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Chapter 9

Vibrations
Part I.
A. Basic Terminologies B. Undamped Free Vibrations of a Particle: Simple Harmonic Motion C. Undamped Free Vibrations of Rigid Bodies

A. Basic Terminologies
Vibration: motion of a body which oscillates about a position of equilibrium. Period: time to complete a cycle of the motion. Frequency: number of cycles per unit time. Amplitude: maximum displacement of the system from the equilibrium position. Free vibration: vibration without external force. Undamped vibration: vibration without energy dissipation. Degree of freedom.

Chapter 9, Page 1

B. Undamped Free Vibrations of Particles: Simple Harmonic Motion


Newton's 2nd law: W T = ma

mg k( st + x) = m x m + kx = 0 x
General Solution: x = C1 sin nt + C2 cos nt

W T = 0 W st = k W T = ma

n =

k m

Chapter 9, Page 2

Proof:
2 2 x = C1 n sin nt C2 n cos nt 2 2 m = C1m n sin nt C2 m n cos nt x

kx = C1k sin nt + C2 k cos nt


2 2 m + kx = C1 (k m n )sin nt + C2 (k m n )cos nt = 0 x

C1 and C2 are usually determined by initial conditions. Example: Knowing x = x0 and x = 0 , when t = 0 , x0 = C1 sin(0) + C2 cos(0) , C2 = x0 x = C1 n cos nt x0 n sin nt , 0 = C1 n cos(0) x0 n sin(0) , C1 = 0
For this particular case,

x = x0 cos nt

Chapter 9, Page 3

Another form of general Solution:

x = xm sin( nt + )
Proof: x = C1 sin nt + C2 cos nt
C1 C2 2 = C12 + C2 sin nt + cos nt 2 C2 + C2 C12 + C2 1 2 = xm sin( nt + )

Physical meanings: n : Natural circular frequency (rad/s).

n =

2 : Natural period n

xm : Maximum displacement. xm sin : Initial displacement. is called phase angle.


Example: x = x0 sin( nt + 90 )
Chapter 9, Page 4

Simple harmonic motion:

x = xm sin( nt + ) v = xm n cos( nt + )
2 a = xm n sin( nt + )

2 a = n x

vm = xm n
2 am = xm n

Chapter 9, Page 5

Simple Pendulum (Small Oscillations)


Newton's 2nd law in tangent direction: mg sin = ml

g + sin = 0 l For small oscillation, sin g + =0 l

n =
n = 2

g l l g

Chapter 9, Page 6

Problem 9.1

(Sample Problem 19.1, Page 609)

A 50-kg block moves between vertical guides as shown. The block is pulled 40mm down from its equilibrium position and released. For each spring arrangement, determine (a) the period of the vibration, (b) the maximum velocity of the block, and (c) the maximum acceleration of the block.

Spring in parallel: k = k1 + k2 = 10 kN/m

n =

k 10,000 = = 14.14 rad/s m 50 2 2 = = 0.444 s n 14.14

n =

vm = xm n = 0.040(14.14) = 0.566 m/s


2 am = xm n = 0.040(14.14)2 = 8.00 m/s 2

Spring in series:
k= 1 1 1 + k1 k2 = 1 1 1 + 4 6 = 2.4 kN/m

n = 0.907 s , vm = 0.277 m/s , am = 1.920 m/s 2


Chapter 9, Page 7

Problem 9.2

(Problem 19.8, Page 1223)

2 am = xm n 2 50 m/s 2 = (0.06) n

n = 28.87 rad/s = 276 rpm


vm = xm n = (0.06 m)(28.87 rad/s) = 1.73 m/s

Chapter 9, Page 8

Problem 9.3

(Problem 19.28, Page 1227)

(a)

B =
ke =

PL3 3EI P 3EI = 3 = 127,780 N/m B L 127,780 = 22.6 rad/s 250

(b)

n =
fn =

n = 3.6 Hz 2

Chapter 9, Page 9

Problem 9.4

(Problem 19.31, Page 1228)

n =
Moment about A: 2Fd mgx = m xh

2kd 2 g mh2 h

n = 2 n
(a) (b)

n = 0.5 s ,
m = 3.56 kg

2(k

d x)d mgx = m xh h

2kd 2 g x+ x=0 mh2 h

n = infinity ,
m = 43.7 kg

Chapter 9, Page 10

C. Undamped Free Vibrations of Rigid Bodies


Newton's 2nd law, moment about O: W (bsin ) = mat b + I

2 mg(bsin ) = m(b )b + ( mb2 ) 3 3g + sin = 0 5b For small oscillations: 3g + =0 5b

n =

3g 5b

Chapter 9, Page 11

Problem 9.5
A cylinder of weight W is suspended as shown. Determine the period and natural frequency of vibrations of the cylinder.

(Sample Problem 19.2, Page 1230)

x = r a = r = 2x = 2r

1 T2 = W + k 2

Moment about A: Wr T2 (2r) = mar + I

1 mr 2 Wr W + k(2r ) (2r) = m(r )r + 2 2 8k = 0 (No small oscillations assumed.) + 3m fn = 1 2 8k 3m


Chapter 9, Page 12

Problem 9.6

(Sample Problem 19.3, Page 1231)

The disk and gear undergo torsional vibration with the periods shown. Assume that the moment exerted by the wire is proportional to the twist angle. Determine (a) the wire torsional spring constant, (b) the centroidal moment of inertia of the gear, and (c) the maximum angular velocity of the gear if rotated through 90o and released.

Moment about O:

K = I , or +

K =0 I

n =
(a) 1.13 = 2

2 I = 2 n K

0.2 , K = 6.183 N m/rad K I , I gear = 0.583 kg m 2 6.183

m = 10 kg n = 1.13 s

n = 1.93 s

(b) 1.93 = 2

2 (c) m = n m = = 5.11 rad/s 1.93 2


Chapter 9, Page 13

Problem 9.7

(Problem 19.40, Page 1234)

Moment about B:

mL I AB + + I Disk + kr 2 = 0 4
2

Solution: n = 0.483 s , vm = 0.26 m/s

Chapter 9, Page 14

Problem 9.8

(Problem 19.48, Page 1236)

Moment about O:

gr sin = 0 + 2 r +k2

n = 2

r2 +k2 gr
Chapter 9, Page 15

Problem 9.8

(Continued)

For rod suspended at A,

ra2 + k 2 A = 2 gra
For rod suspended at B,

rb2 + k 2 B = 2 grb
Also, ra + rb = 0.25 m Solution: ra = 154 mm , rb = 96 mm , k = 73 mm

Chapter 9, Page 16