? Where do the road engineers begin? First of all, a lot of planning is needed. Surveys and aerial photos are used in order to choose the best route. Then the route is marked out on the ground by the surveyors. Earth-moving machines are then used to make the route as flat as possible. Cuttings are made through hills and valleys are filled in with rock and earth. Bridges and tunnels may also be needed. When the route is ready, the foundations of

a. Circle the sequence w ords. b. U nderline the passive verbs. c. W hat are surveys and aerial photos used for?

They arev_____________________________
d. W ho marks the route out?

The/ rou te/ Vy_________________________


e. W hen can the fo u n d a tio n s o f the road be laid?

The/ fo u r id a tio r w ccurv________________


f. 30 W hat are added to the road at the e n d ? ______

L ooking

A t

T ext

S entence

B uilding

Language: by a fte r a passive verb


Look at these sentences: The route is marked out by the surveyors. Hummus is made by mixing chickpeas w ith ... i ~ ~ ~~ B y after a passive verb can tell us who does som ething (the surveyors) or how som ething is done (by m ixin g ...). Read about rubber production. Then answer the questions below.

Producing natural rubber


Rubber is a natural substance, although it can also be made synthetically. Natural rubber is made from a white liquid called latex, which is produced by rubber trees. This liquid is collected by cutting a small piece of bark from the tree. It runs slowly into a cup which is attached to the tree. After a few hours the latex stops flowing. All o f the cups are emptied and the latex is taken to the rubber factory. The latex is poured into large tanks where it is solidified by adding acid. The rubber forms thick strips, which are then flattened by passing through rollers and turned into thin sheets. They are then packed and exported to countries all over the world.

a. W hat produces latex? _ b. How is latex collected?

c. H ow is the liquid latex made solid?

d. H ow are the strips o f solid rubber flattened?

__S en ten ce building ___________________________


^ Add these passive sentences to the table on page 32. Put them in the correct order first. They all contain the form b y ...~ing. a. made / sesame-seed paste / to g e th e r / is / chickpeas / hum m us / m ixin g / and / by b. speaking / the m icrophone / recorded / into / a message / is / by c. are / seat-belts / w earing / drivers / th e ir / protected / by 31

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What? The/ liq u id /

(Passive) Verb lb co llected /

How? by c u t t i n g cv ymcdl/ p ie c e o f b o r h from / the/ t r e e

Complete these sentences using b y ...~ing.

a. The potatoes are softened b y ___________ b. In backgam m on, the pieces are m oved by c. The gates are opened au to m a tica lly b y __ d. The co lo u r green is made b y ____________

__Joining ideas <


Language: also

Rubber is also used fo r m aking divin g suits. H um m us can also be bought in cans. M aria also studies C om puter Science. ! N ow com plete the rule: ------

A lso c o m e s _______ _ verbs like is a n d ______ , It c o m e s _________the m ain verb.

32

S entence

B uilding

J oining

I deas

Write out the second sentence in each pair in your notebook. Add also in the correct position. a. Sardines are a popular fish in Portugal. They are fou nd in other parts o f the w o rld . b. Rubber trees are g row n in plantations in Southeast Asia. They g ro w naturally in the Am azon region of Brazil. c. The cursor is m oved around the com pute r screen by using the arrow s on the keyboard. It can be m oved by clicking the mouse. d. Kiri Te Kanawa is a fam ous opera singer fro m N ew Zealand. She sings popular music. W rite sentences with also for each of the sentences below. Use your notebook. Example: Shark m e at is so ld in fish markets. It can also be b o u g h t in som e superm arkets. a. M y sister likes reading poetry. She ... b. New York is an im p o rta n t business centre, c. A l A khram is a w ell-kn ow n new spaper in Egypt. d. A e ro flo t flies all over Asia. e. Coconuts are g row n in the Caribbean. f. Oil can be used fo r m anufacturing plastics.

Language: w h ic h clauses
Look at these sentences: The road cuts throug h high m ountains. The road is named after a poem. ........ V erb + ... cuts th ro u g h high m ountains.

............... We can jo in these tw o ideas using a which clause. W h a t? a) The road. W hich clause w hich is named after a poem ,

.... _.... .i .... . .... A which clause can also be at the end of a sentence. W h a t? b) The road V erb + ... cuts th ro u g h high m ountains, W hich clause

which are over 1,500m in places.

Note th a t w h ic h refers to the noun th a t it fo llo w s . In a) above it fo llo w s the road, but in b) it fo llo w s m ountains.

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W rite these tw o sentences in the tables on page 33. Remember the commas! a. Tehran w hich is the capital o f Iran is located in the centre o f the country. b. Satay is a sim ple and delicious dish w hich is popular th ro u g h o u t South East Asia,

Find which clauses in these paragraphs and underline them. a. U nit one, pages 1-2, the paragraphs by Salah and Yoko. b. U nit one, page 3, the paragraph about K uw ait Towers c. U nit tw o , page 14, 'A m o bile phone' d. This unit, pages 30 and 31, 'B u ild in g a road' and 'P roducing natural rubber' H ow m any w hich clauses did you fin d ? ____

Join these sentences using which clauses. Follow this pattern:

What?

W hich clause

Verb +

a. Indonesia has a p o pula tion o f m ore than 200 m illio n people. Indonesia consists o f nearly 14,000 islands.

b. Rubber is grow n in tro pical countries such as M alaysia. Rubber needs a hot, hum id clim ate.

c. The Panama Canal is ju s t over 64 km long. It connects the Pacific and A tla n tic Oceans,

d. A fax m achine is an im p o rta n t part o f a m odern office. A fax m achine w orks by sending printed m aterial th ro u g h telephone lines.

e. The erhu has o n ly tw o strings. It is a Chinese in stru m e n t rather like a W estern v io lin .

34

J oining

Ideas

Join these sentences using which clauses. Follow this pattern:

What?

Verb +

W hich clause

a. An answ ering m achine records messages. The messages can then be played back w hen you get home.

b. M y b rothe r has ju st bought a Nissan Patrol. A Nissan Patrol is one of the m ost popular fou r-w h eel-d rive vehicles in the w o rld .

c. Last week w e visited Petra. Petra is the m ost fam ous historical site in Jordan.

d. The surface of the road is then sprayed w ith asphalt. A spha lt is a dark, sticky substance produced fro m petroleum .

e. S trips o f rubber are passed th ro u g h rollers. The rollers flatten the strips and produce th in sheets.

Language: a lth o u g h clauses

A lthough Pepe is quite intelligent, ... -

he doesn't know ho w to set the video recorder! 35

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A lth o u g h clauses can go at the beginning or the end o f a sentence. Note the position o f the com m as. A lt h o u g h clause A lth o u g h Pepe is quite inte llig ent.

Last part of the sentence


he doesn't know how to set his video recorder.

First part of the sentence


Pepe doesn't know ho w to set his video recorder,

A lt h o u g h clause although he is quite inte llig ent.

Find and underline although clauses in these paragraphs: a. U nit one, page 1, the paragraphs by Maria and Salah b. This unit, page 31, 'P roducing natural rubber'

Match the although clauses w ith the main sentences. W rite out the complete sentences in your notebook. Remember the commas! a. A lthough fishermen have the money to buy modern boats b. A lthough the car is eight years old c. A lthough Egypt has very low rainfall d. Although the computer is quite powerful e. A lthough it can be very cold in Hong Kong in the w inter f. Although those watches are very cheap g. A lthough some perfumes are made in India ... the modem is rather slow. ... it never snows. ... most are im ported from France. ... they are also very attractive. ... they often prefer to use the old wooden ones. ... many crops can be grown using irrig ation . ... it is in excellent condition.

Complete these sentences. a. A lth o u g h I like te le v is io n ,_____________ b. A lth o u g h I understand C an tone se,_____ c. A lth o u g h A nita is on ly fo u r years o ld ,. d. A lth o u g h S ingapore is on ly a group of sm all is la n d s ,_____________________________ W rite tw o more sentences about yourself or your city in your notebook. Use although clauses.

36

J oining

Ideas

P un c tu atio n

B etter

P a r a g r a p h s

P unctuation
Punctuate these sentences. They all con tain which or a lth o u g h clauses. a. although the suitcase is very large it o n ly w eighs 6kg b. m y new cassette players go t tw o tape decks w hich is very useful fo r copying tapes c. buenos aires w hich is the capital o f argentina is situated on the river plate d. yoko sends e-mail messages all the tim e although she fou nd com puters d iffic u lt to use at firs t e. last sum m er we fle w to Singapore on qantas which is an australian airline f. although toyota is a japanese com pany toyota cars are built in m any different countries g. the carnival in rio w hich takes place in fe b rua ry every year attracts thousands o f visito rs fro m all over the w o rld h. a juice extractor can be used fo r m ost types o f fru it and vegetables although it is not very suitable fo r oranges and lem ons

B e tte r paragraphs
Read this paragraph describing how to make biinis.

Thiy / / fo r . They a r e q u it e / to- prep ey andy very filling', ( 1 ) A b o u t 14-0 g o f b u c k w h e a t flo u r iy m e a w re d y andy p o u red / u n to a bowb. p b a k in g ' pow der, bcdt a n d / a n egg/ are/ ( 2 ) axUdedy a n d / vnijcedy to g e th e r. ( 3 ) A b o u t 150 ml' o f intUo andy 3 taMe^poxyny o f y o g h u r t are/ a d d e d / a n d / b ea ten / i n t o the/ m ix tu re. They m ixtu re/ iy (4-) le f t on/ one/ bide/ fo r a/ few m in u tey. (5 ) H e a t a/ little / b u tte r i n a/ largey p a n . A d d / a/ ta b lesp o o n / o f the/ w iixture. W h en t h e bUnO brow n/ o n t h e b o tto m /> i t bhould/ b e tu r n e d / o v e r a n d / cooked/ fo r a ^ io th er m in u te . The/ b lin iy vnuyt be/ k e p t w arm / u n til/ th e y a r e a ll/ re a d y . (6 ) Serve/ they bliniy. M ost people/ p refer t o e a t thenn/ w ith/ cream / a n d / c a v ia r .
a. A dd these sequence w ord s to the paragraph by m atching them w ith positions 1-6. also also fin a lly firs t of all then I H m eanw hile

b. S how w here you can add the fo llo w in g w hich clause to the paragraph:

("w h ic h are sm all, fla t pancakes popular in Russia

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c. N ow add this a lth o u g h clause: th e y can be eaten on th e ir ow n or w ith jam d. W rite the 'b e tte r' paragraph o u t in fu ll in y o u r notebook.

Complete this paragraph about sugar-cane. Use the words and phrases in this list. if although w hich w hich in order to w hen j* until as V *,*

Sugar-cane is a tall grass, s im ila r to bam boo, (a) grow s m a in ly in hot, w e t countries.

(b )______________ it needs a lot o f w ater, it can g ro w in areas o f low rainfall such as Egypt. There m ust, however, be ple nty of irrig a tio n water. Sm all pieces o f cane are planted in the fie ld s and soon begin to grow , (c)______ they are g ro w in g , the cane field s have to be weeded all the tim e, (d) the cane is fu lly grow n, it is cut a fe w centim etres | * :j|4 * pP ' Vj

above ground level. S om etim es the fields are bu rnt firs t (e)______ burn o ff the leaves, (f)______ the field s are not burnt, the leaves m ust be cut by hand. The cane is taken to the sugar factories. Here the cane is cut again into sm all lengths. It is then passed th ro u g h a crushing m achine, (g) extracts

all the juice. The juice is then boiled (h)_______ crystals o f sugar are form ed.

Look at the sentences on page 39. a. Put the verbs into the passive fo rm (to be + past participle). b. Put the sentences in the correct order to make a paragraph. The firs t sentence is already in place. c. W rite out the com plete paragraph in yo u r notebook.

38

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a r a g r a p h s

--------- N

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1. The population of many areas of the world is growing rapidly. a. Electric pow er and w a te r ______________(bring) to the site and d ra in s _____________(dig). b. Before building can begin, the la n d _________________________(map) by surveyors. c. Finally, trees and g a rd e n s ______________ (plant) to m ake the tow n m ore attractive. d. Aerial and satellite p h o to s __________ a ls o ______________ (need). e. T hen architects, planners and engineers look at the m aps, and p la n s _____________ _ (draw up) for the new tow n. f. W hen everyone has agreed on the plans, w o rk can begin. g. T hen buildings, such as houses, ap artm en t blocks, schools and s h o p s ________________ (construct). h. The new to w n s ________ u s u a lly __________ (build) in ru ral areas. i. As a result there is a great need for new tow ns; one exam ple is Shatin in the H ong Kong region of China. j. First of all r o a d s _________ (lay).

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__I Free w r it in g __________ _____________________


Read the paragraph about making hummus on page 29 again. N ow look at these notes for making creme caramel. W rite a paragraph in your notebook describing how it is prepared. Use passive verbs. Begin like this:

Creme/

l *

Ly delictouyy and/

- w

to- prepare/. I t Ly p o p u la r a H over the/

world/. The/ c a ra m e l Ly UAMally made/ before/ the/ cuttard/. First o f a l l they Sd^gar uk. heated/ u v ou saucepan and/ stirred/ g e n tly from/ time/ to- time/ ..

-J '

'
c a r a m e

I ngreAterxty:

f o r the/

I:

175 g* o f w hite/ c a r te r y u g a r Two- ta b le s p............*f h o t w a te r ...I o o n s o 150 m l vwilk/ 275 m i o f cream / 4 Icvrae/eaay 1 teaypoorv o f pure/ v a n illa / e x tr a c t

Ten' the/ c u sta rd : . ,<

1. h e a t th e/ sau cepan

smoot CJ

in a

7. h e a t a e n tly a n d / wwk/ ; ; o y ~ ------ ---- 8. m ix/ e g o s i n a/ la ra e/ bowb


C J CJ CJ 9

2. y tlr Oe n tly g / 3. fro m h e a t (w h e n


r e m o v e -

i x

t u

r e

f r o

t h e / ....................... rp

c v r /

...........

...........

v n l) o

....

...

W jgar Ly b ro w w ltcju ld /) 4. a d d / w a te r c a re fu lly 5. p o u r 2 o f c a r a m e l into/i b o tto m / o f a/ dL&h/

10. a d A /v a n i ll a e x tr a c t 11. p o u r into- dUh/ ...


(

12. bakes i n o v e n fo r 1H h o u ry 13. rem ove/ frowv o v e n a n d / a llo w to- c o o l

m ake/ c u sta rd / - a d d / m ilk/ a n d / crea m / tosau cepan


I

24, pla ce/ i n refL gerator fo r s e v e r a l h o u ry 15. swerve/with cream /

r e

tx m

# '

Vs o f c a r a m e l i n the/

40

F ree

W riting

Use these pictures to w rite a paragraph in your notebook about the process of building a skyscraper.

Think of a dish or a drink that you like. Describe how it is prepared. Use your notebook. Use this checklist to edit your writing in Exercises 22-24.

CHECKLIST
H ow m any sentences are there? H ow m any fu ll stops (.) are there? Does every sentence begin w ith a capital letter? Does every sentence have a verb? Have you checked y o u r spelling? Can you make yo u r w ritin g better?

22

Exercise 23 24

41

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_J E d itin g ___________________________________
Check the verbs in this paragraph about cotton production. There are eight mistakes W rite the corrected paragraph out in full in your notebook,

C otton/ iy g ro w in/ h o t a recty such/ cvy f g y p t aru b p a r ty o f Chinas. I t n e e d y p le n ty o f w a ter, e ith e r frcmn/ r a tn fa lb o r from / ir r ig a tio n , a n d / good/, rich/ sody. When/ the/ c o tt o n will/ he/ re a d y , i t m u^ t h a rv e ste d / q u ic k ly before/ rcurw can / d a m a g e / it. The/ c o tto n are/ scnnetim&y pick ed / by hand/, b u t u y u a lly i t Ly pick ed / by mxM^hlney. The/ c o tto n iy c o lle c t a n d / p la c e d / i n m a ch tn ey, where/ the/ fib rc y (c a lle d / l i n t ) are/ se p a r a tin g / from / the/ co tto n / seedy. The/ l i n t iy th en / p a ck ed / in to badey a n d / send/ to- fa c to r ic y where/ c o tto n c lo th are/ m aru ifactu red/.
Look at this advertisement for the Paradise Restaurant. There are 12 mistakes in spelling, punctuation and capital letters. Underline the mistakes and correct them. Then w rite the paragraph out in full in your notebook.

(Ah

Do you like delicious, spicy food servd in beautiful surroundings? Yes? Then visit our new paradise Restaurant. We are locatd in Ocean Avenue in the centre of the city Our restaurant which has wonderful

floor of the Toyota Tower. The menu, wich is prepared by our experienced chef contains Chinese, malaysian and Indonesian dishes. Although our prices are low you will find that

aracfise esta UVCtfit

the quality o f the food is very

fkp N
views of the city, is on the tetnh

-c ): d/:
haigh. Come and visit us soon!

__V o c a b u la ry building ________________________


Describing construction
Look at the table on page 43. Match the verbs on the left w ith the nouns across the top. Put y in the correct boxes and / in the incorrect ones. For example, you can build a bridge, but you cannot build an omelette. Some of the verbs match more than one noun.

42

Editing

V o c a b u l a r y

B uilding

a bridge build draw up

a w ell
-- - . - __ .

the fou nd ation s

a plan

a hole

an om elette

construct make

Describing recipes
Match these verbs w ith the diagrams below. drain m ix boil heat add pour steam measure cover

43

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Describing processes
W e use th e verbs b e lo w w h e n w e describe h o w th in g s are processed. M atch th e verbs w ith th e pictures.

transport

cut plant pour into

collect spray

pick pass through export

Irre g u la r p as t participles
Look at th e irre g u la r past p a rticip le s in th e ta b le below .
INFINITIVE PAST SIMPLE PAST PARTICIPLE put

'

to put to buy to grow

put bought grew

'i

bought g ro w n

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V o c a b u l a r y

B uilding

N o w put the correct past participle into each of these sentences. a. Sugar-cane can b e _____ by m achine o r by hand, (cut) b. M ost electrical goods a r e ________in Asia, (make) c. First, the drains have to be . (dig)

d. W hen the ground is flat, the fo u n d a tio n s a r e ________ . (lay) e. Skyscrapers are u s u a lly in the centre of cities, w here land is expensive, (build) f. S ignals a r e ______ by m obile phones to special aerials, (send) g. P hotographs m ust b e _______ of the site o f the new tow n , (take) h. Plans are u s u a lly _________ up by architects, engineers and planners, (draw) i. Som e planets can b e ________ in the nig ht sky w ith o u t a telescope, (see) j. N atural rubber trees a r e in m any parts of the w o rld , (find) _ _

45

U n it

Reporting w h a t som eone said


__________ o

Looking a t t e x t ___________________________
Read Victor's story. He is explaining w hat happened to him on a boat trip. Choose a picture to go w ith the story.

I had an awful experience a few days ago. I went fishing with Carlos, who is a good friend of mine. We were in Carloss m otor boat. Although it had rained in the morning, it was a fine, sunny afternoon. The boat was quite fast and after travelling for about an hour, land was out of sight. We were heading for an old wreck, which was a favourite fishing spot. Suddenly the engine stopped. Silence. W hats happened? I asked Carlos. Weve run out of petrol, he replied. I was beginning to feel a bit nervous and I asked him w hat we were going to do. He told me not to worry. Weve got some petrol in this spare can, he said as he lifted a metal container from the bottom of the boat. He opened the can. N ow he looked worried too. I asked him w hat was wrong. Its empty, he said. My nephew used the boat yesterday, and he probably forgot to fill up the spare can, he explained. We looked all around us, but there were no boats in sight. There were some dark clouds on the horizon, and in the distance I could hear thunder.

W rite answers to these questions. a. W hat w ere Carlos and V ictor heading fo r in the boat?

T h ey_________
b. W hat happened to the engine? I t _________________ c. W hy did Carlos look w orried?
B e c a u s e __________________________________________________

d. W ho had used the boat the previous day?

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T ext

Look at Victor's story again. a. Find five regular verbs and five irregular verbs in the past sim ple tense. W rite them below. Regular: stopped/,______________________________________ Irregular: h a d /,______________________________________ b. Find one m ore past con tinuo us verb. w ere/ h e a d in g / , ______________________________________ c. Find a w hich clause, an as clause and an alth oug h clause. U nderline them . d. Find one clause th a t begins w ith who. U nderline it.

Language: re p o rtin g verbs


We use verbs such as say, tell, ask, reply, explain, et
'W hat's happened?' I asked Carlos. 'W e've run out of p e tro l/ he replied. 'W e've got som e petrol in this spare can,' he said.

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Language: d ire c t and in d ire ct speech


Look at these exa mples: a) Carlos said, 'I feel cold .' b) Carlos said (that) he fe lt cold.

Exam ple a) is direct speech. Exam ple b) is indirect speech. W hat are the fo u r th in g s th a t are d iffe re n t in b)? Underline the verbs in the direct and indirect speech in these sentences. How are the tenses different? a. Carlos said, 'M y nephew borrow ed the boat.' c. 'I've never run out o f petrol before,' Carlos said. e. I said, 'It's going to rain.' g. 'I can't s w im ,' I said. b. Carlos said tha t his nephew had borrow ed the boat. d. Carlos said th a t he had never run out o f petrol before. f. I said tha t it w as going to rain. h. I said th a t I c o u ld n 't sw im .

Read Christina's story. Find out w here Christina and Sonia live.

An interesting thing happened to me last year. I flew to M iam i w ith m y family for three weeks. W e were staying in an apartm ent n o t far from dow ntow n M iam i. O ne evening we w ent for a walk to the harbour, Bayside, which was n o t far from the apartm ent. My uncle, w ho knows M iam i very well, wanted to take us to have som e C u b an food. Suddenly I saw an old friend, Sonia. It was a w onderful surprise. I hadnt seen her since I left school in Salvador six years ago. I had heard that she had got m arried and had gone to live in Belo H orizonte. After greeting each

other, I asked her if she was still living in Belo H orizonte. N o, she said, m y husband got a job in Rio de Janeiro. We have been there for two years. I told her th at I also lived in Rio. We bought an apartm ent there last m o n th , I said. Sonia asked me w hich part o f Rio I lived in. I explained that the apartm ent was in the suburbs, opposite a football stadium . Is it a very large building w ith blue balconies? asked Sonia. I told her th at it was. I was rather surprised, and asked her how she knew the building so well. We live in the same building! she explained.

a. Find three exam ples o f direct speech and underline them . b. Find three exam ples o f ind irect speech and un derline them . c. Put a circle around fo u r diffe re n t reporting verbs. d. Find an exam ple o f a past con tinuo us verb (w as/w ere + ~ing). e. Find an exam ple o f a past perfect verb (had + past participle). 48

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ n g o o k i L

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Add these reporting verbs to the sentences below: C said to ld explained replied

a. I _________ Sonia th a t I also lived in Rio. b. that m y husband had been offered a new jo b at the u n iversity and we had decided to m ove there a fe w m o nths ago. c. 'H o w do you like Rio?' asked Sonia. 'It's g re a t/ I ________ . d. Sonia _______ that she liked it too. They hoped to stay there fo r m any years.

Read this newspaper report. W hat are the people in the pictures saying? Change the reported speech into direct speech and put it into the captions.

BOMBAY PLANE CRASH


An aeroplane that was stewardess told us to put trying to land at Bombay on our lifejackets, said and after that airport crashed into the Ahmed, c sea yesterday. Fortunately I began to pray. Ahmed all the passengers were explained what had happened after landing rescued. Many had cuts on the water. Everything and bruises and some had was very quiet for a to go to hospital. The few seconds, he said, and plane was flying from then everyone got up Amman to Bombay. and went towards the Ahmed Said, who emergency exits, which was going to visit relatives were now open. From in India, said that he there we could see the was reading when he water a few metres below. heard a loud bang. I Fortunately it was calm looked out of the and we got into the rescue window, Ahmed explained, boats safely. and saw smoke. I told the A spokeswoman for stewardess that one of International Air said the engines was on fire. that it was their first Then the pilot spoke to accident. We dont know the passengers over the intercom system. He told what caused the engine to us that we were going to explode. Its a mystery, land in the sea. The she said.

49

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Read these sentences from the newspaper article. W hat (or who) do the underlined words refer to? a. Fortunately all the passengers w ere rescued. M any had cuts and bruises and som e had to go to h o s p ita l.________________________ _ b. Then the p ilo t spoke to the passengers ... He to ld us tha t w e w ere going to land in the s e a .__________________ c. Everyone got up and w e n t to w a rd s the em ergency exits, w hich w ere now open. From there w e could see the w a te r a fe w metres b e lo w ._______________________________ d. A spokesw om an fo r International A ir said th a t it was th e ir firs t accident.

__I S e n te n c e b u ild in g __________________________


These sentences all contain indirect speech. Put the words in the correct order and w rite them in the table below. a. th a t / said / cancelled / teacher / the / was / the / class b. late / she / Olga / us / be / to ld / th a t / w ou ld c. th a t / w ith / there / engine / w as / said / the / the / a problem / p ilo t d. policem an / drive / carefully / to ld / m ore / me / the / to e. said / had / week / S unil / his cousin / the car / th a t / used / last

Who SorvCa/

said/told (me) bcud/

(that) th a t

Indirect speech ihe/ h u d / m oved/ th ere/ 1< y e a r m

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/ S entence

B uilding

Report these statements using said or to ld m e/us.

a. J a r \ & t s a id / _________ b. O u r te a c h e r to ld / u y c.

The/ man/ _________

d. Sam / _____________

Language: reported q u e s tio n s


A yes/n o question is reported like this: Anne asked, 'Do you like m usic?' A w h question is reported like this: Keiko asked: 'W here do you live?'
1 ...

Anne asked me if I liked music.

Keiko asked me where I lived.

W here is a question w ord. O ther question w o rd s are w hen, w hy, how , w h a t, w ho , etc.

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W rite these as reported (or indirect) questions in the table below. a. The doctor: 'A re you feeling better?' b. Aziz: 'W hen do you have y o u r lunch break?' c. Pierre: 'D o you speak French?' d. The w aiter: 'W hat do you w an t to drink?'

Who?
Awne/

asked (me)
a&hed/ m e

if of

Indirect question
I Weed/ misiez

Who?
K.evko-

asked (me)
(Mked/ me/

Question word
where/

Indirect question
I ICved/

.
.

Joining ideas
&

Language: a fte r/b e fo re ,..~ing


Look at these sentences;
The plane lost an engine.

The plane crashed into the sea.

After the plane lost an engine, it crashed into the sea.

OR

After losing an engine, the plane crashed into the sea.

Mei Lin read the instructions. Before Mei Lin switched on the machine, she read the instructions.
o r

Mei Lin sw itched on the m achine. Before switching on the machine, Mei Lin read the instructions.

N ow join these sentences using after/before ...~ing and w rite them in your notebook. Remember the commas. a. John had a large lunch. John fell asleep fo r tw e n ty m inutes, (after) b. Make sure you check th a t there is enough petrol. S tart the boat, (before) c. We lived in Rome fo r six years. We m oved to Istanbul, (after) d. Nina trie d on the dress. Nina bo ugh t the dress, (before) e. Mike w ro te the letter. Mike faxed the letter to the head office in Cairo, (after) f. Ibn Batuta visited Mecca. Ibn Batuta travelled to China, (before)

e n t e n c e

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Id

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>

Language: w h o clauses
W ho clauses tell us som ethin g extra about a person (or people). They can com e in the m idd le o f a sentence: Dr M artinez has been a lecturer in the college fo r m any years. Dr M artinez is the new head o f the departm ent.

Who?
Dr Martinez,

Who clause
w ho is the new head of the departm ent,

Last part of the sentence


has been a lecturer in the college fo r m any years.

W ho clauses can also com e at the end o f a sentence. I w e n t shopping w ith m y cousin. M y cousin is staying w ith me fo r a fe w weeks.

First part of the sentence


I w e n t shopping w ith

Who?
m y cousin,

Who clause
w ho is staying w ith me fo r a fe w weeks.

N ow jo in these sentences in th e sam e w a y in y o u r notebook. R em em ber th e com m as. a. Ronaldo scored six goals last week, Ronaldo is an excellent fo o tb a ll player. b. I've ju s t had a phone call fro m m y sister. M y sister is stud ying at a college in M anila. c. The m echanic said he could repair the car by the fo llo w in g day. The m echanic was very experienced. d. This m o rning I w en t to see the doctor. The doctor said I should rest fo r three days. e. M ohsin is reading a book about Ataturk. A tatu rk was the fou nd er o f m odern Turkey. f. Our English teacher is proba bly the best teacher in the college. Our English teacher is very kind, hard-w orking and helpful.

Add yo u r o w n w h o clauses to these sentences. They are all ab o u t fam ous people. Use y o u r notebook. a. Ibn Batuta travelled to m any countries, including Spain, Russia and China. b. I've ju s t been listening to som e m usic by Paul McCartney. c. Gandi died in India in 1948. d. One o f the richest men in the w o rld is Bill Gates. e. Mrs Thatcher was Prime M in iste r o f the U nited Kingdom fro m 1979 to 1990. f. Om ar Khayam is m ost fam ous as the author o f the Rubaiyat. 53

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N ow w rite three sentences about people you know. Use w h o clauses. a . ___________________________________________________________ b . ___________________________________________________________ c . ____________________________________________________________

__P u n c tu a tio n _________________________________


These sentences all contain who clauses. Add commas, full stops and capital letters if they are needed. a. the pathans w h o com e fro m the m o untainous regions o f pakistan speak pashto as th e ir m o th e r tongue b. anna w ho has just graduated fro m the university o f Singapore w ants to be an econom ist c. the druze are a religious sect w h o live m a in ly in the m o unta inou s regions o f lebanon and southern syria d. m y uncle w h o doesn't speak a w o rd o f english to ld me th a t he is planning to v is it am erica in the sum m er e. yesterday I w en t to v is it m y g ra n d m o th e r w h o is in hospital w ith a chest co m p la in t

f. italians w h o are w e ll-kn o w n fo r th e ir love o f m usic have som e o f the w o rld 's greatest opera singers

Punctuate these sentences containing after and before. a. after w alking fo r six m iles in the hot sun the man fin a lly fou nd a garage b. before cooking the sardines the y washed them and cut them into pieces c. after landing in the sea and w a iting fo r the rescue boats the passengers fin a lly escaped d. before going on a boat trip make sure tha t there is petrol in the spare can Study the direct speech in the earlier paragraphs and in the example below. 'W hat's ha ppe ned?' I asked Carlos. 'W e've run o u t o f p e tr o l/ he replied. N ow punctuate these sentences. a. id like a single room he to ld the receptionist b. w hats the tim e carlos asked six oclock I replied c. fo llo w the london road and turn left at the ro und abo ut explained tania d. its very hot today said boris I th in k ill go fo r a sw im 54

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a r a g r a p h s

B e tte r p a ra g ra p h s _______
Read this paragraph about a children's birthday party.

O n Saturday Gabriella invited me to her house. She was having a small party for her daughter, Elena. My father offered to take me in his car and I arrived about two oclock. The house was full of people. There was a lot of noise from the children. Gabriella asked me if I wanted to meet Elenas teacher. I said Yes, and so she took me into the garden and I was introduced to Koula. Gabriella brought us both some orange juice and cake. I want to be a teacher too, and so I asked Koula many questions about teaching. She

told me that she had studied at a teacher s training college in Thessaloniki. After leaving teacher training college, she went to teach in a small village school. Three years ago she moved to the city and started teaching at Elenas school. I asked her what she liked most about teaching. The children, she replied, they are lovely. At that moment, the ball landed on the table and knocked the cake and orange juice onto the ground. Well, most of the time, she added with a smile.

N ow add this 'extra information' to the paragraph. Then w rite the paragraph out in full in your notebook. a. w ho is a very close frie nd of mine c. w hich was quite large e. w ho w as sitting under a tree g. w hich is a large city to the n o rth east of A thens b. w ho doesn't w o rk on Saturdays d. w h o w ere playing w ith a plastic beach ball. f. w hich she had baked fo r Elena's party h. w hich is only half a kilom etre fro m her home

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Use these words to complete the paragraph: before w hich in order to if w hen th a t alth oug h after who w ho

The fam ous 5,000-metre runner Naseem A hm ed arrived in Tunis today. Naseem, (a)______ was born in Yemen but no w lives in Germany, w as m et at the a irp o rt by m any fans and jou rna lists. He to ld the crow d (b)______ he was very happy to be in Tunisia, (c)____________he was sorry that it was on ly a sho rt visit. Naseem has com e to Tunisia (d)________________ take part in the A frican C ham pionship, (e)_________ starts to m o rro w , (f)_________ vis itin g Tunis, Naseem w ill travel to M orocco, (g)_________ return ing to G erm any at the end o f the m onth. One jo u rn a lis t asked him (h)____ he th o u g h t he w o u ld w in the race. 'I'm not sure,' he replied, 'the re are a lot o f good runners in the race. It'll be hard.' Naseem, (i)______ is w ell know n fo r his m odesty and good sportsm anship, became fam ous (j)______ he w on an O lym p ic gold m edal fo r the 5,000 m etres tw o years ago.

A joke! Put the sentences in paragraphs A and C in the correct order. Then w rite them out in full in your notebook.

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---------- Three Sailors and a G enie----------Paragraph A

a. The sailors were astonished and stared at the genie in disbelief. b. One day they saw a bottle floating in the water. c. They ate only raw fish and coconuts and after many months they were becoming very thin and weak. d. There was a flash of light and suddenly a genie jumped out of the bottle. e. Many years ago three sailors were shipwrecked on a small desert island in the middle of nowhere. f. One of the sailors picked it up and took out the cork.
Paragraph B

The genie bowed and spoke to them. I am the genie of the bottle, he said. Your wish is my command. He explained that because they had rescued him they could each ask for a wish. Anything we want? asked the first sailor. Yes, anything, replied the genie.
Paragraph C

a. Suddenly there was a flash and the first sailor disappeared. b. He told the genie that he missed his shipmates and hed like to go back to the ship to join them. c. Id like my two friends to come back to the island! he told the genie. d. Again the genie clapped his hands and the second sailor disappeared. e. The third sailor, who was now alone, suddenly felt very sad. f. The genie clapped his hands. g. The first sailor then explained that he missed his family very much and asked if the genie would send him back home. h. That was marvellous, said the second sailor.

__I Free w r it in g ______________________________


Read the story about Victor and Carlos on page 46 again. How did the story end? How did they get back home again? Write a paragraph in your notebook to finish the story. Use the past simple, past continuous and past perfect.

Read Christina's paragraph on page 48 again. N ow imagine you are Sonia. W rite about the meeting w ith Christina in your notebook. Use some direct and indirect speech.

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a i d

Imagine you are a reporter. Read this interview w ith a stewardess who was on the plane th at landed in the sea (see page 49). Then w rite a paragraph about the interview in your notebook. Use some indirect speech. Begin like this:

A fter the/ c r a th 1 tfpoke/ to Gita/, w ho wa. o m o f the/ steAvcu'deM^ env the/ flight.____________
Reporter: Stewardess: Reporter: Stewardess: Are you a stewardess w ith International Air? Yes, I am. I've been w ith them fo r five years. Can you tell me w h a t happened on the flight? W ell, I was serving coffee w hen I heard a loud bang. I looked o u t o f the w in d o w and saw th a t one o f the engines was on fire. W hat did you do? I w e n t to the cockpit and reported the fire to the captain W hat happened next? The captain spoke to the passengers. Then I explained how to put the lifejackets on. I trie d to keep everyone calm. Then w e hit the w ate r and I helped everyone o ff the plane and into the boats. Were you afraid? N ot really. I was to o busy to th in k about crashing. W ill you fly again? Yes. In fact, I'm scheduled to fly next week.

Reporter Stewardess Reporter Stewardess

Reporter Stewardess Reporter Stewardess

W rite about an interesting thing th at happened to you. W hat happened? Where were you? Report w h at you said and w h at other people said. Use your notebook. Use this checklist to edit your writing in Exercises 21-24. Exercise 22 23

21 H ow m any sentences are there? H ow m any fu ll stops (.) are there? Does every sentence begin w ith a capital letter? Does every sentence have a verb? Have you checked y o u r spelling? Can you make y o u r w ritin g better? 58

24

r e e

r i t i n g

d i t i n g

o c a b u l a r y

u i l d i n g

Editing L _____ ______________________________


Read the beginning of this story. There are five spelling mistakes, five mistakes in punctuation, and five grammatical mistakes. Find the mistakes and correct them. Then w rite the paragraph out in full in your notebook.

One/ d a y la ^ t tram m er m y fa in tly w e n t fo r a/ p ic n a c i n a park/ n e a r the/ yeas. We/ leave/ homey e a r ly i n the/ m o rn in g / a n d / fo u n d / a/ q u ie t place/ u n d e r borne/ tree's We/ p u t up the/ te n t, w hich/ w e d bw ayy t a k e w ith a y a n d / m y yi&ter a n d /1 b e g a n t o prepare/ yome/ food/. A fter eatin g/, we/ w a y a l l re ttin g / n e a r the/ t i n t a n d / Somhxyon/, w h ic h iy m y y o u n g e s t zon, wajy p la y in g / w ith/ a/ b a ll. I to ld / h i m t o go- a n d / b la y n e a r the/ tree&. A few m in u te r la te r h e s c r e a m e d a n d - feXb t o the/ g r o u n d . We/ a l l r a n o v e r a n d f o u n d him / h o ld in g / h ly foet. W h a fy the/ m a tte r ? I a&k/. I ty m y fo o t, he/ c rie d . c o m eth in g / b i t me/. T h e n we/ yee/ a/ la rg e/ ynake/ i n the/ gra^y. S I t o l d m y h u s b a n d t o k lU i t q a ick ly. He/ p ic k e d up a ytvck/ a n d h i t i t h a r d u n til/ i t wcuy n o lo n g e r moving/. T h e n he/ z a t d he/ w o u ld ta k e/ z o m b o o n t o the/ hoypital/. We/ a ll/ w e n t w ith/ h im / i n t h e jeep . I wa^y very w a r ie d because/ Somboxyn/ wcvy b rea th in g s w ith/ d iffic u lty .

V ocabu lary building


R eporting verbs
Find the reporting verbs. They are all in the past tense. 1. i d a s _____________ 4. s e d k a _____________ 2. d e l i n x a e p ______ _______ 5. d e d ad ____________ _ 3. d o 11 6 . 1i d e r p e

Describing em otions
Make tw o lists from these adjectives. One for words similar to worried, and one for words similar to calm. nervous relaxed afraid tra n q u il peaceful anxious _____________ frightened con fiden t quiet tense still calm concerned

w o rr ie d _______________

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o u r

e p o r t i n g

h a t

o m e o n e

a i d

Use these clues to complete the crossword below. Most of the words are in this unit.

ACROSS 4.

1. The line w h e re the sky m eets the sea. (7 letters) 'W o u ld you lik e __o r coffee?' the w a ite r asked. (3) 6. The boys said th a t th e y h a d _ th e ir h o m e w o rk and so I let them w atch TV. (4) _ 7. V icto r and C arlos g o t into tro u b le because the spare can w a s ___. (5) 12. Kiri Te K a n a w a ,___is a fa m o u s opera singer, v isite d M anila a fe w years ago. (3) 13. M y s o n ___w h en the snake b it him . (8) 14. _ w e w ere w a lk in g by th e harbour, I m et an old frie n d . (2) _ 16. To h it the hands together. (4) 17. There w e r e ___clo ud s in th e distance. I th o u g h t it w o u ld rain. (4) 19. 21. The stew ardess to ld us t o __on o u r lifejackets. (3) 'H o w do y o u __?' the d o c to r asked. T e r r ib le / I replied. (4)

22. Boris to ld m e th a t h e ___s w im ve ry w e ll. (5) 24. L a s t___I v is ite d Turkey. (4) 25. W e u su a lly use the past s im p le te n s e ___w e tell a story. (4) DOW N 1. Peter exp lain e d th a t h e le ft the keys to th e car in a d iffe re n t jacket. (3)

2. Carl Lew is and Haile G ebreselassie are fa m o u s ___. (7) 3. Several passengers w e re in jured a n d ___m an had to go to hospital. (3) 4. T m g o in g t o ___to land the plane in th e s e a / said the p ilo t. (3) 5. ___it w as a sun n y day, th e w in d w as v e ry cold. (8) 8. Prim e M in is te r o r a fte rn o o n . (2) 9. 10. Hari s a id __he w as g o in g to be late fo r th e m eeting. (4) S u z a n n e __me if I w a nted to go fo r a w alk. (5)

11. I _ th a t I w as fe e lin g rather tired. (7) _ 12. I ___heading fo r the shop w hen I saw m y frie n d Anne. (3) 14. In o rd e r t o ___fo r a place at the u n iversity, it is necessary to fill in a fo rm . (5) 15. A ll rig h t! (2) 18. ___, w h ich is g ro w n in E gypt, needs p le n ty o f w a te r and high te m peratures. (4) 20. T ra vellin g by plane is s a fe r ___tra v e llin g by car. (4) 21. Salem to ld me th a t he w as go in g t o ___to Jakarta next week. (3) _ 23. A h m e d to ld th e stew ardess th a t the engine w a s _ fire . (2)

60

Com paring
Looking a t te x t
Kate is writing to Aunt Sarah's problem page in a magazine. Kate has tw o options. W hat are they?

Dear A unt Sarah


I have to make a difficult e< 0 decision. N ex t year I w ant to go to college in order to continue my studies. Id like to do a teacher training course. However, the college which has the most suitable course is in Exeter, nearly 500 miles from Edinburgh. I like Exeter. Its a lovely city, and it has a good climate. In fact, the climate is better than Edinburghs. Its warmer in the winter, and its less windy! But its smaller than Edinburgh, and I think I w ould find life less interesting there. Its also a very long way from my family and friends. I think I would be lonely! Theres a college which I could go to in Edinburgh. However, it doesnt have the course which I really w ant to do. W hat should I do, A unt Sarah? Youre the only person I can ask. - Kate

Read the letter again and complete the notes in the table below. It shows the points for and against Exeter.
FOR AGAINST

l& v e ly tv w v v

s m a lle r t h a n / E d in b u r g h /

<

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ive

o m

p a r in g

Read Aunt Sarah's reply. W hat is her advice?

t * ar Kate

Its always difficult to m ake a decision like this. O n the one hand, you d o n t w an t to leave your fam ily an d friends in Edinburgh, but on the other hand, the m ost suitable course for you is in Exeter. Personally, I think you should go to study in Exeter. It sounds like a lovely place to me. I agree, too, th a t the w inters there are m ore co m fo rtab le th a n in Edinburgh, which sometimes seems the coldest place in the w o rld w hen the east w ind is blowing!
-----------------------------------------------------------------

However, the clim ate is not the m ost im p o rtan t thing. You m ust take the course w hich is best for you. In this case, we know th a t the m ost suitable course is in Exeter. A lthough y o u ll miss y o u r fam ily at first, I think youll soon make new friends in Exeter. Is there a flight from Exeter to Edinburgh? If there is, you can visit E dinburgh sometimes at the w eekend. Remember, this is an im p o rtan t decision. Try to find a friend o r a m em ber of the family w ho you can talk to.

<

Language: c o m p a ra tiv e s
Look at these sentences: Exeter is smaller than Edinburgh. Exeter's clim ate is better than E dinburgh's clim ate. The course in Exeter is more interesting than the course in E dinburgh. I There are tw o com parative form s. 1. W ith short adjectives, like sm a ll, b ig , fast; cheap and heavy, w e add ~ e rto the adjective: sm aller, bigger, faster, cheaper, heavier 2. W ith m ost long adjectives (tw o syllables o r m ore), like interesting, pleasant and com fortable, we add m o re before the adjective: H andw ritten letters are more interesting than e-m ail. Note: a) Som e sho rt adjectives (e.g. good, bad) are irregular. They change their form to make the com parative (e.g. better than, worse than). b) The opposite o f m ore is less: E-mail is less interesting than handwritten letters.

62

o o k i n g

e x t

Read through Kate's letter and Aunt Sarah's reply again. Underline examples of comparatives and superlatives. The first tw o examples in Kate's letter have already been underlined.

Sam and Yoko are writing about e-mail and letters. Answer these questions: a. W hich does Sam prefer? b. W hich does Yoko prefer?

Although e-mail is faster and cheaper, I dont think its very personal. People write e-mails very quickly, without thinking about the person they are writing to. However, when we write a letter it takes longer and we have more time to think about what we want to say. Its also more interesting to receive a handwritten letter. You see an envelope with your name and address on it and its exciting, whereas an e-mail seems less personal. You can also put things in the envelope along with the letter, such as photographs or something you have cut out of a newspaper.

It takes so long to write a letter, and then sometimes the letter can take weeks to get to your friend. On the other hand, an e-mail can take just a few minutes to get to the other side of the world. E-mails are also more fun than letters, and writing on a keyboard is easier than writing with a pen. My handwriting, which is really terrible, is very difficult to read. But when I write an e-mail there no problem. By the way, if you s have a digital camera or a scanner, you can also send photographs by e-mail, which is more convenient than sending them in an envelope.

63

U nit

F ive

o m

p a r in g

Complete the tables for Sam and Yoko that compare e-mail and letters. Put J in the correct boxes.

Sam
faster cheaper m ore interesting less personal

E-MAIL

LETTERS

Yoko
slow er m ore fun easier less convenient

E-MAIL

LETTERS

<

L a n g u a g e :0 o n n e c tin g w o r d s c
We use connecting w ord s such as how ever, bu t, on the o th e r hand, and w hereas to jo in ideas. Put a circle around the connecting w o rd s in the fo llo w in g sentences: a. Exeter's w inters are not very cold, whereas Edinburgh has cold and w in d y w inters. c. Exeter's w inters are not very cold, but Edinburgh has cold and w in d y winters. b. Edinburgh has cold and w indy winters. On the other hand, Exeter's w inters are not very cold. d. Edinburgh has cold and w indy winters. However, Exeter's w inters are not very cold.

Find the following connecting words in Sam's and Yoko's paragraphs. Put a circle around them. r how ever but on the oth er hand w hereas J

Complete these sentences in your own words. Use connecting words. a. Istanbul and Ankara are very diffe re n t cities. Istanbul is a very old city and is situated on the coast, w h e re a s _____________________________________________ b. I'd like to v is it Germany, b u t _____________________________________________ c. M y father is tryin g to decide w h e th e r to leave England and go to w o rk in S ingapore. On the one hand, S ingapore is a beautiful, m odern place w ith good roads and high salaries. On the oth er h a n d ,____________________________________________________ d. There's a new shopping m all near m y house. H o w e v e r,__________________________

34

I S en ten ce building ________


Look at the comparative sentences in the table below.

What?
r4

Verb

Adjective + ~er e a s ie r tcy-u^es

than
th a n / thOAV thcw w

What?
a /p e ^v

keyb xyard /

E d in b u rg h *

hcvy owe;

c o ld e r w in te r y fpvytcr

E>ceter le tte r y

E-wicUb

N ow add these sentences to the table. Put the words in the correct order first. a. London / Rome / has / than / sum m ers / hotter b. juice / is / fresh / cola / healthier / than / fru it c. ta lle r / usually / date palm s / coconut palm s / are / than d. prepare / an om lette / easier / boiled egg / to / than / is

Look at these comparative sentences. They contain more or less.

What? E)cetery climate; VLdeoy -maiL

Verb L^ areiy

more/less more' la y more/

Adjective comfortable' interesting' reliable

than than/ thxtn/ than/

What? Edinburgh/y clim a te novely ordin ary mad/

Now add these sentences to the table. Put the words in the correct order first. a. d iffic u lt / Chinese / than / English / is / m ore / learn / to b. messages / than / letters / E-mail / personal / less / are / handw ritten c. less / an / a / useful / phone / phone / is / ordina ry / m obile / than d. gold / is / silver / expensive / than / m ore

n i t

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o m p a r i n g

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- -----------

Use these pictures to w rite comparative sentences. Follow this pattern:

What?

Verb

Adjective + ~er / more + adjective

than

What?

London

Cairo

[PINEAPPLES
I ^2.50

J^NASOMlc

phone

Example: (wet) L & n d o n / Qy w e t t e r t h a n / C a iro -. a. (in te llig e n t)_____________________________________________ b. (c h e a p )________________________________________________ c. (beautiful) d. (g o o d )___ e. (q u ic k )_ _

56

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u i l d i n g

o i n i n g

Id

e a s

Joining ideas

Read the letters from Kate and Aunt Sarah on pages 61-62 and the paragraphs about e-mail and letters on page 63. a. Put a box around any w ho or w hich clauses. b. H ow m any defining clauses can you fin d ? _______ * Find the defining who and which clauses in these sentences. Underline them. a. I m anaged to find the ho m ew o rk w hich the teacher had asked me about. b. On o u r trip to India last year the place w hich I liked best was Darjeeling. c. Yesterday in the superm arket I saw the w om an w ho reads the news on Channel 33. d. That's the car w hich I w a n t to buy. e. 'People w h o need people are the luckiest people in the w o rld .'

67

U nit

Five:

o m

p a r in g

Match these sentences w ith the defining which (or that) and who (or that) clauses. Then w rite the sentences out in full in your notebook. (Make sure you put the full stops in the right place!) a. That's the man. b. We w e n t to see the film . c. The car is to o expensive. d. The w aitress has disappeared. e. The co u n try is China. f. Every year the college presents a prize to the student. ... th a t gets the best results ... w h o w e gave ou r order to ... th a t you recom m ended ... th a t 1 like the best ... w hich has the largest population in the w o rld ... w h o stole m y bag

Look at the pictures below. N ow complete the sentences w ith defining which (or that) and who (or that) clauses.

a. That's the d rive r w h o /th a t_______________________________________ . b. The c o m p u te r_______________________________________ has broken dow n. c. Paris is the c it y ______________________________________ . d. P e o p le ______________________________ _ 68 are know n as 'fa n s' or 'sup porters'.

o i n i n g

Id

e a s

u n c t u a t i o n

D efinitions
* Look at these definitions. D efinitions

A pearl diver is a man w ho dives fo r pearls.

What's a meteorite? It's a piece of rock or metal from outer space which hits the earth.

a. U nderline the defining clauses in the tw o definitions. b. Use yo u r dictio nary to w rite d e fin itio n s fo r the fo llo w in g nouns. Use defining who, w hich or tha t clauses. f I an answ ering m achine a p ilo t a do ctor a ta xi-d rive r a roof-rack

__Punctuation
< $ Language: c o m m a s and clauses

a) Jordan, w hich is fam ous fo r its historical sites, has become very popular w ith tourists. b) The historical site w hich attracts m ost tou rists to Jordan is the ancient city o f Petra. I
..

Non-defining clauses (Sentence a) are placed between tw o com m as or between a com m a and a full stop. There are no com m as before or after a defining clause (Sentence b).
69

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Some of these sentences need commas and some do not. Add commas where necessary. a. Canberra w hich is the capital o f A ustralia is not the biggest city in the country. b. The shop had sold out o f Jasm ine M ystery w hich is m y fa vo u rite perfum e. c. The man w h o robbed the bank w as arrested yesterday. d. The m ain course was sardines w hich are po pula r in Portugal. e. Last week I w ro te a letter to the college tha t I w a n t to stud y in. f. Yu Lin said she w anted to speak to the w om a n w h o was in charge o f the shop. g. The program m e tha t I w anted to w atch was cancelled at the last m inute. h. Peter w h o is a w e ll-kn o w n jo u rn a lis t w rites fo r a Cape Town newspaper. i. A ll appointm ents have been cancelled by the president w ho has a slight stom ach upset.

__B e tte r p a ra g r a p h s ___________________


Connecting w o rd s
Complete this passage w ith the words and phrases in the list.

V
/ past, (c)______ __

although

w hen w ho

w hereas w hich but

how ever less

on the one hand m ore

Is life better now, or was life m ore rew arding in the past? (a)______________ we have m ore m aterial th in g s nowadays, such as cars, televisions, videos and so on. (b)__________ on the oth er hand, som e people th in k th a t w e w ere happier in the w e had few e r possessions and life was (d)________ com plicated.

M y grandfather, fo r exam ple, was a fisherm an. He lived in a sm all village on the coast and had a very sim ple life. There was no electricity and the fa m ily had to bring w ater fro m a nearby w ell, (e)________ th e y shared w ith the w h o le village, (f)___________ , I have never seen a man as happy as m y grandfather. Life is certainly (g)_______ com fortable nowadays. People (h)_________ live in cities have air-conditioning, hot and cold w a te r and heating in the w inter, (i)__________ in the old days these thin gs w ere unheard of. One th in g surprises me. (j)_______________ we have all o f these com forts at hom e, m any people like to take a te n t at the w eekends and go cam ping in the countryside. Perhaps the y are looking fo r a s im p le r w ay o f life. 70

u n c t u a t i o n

e t t e r

a r a g r a p h s

O rg anization
Put these sentences in the correct order to make tw o paragraphs. W rite the paragraphs in your notebook.

for and against


Is nuclear power a good alternative to other sources o f power such as oil, gas and hydroelectric power?

a.

O n th e o th er hand, oil and gas can cause a great deal o f dam age to the environm ent.

b. F or exam ple, nuclear p ow er is relatively cheap. c. A lthough th e cost of building a p ow er plant is high, the ru n n in g costs are very low. d. N uclear p ow er is also very clean. e. There are m any points in its favour. f. N o t only does the process of producing pow er cause very little pollution, b u t also th ere is very little dam age to the environm ent th ro u g h m ining and tran sp o rtin g plutonium .

However, there are many strong arguments against using nuclear power.

a. T here is also the problem of nuclear w aste. b. N u clear p ow er has a p o o r safety record and th ere have been m any accidents around the w orld. c. F o r these reasons nuclear p o w er is likely to decline in popularity. d. F o r exam ple, the explosion at a reacto r in C hernobyl in the U kraine caused hundreds, p erh ap s thousands, of deaths. e. T he m ost pow erful argum ent is safety. f. N o b o d y know s how w e can get rid o f it safely.

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S ty le
^ When w e think about style w e need to think about the reader. Is the reader a general reader, a friend, an official, a teacher or a scientist? We w rite in different styles for different readers. If you were writing a letter to a friend, the style would probably be informal. You might use contractions (you're instead of you are) and shortened words ( T V instead of television). a. W ho is the reader o f the te xt about nuclear p o w e r? ____________ _ b. Is the style fo rm a l o r in fo rm a l? ______________ c. W ho is the reader o f Kate's paragraph on page 6 1 ? _________ _____ d. Is the style fo rm a l o r in fo rm a l? ______________ The following letter is a response to a job advertisement. Choose the more formal option and w rite the letter out in full in your notebook.

Dear Sir, I have seen your (a) advert/advertisement for a trainee manager in the

Caribbean Times. The job sounds (b) very interesting/great and I wonder
if you could (c) give me/send me details of the job and an application form. (d) T m/I am a student at the International University of Mexico. I will be leaving university in the summer and I (e) would like to find/want to get a job in catering. My first language is Spanish, but I speak and write English (f) OK/quite well and I also know (g) a little/a bit o f French. I have (h) lots/a great deal of experience in catering as I have worked in my uncles restaurant during the vacations. I also spent two months working in a hotel in Mexico City last summer. It was a (i) really/very useful experience. (j) Ive got/I have some excellent references which I can send if (k) you want/vou wish. (1) Hoping to hear from vou./I look forward to hearing from you.

(m) Yours faithfully, /Regards,

72

e t t e r

a r a g r a p h s

r e e

r i t i n g

__Free w ritin g _____ __________________________


^ Francis lives in Manila, in the Philippines. He has a difficult decision to make. Read his letter to a magazine and w rite a reply. Give him your advice. Begin your letter like this: Dear Francis,

Some/ people^ thinks I asm ( as lu cky portion /. Two- compcvnley hove/ av offered/ me/ joby. One/ job- Vy On/ my uncle/y tro w el co m p a n y On/ Morula/, the/ otheAr Oy wOth/ o r / a irlin e / co m p a n y On/Kiyadh/ On/ South/ Arabia/. The/ m on ey On/ S a u d i A rabia/ Oy much/ better, cvnds a y the/ com pan y Oy large/ the/ prom otion / proypecty w ill be/ better. I have/ a/ wvfe/ a n d / tw o ch ildren / a n d / th ey casn/ come/ w ith me/ to- 'Riyadh/. The/ ch ildren / w ill y ta r t p rim a ry sch o o l On/ September. O n the/ o th er h a n d , I like/ my uncle/ very much/ a n d / the/ work/ in/ h iy tr a v e l comparyy w ill be/ Ontere&tvng'. I w ould/ have/ t o arrasnge/ to u ry a n d / aexomjmodxttion/ for foreign/ to u risty w h o are/ visitin g' the/ Philippiney. Also, I could/ be/ n e a r my p a re n ty if I sta y in/ Manila/. They are/ very old/ nxyw a n d / in
pom " h ea lth . H owever, I h ave/ t o th in k/ a b o u t the/ future/ o f m y

ch ildren / too. W h a t Oy b est fo r theAW? W h a t s h a ll I do?

A friend is thinking of moving to Australia to work. He/she is planning to go either to Canberra or to Sydney. W rite a paragraph for your friend comparing the tw o cities. Use the information in the table. Add your own ideas and suggestions.

Canberra
Description

Sydney
Largest city in Australia, m ajor port, the main industrial and com m ercial centre, beautiful ha rbo ur and beaches South East A ustralia - located on Pacific coast M ild w in te rs and w arm sum m ers

Small m odern city, capital of A ustralia, governm ent the main em ployer, som e light industry and tou rism

Location

South East A ustralia - inland, located on a river in an agricultural area Cold and w et w inte rs (som etim es snow) - w arm and dry sum m ers O ver 300,000

Climate

Population

Over 3.5 m illio n

73

Read the paragraphs comparing e-mail and letters on page 63 again. N ow w rite a paragraph in your notebook to compare the telephone w ith e-mail or letters. Use comparatives and superlatives.

W rite a paragraph in your notebook to compare the city, tow n or village you live in with the w ay it was in the past. How is the place different? Which things are better? Which things are worse? Use comparatives and superlatives. Use this checklist to edit your writing in Exercises 22-25.

CHECKLIST
H ow m any sentences are there? H ow m any fu ll stops (.) are there? Does every sentence begin w ith a capital letter?
_

22

Exercise 23 24

25

Does every sentence have a verb? Have you checked yo u r spelling? Can you make y o u r w ritin g better?

JE d itin g _____________________________________
Read this paragraph comparing tw o buildings. It is part of a report for a company that wants to rent a new building for offices. Find 15 mistakes in grammar and spelling. Then w rite the paragraph out in full in your notebook.

There/ ewe/ tw o Iw u ldin g^ which/ th e y are/ zu tta h el/ fo r the/ co m p a n y. One/ iy a/ b u ild in g / c a lle d / Pconorcuno/ Houze. I t lo c a te d / cloze/ t o the/ c ity cen tre/ in/ S ta tio n / Hoad/. The/ to ta l/ a re a / iy l,3 5 0 zq wv. I t h a & fao flo o ry a n d / a/ ym alL reception / area/. Ther a r e zuo to ile ty a n d / a/ ywiaXL kitchen/, fro m / t h e zvxth flo o r th e r e ew e lo vly view y o f t h e city. T h e zecon d/ poyyibiU ty iy a/ b ild in g / c a lle d / Park/ Man&ioriy, w h ic h i t iy m u c h la r g e r t h e n P a n o ra m a / Hoaze. I t hcuy e ig h t floorey. T h e reception / a re a / iy bifyer to o , w ic h i t iy very im p o r tc in t fo r t h e co m p a n y. U n fo rtu n a te ly t h e r e n t iy m o r e ex p en ziver th a n / t h e r e n t fo r P a n o ra m a / Hoaze. I t iy $ 6,000 p e r m o n th , whereby t h e r e n t fo r P a n o ra m a / Hou^e/ iy o n ly $ 5,000. T h e lo c a t io n iy le&y c o n v e n ie n t to o . P a n o ra m a / Hou&e iy m o r e clo ser t o t h e c ity cen tre.

r e e

r i t i n g

d i t i n g

o c a b u l a r y

u i l d i n g

Read this paragraph which someone w rote for an encyclopaedia. There are no mistakes but the style is wrong. W rite it in a less personal and more formal style in your notebook. The first tw o examples of bad style are underlined.

F to werin g p la n tj
There are lots of different types of plants, like ferns, conifers and angiosperms. The largest group of plants are angiosperms, which we also call flowering plants. Flowering plants produce flowers which produce seeds and fruit. Well, we can divide flowering plants into two more types. We call these monocots and dicots. The monocot, which, by the way, means 'one seed-leaf, has got long narrow leaves. The veins in the leaves all go in the same direction. An example of one of these is the palm tree. O n the other hand, the dicot (that s 'two seed-leaf) has got broader leaves.

The veins are different too. T heres a main vein and then there are little veins branching off. A tomato plant is an example of a dicot. You can see these two kinds of angiosperm in the picture.

__V o cab u lary building ________________________


R egular ad jectives
Complete this table. Make sure you spell the comparatives and superlatives correctly.

superlative
coid hot big w et c o ld e r th e / c o ld e s t they h o t t e s t nice heavy dry easy

comparative

Irre g u lar ad jectives


Complete this table w ith the correct form. good bad m uch/m any morey they b e ^ t they I e a t t little old o ld e r

comparative superlative

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Complete these facts w ith superlatives and the names in this list. Use your notebook. Al Azziziyah Indonesia Baikal A ntarctica Nile Venezuela

a. L a ke ______ in Siberia is the w o r ld 's _______ lake. It is m ore than 1,600m deep. b. T h e ______ river in the w o rld is t h e _______ . c . _______ is the country w ith the _ _ _ _ _ num ber o f islands. There are m ore than 13,000, d. T h e ______ w ate rfall in the w o rld is Angel Falls i n _______. It is 978m in height. e. T h e ______ place on earth i s _______ . The average tem peratu re is -57.8C. f. ______ in Libya is th e _______ place on earth. A tem perature of 58C was recorded there.

Look at the questions below. The missing words are all long adjectives found in this unit. W rite the answers in the puzzle below and find the vertical word. It is also an adjective.
a. I th in k th e course at H arvard U n iv e rs ity is the m o s t_____fo r you. b. T his a rm c h a ir is m uch m o r e _____th an th a t w o o d e n chair. c. The w e a th e r i s _____at the m o m e n t. It's n o t to o hot and not to o cold. d. I th in k letters are m o r e _____th an e-m ails. e. T h at book w as v e r y ____ . I'd like to read it again. f. W h y d o n 't yo u learn Spanish. It's le s s _____than Germ an. g. I like m y old car, but it's not v e r y _____. h. The ch ild re n said th a t th e y 'd e njoyed S ta r Wars. It w as v e r y _____. i. Einstein w as one o f th e m ost ____ people w h o has ever lived.

t
a. b. c. d. e. f.

gh.

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Describing changes
Looking a t te x t
Julia is writing about her college. Read the paragraph and complete the graph below. It shows the number of students in the college.

I have been studying at the New International College in Silver Springs, central Australia, for three years. I am a student in the Science faculty, and I study maths, chemistry and physics. T he college, which was built in 1995, is situated in a desert area about 15km from the town. Since it was opened, the college has grown rapidly and now is one of the biggest in Australia. In 1995 there were only 500 students, who came from central Australia, and there were three faculties - Law, Science and Humanities. In 1997 the number of students increased to 3,000 and two new facilities opened, Education and Business. Now the college has more than 12,000 students, who come from many different countries, and the number of faculties has increased to eight. T he college has also become more attractive during this time. Because the campus had no trees or gardens in the early days, it used to be very dry and dusty7 However, now there are gardens . everywhere with fountains, flowers and hundreds of trees. We also have good sports facilities. At the moment the authorities are building a new swimming pool.

15,000

(I)
10,000

N ew I n t e r n a t io n a l C ollege Student Numbers

5,000

1995

1997

1999 YEAR

Now

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Answer these questions. a. W hen was the college o p e n e d ? _____________________ b. W here did the firs t students com e fro m ? ____________ c. W here do they com e fro m n o w ? ___________________ d. W hy was the cam pus dry and dusty in the early days?

e. W hy is the cam pus m ore attractive now?

a. Hizo has been studying at the college fo r six years. b. The students have been w o rkin g hard fo r the past m onth. c. O ur city has changed a lot since I was a boy. d. M cDuncan's has b u ilt five new restaurants since 1998. i ~ W hen w e describe a period w hich continues fro m past to present w e often use these verb form s: have/has + ...~ e d (has changed, have studied, etc.) ha ve/h as + been + ...~ in g (has been stu d yin g , have been w o rkin g , etc.) We often use these verbs w ith fo r (fo r s ix m onths, fo r ten m inutes, fo r ages) and since (since 1999, since Tuesday, since I was little).

Look at Julia's paragraph again. a. Find p a st to presen t verbs in Julia's paragraph and underline them . H ow m any are th e re ? __________ b. Find a clause beginning w ith since and underline it. c. U nderline w hich and w ho clauses. H ow m any are th e re ? __________ d. Find the phrase used to be and un derline it. e. C om plete th is sentence w ith y o u r ow n w ords:

When/1 wat- ICttle/1 u&ed/ to-________________________________

o o k i n g

e x t

Read this paragraph about computers.

ifty years ago computers were so big that they filled a room. Nowadays they are placed on desks, carried in the pocket or even fitted into tiny instruments such as watches. They have been getting smaller and smaller because of improved technology. They have also been getting cheaper, which means that more people are able to own one. At the same time computers have also been getting more powerful. The first computers could do just a few calculations in a second, whereas a modern microcomputer can do

millions // in a second. The first computer // able to store a programme, was built at Manchester University in 1948. This was a huge mainframe computer. In 1960 the tiny silicon chip was invented, and because of this it became possible to build much smaller and faster computers. In 1981 IBM introduced the first desktop microcomputer, the PC (personal computer). Since then sales // have risen dramatically. Almost every office desk now has its own PC, which is the most widely-used type of computer in the world.

a. Put these inventions in the correct order. ___the silicon chip the desktop PC the m ainfram e com pute r

b. C om plete th is sentence: For the last fifty years com puters have been g e ttin g ______________ , _________ and m o re ______________ .

Look at the paragraph about computers again. a. W hat do the underlined w o rd s refer to? th e y ____________________ this o n e ____________________ then ___________

b. Look fo r this sym bol // in the paragraph above. Decide where to add the follow ing words. w hich w as of com puters of calculations

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---------------------------------------------- ------------------------------------------------

Read about coffee production in Palania and complete the graph.

The graph shows coffee production in Palania from 1985 up to the present day. During this period production levels have fluctuated greatly. In 1985 the total was 100,000 tonnes. This total increased steadily and reached a total of 150,000 tonnes in 1990. In 1991, however, there was a severe hurricane in the region, which destroyed m any of the trees. Because of this, coffee production fell sharply that year to 120,000 tonnes. The following year production went up again, and by 1995 it reached 180,000 tonnes. However,

in 1996 there was a collapse in the world coffee price. Too many countries were producing too much coffee and this caused the price to fall. As a result, many of the trees had to be destroyed in order to stop over-production of coffee. Production dropped to just under 100,000 tonnes in 1996 and remained at that level for the next two years. For the last few years, however, production has been increasing rapidly and the present total is just over 200,000 tonnes. The prospects for coffee production in the future are very good.

C o f fe e P r o d u c t io n In Palania

200,000

V )
I

150,000

o 100,000- f Q O cc
C L L U L U L L

50,000

o o

L i.

1985

1990

1995
YEAR

2000

Language: tim e
1) A point of tim e in the past (past simple) 2) A period in the past, now finished (past continuous) 3) A period starting in the past and continuing till now (presentperfect/ present perfect continuous)
(D

< /> (B 3

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L ooking

A t

T ext

S entence

B uilding

Match the tim e diagram s w ith these six sentences. _ a. Since 1981 sales o f com puters have risen d ra m a tic a lly ._ b. C om puters have been getting sm aller and s m a lle r._ _ c. In 1991 there was a severe hurricane in the re g io n ._ _ d. The cam pus has become m ore attractive during this tim e ._ _ e. Too m any countries w ere producing too much coffee th ro u g h o u t 1996._ _ f. This total increased steadily and reached a total o f 150,000 tonnes in 1990.

Read about coffee production again. Find examples of time types 1-3 and write them below. 1) ___________________________________________________________________
2 ) _______________________________________________________________________

3 ) _______________________________________________________________

S en ten ce building
Put these words in the correct order. Then w rite the sentences in the table. They all describe past to present time. a. since / bank / Felix / w orkin g / has / a / in / 1999 / been b. six o'clock / w ashing / th e ir / have / the boys / car / been / since c. girl / Sarah / little / she / a / since / known / 1/ was / have d. m any / fa m ily / kept / fo r / horses / have / years / my e. has / m inutes / bus / fo r / fo r I a I tw e n ty / A ndy / w aiting / been f. centuries / grow n / the valley / people / rice / fo r / have / in Who?/What? C cw lo y Coffee/ prodAACticnv Verb Kcvybeevv tfc u d y in fy hovy g o n e d o w n What?/Where?/How? a t t h e c o lle g e / r a p id ly since + When trvnce h M t y e a r bvnoe th e / h u r r u x v n e d e s tro y e d y o m a n y tre e s

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Who?/What?

Verb

What?/Where?/How?

for + How long

Ma r ia / f a ttm o / a n d / h e r fa m ily

Kafr been/ working^ have/ lived /

a t U n ited / Cowvieticy in/ Ca^aMarvca/

fo r

rn on th y

fo r two- y e a r y

W rite sentences like those in Exercise 8. W rite tw o w ith since and tw o w ith for.

SALES
United Cosmetics

Jan

Feb

Mar

Apr

May

June

July

Aug

Sept

Oct

a. OU/pradAActum/______________________________________________ b. We/_____________________________________________ c. A n n ie/______________________________________________ d. Sal&y______________________________________________


> W rite four sentences in your notebook about yourself or people you know. Use past to present verbs w ith for and since.

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Joining ideas
Language: because clauses
A because clause tells us why something happened. It can come at beginning or the end of a sentence.

First part of the sentence


The cam pus was dry and dusty in the early days I I

Because clause
because it had no trees o r gardens.

Because clause
Because it had no trees o r gardens,

Last part of the sentence


the cam pus w as dry and dusty in the early days.

Match these sentences. Then join each pair to make one sentence and w rite the sentences in your notebook. Use because. 1) Keiko is stud ying business studies, English and com puting. 2) Coffee production fell dram a tically last year. 3) M ore and m ore people are buying com puters. 4) Nina co u ld n 't com e to the birthda y party yesterday. 5) The g o vern m en t is bu ild in g ten new schools. 6) Boris has been tryin g to save m oney fo r the last six m onths. a. They are becom ing cheaper and cheaper. b. She was taking an exam ination at the college. c. He w ants to go on holiday to San Francisco in the sum m er. d. M any trees w ere destroyed by bad weather. e. The po pulation of the cou ntry has been increasing rapidly in recent years f. She w ants to w o rk fo r a large m u ltin a tio n a l com pany.

<&

Complete these sentences w ith because clauses. W rite the sentences out in full in your notebook. a. The road throug h the m ountains has been closed fo r tw o days ... b. Elena got excellent marks in the exam ination ... c. A li co u ld n 't watch the film on television yesterday ... d. Hari has been w o rkin g very hard since the beginning o f the year ... e. The price of bananas has gone up recently ... 83

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>

Language: be cause o f th is /a s a re s u lt
We can also use the connectors because o f th is and as a re s u lt to link tw o sentences:

Paulo left the gate open w hen he w ent out. Paulo left the gate open w hen he w e n t out. Paulo left the gate open w hen he w e n t out. Because of this, the sheep ate As a result, the sheep ate all o f all o f his vegetables. his vegetables.

Read the paragraph about coffee production on page 80 again. Find tw o sentences beginning w ith because o f th is and as a result. W rite them in your notebook.

Clauses
In the table below are some of the clauses w e have studied in B e tte r W riting. Add these parts of sentences to the table. a. w e decided to cancel the trip to Star Island, c. w e decided to make the trip to Star Island. e. you can make a phone call fro m anyw here, b. the juice is extracted fro m the fru it. d. m any new trees had to be planted. f. there w ere on ly 500 students and three faculties.

Clause When/ the/ ccrtlege/ opened/, A y the/ m achine* ypCrvy arou n d/, Ikv o r d e r t o Vnx^rewse coffee/ produ ction /, I f y o u h u v e g o t a/ m obile' phone/, A lth o u g h / the/ w e a th e r w a y bad/, H eaau se t h e w e a th e r wc^y bud/,

Last part of the sentence

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Remember who and which clauses? Look at the who and which clauses in these tw o sentences. They are non-defining (they just give extra information). The college, w hich was b u ilt in 1995, is situated in a desert area about 15km fro m the city. N o w the college has m ore than 12,000 students, who come from m any different countries. Complete these sentences w ith who or which clauses a. The m athem atics teacher, w h o ___________________ at the college since 1995. b. The Giza pyram ids, w h ic h _______________________ fro m all over the w o rld . c. Nelson M andela, w h o ___________________________ d. I received a letter fro m a frie nd o f m ine called Mike, w ho ., retired in 1999. are po pula r w ith tou rists ., has been teaching

e. Last sum m er m y fa m ily visited Istanbul, w hich f. H um m us, w h ic h ___________________________ _ is quite easy to prepare. ,

Language: reduced clauses

The car which is parked near the tree belongs to m y cousin. The car parked near the tree belongs to m y cousin. The w ord s which is are o m itted in the second sentence. There is no difference in m eaning.

The man who is in charge of the factory is called Peter Yu. The man in charge of the factory is called Peter Yu. The w o rd s who is are o m itted in the second sentence. There is no difference in m eaning.

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---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Reduce these defining clauses. W rite the sentences out in full in your notebook. a. The firs t co m p u te r w hich was able to store a program was b u ilt at M anchester U niversity in 1948. b. The man w h o is w earing a brow n jacket is a ch e m istry professor. c. The tall to w e r th a t is b u ilt like a rocket is the H oliday Hotel. d. The president is the short, fat man w ho is speaking to the old lady. e. The co u n try th a t is m ost fam ous fo r g ro w in g coffee is Brazil. f. Andrea Bocelli is a blind Italian singer w ho is know n fo r his w o n d e rfu l voice.

,__T P u n ctu atio n _______________________________


Rewrite this paragraph about changes in aeroplanes. Add capital letters, full stops and commas where necessary. Then w rite the paragraph out in full in your notebook.

ixeroplan e& have/ been/ g e ttin g ' b ig g e r a n d / fd y te r o v e r the/ y e a r y the/ fir y t m o d ern / a e ro p la n e / w u y the/ bo ein g / 2^7 w hich/ wajy in t r o d u c e d i n 1933 i t h a d / room / fo r 10 p a ^ e n g e r y dotring/ the/ s e c o n d w orld/ w a r the/ j e t en g in e/ wwy d evelo p ed / the/ fir y t j e t a ir lin e r which/ w u y c a lle d / the/ c o m e t yta rted / service/ i n 1952 i t h a d / fo u r j e t e n g ln e y a n d co u ld / fly a t 8 8 5 k p h la t e r in/ 1958 parv a m e r ic a n / a lr lin e y in tro d M c e d the/ boeing* 707 which/ c o u ld c a rr y 112 p a ^ e n g e r y beeaAA&e/ o f the/ p o w e rfu l e n g in e s the/ p la n e/ wcvy a b le t o croyy the/ a tX a n tio from / new y o r h t o Io n don / i n Ie^y t h a n e ig h t h o u ry w hich/ wajy h a lf the/ tim e/ o f the/ o l d p ro p e lle r a ir c r a f t

__B e tte r p a ra g r a p h s _________________________


S ty le
Read Sarah's letter on page 87. a. Add the clauses fro m the list below. Then w rite the letter o u t in fu ll in y o u r notebook. 1) if I needed help 3) because I was late fo r class 5) w hich has been rather boring 7) w ho 's not w o rkin g at the m o m en t 2) w h o is a frie nd o f m y father's 4) if it's not to o hot 6) w hich is ju s t outside m y bedroom w in d o w 8) As I was running do w n the stairs fro m the firs t flo o r to the ground flo o r

b. W hat style do you th in k the letter is in? W hy do you th in k so? Find three th in g s tha t are typical o f tha t style. 86

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V e a r E le w , I'm / w ritin g ' le tte r to- you / from / m y bed/. I broke/ m y leg/ b a d ly th ree/ w eek s a g o on/ the/ s ta ir s i n the/ college/. I was' in/ a/ h u rry. I slipped/ a n d fell/ t o t h e bottom/. I f e l t a/ te r r ib le p a i n in/ m y le f t leg* a n d 1 c o u ld n t m ove. A t t h e h o sp ita l/ t h e d o c to r t o l d m e t h a t m y leg' wcvy broken/. A fter resettin g ' m y legp i n p la ster, h e scud/ t h a t I s h o u ld r e s t a t h o m e fo r a t lecvst a/ m o n th a n d th en / c o m e bcuzk/ t o s e e h im . H e t o l d m e t o p h o n e him/. Since/ t h e n I v e b e e n a t hom e. I v e b e e n g e ttin g ' b e tte r b i t by bit. I v e b e e n r e a d in g ' b o o k s a n d m ugasfrines a n d w a tc h in g / TV, b u t I c a n t w a i t u n til/1 c a n w alk/ a g a in . S o m e tim e s I s i t i n t h e g a r d e n . My o ld e r siste r hcvs b e e n lo o k in g / a fte r me. Shes b e e n wonderfulA P iew se w r ite a n d l e t m e kn ow y o u r news! B e st wishes, S arah /
' *

HB j

O rg anization
Put these sentences in the correct order (the first and last sentences are already in position). Then w rite the paragraph out in full in your notebook. I. In 1985 the amount of raw sugar produced in Azaria was 6.5 million tonnes. a. Then, in 1995, there w as a very poor sugar harvest due to very dry conditions all th ro u g h the year. b. Since then there has been plenty o f rainfall every year but production has not risen greatly. c. It rem ained at this lo w level fo r the next three years as the w a r continued. d. This total made the cou ntry one of the largest producers of sugar in the w orld . e. Farm w orkers w ere needed in the arm y and as a result sugar production fell sharply to less than 3 m illio n tonnes. f. However, at the end o f the war, in 1989, production started to im prove steadily. g. It reached 5.5 m illion tonnes in 1992 and stayed at this high level for the next tw o years. h. Crops in m any areas died because o f a lack o f w ate r and as a result production fell to ju s t under 4 m illio n tonnes. i. However, in the fo llo w in g year, 1986, a w a r began w ith the Pandoran Republic. I I . It has been fluctuating around the 4.5 million tonnes level. 87

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C onnecting w o rd s
Read this passage about shopping. Add these connecting words and phrases: how ever also since although because w hich because o f th is w hereas w hich but

In the past shopping was a social occasion. People used to go to th e ir local m arket not o n ly to buy foo d and oth er goods, (a)________ also to fin d o u t w h a t was going on in th e ir com m un ity. Each shop or m arket stall sold a pa rticula r product - fru it, vegetables, meat, perfum es, soap, cloth, etc. (b)_______ _ _ a shopping trip to o k a long tim e. People w e n t fro m shop to shop chatting w ith the shopkeeper and discussing everything fro m prices to politics. (c)______ , in the 1950s and 1960s there w ere great changes in the lifestyles of m any people. M ore and m ore people had a refrigerator, (d)___________ m eant it was possible to store fresh foo d at home. M ore and m ore people w ere (e)________ able to afford cars, (f)______ then shops have increased in size and have becom e m ore and m ore centralized, (g)_______ in the past w e bought th in g s fro m m any d iffe ren t shopkeepers, w e now shop in large departm ent stores, superm arkets and shopping m alls, (h)______ sell everything under one roof. We no longer have to w o rry about the weather. People drive to these centres and load up th e ir cars w ith goods, (i)________ people have re frigerators and freezers, they can buy all the foo d the y need fo r weeks. (j)___________ shopping has becom e easier and m ore pleasant, it has also becom e less personal. It is now possible to buy everything you need in a superm arket o r departm ent store w ith o u t chatting to anyone.

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Free w ritin g
Describe the place where you are studying. When was it opened? How many students w ere there when it first opened? How many students are there now? W hat other changes are there? W hat other changes have there been?

Look at this graph. It shows coffee production in South Abelia since 1990. W rite a paragraph in your notebook to describe the graph.

200,000
150,000
............ \ \ \ Nevvtrees plan ed ... / , i

4
f r"'

jA 4p
______________

50,000

.............. W "

.I

I
Cold weath er

... /

1990

1995

2000

Now

Read the passage about computers on page 79 again. N ow look at this information about the changes in cars since 1907. W rite a paragraph in your notebook to describe the changes.

Cars
1907 1938 1950s 1970s Since 1970s Now First cheap car - the M odel T Volkswagen Beetle - very popular Bigger and bigger cars (e.g. Cadillac) Increase in fuel costs Smaller, m ore econom ical cars 400 m illio n in the w o rld Cars are m ore com fortable, faster, safer and m ore econom ical

W rite a letter to a friend. Describe something that has happened to you recently. Describe the changes it has made to your life. (For example you have a new job, you have moved to a new house or flat, you have started a new course of study, etc.) Use your notebook. 89

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Use this checklist to edit your writing in Exercises 21-24. H ow m any sentences are there? H ow m any fu ll stops (.) are there? Does every sentence begin w ith a capital letter? Does every sentence have a verb? Have you checked y o u r spelling? Can you make y o u r w ritin g better? Exercise 22 23

21

24

__E d itin g ______ _____________________________


Read this paragraph about global warm ing. It is part of an essay. a. Correct spelling and gram m atical mistakes. There are 12 mistakes. b. Make the paragraph easier to read. Use connectors and clauses to jo in the ideas. W rite the paragraph o u t in fu ll in y o u r notebook.

Globed/ w a rm in g / iy caused/ by a n / increse/ i n t h e am x yu n t o f ca rb o n / dloyu de/ ( n the/ E a rth y a tm o y p h e r e C arbon/ d i o x i d e are/ p ro d u c e d / n a tu r a lly by v e g e ta tio n . I t Cy im p o r ta n t p a r t o f the/ atmxyyphere. I t trccpy the/ yu n y h e a t. I t w o r m y the/ surface/ o f the/ E arth. N o rm a lly th ere/ iy a/ b a la n c e / betw een/ the/ g a se y in/ the/ atm o yp h er. In/ r e c e n t y e a r y the/ a m o u n t o f c a r b o n d i o x i d e hcty w e n t up. T hiy iy becuase/ o f the/ b u r n i n g o f foysH fu e ly a n d / the/ d e stru c tio n / o f foreyty. The/ tennperature/ o f the/ E a rth y surface/ have/ b e e n g o in g / up. These/ h a s m e a n t c h a n g e s i n E a rth y clim ate/. M an y p a r ty o f the/ w orld/ are/ b e c o m in g > h o te r a n d / d rie r. O th e r p a r ty a r e ex p erien cin g / m o r e yto rm y a n d / rain fall/. Sea/ le v e l i t has* also- b e e n ria sin g k T hiy iy becctuse/ the/ p o la r ic e -c a p y h a v e b e e n m e ltin g > .

90

r e e

r i t i n g

d i t i n g

o c a b u l a r y

u i l d i n g

_ V o cab u lary b u ild in g __________________


Describing change
Divide these verbs into tw o groups: verbs which mean the same as increase, and verbs which mean the same as decrease. W rite them in the lists below. go dow n go up fall g ro w im prove collapse rise drop

Faculties and subjects


Find the names of these subjects. a. C ______________ R Y d. H _______0 _____ f. M _________ M __________ S Add other subjects to the list. b. P ____________ S e . ________G R __________ g. C _____ P __________ S C ________ c. _ _ l 0

Find the names of these faculties. a. S _______________ d. A ____ S Add other faculties to the list. b. L _____ c. E D _

e. EN ____________________ G

91

n i t

i x

e s c r i b i n g

h a n g e s

Use these clues to complete the crossword below.


ACROSS 1. Aeroplanes have b e e n __bigger and faster. (7 letters) 5. Sarah has to re s t__her broken leg is better. (5) 7. In the past people shopped in m arkets.__ many people shop in departm ent stores and supermarkets. (8) 11. Superm arkets are very convenient fo r shoppers. _ the other hand, they are less personal _ than markets. (2) 12. The w ay out o f a room or building is t h e _ . (4) _ 13. A fter picking, dates a re _ in the sun. (5) _ 16. J e ric h o ,___is the oldest city in the w o rld , is situated in the Jordan valley. (5) 18. W hat w ill happen to the price o f oil next year? W ill it r is e _ w ill it fall? (2) _ 19.M y cousin has been in secondary s c h o o l_ tw o _ years. (3) 20. I've b e e n _to save m oney since the beginning of the semester. (6) 22. The university a u th o ritie s ___building a new library on the campus. (3) 24. Com puters have become sm aller and m ore pow erful. They h a v e ___ become cheaper. (4). 26. The Lucky Star Hotel, w hich has b e e n ___fo r three m onths, is going to open again on Saturday. (6) 28. The population is rising ra p id ly ._ a result, several m ore schools w ill be needed in the future. (2) _ _ 29. Because there w e r e _ trees or gardens, the campus was very dusty. (2) _ 30. "Are you going to feed the sheep?' 'N o, I _ them half an hour a g o / (3) DOWN 1. Production o f raw sugar h a s _ dow n steadily since 1989. (4) _ _ 2. Is that the d re s s _ you w a nt to buy? (4) 3. M odern com puters can do m illio ns o f ca lcu la tio n s _ a second. (2) _ 4. Sarah has been feeling b o re d _ she broke her leg. (5) _ 5. W e _ to go to the coast every sum m er but now we stay at home. (4) _ 6. In o rd e r_ stop over-production o f coffee, m any trees had to be destroyed. (2) _ 8. _ is another name fo r a cow or bull. (2) _ 9. The cam pus is very a ttra c tiv e ,_ m any trees, flow ers and fountains. (4) _ 10. the w eather forecast was rather bad, we decided to go on a picnic. (8) 8 m illion tonnes to 6.5 m illion. (7) 14. If global w arm ing continues, sea levels w i l l _ all over the w orld. (8) _ 15. From 1996-1999 the production of c o ffe e _ from _ 16. Bom bay is a port on the Indian O cean,_ Delhi is _ 19. S a ra h ___dow n som e stairs and broke her leg. (4) 21. A lm ost every office desk h a s ___ own PC. (3) 23. This colour means ' d a n g e r (3) 25. Last sum m er w e w e n t___ holiday to Sweden. (2) 27. Tokyo is o n e ___the biggest cities in the w orld. (2) located inland hundreds o f m iles fro m the coast. (7)
7 8 9 1 2

12

17. S in c e _ was opened, the college has grow n rapidly. (2) _

92

To th e te a c h e r
W hile Better W riting includes a lot of w o rk at the sentence level, the main focus is on the paragraph. Students m ove on fro m accuracy to w ritin g fluency, and fro m mechanical skills (capitalization, spelling, punctuation) to the skills required to w rite longer stretches o f text. The aim is make students aware of w h a t 'b e tte r' w ritin g involves: th a t is, w ritin g w hich is m ore cohesive, better organized, m ore appropriate to the reader and easier to read - as w ell as w ritin g w hich is m ore accurate.

Punctuation: Exercises in this section focus on the


use o f capital letters, com m as, fu ll stops, speech marks, apostrophes, etc.

Better Paragraphs: Guided activities focus on the organization and cohesion o f paragraphs. Free Writing: In this section students use the paragraphs
in Looking at text as models to write their own texts. Notes, diagrams and pictures are used to give students guidance.

Editing: Students develop the habit of checking their

H ow is g ram m ar approached?
Though th is book is not a gra m m ar course, item s of gram m ar are dealt w ith where appropriate. The range o f gram m atical structures used includes the present passive, reported speech fo rm s and the present and past perfect tenses. G ram m atical te rm in o lo g y is kept to a m in im u m . The structure o f a sentence is explained as far as possible through a sim plifie d teaching gram m ar, using term s such as W ho ? How? W hich? What? and When? Students are, however, expected to be fam iliar w ith basic grammatical term s such as adjective, noun, verb, clause, passive and past participle.

written work through editing exercises which focus not only on spelling, gram m ar and punctuation, but also on how clauses and connectors can be used to im prove writing.

Build your vocabulary: A variety of activities are used to review the vocabulary areas o f the unit. Students
im prove th e ir vocabulary-learning techniques by a) organizing w ords into content areas, b) using illustrations to facilitate learning and c) learning collocations o f new words.

H ow should th e course be taught?


This depends on the students and teacher. Four d ifferent approaches are possible: 1 . Teacher led: The class is kept at roughly the same point in the course. The teacher introduces each section of the unit and checks progress. 2. Group work: In a m ulti-level class students can be divided into sm all groups according to w ritin g ability. Groups w ork through the units together. The teacher can then give greater attention to weaker students. 3. Individual work: Students w ork through the book

W h at is the sequence through a unit?


Each un it fo llo w s a sim ilar form at, starting fro m a Looking a t te xt section focusing on how specific language item s are being used in context, th ro u g h to a Free w riting section towards the end of the unit, where students produce th e ir own paragraphs. In between, there are a num ber o f activities w here students are asked to m anipulate language, rearrange sentences, or com plete guided paragraphs.

The main steps follow ed through each unit are:


Looking a t text: This section contains a num ber of
reading texts w hich illustrate the functiona l area of the unit and serve as a model fo r later free w ritin g . The activities based on the texts are designed to raise the student's awareness of features w ith in them , w heth er language structures or organizational and cohesive features.

at their ow n pace. The teacher m onitors progress and checks w ork during the lesson. However, it is recom m ended that this approach is adopted only w hen students are fa m ilia r w ith the structure of the units. 4. A combination o f the above methods

Should students w rite in th e book?


Gap-fill exercises can be com pleted in the book if this is acceptable, but fo r the sake of clarity and encouraging good w ritin g habits, sentence and paragraph w ritin g should be done in notebooks or, where available, on the com puter. W riting can also be produced on single sheets or posters fo r w all displays on them es such as How things work, How things are made or Comparison (of cities, countries etc.).

Sentence building: Tables are used to make the


structure of sentences clear. Students are asked to reorder w ords in sentences and to com plete tables.

Joining ideas: Here the focus is m ainly on the use of


clauses to jo in ideas and shorter sentences in order to produce m ore cohesive w ritin g .

93

A n s w e r key
Unit One
2. b) 's = has, 've = have w id e -w id th , h ig h -h e ig h t, th ic k -th ic k n e s s b) consists o f c) are w hite, are blue c) is, is sm all d) are used fo r they are made o f plastic or glass. In our house we keep it in the dining ro o m . It's a table. 24. Suggested answer: M y friend Yi has got a new radio. He bought it a fe w days ago. It is black w ith a red handle. Yi likes the radio very much. It is very lig h t and so he can take it everyw here. He takes the radio w ith him w hen he has a shower. (When he has a shower, he takes the radio w ith him.) 25. not very big, quite big, big, very big 26. a) black f) green b) w h ite g) pink c) blue d) red e) ye llo w

4.

5. a) D
6.

a) Our boat has got a sm all engine at the back. b) M y CD player has got tw o speakers at the sides. c) These shirts have got tw o pockets at the front. m iddle, b) The camera (This camera) has g o t a vie w fin d e r on the top. c) The buses (These buses) have got advertisem ents on the side.

7. a) The Japanese flag has got a red circle in the

8.

a) There is a red circle in the m iddle o f the Japanese flag, b) There is a v ie w fin d e r on the to p of the camera, c) There are advertisements on the side of the buses. a) A credit card is made of plastic. It is used fo r paying fo r goods and services, b) A knife is made o f metal. It is used fo r cutting things. c) Envelopes are made o f paper. They are used fo r sending letters, d) Tyres are made o f rubber. They are used fo r covering wheels. pow er steering, b) The watch is oval w ith silver hands and a gold strap, c) The phone is small w ith large, lum inous numbers, d) The boat is green w ith a w hite mast and a red sail.

29. not very good, quite good, good, very good

9.

10. a) The jeep is new w ith tin ted w in d o w s and

12 . I - use - the phone - when I go shopping. M y brother - uses - the car - w hen he goes cam ping in the desert.

14. a) W hen visito rs com e to Kuwait, - they should


take a trip to Kuw ait Towers, b) W hen you go up in the lift, you can see the w ho le o f Kuwait.

Unit Two
3. 6. d) this = a base station, there = the telephone exchange The verbs are: a) sw itch on b) leave c) press

15. It's g o t a m em ory* but it hasn't got a brain. It's


rectangular in shape and quite thin. It looks like a briefcase and is about the same size. It's very easy to carry as it is made m ostly of plastic and only w eighs about 5kg. W hen you open the lid* you find a screen and a keyboard inside. People use these m achines w hen they are travelling^ W hat is it? a) 7 sentences b) laptop com puter c) It d) w hen i) w hen j) it e) There f) so

7.

a) Passive verbs: is made, is guaranteed, m ust be washed, should be peeled and cut, is sw itched on, are pushed, is separated, is collected b) 1 - E (washed), 2 - A (peeled), 3 - D (cut), 4 - B (switched on), 5 - F (pushed), 6 - C (collected)

17. a) and
g) g o t

b) w ith h) also

8. 9.

18. a) horse

b) made c) rectangular d) long e) w ide f) thickness g) height h) w eighs i) There j) got k) shield

c) rem ove the lid, clean out the container, rem ove the jug, pour the juice a) Two R6 batteries - are inserted - into the com partm ent, b) A CD - is placed - on the CD tray, c) The lid - m ust be closed - firm ly. d) Headphones - are fitte d - to the fro n t o f the CD player, e) The headphones - are placed - over the ears, f) The 'p la y' button - is pressed, g) The volum e - can be adjusted - as required.

23. It has got fo u r legs, but it can't walk. It is rectangular


in shape and there is a leg at each corner. It measures about a m etre in height. The to p is 1.8m long and 70cm wide and has a thickness of 4cm. Ours is made o f w oo d , but som etim es

10. a) Insert tw o R6 batteries into the com partm ent, b) Place a CD on the CD tray, c) Close the lid firm ly, d) Fit the headphones to the fro n t of the CD player, e) Place the headphones over the ears, f) Press the 'p la y ' button, g) A djust the volum e as required. 11. a) Singapore is linked to Malaysia by a causeway, b) Trees and bushes are planted along the sides of the road, c) The fax m achine is connected to a telephone point, d) The garage d o o r is opened by a rem ote control unit. 12. a) The vegetables are peeled and cut into sm all pieces, b) The signal is sent to an aerial and then transm itted to a telephone exchange, c) The phone is made o f plastic and the case made o f leather, d The outgoing message is recorded and the m achine switched on. 15. Possible answers: a) enter the bank b) leave the house c) have any d ifficu ltie s w ith th e ir bookings d) board the bus e) feel ill 17. a) The books belong to one student, b) The books belong to more than one student, c) The secretary is ill. d) The secretary has g ot a fever. 18. a) The dog's g ot some bad cuts on its leg. b) I'm afraid the radio's broken, c) No change, d) It's situated at the top o f a hill, e) There's a flag at the top o f the building, f) No change. g) The m achine's switched o ff at the m om ent. h) Five teachers have th e ir desks in this room . It's called the teachers' room. 19. a) If the caller is in an underground car park. it m ay be im possible to use the m obile phone. b) W hen the tape is fu ll, no fu rth e r messages can be recorded on the answ ering machine. c) In order to avoid damage to the m achine, stones m ust be rem oved fro m fru it. d) Contact y o u r local dealer if you have problem s w ith your new te le v is io n . e) As the door closes, the lig h t inside the refrigerator goes off. f) In order to keep a com pact disc in good c o n d itio n , it should be kept in its cover. g) W hen som eone leaves a message on the answ ering m achine, a num ber appears in the display panel. h) The juice is separated from the pulp as the fru it is pushed into the feed tube. 20. (1) As air is draw n into the drier, it passes over the electric heater. (2) First o f all, in order to avoid electrocution, make sure yo u r hands are dry. (3) As you move the drier over yo u r hair, use y o u r styling brush to style y o u r hair. (4) Finally, w hen you r hair is dry, sw itch the m achine off.

21. a) is used fo r b) consists of c) and so d) are reflected e) If f) is placed g) begins h) In order to i) must be turned j) When k) avoid 22. Suggested order: 2 - f, 3 -g , 4 - b , 5 -h , 6 -d , 7 -a , 8 - i, 9 -c , 10-e. 26. W ater-wheels are a very old form of w ater power. They can be made o f w ood or metal. They are found in m any countries o f the w orld. For exam ple, the city o f Hama in Syria is fam ous fo r its 17 w ooden w ater-wheels. W ater-wheels are usually located on fast-flow ing rivers or streams. As the river flow s* the wheel is turned by the pow er of the water. The pow er is used to take water fro m the river fo r farm ing. 27. A com puter (it) is a very pow erful instrum ent. Some com puters are heavy and are placed on desks. Other com puters are quite sm all and can be carried in the pocket. A com puter has m any different uses. Inform ation is given to the com puter and a set of instructions, called a program m e. The com puter is told w hat to do by the program m e. A com puter (is) consists o f a m o n ito r w ith a screen, a keyboard, a disk drive, speakers and a mouse. The keyboard and the mouse are used fo r getting inform ation into the com puter. The 'o u tp u t' (it) is show n on a com puter screen. 30. b) aerial c) m ust d) cellular g) pulp h) adjust vertical w ord = Damascus e) lens f) collected

Unit Three
I. 7. 1 - E (soaked) 2 - F (drained) 3 - B (steamed) 4 - D (m ixed) 5 - C (poured) 6 - A (served) a) Hum m us - is made - by m ixing chickpeas and sesame-seed paste together. b) A message - is recorded - by speaking into the m icrophone. c) Drivers - are protected - by w earing th e ir seat-belts. a) boiling in a pan o f water, b) th ro w in g the dice, c) pressing a button, d) m ixing ye llo w and blue. Also comes after verbs like is and can. It comes before the main verb. a) They are also found in other parts of the w orld. b) They also grow naturally in the Am azon region o f Brazil, c) It can also be m oved by clicking the mouse, d) She also sings popular music. I I . a) Tehran, w hich is the capital of Iran, is located in the centre o f the country, b) Satay is a sim ple and delicious dish, w hich is popular th ro u g h o u t South East Asia. 13. There are tw o possible ways o f jo in in g each pair o f sentences, as is shown in a):

8. 9.

95

a) Indonesia, w hich consists of nearly 14,000 islands, has a popula tion of m ore than 200 m illion people, or Indonesia, w hich has a popula tion of m ore than 200 m illio n people, consists o f nearly 14,000 islands, b) Rubber, w hich needs a hot, hum id clim ate, is g row n in tropical countries such as Malaysia, c) The Panama canal, which connects the Pacific and A tlan tic Oceans, is ju s t over 64km long, d) A fax m achine, w hich w orks by sending printed m aterial th ro ug h telephone lines, is an im p o rta n t part o f a m odern office, e) The erhu, w hich is a Chinese in stru m en t rather like a W estern v io lin , has o n ly tw o strings. 14. a) An answering machine records messages, which can then be played back w hen you get home. b) M y brothe r has ju s t bough t a Nissan Patrol, w hich is one of the m ost popular four-w heel-drive vehicles in the w o rld , c) Last week w e visited Petra, w hich is the m ost fam ous historical site in Jordan, d) The surface o f the road is then sprayed w ith asphalt, w hich is a dark, sticky substance produced fro m petroleum , e) Strips of rubber are passed through rollers, w hich flatten the strips and produce thin sheets. 16. a) A lth ou g h fisherm en have the m oney to buy m odern boats, they often prefer to use the old w ooden ones, b) A lth o ug h the car is eight years old, it is in excellent condition, c) A lth ou gh Egypt has very low rainfall, m any crops can be grow n using irrigation, d) A lthough the com puter is quite pow erful, the m odem is rather slow, e) A ltho ug h it can be very cold in Hong Kong in the w inter, it never snows, f) A lthough those watches are very cheap, they are also very attractive, g) A lth ou g h som e perfum es are made in India, m ost are im ported fro m France. 18. a) A ltho u gh the suitcase is very large* it only w eighs 6kg. b) My new cassette player's got tw o tape decks* w hich is very useful fo r copying tapes. c) Buenos Aires* w hich is the capital of A rgentina* is situated on the River Plate,, d) Yoko sends e-m ail messages all the tim e* although she found com puters d iffic u lt to use at first* e) Last sum m er we fle w to Singapore on Qantas* w hich is an A ustralian airline, f) A ltho u gh Toyota is a Japanese com pany* Toyota cars are b u ilt in m any different countries, g) The carnival in Bio* w hich takes place in February every year* attracts th o u sands o f visito rs fro m all over the w o rld . h) A juice extractor can be used fo r m ost types of fru it and vegetables* although it is not very suitable fo r oranges and lem ons. 19. a) (1) First of all, (2) also (3) Next, (4) then (5) M eanw hile, (6) Finally, b) After 'blinis', ...' c) A fter 'caviar' at the end. 20. a) w hich b) A lth ou g h c) As e) in order to f) If g) w hich d) W hen h) until

21. The population of many areas of the w orld is grow ing rapidly. As a result there is a great need for new tow ns; one example is Shatin in the Hong Kong region of China. The new tow ns are usually built in rural areas. Before building can begin, the land is mapped by surveyors. Aerial and satellite photos are also needed. Then architects, planners and engineers look at the maps, and plans are drawn up fo r the new tow n. When everyone has agreed on the plans, w ork can begin. First of all roads are laid. Electric power and water are brought to the site and drains are dug. Then buildings, such as houses, apartm ent blocks, schools and shops are constructed. Finally, trees and gardens are planted to make the tow n more attractive. 25. Cotton is grown in hot areas such as Egypt and parts o f China. It needs plenty o f water, either from rainfall or fro m irrigation, and good, rich soils. W hen the cotton is ready, it m ust be harvested quickly before rain can damage it. The cotton is som etim es picked by hand, but usually it is picked by machines. The cotton is collected and placed in machines, w here the fibres (called 'lin t') are separated fro m the cotton seeds. The lin t is then packed into bales and sent to factories w here cotton cloth is m anufactured. 26. WELCOME TO PARADISE! Do you like delicious, spicy food served in beautiful surroundings? Yes? Then visit our new 'Paradise Restaurant'. We are located in Ocean Avenue in the centre of the city. Our restaurant* which has w onderful views of the city, is on the tenth flo o r of the Toyota Tower. The menu, which is prepared by our experienced chef* contains Chinese, M alaysian and Indonesian dishes. Although our prices are low* you w ill find that the quality of the food is very high. Come and visit us soon!
a bridge a w ell the foundations / a plan a hole an omelette

build draw up lay construct make drill dig

X
/

X X X X
/ / /

X X X X

X X
/ /

X X
/ / / /

X
/ / /

X
/ /

X X

X
/

X X

X X
E) measure

28. A) boil B) drain F) heat G) m ix

C) cover D) steam H) pour I) add

29. A) cut B) collect C) spray D) pour into E) plant F) transport G) pick H) export I) pass through 30. a) cut b) made c) dug d) laid e) b u ilt g) taken h) draw n i) seen j) found f) sent

Unit Four
I. 3. Picture b a) Regular: asked, replied, lifted, opened, looked, used, explained Irregular: w ent, were, was, to ld, said, fo rg o t b) was beginning a) told b) explained c) replied d) said

16. a) A fte r w alking fo r six m iles in the hot sun* the man fin a lly found a garage, b) Before cooking the sardines* they w ashed them and cut them into pieces, c) A fte r landing in the sea and w a itin g fo r the rescue boats* the passengers fin a lly escaped* d) Before going on a boat trip* make sure that there is petrol in the spare can* 17. a) T d like a single roorn*^ he to ld the receptionist* b) 'W hat's the time?' Carlos asked* 'Six o'clock/ I replied* c) ^Follow the London road and turn left at the roundabout*^ explained Tania, d) I t 's very hot todayZ said Boris* 'I th in k I'll go fo r a sw im .' 18. Suggested answer: On Thursday Gabriella, w ho is a very close friend o f m ine, invited me to her house. She was having a small party fo r her daughter, Elena. M y father, w ho doesn't w o rk on Saturdays, offered to take me in his car and I arrived about tw o o'clock. The house, w hich was quite large, was full of people. There was a lot of noise fro m the children, w ho w ere playing w ith a plastic beach b a ll. Gabriella asked me if I w anted to m eet Elena's teacher. I said 'Yes,' and so she took me into the garden and I was introduced to Koula, w h o was sitting under a tre e . Gabriella brought us both some orange juice and cake, w hich she had baked fo r Elena's p a rty. I w ant to be a teacher too, and so I asked Koula m any questions about teaching. She to ld me that she had studied at a teacher's training college in Thessaloniki, w hich is a large city to the north-east o f A thens. A fter leaving teacher training college, she w ent to teach in a sm all village school. Three years ago she m oved to the city and started teaching at Elena's school, w hich is o nly half a kilom etre fro m her hom e. I asked her w h a t she liked m ost about teaching. T h e children,' she replied, 'the y are lo v e ly / A t th a t m om ent, the ball landed on the table and knocked the cake and orange juice onto the ground. 'W ell, m ost of the tim e / she added w ith a smile. 19. a) w ho b) th a t c) although d) in order to e) which f) After g) before h) if i) w ho 20. Paragraph A - e, c, b, f, d, a. Paragraph C - g, f, a, h, b, d, e, c. j) when

6. 7.

Picture 1: T h e engine's on fire !' Picture 2: 'We are going to land in the sea.' Picture 3: T u t on your life jackets.' a) m any = m any o f the passengers som e = som e o f the passengers b) he = the pilot, us = the passengers c) there = the em ergency exit d) th e ir = International A ir's

8.

10. a) Janet said th a t she was not feeling w ell, b) Our teacher to ld us th a t the exam inations w o u ld be on May 23rd. c) The man said th a t he had lost his passport. (The man told the im m ig ra tio n officer th a t he had lost his passport.) d) Sam said that he had been there last week. I I . a) b) c) d) The doctor - asked me - if - I was feeling better. Aziz - asked me - w hen - I had m y lunch break. Pierre - asked me - if - I spoke French. The w aiter - asked me - w hat - I wanted to drink.

12. a) A fte r having a large lunch, John fell asleep fo r tw e n ty m inutes, b) Before starting the boat, make sure you check th a t there is enough petrol. c) A fte r living in Rome fo r six years, w e m oved to Istanbul, d) Before buying the dress, Nina tried it on. e) A fte r w ritin g the letter, Mike faxed it to the head office in Cairo, f) Before tra velling to China, Ibn Batuta visited Mecca. 13. a) Ronaldo, w h o is an excellent fo o tba ll player, scored six goals last week, b) I've just had a phone call fro m m y sister, w ho is studying at a college in Manila, c) The mechanic, who was very experienced, said he could repair the car by the fo llo w in g day. d) This m orning I w en t to see the doctor, w ho said I should rest fo r three days, e) M ohsin is reading a book about Ataturk, w ho was the foun de r of m odern Turkey, f) Our English teacher, w ho is very kind, hard-w orking and helpful, is probably the best teacher in the college. 15. a) The Pathans* w ho come from the mountainous regions of Pakistan* speak Pashto as their mother tongue,, b) Anna* w ho has just graduated from the University of Singapore* wants to be an economist, c) The Druze are a religious sect* w ho live m ainly in the mountainous regions of Lebanon and southern Syria, d) M y uncle* who doesn't speak a w ord of English* told me that he is planning to visit America in the summer* e) Yesterday I w ent to visit m y grand mother* w ho is in hospital with a chest complaint, f) Italians* w ho are well known for their love of music* have some of the world's greatest opera singers.

25. One day last sum m er m y fa m ily w ent fo r a picnic in a park near the sea. We left hom e early in the m orning and found a quiet place under some trees. We put up the tent, w hich we always take w ith us* and m y sister and I began to prepare som e food. A fte r eating, we were all resting near the tent and Som boon, who is m y youngest son, was playing w ith a ball. I told him to go and play near the trees. A fe w m inutes later he screamed and fell to the ground. We all ran over and found him holding his foot. 'W hat's the m atter?' I asked. 'It's m y fo o t/ he cried. 'S om ething bit m e.' Then we saw a large snake in the grass. I told my husband to kill it quickly. He picked up a stick and

97

hit it hard un til it was no longer m oving. Then he said he w o u ld take Som boon to the hospital. We all w e n t w ith him in the jeep. I w as very worried because S om boon was breathing w ith difficulty. 26. 1)sa id , 2) explained, 5) added, 6) replied 3) to ld , 4) asked,

27. w o rrie d : nervous, afraid, frightened, concerned, anxious, tense calm: relaxed, tra n q u il, confident, peaceful, quiet, still 28.

15. a) That's the man w h o stole m y bag. b) We w ent to see that film that you recommended, c) The car that I like the best is too expensive, d) The waitress w ho we gave our order to has disappeared, e) The country w hich has the largest population in the w o rld is China, f) Every year the college presents a prize to the student that gets the best results. 16. Possible answers: a) ... hit m y car b) ... th a t I bought last week c) ... w hich I liked m ost on our trip last year d) ... w ho go to fo o tb a ll matches 18. a) Canberra* w hich is the capital o f Australia* is not the biggest city in the country, b) The shop had sold o u t o f Jasm ine M ystery* w hich is m y fa vourite perfum e, c) The man w ho robbed the bank was arrested yesterday, d) The m ain course was sardines, w hich are popular in Portugal. e) Last week I w rote a letter to the college th a t I w a n t to study in. f) Yu Lin said she wanted to speak to the w om an w ho was in charge of the shop, g) The program m e that I w anted to watch was cancelled at the last m inute, h) Peter* w ho is a w ell-know n journalist* w rites fo r a Cape Town newspaper, i) A ll appointm ents have been cancelled by the president* w ho has a slig h t stom ach upset. 19. a) On the one hand, b) But c) when d) less e) w hich f) H ow ever g) m ore h) w ho I) whereas j) A lthough

Unit Five
10. a) Rome - has - hotter sum m ers - than - London. b) Fresh fru it juice - is - healthier - than - cola. c) Coconut palm s - are usually - ta lle r - than date palms, d) A boiled egg - is - easier to prepare - than - an omlette. 11. a) Chinese - is - m ore - d iffic u lt - to - learn - than -F a rs i, b) E-mail messages - are - less - personal - than - handw ritten letters, c) An o rdinary phone - is - less - useful - than - a m obile phone. d) Gold - is - m ore - expensive - than - silver. 12. a) b) c) d) e) V ictor is m ore in te llig e n t then Ernesto. W aterm elons are cheaper than pineapples. Istanbul is m ore beautiful than Ankara. Koshiba is better than Vanasonic. A m obile phone is quicker than rescue flares. d) = non-defining

20. Paragraph 1) - e, b, c, d, f, a. Paragraph 2) - e, b, d, a, f, c. 21. a) the general reader b) form al/academ ic c) a friend (A unt Sarah) d) inform al/personal Letter: a) advertisem ent b) very interesting c) send me d) I am e) w o u ld like to find f) quite w ell g) a little h) a great deal i) very j) I have k) you w ish I) I look fo rw a rd to hearing fro m you m) Yours fa ithfully, 26. There are tw o building s w hich (they) are suitable fo r the com pany. One is a building called Panorama House. It is located close to the city centre in Station Road. The total area is 1,350sq m. It has six flo o rs and a sm all reception area. There are six to ile ts and a sm all kitchen. From the sixth flo o r there are lovely view s of the city. The second p ossib ility is a building called Park M ansions, w hich (it) is m uch larger than Panorama House. It has eight floors. The reception area is bigger too, which (it) is very im p o rta n t fo r the company. U nfortunate ly the rent is m ore expensive than the rent fo r Panorama House. It is $6,000 per m onth, whereas the rent fo r Panorama House is o n ly $5,000. The location is less convenient too. Panorama House is (more) closer to the city centre.

13. c) = defining

14. a) I managed to fin d the hom ew ork w hich the teacher had asked me ab o u t. b) On our trip to India last year the place w hich I liked best was Darjeeling. c) Yesterday in the superm arket I saw the w om an w ho reads the news on Channel 33. d) That's the car w hich I w a nt to b u y . e) 'People w h o need people are the luckiest people in the w o r ld /

)8

27. Suggested answer: There are many different types o f plants, for example ferns, conifers and angiosperm s. The largest group o f plants are angiosperm s, w hich are also called flo w e rin g plants. Flow ering plants produce flow e rs w hich produce seeds and fruit. (Well,) Flowering plants can be divided into tw o more types. These are called m onocots and dicots. The m onocot, w hich means 'one seed-leaf (by the way), has (got) long narrow leaves. The veins in the leaves are all parallel. An exam ple o f a monocot is the palm tree. On the other hand, the dicot (i.e. 'tw o seed-leaf) has (got) broader leaves. The veins are also different. There is a m ain vein and (then) there are smaller veins branching off. A to m a to plant is an exam ple o f a dicot. These tw o kinds of angiosperm can be seen in the diagram. 28. hot - hotter - the hottest; big - bigger - the biggest; w e t - w e tte r - the w ettest; nice - nicer the nicest; heavy - heavier - the heaviest; dry - d rie r - the driest; easy - easier - the easiest 29. good - better - the best; bad - w orse - the w orst; m uch/m any - m ore - the m ost; little - less - the least; old - o ld e r- the oldest 30. a) Baikal - deepest b) longest - Nile c) Indonesia - greatest (largest) d) highest Venezuela e) coldest - Antarctica f) Al Azziziyah - hottest 31. a) suitable b) com fortable c) pleasant d) personal e) interesting f) d iffic u lt g) reliable h) exciting i) intelligen t Vertical w ord = im portant.

200,000

n r =
150,000

>

o 100,000

tf

O O D C a.
iij 50,000

1985 1990 1995 YEAR 2000

7. 8.

a) 3 b) 3 c) 1 d) 3 e) 2 f) 1 a) Felix - has been working - in a bank - since 1999. b) The boys - have been washing - their car - since six o'clock, c) I - have known - Sarah - since she was a little girl, d) M y fa m ily - have kept - horses - fo r many years, e) A n d y - has been w a iting fo r - a bus - fo r tw e n ty m inutes, f) People - have grow n - rice in the valley - fo r centuries.

11. 1) There are tw o possible ways o f jo in in g each sentence, as show n in a). 1) Keiko is studying business studies, English and com puting because she w ants to w ork fo r a large m ultinational company, or Because she wants to w ork for a large m ultinational company, Keiko is studying business studies, English and computing. 2) Coffee production fell dramatically last year because many trees were destroyed by bad weather. 3) M ore and m ore people are buying com puters because they are becoming cheaper and cheaper. 4) Nina co uldn't com e to the birthday party yesterday because she was taking an examination at the college. 5) The governm ent is building ten new schools because the population o f the country has been increasing rapidly in recent years. 6) Boris has been tryin g to save m oney fo r the last six m onths because he w ants to go on holiday to San Francisco in the summer. 14. 1) W hen the college opened, there were o nly 500 students and three faculties. 2) As the m achine spins around, the juice is extracted fro m the fru it. 3) In order to increase coffee production, m any new trees had to be planted. 4) If you have got a m obile phone, you can make a phone call fro m anywhere. 5) A lthough the w eather was bad, w e decided to make the trip to Star Island. 6) Because the w eather was bad, we decided to cancel the trip to Star Island. 15. Possible answers: a) is from Canada, b) are located ju st outside Cairo, c) was president of South Africa,

Unit Six
1 /) IZ
Q 10,000

15,000 -

L. L

G C L U m 2 5,000

1995

1997

1999 YEAR

Now

4.

a) 1 - m ainfram e com puter 3 - the desktop PC

2 - silicon chip

For the last fifty years com puters have been getting smaller, cheaper and m ore pow erful. 5. a) th ey = com puters; one = a com puter; th is = the invention of the silicon chip; then = 1981 b) m illions o f calculations; the firs t com puter which was able to store a program ; sales o f com puters

d) is studying at a un iversity in W ashington. e) is a beautiful old city in Turkey. f) is a popular dish in the A rab w o rld , 16. a) The firs t com puter able to store a program was b uilt at Manchester U niversity in 1948. b) The man w earing a brown jacket is a chem istry professor. c) The tall tow er built like a rocket is the Holiday Hotel, d) The president is the short, fat man speaking to the old lady, e) The country most famous for growing coffee is Brazil, f) Andrea Borcelli is a blind Italian singer known fo r his w onderful voice. 17. Aeroplanes have been getting bigger and faster over the years. The firs t m odern aeroplane was the Boeing 247* w hich was introduced in 1933. it had room fo r 10 passengers. D uring the Second W orld W ar the je t engine was developed. The first je t airliner* w hich was called the Comet* started service in 1952. It had fo u r je t engines and could fly at 885kph. Later* in 1958* Pan Am erican A irline s introduced the Boeing 707* w hich could carry 112 passengers. Because of the pow erful engines* the plane w as able to cross the A tlantic fro m N ew York to London in less than eight hours* which was half the tim e o f the old propeller aircraft. 18. a) Possible answer: Dear Elena, I'm w ritin g this letter to you fro m m y bed. I broke m y leg badly three weeks ago on the stairs in the college. I was in a hurry because I was late fo r class. As I was running dow n the stairs fro m the firs t flo o r to the ground flo o r, I slipped and fell to the bottom . I fe lt a te rrib le pain in m y left leg and I co u ld n 't move. A t the hospital the doctor, w h o is a frie nd o f m y fa the r's, to ld me th a t m y leg was broken. A fte r resetting m y leg in plaster, he said th a t I should rest at hom e fo r at least a m onth and then com e back to see him . He to ld me to phone him if I needed help. Since then I've been at hom e, w hich has been rather b o rin g . I've been getting better bit by bit. I've been reading books and m agazines and w atching TV, but I can't w a it until I can w alk again. S om etim es I sit in the garden, w hich is ju st outside m y bedroom w in d o w , if it's not too h o t. M y older sister, w ho's not w o rkin g at the m o m e n t, has been looking after me. She's been w o n d e rfu l! Please w rite and let me know y o u r news! Best w ishes, Sarah b) inform al/personal style 19. d - i - e - c - f - g - a - h - b 20. a) but b) Because o f this c) H ow ever d) w hich e) also f) Since g) W hereas h) w hich i) Because j) A lthough 25. a) G lobal w a rm in g is caused by an increase in the am ount of carbon dioxide in the Earth's atmosphere. Carbon dioxide is produced naturally by vegetation.

It is an im p o rta n t part o f the atm osphere. It traps the sun's heat. It w arm s the surface o f the Earth. N orm ally there is a balance between the gases in the atmosphere. In recent years the am ount of carbon dioxide has gone up. This is because of the burning o f fossil fuels and the destruction of forests. The tem perature of the Earth's surface has been going up. This has m eant changes in the Earth's clim ate. M any parts o f the w o rld are becom ing hotter and drier. O ther parts are experiencing m ore storm s and rainfall. Sea level (it) has also been rising. This is because the polar ice-caps have been m elting. b) Suggested im provem ent: Global w a rm in g is caused by an increase in the am ount of carbon dioxide in the Earth's atmosphere. Carbon dioxide, w hich is produced naturally by vegetation, is an im portant part o f the atmosphere. It traps the sun's heat and as a result w arm s the surface of the Earth. N orm ally there is a balance between the gases in the atm osphere. In recent years, however, the am ount o f carbon dioxide has gone up because o f the burning of fossil fuels and the destruction of forests. As a result the temperature o f the Earth's surface has been going up, w hich has m eant changes in the Earth's clim ate. M any parts o f the w o rld are becom ing hotter and drier, w h ile other parts are experiencing m ore storm s and rainfall. Sea level has also been rising. This is because the polar ice-caps have been m elting. 26. increase: go up, grow , im prove, rise decrease: go dow n, fall, collapse, drop 27. a) C hem istry b) Physics c) B iology d) H istory e) G eography f) M athem atics g) C om puter Science 28. a) Science b) Law e) Engineering
1

c) Education

d) Arts

12

28

G E T Ll 0 JL N0 WA D E X ! T l^ t w H I C H T E R Y J_ N E T A L s 0 N A s
8 9 is 24 25 29

N G
10

18

U A Y S L E T 3 D H 0 R U ;F _ G E H L C L 0
26

27

30

S N T J_ L 0 N C R I E D N R C O P 0 R P E A R E o S E D F E D
6

11

14

15

22

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