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Satellite communication systems operating at Ku (12/14 GHz) and Ka band (20/30 GHz) frequencies are used for broadband multimedia and internet based services. At these frequencies, the signal will be affected by various propagation impairments such as rain attenuation, cloud attenuation, tropospheric scintillation, ionospheric scintillation, water vapour attenuation, and rain and ice depolarization. Among all the propagation impairments, rain attenuation is the most important and critical parameter. In this paper, rain attenuation is calculated at KL University, Guntur using ITU-R rain attenuation model. The preliminary results of the work will be used to calculate the attenuation experimentally and comparison can be made, which helps to develop a new rain attenuation model at Ku and Ka bands.

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DOI: 01.IJCOM.3.3.

ACEEE Int. J. on Communications, Vol. 03, No. 03, Nov 2012

Estimation of Rain Attenuation based on ITU-R Model

in Guntur (A.P), India

M. Sridhar

1

,K. Padma Raju

2

, and Ch. Srinivasa Rao

3

1

Department of ECE, KL University, Guntur, India

Email: sridhar.m@kluniversity.in

2

Department of ECE, JNTU Kakinada, Kakinada, India

Email: padmaraju_k@yahoo.com

3

Department of ECE, Sri SaiAditya Institute of Science & Technology, Surampalem, India

Email: ch_rao@rediffmail.com

4

Abstract Satellite communication systems operating at Ku

(12/14 GHz) and Ka band (20/30 GHz) frequencies are used

for broadband multimedia and internet based services. At these

frequencies, the signal will be affected by various propagation

impairments such as rain attenuation, cloud attenuation,

tropospheric scintillation, ionospheric scintillation, water

vapour attenuation, and rain and ice depolarization. Among

all the propagation impairments, rain attenuation is the most

important and critical parameter. In this paper, rain

attenuation is calculated at KL University, Guntur using

ITU-R rain attenuation model. The preliminary results of the

work will be used to calculate the attenuation experimentally

and comparison can be made, which helps to develop a new

rain attenuation model at Ku and Ka bands.

Index Terms satellite communication, propagation

impairments, rain attenuation, ITU-R model, rain fall rate

I. INTRODUCTION

Communications system design requires the development

of a link budget between the transmitter and the receiver that

provides an adequate signal level at the receiver s

demodulator to achieve the required level of performance

and availability [1]. The performance and availability of the

link can be specified or measured using Bit Error Rate (BER)

and Carrier-to-Noise ratio (C/N). It is the link designers task

to ensure that loss of signal occurs for no longer than the

time permitted for that service. The development of an

accurate link budget, which includes losses due to the

passage of the signal through the atmosphere, is critical.

There are many phenomena that lead to signal loss on

transmission through the earths atmosphere. These include:

cloud attenuation, tropospheric scintillation, ionospheric

Scintillation, Water vapour attenuation, rain and ice

depolarization, and rain attenuation [2].Among all the

propagation impairments, rain attenuation is the most

important for frequencies above 10 GHz, as it causes

maximum attenuation and therefore, is the limiting factor in

Ku and Ka band satellite link design [3].

The rain drops absorb most of the electromagnetic energy at

these frequency ranges and some of the energy gets scattered

by Rayleigh and Mie scattering mechanisms [4]. The rain

drop size distribution is exponential when expressed

mathematically as,

mm

-1

m

-3

(1)

where is the median drop diameter and is the

number of drops per cubic meter with diameters between D

and D + dD mm [5]. The rainfall rate R is related to N (D) and

also to the terminal velocity of V (D) the falling drops in

meters per second with diameter D by

mm/hr (2)

A. Rain Attenuation Prediction Models

The amount of fading due to rain is a function of the

frequency and is highly correlated with rain rate. By using

rain statistics for a given region, it is possible to determine

the probability that a given fade depth will be exceeded. The

rain availabilityof a communication link is the complement of

the probability of the link fade margin being exceeded [6].

Rain fade mitigation techniques like power control, signal

processing and site diversity methods are used to improve

the performance of link design and this requires proper

prediction of attenuation due to rain [7]. There are two

approaches to predict the rain attenuation namely, a physical

method in which rain is described all the way along the path,

and an empirical method which uses the effective path length

and rainfall rate using the information from various data bases

[8]. Various rain attenuation prediction models are available

based on the geographical and climatic conditions. The

important models are Crane global model [9], Two-component

model [10], Simple Attenuation model (SAM), Excell model,

MismeWaldteufel model, Garcia model [1], International

Telecommunication Union Radio Communication sector

(ITU-R) model [2], Bryant model, Dissanayake, Allnutt and

Haidara (DAH) model [11], and Moupfouma model [12].

Among these models, ITU-R model provides the most

accurate statistical estimate of attenuation on slant paths [2].

B. ITU-R P. 618 - 9 Rain Attenuation Model

TheITU Radio communication Sector(ITU-R) is one

6

( )

0

( )

D

D

m

N D N e

=

3 3

0.6 10 ( ) ( ) R D V D N D dD

=

}

M. Sridhar is with KL University, Guntur, Andhra Pradesh, India

(email: sridhar.m@kluniversity.in).

Dr. K. Padma Raju is presently working as Principal, University

College of Engineering, JNTU Kakinada, Kakinada, Andhra Pradesh,

India (email: padmaraju_k@yahoo.com).

Dr. Ch. Srinivasa Rao is working as Principal, Sri Sai Aditya Insti-

tute of Science & Techology, Surampalem, Andhra Pradesh, India

(email:ch_rao@rediffmail.com).

m

D ( ) N DdD

ACEEE Int. J. on Communications, Vol. 03, No. 03, Nov 2012

2012 ACEEE

DOI: 01.IJCOM.3.3. 4

among the three divisions of the International

Telecommunication Union (ITU) which is responsible

forradiocommunication.Itmanagestheinternationalradio-

frequency spectrum and satellite orbit resources and also

enhances standards for radio communication systems with

the objective of ensuring the effective use of the spectrum.

The ITU-R provides global rain statistics by dividing the

earth into rain regions and assigning a rain rate to each region

along with the probability of that rain rate being exceeded

[6]. This model uses the rain rate at 0.01% probability level

for the estimation of attenuation and then applies an

adjustment factor to the predicted rain fade depth for other

probabilities. It can be used for the frequencies from

4 - 55 GHz and 0.001 - 5% percentage probability range. It is

based on log-normal distribution and both rain intensity and

path attenuation distribution conform to the same log-normal

distribution. Inhomogeneity in rain in both horizontal and

vertical directions is considered in the prediction [13].

II. METHOD FOR ESTIMATION OF RAIN ATTENUATION

The proposed experimental setup is at KL University,

Guntur which is located 29.08 m above sea level. The latitude

and longitude of the location are N and E

respectively. Two DTH receivers operating in Ku band is

installed in the location which receives the signal from NSS6

satellite ( E). A disdrometer can be used to measure and

record the rainfall intensity (mm/hr) with 1-min integration

time which also specifies rain drop size. The satellite signal

strength will be measured using a spectrum analyzer and the

information can be recorded with a data logger. The rainfall

rate exceeding 0.01% of an average year in mm/hr for the

location is calculated using Recommendation ITU-R P. 837-5

which requires the coordinates of the location. The input

parameters requiredto this model are: point rainfall rate for

0.01% of an average year (mm/hr) with 1-min integration time,

height of the location above mean sea level (Km), elevation

angle of the receiver (degrees), latitude of the location

(degrees), frequency (GHz), polarization angle (degrees), and

effective radius of the Earth (Km) [14]. Table I gives the

geographical and experimental parameters for the experimental

site.

TABLE I. GEOGRAPHICAL/EXPERIMENTAL PARAMETERS FOR THE LOCATION

A. Calculation of Attenuation based on ITU-R Model

Fig. 1 shows the schematic representation of earth space

path link and the details of the parameters used in the model.

Based on the geographical conditions and measured rainfall

using the disdrometer, the rain attenuation can be calculated

using ITU-R P. 618 - 9 model in the following

manner [15]:

Step 1. Calculate the rain height (Km)from the

recommendation ITU-R P.839 as

Km (3)

where is the 0 C isotherm height above mean sea level at

the desired location [16].

Figure 1. Schematic presentation of an earth-space path

A: Frozen precipitation

B: Rain Height

C: Liquid precipitation

D: Earth-Space path

Step 2. Determine the slant-path length , below the rain

height from

Km if (4)

where is Elevation angle in degrees, is the height of the

location above sea level in Km, and is the rain height in Km.

Step 3. Obtain the horizontal projection, , of the slant path

length from

Km (5)

Step 4. Determine the rainfall rate, ,exceeded for 0.01%

of an average year, with 1-min integration time. It can be

calculated with the help of statistical data available in various

meteorological databases or from the maps provided by

ITU-R P.837.

Step 5. Calculate the specific attenuation, , by using the

frequency dependent regression coefficients provided in

ITU-R P.838 Recommendation and using [17],

dB/Km (6)

where and depend on frequency, polarization, raindrop

size distribution and temperature and obtained using,

where is the polarization tilt angle relative to horizontal.

Step 6. Determine the horizontal path adjustment factor,

for 0.01% of the time using

(9)

7

80 .54'

16 .46'

95

R

h

0

0.36

R

h h = +

0

h

s

L

5 >

s

h

R

h

( )

R s

s

h h

L

sin

=

G

L

cos

G s

L L =

0.01

R

R

0.01

R

0.01

( )

R

k R

=

k

2

( ) cos cos(2 )

2

H V H V

k k k k t

k

( + +

=

(7)

2

( ) cos cos(2 )

2

H H V V H H V V

k k k k t

k

( + +

=

(8)

t

0.01

r

0 .01

2

1

1 0. 78 0. 38 1

G

L G R

r

L

e

f

=

( +

Latitude 16

0

.46N

Longitude 80

0

.54E

Height Above Sea Level 0.029 Km

Elevation Angle 64.5

0

Polarization Angle 40.4

0

2012 ACEEE

DOI: 01.IJCOM.3.3.

ACEEE Int. J. on Communications, Vol. 03, No. 03, Nov 2012

4

where f is the frequency in GHz.

Step 7. Calculate the adjusted rainy path length, (Km),

through rain using

Step 8. Obtain the vertical reduction factor ,

for 0. 01% of the time by using

Step 9. Determine the effective path length through rain,

(Km), given by

Step 10. Calculate the predicted attenuation exceeded for

0.01% of an average year by using

dB (17)

Step 11. The estimated attenuation to be exceeded for the

other percentages of an average year, in the range 0.001% to

10% may then be estimated using as

where p is the percentage probability of interest and is

given by

(19)

(20)

III. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

The theoretical values for rain attenuation are calculated

for different rainfall rates using ITU-R model at KL University.

The DTH receiver installed in the site operates in Ku band

whose elevation angle is 64.5

0

. The rainfall rates are calculated

based on the geographical latitude and longitude, and will be

used to measure attenuation at different frequencies [15].

Table II gives the variation of rainfall rate and attenuation

with respect to % time exceeded of an average year at 11 GHz.

The rainfall rate is calculated using the ITU-R P. 837 - 5

Recommendation and the variation of the rainfall rate

(mm/hr) is as shown in Fig. 2, for different exceedence

percentages. At 11 GHz operating frequency, it can be

observed that the maximum rainfall rate is 115.89 mm/hr at

0.001% time of an average year. The rainfall rate is 62.83 mm/

hr exceeded for 0.01% of an average year, with 1-min

TABLE II.VARIATION OF RAINFALL RATE AND ATTENUATION WITH RESPECT TO %

TIME EXCEEDED

integration time. The obtained rainfall rate with different %

time exceedence of average year will be compared and studied

with practical rainfall rates measured with disdrometer

arrangement as a next step in the research work.

Figure. 3. Variation of attenuation with respect to rainfall rate

The attenuation is calculated for frequencies from 1 GHz to

8

0.01

cos

G

R

L r

L for

> =

(10)

( )

sin

R S

S

h h

L for

= s

(11)

where

1

0.01

tan

R S

G

h h

L r

(

=

(

(12)

0.01

v

0.01

/1

2

1

1 sin 31(1 ) 0.45

R R

v

L

e

f

+

=

(

+

(

(

(13)

where (14) 36 , 36 for < =

(15)

0, 36 for = >

(16)

0.01

A

| | 0.01

0.655 0.03 ( ) 0.045 ( ) sin (1 )

0.01

( )

0.01

l n p ln A p

p

p

A A

+

=

(18)

1%, 0 p > =

1%, 0 p < =

36 if >

for

for

0.005( 36) 25 36 for and = > <

(21)

0.005( 36) 1.8 4.25sin , = + (22)

25 36 and < <

for

Figure. 2.Variations of rainfall rate (mm/hr) with respect

to % time exceeded

The attenuation of the signal is obtained at 11 GHz frequency,

using ITU-R P. 838 - 1 Recommendation for different rainfall

rates. It is evident from Fig. 3 that the attenuation increases

with rainfall rate. The theoretical results will be used to study

and compare the amount of attenuation introduced practically

in the extended future research work.

% Time Rainfall Rate Attenuation

exceeded (mm/hr) (dB)

0.001% 115.89 25.28

0.01% 62.83 12.47

0.1% 17.32 2.03

1% 1.96 0.11

5% 0 0

R

L

E

L

0.01 E R

L L v =

0.01 R E

A L =

ACEEE Int. J. on Communications, Vol. 03, No. 03, Nov 2012

2012 ACEEE

DOI: 01.IJCOM.3.3. 4

15 GHz with a rainfall rate mm/hr using ITU-

R model. With an increase in frequency, there is a significant

increase in the attenuation as shown in Fig. 4. The attenuation

is 0.00814 dB at 1 GHz frequency and 21.39 dB at 15 GHz.

Figure.4. Rain Attenuation Variation with Frequency at Rainfall

Rate mm/hr

The rain attenuation is calculated for 0.001% to 5%

exceedence percentages of an average year as shown in

Fig. 5. The attenuation is 25.28 dB with 0.001% and 0 dB

with 5% exceeded time of an average year. The rainfall rate

(mm/hr) for the location is obtained from India Meteorological

Department and studied for five consecutive years from

2007 2011. The statistical analysis is done by calculating

cumulative distribution function for every month using

MATLAB and it has been observed that the rainfall rate is

maximum and for more duration during July and Augustas

shown in Fig. 6. and hence the rain attenuation will be

predominant during the above period.

Figure. 5. Variation of Rain Attenuation with Respect to % Time

Exceeded

IV. CONCLUSIONS

Due to the spectral congestion of frequency bands

allotted and requirement of higher bandwidths, the importance

of higher frequency bands like Ku band ( 12/14 GHz) and Ka

band ( 20/30 GHz) is becoming more predominant nowadays

for satellite communication services. At these frequencies,

various impairments will cause the signal to fade, among which

rain attenuation is the predominant. In this paper, ITU-R model

is used to predict the rainfall rate and attenuation due to rain,

at KL University, Guntur. The attenuation is calculated, for

different rainfall rates and exceedence percentages of an

average year. The preliminary results indicate that the

attenuation increases with frequency and rainfall rate. These

predicted values can be compared with the measured

experimental data after installation of the setup in the location.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The authors wish to thank Dr. K. Sarat Kumar, Associate

Dean, Sponsored Research and Dr. D. Venkata Ratnam, KL

University for their valuable suggestions. This work was

supported in part by a grant from Department of Science and

Technology, New Delhi, India.

REFERENCES

[1] Pratt, T., C. W. Bostian, and J. E. Alnutt, Satellite

Communication, John Wiley and Sons, 2003,536 pp.

[2] Cost Action 255 Final Report, Radiowave Propagation

Modelling for SatCom Services at Ku-Band and Above, ESA

Publications Division, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 2002.

[3] K. P. Liolis, A. D. Panagopoulos, and S. Scalise, On the

combination of tropospheric and local environment

propagation effects for mobile satellite systems above 10

GHz, IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol., vol. 59, no. 3, pp. 1109

1120, Mar. 2010.

[4] Timothy, K. I.; Ong, J. T. &Choo, E. B. L. (2002), Raindrop

Size Distribution Using Method of Moments for Terrestrial

and Satellite Communication Applications in Singapore, IEEE

Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 15, No. 10,

October 2002, 1420- 1424, ISSN: 0018-926X.

[5] Maitra A., Rain Attenuation Modeling From Measurements

of Rain Drop Size Distribution in The Indian Region, IEEE

Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters. Vol. 3, P. 180

181, 2004.

[6] John S. Seybold, Introduction to RF Propagation, John Wiley

& Sons, 2005.

[7] Athanasios D. Panagopoulos, Pantelis - Daniel M. Arapoglou,

and Panayotis G. Cottis, Satellite Communications at Ku,

Ka, and V Bands: Propagation Impairments and Mitigation

Techniques, IEEE Communications surveys, Volume 6, No.3,

2004.

[8] Ojo, J. S., M. O. Ajewole, and S. K. Sarkar, Rain rate and rain

attenuation prediction for Satellite Communication in Ku and

Ka bands over Nigeria, Progress in Electromagnetics Research

B, Vol. 5, 207-223, 2008.

[9] R. K. Crane, Prediction of attenuation by rain, IEEE Trans.

Commun., vol. 28, pp. 17171733, Sept. 1980.

[10] R. K. Crane and H. C. Shieh, A two-component rain model

for the prediction of site diversity improvement performance,

Radio Sci., vol. 24, no. 6, pp. 641655, 1989.

[11] A. Dissanayake, J. Allnutt, and F. Haidara, A Prediction

Model that Combines Rain Attenuation and other Propagation

Impairments along Earth-Satellite Paths, IEEE Trans.

Antennas Propag., vol. 45, no. 10, 1997, pp. 154658

[12] Moupfouma F., Martin L. Modelling of the rainfall rate cu-

mulative distribution for the design of satellite and terrestrial

communication systems, International J. of Satellite Comm.,

9

0. 01

62.83 R =

0.01

62.83 R =

2012 ACEEE

DOI: 01.IJCOM.3.3.

ACEEE Int. J. on Communications, Vol. 03, No. 03, Nov 2012

1995. Vol. 13. P. 105115.

[13] Dong You Choi, Jae Young Pyun, Sun Kuh Noh, and Sang

Woong Lee, Comparison of Measured Rain Attenuation in

the 12.25 GHz Band with Predictions by the ITU-R Model,

International Journal of Antennas and Propagation, Hindawi

Publishers, 2012.

[14] International Telecommunication Union, Characteristics of

precipitation for propagation modeling, Recommendation

ITU- R, P.837-5, Geneva 2007.

[15] ITU-R P.618-9, Propagation data and prediction methods

required for the design of earth-space telecommunication

systems, International Telecommunication Union, Geneva,

Switzerland, 2007.

[16] Rain height model for prediction methods, Recommendation

ITU-R P.839-3, ITU-R P Sers., Int. Telecomm. Union, Geneva,

2001.

[17] Specific attenuation model for rain for use in

predictionmethods, Recommendation ITU-R P.838-3, ITU-

R P Sers., March 2005.

BIOGRAPHIES

M. Sridhar received B. Tech degree from

Acharya Nagarjuna University, Guntur, In-

dia in 2001 and M.Tech degree from

Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University,

Anantapur, India in 2009. He is a Member

of The Instituition of Electronics and Tele-

communications Engineers (IETE) and

presently working as an Associate Professor in KL

University, Guntur, India. He is pursuing Ph.D in

Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University Kakinada,

Kakinada, India and his research area of interest is Satellite

Communications. He is having 11 years of teaching

experience.

K.Padma Raju received B.Tech from

Nagarjuna University, M. Tech from NIT

Warangal, Ph. D from Andhra

UniversityIndia and Post-Doctoral Fellow-

ship at Hoseo University, South Korea. He

has worked as Digital Signal Processing

Software Engineer in Signion Systems Pvt.

Ltd., Hyderabad, India, before joining Jawaharlal Nehru

Technological University Kakinada, India.He has 17 years of

teaching experience and is Professor of Electronics

andCommunication Engineering, Jawaharlal Nehru Techno-

logical University Kakinada, India. Presently he is working

as Principal, University College of Engineering, Jawaharlal

Nehru Technological University Kakinada, India.He worked

as Research Professor at Hoseo University, South Korea

during 2006-2007. He has published 30 technical papers in

National/International Journals/Conference proceedings and

guiding 06 research students in the area of Antennas, EMI/

EMC and Signal Processing His fields of interest are Signal

Processing Miicrowave and Radar Communications and EMI/

EMC.

Ch. Srinivasa Rao is currently working as

ProfessorofElectronics&Communica-

tion Engineering, Sri SaiAditya Institute of

Science & Technology, Surampalem, Andhra

Pradesh, India. He obtained Ph. D from

University College of Engineering,

Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University

Kakinada, Kakinada, Andhra Pradesh, India in 2009. He

received M. Tech. degree from JNTU, Hyderabad and B. Tech

from Nagarjuna University. He has 12 International Journal,

Conference Publications and one Monograph to his credit.

He is guiding 06 research students in Digital Image/Signal

Processing and Communications Engineering. Dr. Rao is a

Fellow of IETE and member of IEEE & CSI.

Figure. 6. Cumulative Distribution Functions of Rainfall rate during 2007 2011 in Guntur

4

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