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Q1.Which material is best conductor ? Ans-Silver is generally regarded as the best conductor. Its resistivity is very much less than those of the other metal and alloys . Q2.What does an electric circuit mean ? Ans-An electric circuit as a continuous and closed path through which an electric current can follow. Q3.How do we define electric current ? Ans-Electric current is define as the rate of flow of electric charge. It equals the amount of charge flowing through a particular area in a unit time . Q4.What type of charges flow through a metallic wire ? Ans-It is negative charge electrons that flow though a metallic wire. Q5.What is the SI units of electric charge and electric current ? Ans-The unit of electric charge is coulomb(C) and electric current is coulomb per second or ampere. Q6.Name a device that help to maintain a potential difference across a conductor. Ans- We can use a battery made from one or more electric cells- for producing a potential difference . Q7.How much energy is given to each coulomb of charge passing through a 6 V battery ? Ans- Energy given = Working done =p.d. x charge =6Vx1C =6J

Q8.How is a voltmeter connected in the circuit to measure the potential difference between two points? Ans-The voltmeter is always connected in parallel, across the two points between which the potential difference is to be measured . Q9.Why is much less heat generated in long electric cables than in filaments of electric bulbs ? Ans-Filaments of electric bulbs flow of electric current whereas cable are made of copper which has a very low resistance. Q10.Why is tungsten metal selected for making filaments of incandescent lamp bulb ? Ans-Tungsten is selected for making filaments of incandescent light bulbs because of its high melting point and (relatively) higher resistivity. Q11.Should the heating element of an electric iron be made of iron, silver or nichrome wire ? Ans- The heating element of an electric iron should be made of nichrome wire. Q12.Will current flow more easily through a thick wire or a thin wire of the same material and length when connected to the same source ? Ans- Current will flow more easily through the thick wire. A thick wire has a higher value of area of cross-section than a thin wire. For the same length and material, the resistance of the thicker wire is therefore, less than that of a thinker wire. Current, therefore , flow more easily through the thicker wire.


Q13.What are the advantage of connecting electrical devices in parallel with the battery instead of connecting them in series ? Ans-There are three advantages of connecting electric devices in parallel with the battery: (i)All the devices have the full voltage of the battery acting on them. (ii)Each device can be switched on or off independent of the other. (iii)If one of the devices gets damages or brunt, the other devices will still keep on working. Q14.Why does the cord of an electric heater not glow while the heating element does ? Ans-The cord has a very low (almost zero) resistance compared to the heating element. Hence when the same current flow through both of them, the heat produced (=I2R)in the cord is very small compared to that in the heating element. Hence only the latter glows. Q15.Two wires of equal length, one of copper and the other of manganin (an alloy) have the same thickness. Which one can be used for (i)electric transmission lines (ii) electrical heating devices ? why? Ans-(i)copper wire can be used for electrical transmission lines because copper has very low resistivity and hence it is very good conductor of electricity. (ii) Manganin can be used for electrical heating devices because the resistivity of manganin is about 25 times more than that

of copper and hence it produces a lot of heat on passage of current through it. Q16.In a factory, an electric bulb of 500 W is used for 2 hours and electric motor of 0.5 horse power is used for 5 hours every day. Calculate the cost of using the bulb and motor for 30 days if cost of electrical energy is there rupees per unit. Ans- Energy consumed by bulb in a day = 500 W x 2 h = 1000 kWh Energy consumed y the motor in a day = 0.5 x 746W x 5h = 1865 Wh =1.865 kWh (1 hp=746) Total energy consume in a day =1 + 1.865 = 2.865 kWh Energy consumed in 30 days = 30 x 2.865 kWh = 85.95 kWh Cost of electrical energy =Rs. 3 x 85.95 = Rs.257.85 Q17.Compute the heat generated while transferring 96000 coulomb of charge in one hour through a potential difference of 50 V. Ans- Total heat generated = Work done

= Charge transferred x p.d. = 96000 x 50 J = 4800000 J = 4.8 x 10 J Basic Concepts:


1.Charge: It is an inherent property of the body due to which the body feels attractive and repulsive. There are two types of electric charges : (i) Positive (ii) Negative.


2.Coulombs Law: The Force between two electric charges at rest is directly proportional to the product of the magnitudes of the charge and inversely proportional to the square of distance between them. If we have two electric charge q1 and q2 placed at a distance r from one another, then according to coulombs law, the force F between them is given by F = k .q1q2 /r2 , k is a constant. 3. 1 Volt : One volt is defined as the potential difference between two points in a current carrying conductor when 1 joule of work is done to move a change of 1 coulomb from one point to another. There, 1 volt = 1 joule / 1 coulomb 4.Voltmeter: The potential difference is measure by mean of an instrument called voltmeter. A voltmeter has high resistance. 5.Electric Current : The electric current is the rate of flow of electric charge (called electrons) in a conductor. Current , I = Q/t. SI unit of electric current is Ampere .electric current is a scalar quantity. 6.Ohms law: At constant temperature, the current flowing through a conductor is directly proportional to the potential difference across its end. If I is the current flowing through a conductor and V is the potential difference across its end, then according to Ohms law : . IV (At constant temperature) This can also be written as, V I or V= RI , Where R is a constant called resistance of the conductor.

Some Important Formulae :

1.Coulombs lawF =k. q1q2 /r2 2.Electric current - I = Q /t 3.Potential difference- V = W/ Q 4.Ohms law V = IR 5.Resistivity - = RA/l 6.Resistors in series, R = R1 + R2 + R3