Sie sind auf Seite 1von 7




_____B.SARAT KUMAR______________________________________________________________________________

Computing is being transformed to a model consisting of services that are commoditised and delivered in a manner similar to utilities such as water, electricity, gas and telephony. In such a model, users access services based on their requirements without regard to where the services are hosted. Several computing paradigms have promised to deliver this utility computing version and they include Grid computing, P2P computing, and more recently Cloud computing. The later term denotes the infrastructure as a Cloud in which Organization and users are able to access applications from anywhere in the world on demand. Cloud computing delivers infrastructure, platform, and software (application) as services, which are made available as subscription based services in a pay-as-you-go model to consumers. This paper covers what do we mean by cloud computing and how it has come into existence and what future holds for cloud computing what are the benefits and drawbacks of it and what are the types and how exactly it work and services it provide.

A cloud computing is generally categorized by A true on-demand computing paradigm. Decoupling of application design. Definition: According to the IEEE computer Society Cloud Computing is A paradigm in which information is permanently stored in servers on the internet and catched temporarily on clients that include desktops, entertainment centers, table computers, notebooks, wall computers, handhelds, etc . In General The Cloud computing is a pool of abstracted, highly scalable, and a managed set of IT infrastructure (hardware, software, or services) optimizing techniques rolled into one and offered as a shared service to its customers and organizations and billed by consumption. Cloud computing is a computing model, not a technology. In this model of computing, all the servers, networks, applications, and other elements related to datacenters are made available to IT and end users via the Internet, in a way that allows IT to buy only the type and amount of computing services that they need. The cloud model differs from traditional outsourcers in that customers dont hand over their own IT resources to be managed. Instead they plug into the cloud for infrastructure services, platform (operating system) services, or software services (such as SaaS apps), treating the cloud much as they would an internal datacenter or computer providing the same functions. What is Cloud Computing? Todays hardware, software and networks are cheaper, more flexible and more easily accept anything a user or datacenter manager wants to do, for one thing. Rather than making users wait days or History Since the sixties, cloud computing has developed along a number of lines, with Web 2.0 being the most recent evolution. However, since the internet only started to offer significant bandwidth in the nineties, cloud computing for the masses has been something of a late developer. The First mile stone in cloud computing was the arrival of in 1999, paved the way for both specialist and mainstream software firms to deliver applications over the internet. The next development was Amazon Web Services in 2002, which provided a suite of cloudbased services including storage, computation and even human intelligence through the Amazon Mechanical Turk. Another big milestone came in 2009, as Web 2.0 hit its stride, and Google and others started to offer browser-based enterprise applications, though services such as Google Apps. Automated system deployment and scaling. A pay-per-use pricing model. Flexible access models.

3 weeks for any changes or reports, typical datacenters can easily add extra storage or computing power to accommodate an online-sales promotion, for example. Virtualization as well as the cloud computing model within which it often runs answer much of that need, by giving CIOs the ability to cover a week-long spike in demand by turning up the spigot on the computing power a business unit gets. A layer of virtualization software allows a bank of servers to share the available workload, and lets the CIO give a business unit 10 percent more storage capacity or compute power, rather than having to go buy completely new servers that add 10 times the required capacity. The mainframe-like miracle is abstraction the ability to hide the complexities of a system from the end user while providing all the power and capabilities the user requires. The web is the largest abstraction layer in IT hiding the complexity of a global network with hundreds of thousands of specialized servers and arcane data behind search engines and hotlinks. In IT, virtualization most often means server virtualization in which one physical server acts as host to several virtual servers, each of which runs on a layer of software called a hypervisor whose job it is to parcel out storage, memory, and other computing resources while making each virtual server believe it is running by itself on a standalone computer. Cloud computing takes that abstraction one further step. Rather than making one server appear to be several, it makes an entire datacenters worth of servers, networking devices, systems management, characterization, todays Cloud Computing delivery models can be broadly classified into three categories: Software as a Service (SaaS): The most widely known and widely used form of cloud computing, SaaS provides all the functions of a sophisticated traditional application, but through a Web browser, not a locallyinstalled application. SaaS eliminates worries about application servers, storage etc. security, storage and other infrastructure, look like a single computer, or even a single screen. The idea is to let companies buy exactly the amount of storage, computing power, security and other IT functions that they need from specialists in datacenter computing in the same way they used to pay a telecom company to come install the number of phones they required.

Types of Cloud Computing Delivery Models

Todays public cloud computing delivery models can be distinguish based on the level of abstractions they export to the cloud users (or programmers) and the level of computing resource management (flexibility) they offer. Based on this

4 Examples are Googles Gmail and Apps, instant messaging from AOL, Yahoo and Google. Platform as a Service (PaaS): Provides virtualized servers on which users can run existing applications or develop new ones without having to worry about maintaining the operating systems, server hardware, load balancing or computing capacity. Examples include Microsofts Azure and Salesforces Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS): This provides grids or clusters or virtualized servers, networks, storage and systems software designed to augment or replace the functions of an entire datacenter. The highest-profile example is Amazons Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2) and Simple Storage Service, but IBM and other traditional IT vendors are also offering services, as is telecom-and-more provider Verizon Business. All of these services are available instantly on demand and is billed according to usage or subscription. Additionally cloud computing gives enterprises the opportunity to consolidate their IT operations and adopt virtualization technologies. As a result it leads to lower capital expenditure, better utilization of resources, instant access to the latest technology at all times, greater innovation, speedy deployment cycles and lower administrative costs.

resources as a group. Common business applications are made available online through data centers, which can be accessed from a web browser. The software and data are stored on servers with different levels of virtualization technologies. Cloud computing also provides a mechanism to manage these resources by provisioning or de-provisioning virtual or physical machines, re-imaging, workload re-balancing, and monitoring usage to identify and correct network issues, performance problems, and capacity concerns. The combined capacity of the cloud is offered to the end-user on an on-demand, pay-percycle basis over the Internet. The users of a cloud computing network can access the cloud from anywhere and do not even need to know where the servers are physically located. Service providers usually offer service level agreements that ensure quality.

What are types of emerging cloud computing services?

Compute Clouds: They allow access to highly scalable, inexpensive, on-demand computing resources that run the code they are provided. Compute clouds can be used for a variety of general purposes. Cloud Storage: Storage was one of the first major services to appear in the cloud and remains one of the most popular and welladdressed segments in the cloud computing realm.

How does cloud computing work?

Currently cloud computing involves the usage of a large number of computer servers and other

Cloud Applications: Cloud applications are a form of Software-as-a-Service (SaaS) and

5 range from Web apps that are delivered to users entirely via a browser to hybrids like Microsoft Online Services, which has hosting and IT management in the cloud, and consists of both native and Web clients with application infrastructure hosted elsewhere. of cloud computing internally, without the risks attached to external clouds. Even in a private cloud, normally, computing capacity from both internal and external clouds can be made available. A private cloud allows the enterprise setting it up to host and maintains a secure computing environment for its staff and its customers. It allows all applications such as legacy, server-based, desktop or those built on new application frameworks, to be delivered as a service. In addition to the general benefits of cloud computing, a private cloud allows the enterprise to gain better control over the entire process of information processing resulting in reduction of costs, greater flexibility, reduction in wastage due to monitored consumption, standardized, better quality of service, agility in response, greater security due to

What are the types of Clouds?

Within cloud computing itself, vendors focus on specific areas and offer various types of services. So when an organization selects a cloud computing type and a service provider, it also means that a specific architecture is finalized. This impacts how it can be used, the standards supported, the service agreements entered into, the flexibility, scalability, and security, and almost all aspects, including the final performance. Clouds are typically identifiable as: Public or External clouds: In this type of cloud a service provider offers, maintains and bills for this service. Public or External clouds often offer inexpensive and even free services over the Internet.

better encryption and provision for both existing and future applications without re-writes or modifications.

What are the benefits of cloud computing?

Hybrid clouds: With multiple internal and/or external providers having a great degree of interoperability, most enterprises prefer a mix of in-house and external IT resources. Most of the major vendors design their platforms to suit the hybrid model, as it offers more flexibility to suit dynamic data requirements. The offline version of Gmail is a type of hybrid cloud computing. Reduction in costs: As many end-users share a cloud, this distributes cost and enables economies of scale in terms of centralization of resources including real estate, bandwidth, and power. Scalability and speed: Enterprises can cut down the time involved in buying and setting up the hardware,

Private clouds: These clouds allow cloud computing on internal networks, for enterprises that seek to achieve the benefits

6 software and other resources necessary to support a new application. Enabling Innovation: Cloud computing enables enterprises to focus on innovation as they no longer have to own or manage their IT resources. Ease of Use: Entry to a cloud is easy and shared infrastructure and costs ensure low overheads and immediate availability of all requisite applications. Freedom of location: Service providers can set up infrastructure in areas with lower overheads and pass on the benefit to the end-user. They can set up multiple redundant sites, to facilitate business continuity and disaster recovery. Better utilization of limited resources: Utilization of all server, storage and network resources is maximized as it is shared by multiple users, thus cutting down on waste at a global level. Flexibility: Users can end the contract as and when required and thus gain a high level of operational flexibility.

data can be accessed at all times, that it will not be lost or that it will not fall into the wrong hands? One way to address this is to examine the vendor's policies closely and check the following seven security issues before signing-up for the service

User access: Find out about all who have been granted access to data and about the hiring and management of such administrators Regulatory compliance: Find out whether the provider is willing to undergo external audits and/or security certifications and whether such certifications are already available for verification Data location: Ascertain if a provider gives the end-user control over the geographical location of data Data security: Make sure that a high quality of data encryption, is available at all stages Recovery: Find out about disaster management and data recovery safeguards; whether total restoration is guaranteed and, if so, the timeline for this

The drawback is that private clouds are expensive for small and medium enterprises for they do not confer economies of scale; capital costs and management costs involved in building or buying, and subsequently maintaining, a private cloud are also much higher.

Investigative Support: Ascertain whether any inappropriate or illegal activity can be identified and investigated by the service provider Long-term viability: Ask what will happen to data if the company goes out of business.

How to minimize the risks of using cloud computing?

Enterprises may be hesitant to use cloud computing due to issues of trust - how can they be sure that their

What does the future hold for cloud computing?

Is cloud computing the next big thing after the Internet? Initial estimates by experts in the field say

7 that by 2012, eighty percent of Fortune 1000 enterprises will buy cloud computing services and thirty percent of them will buy cloud computing infrastructure. Additionally by 2010, more than eighty percent of enterprise usage of cloud computing will be for massive data queries, shortterm large parallel workloads, or by startups with hardly any investment in IT infrastructure. Regardless of all this, if the benefits outweigh the disadvantages and if the technology and delivery models mature with time, cloud computing seems to be the way to go for most enterprises in the long run. There is the realization that cloud computing can help cut costs and drive innovation at the same time. 2. Wikipedia, [Accessed July 20, 2009] 3. Above the Clouds: A Berkeley View of Cloud Computing, Technical Report No. UCB/EECS-200928, Feb 10, 2009 4. Security Guidance for Critical Areas of Focus in Cloud Computing, Cloud Security Alliance, April 2009 5. Nicholas Carr, The Big Switch: Rewiring the World, from Edison to Google, W.W. Norton & Co., 2008, ISBN 0393062287 6. Open Cloud Consortium, 7. OpenCrowd Cloud Taxonomy, ws_cloud-tax-lrg.png

It is clear that Cloud Computing is fast moving beyond the hype to being taken very seriously in organizations. Cloud Computing gets us close to the dream of an efficient, centralized computing power, and there are many software companies positioning their products. In the current scenario, while the definitions, taxonomy, and benefits of Cloud Computing are well understood. We believe that Cloud could be a disruptive change for some enterprises, or it could be an evolution beyond virtualization and utility computing for others. Many challenges remain but we believe that Cloud Computing will become an increasingly viable option for enterprise IT.

1. Draft NIST Working Definition of Cloud Computing v15, cloud-computing/cloud-def-v15.doc