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2012 ACEEE

DOI: 01.IJCOM.3.3.
ACEEE Int. J. on Communications, Vol. 03, No. 03, Nov 2012
Estimation of Rain Attenuation based on ITU-R Model
in Guntur (A.P), India
M. Sridhar
1
,K. Padma Raju
2
, and Ch. Srinivasa Rao
3
1
Department of ECE, KL University, Guntur, India
Email: sridhar.m@kluniversity.in
2
Department of ECE, JNTU Kakinada, Kakinada, India
Email: padmaraju_k@yahoo.com
3
Department of ECE, Sri SaiAditya Institute of Science & Technology, Surampalem, India
Email: ch_rao@rediffmail.com
4
Abstract Satellite communication systems operating at Ku
(12/14 GHz) and Ka band (20/30 GHz) frequencies are used
for broadband multimedia and internet based services. At these
frequencies, the signal will be affected by various propagation
impairments such as rain attenuation, cloud attenuation,
tropospheric scintillation, ionospheric scintillation, water
vapour attenuation, and rain and ice depolarization. Among
all the propagation impairments, rain attenuation is the most
important and critical parameter. In this paper, rain
attenuation is calculated at KL University, Guntur using
ITU-R rain attenuation model. The preliminary results of the
work will be used to calculate the attenuation experimentally
and comparison can be made, which helps to develop a new
rain attenuation model at Ku and Ka bands.
Index Terms satellite communication, propagation
impairments, rain attenuation, ITU-R model, rain fall rate
I. INTRODUCTION
Communications system design requires the development
of a link budget between the transmitter and the receiver that
provides an adequate signal level at the receiver s
demodulator to achieve the required level of performance
and availability [1]. The performance and availability of the
link can be specified or measured using Bit Error Rate (BER)
and Carrier-to-Noise ratio (C/N). It is the link designers task
to ensure that loss of signal occurs for no longer than the
time permitted for that service. The development of an
accurate link budget, which includes losses due to the
passage of the signal through the atmosphere, is critical.
There are many phenomena that lead to signal loss on
transmission through the earths atmosphere. These include:
cloud attenuation, tropospheric scintillation, ionospheric
Scintillation, Water vapour attenuation, rain and ice
depolarization, and rain attenuation [2].Among all the
propagation impairments, rain attenuation is the most
important for frequencies above 10 GHz, as it causes
maximum attenuation and therefore, is the limiting factor in
Ku and Ka band satellite link design [3].
The rain drops absorb most of the electromagnetic energy at
these frequency ranges and some of the energy gets scattered
by Rayleigh and Mie scattering mechanisms [4]. The rain
drop size distribution is exponential when expressed
mathematically as,
mm
-1
m
-3
(1)
where is the median drop diameter and is the
number of drops per cubic meter with diameters between D
and D + dD mm [5]. The rainfall rate R is related to N (D) and
also to the terminal velocity of V (D) the falling drops in
meters per second with diameter D by
mm/hr (2)
A. Rain Attenuation Prediction Models
The amount of fading due to rain is a function of the
frequency and is highly correlated with rain rate. By using
rain statistics for a given region, it is possible to determine
the probability that a given fade depth will be exceeded. The
rain availabilityof a communication link is the complement of
the probability of the link fade margin being exceeded [6].
Rain fade mitigation techniques like power control, signal
processing and site diversity methods are used to improve
the performance of link design and this requires proper
prediction of attenuation due to rain [7]. There are two
approaches to predict the rain attenuation namely, a physical
method in which rain is described all the way along the path,
and an empirical method which uses the effective path length
and rainfall rate using the information from various data bases
[8]. Various rain attenuation prediction models are available
based on the geographical and climatic conditions. The
important models are Crane global model [9], Two-component
model [10], Simple Attenuation model (SAM), Excell model,
MismeWaldteufel model, Garcia model [1], International
Telecommunication Union Radio Communication sector
(ITU-R) model [2], Bryant model, Dissanayake, Allnutt and
Haidara (DAH) model [11], and Moupfouma model [12].
Among these models, ITU-R model provides the most
accurate statistical estimate of attenuation on slant paths [2].
B. ITU-R P. 618 - 9 Rain Attenuation Model
TheITU Radio communication Sector(ITU-R) is one
6
( )
0
( )
D
D
m
N D N e

=
3 3
0.6 10 ( ) ( ) R D V D N D dD

=
}
M. Sridhar is with KL University, Guntur, Andhra Pradesh, India
(email: sridhar.m@kluniversity.in).
Dr. K. Padma Raju is presently working as Principal, University
College of Engineering, JNTU Kakinada, Kakinada, Andhra Pradesh,
India (email: padmaraju_k@yahoo.com).
Dr. Ch. Srinivasa Rao is working as Principal, Sri Sai Aditya Insti-
tute of Science & Techology, Surampalem, Andhra Pradesh, India
(email:ch_rao@rediffmail.com).
m
D ( ) N DdD
ACEEE Int. J. on Communications, Vol. 03, No. 03, Nov 2012
2012 ACEEE
DOI: 01.IJCOM.3.3. 4
among the three divisions of the International
Telecommunication Union (ITU) which is responsible
forradiocommunication.Itmanagestheinternationalradio-
frequency spectrum and satellite orbit resources and also
enhances standards for radio communication systems with
the objective of ensuring the effective use of the spectrum.
The ITU-R provides global rain statistics by dividing the
earth into rain regions and assigning a rain rate to each region
along with the probability of that rain rate being exceeded
[6]. This model uses the rain rate at 0.01% probability level
for the estimation of attenuation and then applies an
adjustment factor to the predicted rain fade depth for other
probabilities. It can be used for the frequencies from
4 - 55 GHz and 0.001 - 5% percentage probability range. It is
based on log-normal distribution and both rain intensity and
path attenuation distribution conform to the same log-normal
distribution. Inhomogeneity in rain in both horizontal and
vertical directions is considered in the prediction [13].
II. METHOD FOR ESTIMATION OF RAIN ATTENUATION
The proposed experimental setup is at KL University,
Guntur which is located 29.08 m above sea level. The latitude
and longitude of the location are N and E
respectively. Two DTH receivers operating in Ku band is
installed in the location which receives the signal from NSS6
satellite ( E). A disdrometer can be used to measure and
record the rainfall intensity (mm/hr) with 1-min integration
time which also specifies rain drop size. The satellite signal
strength will be measured using a spectrum analyzer and the
information can be recorded with a data logger. The rainfall
rate exceeding 0.01% of an average year in mm/hr for the
location is calculated using Recommendation ITU-R P. 837-5
which requires the coordinates of the location. The input
parameters requiredto this model are: point rainfall rate for
0.01% of an average year (mm/hr) with 1-min integration time,
height of the location above mean sea level (Km), elevation
angle of the receiver (degrees), latitude of the location
(degrees), frequency (GHz), polarization angle (degrees), and
effective radius of the Earth (Km) [14]. Table I gives the
geographical and experimental parameters for the experimental
site.
TABLE I. GEOGRAPHICAL/EXPERIMENTAL PARAMETERS FOR THE LOCATION
A. Calculation of Attenuation based on ITU-R Model
Fig. 1 shows the schematic representation of earth space
path link and the details of the parameters used in the model.
Based on the geographical conditions and measured rainfall
using the disdrometer, the rain attenuation can be calculated
using ITU-R P. 618 - 9 model in the following
manner [15]:
Step 1. Calculate the rain height (Km)from the
recommendation ITU-R P.839 as
Km (3)
where is the 0 C isotherm height above mean sea level at
the desired location [16].
Figure 1. Schematic presentation of an earth-space path
A: Frozen precipitation
B: Rain Height
C: Liquid precipitation
D: Earth-Space path
Step 2. Determine the slant-path length , below the rain
height from
Km if (4)
where is Elevation angle in degrees, is the height of the
location above sea level in Km, and is the rain height in Km.
Step 3. Obtain the horizontal projection, , of the slant path
length from
Km (5)
Step 4. Determine the rainfall rate, ,exceeded for 0.01%
of an average year, with 1-min integration time. It can be
calculated with the help of statistical data available in various
meteorological databases or from the maps provided by
ITU-R P.837.
Step 5. Calculate the specific attenuation, , by using the
frequency dependent regression coefficients provided in
ITU-R P.838 Recommendation and using [17],
dB/Km (6)
where and depend on frequency, polarization, raindrop
size distribution and temperature and obtained using,
where is the polarization tilt angle relative to horizontal.
Step 6. Determine the horizontal path adjustment factor,
for 0.01% of the time using
(9)
7
80 .54'

16 .46'

95

R
h
0
0.36
R
h h = +
0
h
s
L
5 >

s
h
R
h
( )
R s
s
h h
L
sin

=
G
L
cos
G s
L L =
0.01
R
R

0.01
R
0.01
( )
R
k R

=
k
2
( ) cos cos(2 )
2
H V H V
k k k k t
k
( + +

=
(7)
2
( ) cos cos(2 )
2
H H V V H H V V
k k k k t
k

( + +

=
(8)
t
0.01
r
0 .01
2
1
1 0. 78 0. 38 1
G
L G R
r
L
e
f


=
( +

Latitude 16
0
.46N
Longitude 80
0
.54E
Height Above Sea Level 0.029 Km
Elevation Angle 64.5
0
Polarization Angle 40.4
0
2012 ACEEE
DOI: 01.IJCOM.3.3.
ACEEE Int. J. on Communications, Vol. 03, No. 03, Nov 2012
4
where f is the frequency in GHz.
Step 7. Calculate the adjusted rainy path length, (Km),
through rain using
Step 8. Obtain the vertical reduction factor ,
for 0. 01% of the time by using
Step 9. Determine the effective path length through rain,
(Km), given by
Step 10. Calculate the predicted attenuation exceeded for
0.01% of an average year by using
dB (17)
Step 11. The estimated attenuation to be exceeded for the
other percentages of an average year, in the range 0.001% to
10% may then be estimated using as
where p is the percentage probability of interest and is
given by
(19)
(20)
III. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
The theoretical values for rain attenuation are calculated
for different rainfall rates using ITU-R model at KL University.
The DTH receiver installed in the site operates in Ku band
whose elevation angle is 64.5
0
. The rainfall rates are calculated
based on the geographical latitude and longitude, and will be
used to measure attenuation at different frequencies [15].
Table II gives the variation of rainfall rate and attenuation
with respect to % time exceeded of an average year at 11 GHz.
The rainfall rate is calculated using the ITU-R P. 837 - 5
Recommendation and the variation of the rainfall rate
(mm/hr) is as shown in Fig. 2, for different exceedence
percentages. At 11 GHz operating frequency, it can be
observed that the maximum rainfall rate is 115.89 mm/hr at
0.001% time of an average year. The rainfall rate is 62.83 mm/
hr exceeded for 0.01% of an average year, with 1-min
TABLE II.VARIATION OF RAINFALL RATE AND ATTENUATION WITH RESPECT TO %
TIME EXCEEDED
integration time. The obtained rainfall rate with different %
time exceedence of average year will be compared and studied
with practical rainfall rates measured with disdrometer
arrangement as a next step in the research work.
Figure. 3. Variation of attenuation with respect to rainfall rate
The attenuation is calculated for frequencies from 1 GHz to
8
0.01
cos
G
R
L r
L for

> =
(10)
( )
sin
R S
S
h h
L for

= s
(11)
where
1
0.01
tan
R S
G
h h
L r


(
=
(

(12)
0.01
v
0.01
/1
2
1
1 sin 31(1 ) 0.45
R R
v
L
e
f

+
=
(
+
(
(

(13)
where (14) 36 , 36 for < =

(15)
0, 36 for = >

(16)
0.01
A
| | 0.01
0.655 0.03 ( ) 0.045 ( ) sin (1 )
0.01
( )
0.01
l n p ln A p
p
p
A A
+
=
(18)

1%, 0 p > =
1%, 0 p < =
36 if >

for
for
0.005( 36) 25 36 for and = > <

(21)
0.005( 36) 1.8 4.25sin , = + (22)
25 36 and < <

for
Figure. 2.Variations of rainfall rate (mm/hr) with respect
to % time exceeded
The attenuation of the signal is obtained at 11 GHz frequency,
using ITU-R P. 838 - 1 Recommendation for different rainfall
rates. It is evident from Fig. 3 that the attenuation increases
with rainfall rate. The theoretical results will be used to study
and compare the amount of attenuation introduced practically
in the extended future research work.
% Time Rainfall Rate Attenuation
exceeded (mm/hr) (dB)
0.001% 115.89 25.28
0.01% 62.83 12.47
0.1% 17.32 2.03
1% 1.96 0.11
5% 0 0
R
L
E
L
0.01 E R
L L v =
0.01 R E
A L =
ACEEE Int. J. on Communications, Vol. 03, No. 03, Nov 2012
2012 ACEEE
DOI: 01.IJCOM.3.3. 4
15 GHz with a rainfall rate mm/hr using ITU-
R model. With an increase in frequency, there is a significant
increase in the attenuation as shown in Fig. 4. The attenuation
is 0.00814 dB at 1 GHz frequency and 21.39 dB at 15 GHz.
Figure.4. Rain Attenuation Variation with Frequency at Rainfall
Rate mm/hr
The rain attenuation is calculated for 0.001% to 5%
exceedence percentages of an average year as shown in
Fig. 5. The attenuation is 25.28 dB with 0.001% and 0 dB
with 5% exceeded time of an average year. The rainfall rate
(mm/hr) for the location is obtained from India Meteorological
Department and studied for five consecutive years from
2007 2011. The statistical analysis is done by calculating
cumulative distribution function for every month using
MATLAB and it has been observed that the rainfall rate is
maximum and for more duration during July and Augustas
shown in Fig. 6. and hence the rain attenuation will be
predominant during the above period.
Figure. 5. Variation of Rain Attenuation with Respect to % Time
Exceeded
IV. CONCLUSIONS
Due to the spectral congestion of frequency bands
allotted and requirement of higher bandwidths, the importance
of higher frequency bands like Ku band ( 12/14 GHz) and Ka
band ( 20/30 GHz) is becoming more predominant nowadays
for satellite communication services. At these frequencies,
various impairments will cause the signal to fade, among which
rain attenuation is the predominant. In this paper, ITU-R model
is used to predict the rainfall rate and attenuation due to rain,
at KL University, Guntur. The attenuation is calculated, for
different rainfall rates and exceedence percentages of an
average year. The preliminary results indicate that the
attenuation increases with frequency and rainfall rate. These
predicted values can be compared with the measured
experimental data after installation of the setup in the location.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
The authors wish to thank Dr. K. Sarat Kumar, Associate
Dean, Sponsored Research and Dr. D. Venkata Ratnam, KL
University for their valuable suggestions. This work was
supported in part by a grant from Department of Science and
Technology, New Delhi, India.
REFERENCES
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Communication, John Wiley and Sons, 2003,536 pp.
[2] Cost Action 255 Final Report, Radiowave Propagation
Modelling for SatCom Services at Ku-Band and Above, ESA
Publications Division, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 2002.
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combination of tropospheric and local environment
propagation effects for mobile satellite systems above 10
GHz, IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol., vol. 59, no. 3, pp. 1109
1120, Mar. 2010.
[4] Timothy, K. I.; Ong, J. T. &Choo, E. B. L. (2002), Raindrop
Size Distribution Using Method of Moments for Terrestrial
and Satellite Communication Applications in Singapore, IEEE
Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 15, No. 10,
October 2002, 1420- 1424, ISSN: 0018-926X.
[5] Maitra A., Rain Attenuation Modeling From Measurements
of Rain Drop Size Distribution in The Indian Region, IEEE
Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters. Vol. 3, P. 180
181, 2004.
[6] John S. Seybold, Introduction to RF Propagation, John Wiley
& Sons, 2005.
[7] Athanasios D. Panagopoulos, Pantelis - Daniel M. Arapoglou,
and Panayotis G. Cottis, Satellite Communications at Ku,
Ka, and V Bands: Propagation Impairments and Mitigation
Techniques, IEEE Communications surveys, Volume 6, No.3,
2004.
[8] Ojo, J. S., M. O. Ajewole, and S. K. Sarkar, Rain rate and rain
attenuation prediction for Satellite Communication in Ku and
Ka bands over Nigeria, Progress in Electromagnetics Research
B, Vol. 5, 207-223, 2008.
[9] R. K. Crane, Prediction of attenuation by rain, IEEE Trans.
Commun., vol. 28, pp. 17171733, Sept. 1980.
[10] R. K. Crane and H. C. Shieh, A two-component rain model
for the prediction of site diversity improvement performance,
Radio Sci., vol. 24, no. 6, pp. 641655, 1989.
[11] A. Dissanayake, J. Allnutt, and F. Haidara, A Prediction
Model that Combines Rain Attenuation and other Propagation
Impairments along Earth-Satellite Paths, IEEE Trans.
Antennas Propag., vol. 45, no. 10, 1997, pp. 154658
[12] Moupfouma F., Martin L. Modelling of the rainfall rate cu-
mulative distribution for the design of satellite and terrestrial
communication systems, International J. of Satellite Comm.,
9
0. 01
62.83 R =
0.01
62.83 R =
2012 ACEEE
DOI: 01.IJCOM.3.3.
ACEEE Int. J. on Communications, Vol. 03, No. 03, Nov 2012
1995. Vol. 13. P. 105115.
[13] Dong You Choi, Jae Young Pyun, Sun Kuh Noh, and Sang
Woong Lee, Comparison of Measured Rain Attenuation in
the 12.25 GHz Band with Predictions by the ITU-R Model,
International Journal of Antennas and Propagation, Hindawi
Publishers, 2012.
[14] International Telecommunication Union, Characteristics of
precipitation for propagation modeling, Recommendation
ITU- R, P.837-5, Geneva 2007.
[15] ITU-R P.618-9, Propagation data and prediction methods
required for the design of earth-space telecommunication
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Switzerland, 2007.
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R P Sers., March 2005.
BIOGRAPHIES
M. Sridhar received B. Tech degree from
Acharya Nagarjuna University, Guntur, In-
dia in 2001 and M.Tech degree from
Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University,
Anantapur, India in 2009. He is a Member
of The Instituition of Electronics and Tele-
communications Engineers (IETE) and
presently working as an Associate Professor in KL
University, Guntur, India. He is pursuing Ph.D in
Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University Kakinada,
Kakinada, India and his research area of interest is Satellite
Communications. He is having 11 years of teaching
experience.
K.Padma Raju received B.Tech from
Nagarjuna University, M. Tech from NIT
Warangal, Ph. D from Andhra
UniversityIndia and Post-Doctoral Fellow-
ship at Hoseo University, South Korea. He
has worked as Digital Signal Processing
Software Engineer in Signion Systems Pvt.
Ltd., Hyderabad, India, before joining Jawaharlal Nehru
Technological University Kakinada, India.He has 17 years of
teaching experience and is Professor of Electronics
andCommunication Engineering, Jawaharlal Nehru Techno-
logical University Kakinada, India. Presently he is working
as Principal, University College of Engineering, Jawaharlal
Nehru Technological University Kakinada, India.He worked
as Research Professor at Hoseo University, South Korea
during 2006-2007. He has published 30 technical papers in
National/International Journals/Conference proceedings and
guiding 06 research students in the area of Antennas, EMI/
EMC and Signal Processing His fields of interest are Signal
Processing Miicrowave and Radar Communications and EMI/
EMC.
Ch. Srinivasa Rao is currently working as
ProfessorofElectronics&Communica-
tion Engineering, Sri SaiAditya Institute of
Science & Technology, Surampalem, Andhra
Pradesh, India. He obtained Ph. D from
University College of Engineering,
Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University
Kakinada, Kakinada, Andhra Pradesh, India in 2009. He
received M. Tech. degree from JNTU, Hyderabad and B. Tech
from Nagarjuna University. He has 12 International Journal,
Conference Publications and one Monograph to his credit.
He is guiding 06 research students in Digital Image/Signal
Processing and Communications Engineering. Dr. Rao is a
Fellow of IETE and member of IEEE & CSI.
Figure. 6. Cumulative Distribution Functions of Rainfall rate during 2007 2011 in Guntur
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