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MoGRAW-HILL

SERIESIN

MECHANICAL

ENGINEERING

jackr. HOUWAN,

Southern

Consulting

Metliodist

Editor

University

barron

\342\200\242 Cryogenic

Systems

ec.kf.rt \342\200\242 Introduction

f.okert and drakp.

to Heat and Mass Transfer

\342\200\242 Analysis

of Heat and Mass Transfr

eckertand drake \342\200\242 Heat and Mass Transfer

ham,

crane, and

Rogers

Mechanics

\342\200\242

of Machinery

hartenbero and denavit

\342\200\242 Kinematic

Synthesis

of Linkages

hinze

\342\200\242

Turbulence

jaoobsen and

ayre

Engineering

\342\226\240

Vibrations

juvinai.l.'

kays

ligiity

martin

piielan

\342\200\242

\342\200\242

Engineering

\342\226\240

Considerations of Stress, Strain, and Strength

Convective

Heat and Mass Transfer

Engine Processes

and

Dynamics

of Machinery

of Machinery

Combustion

\342\226\240 Kinematics

Dynamics

\342\200\242

of Machines

hieean \342\226\240 Fundamentals

of Mechanical

Design

raven

sohenck

Automatic

\342\226\240

\342\200\242 Theories

Control Engineering

of Engineering

Experimentation

sofilioiitino

smoi.EY

siiioi.f.y

\342\200\242 Boundary-!xiyer

Analysis

Analysis

\342\200\242 Dynamic

Kinematic

\342\226\240

Theory

of Machines

if Mechanisms

siiioi.ey \342\200\242 Mechanical

siiioli'.y

stokckkr

Simulation

\342\226\240

\342\200\242 Refrigeration

Engineering

of Mechanical

Design

Systems

and

Air Conditioning

Boundary-LayerTheory

Dr. HERMANN SCHLICHTING

New

Profoflgor

Emeritus

at tlic

Engineering

University

of Braunschweig,

Gornmny

Former Director of the Acrodynamische

Vorsuchsjinslalt

Got tinge\"

Professor at

Drown

Translated

by

Dr.J. KESTIN

University

in Providence, Rhode Island

Seventh Edition

McGRAW-HILL

BOOKCOMPANY

New

Diisseldorf

York

Louis

\342\200\242 Johannesburg

\342\200\242

St.

\342\200\242

San

\342\200\242

Sao

Francisco

\342\200\242

\342\200\242

\342\200\242

Auckland

\342\200\242

\342\200\242

London

Paulo

Madrid

Singapore

Mexico

\342\200\242

Sydnoy

Delhi

\342\200\242

Panama

\342\200\242

Paris

\342\200\242

Bogota

\342\200\242

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Montreal

\342\200\242 Tokyo

\342\200\242

\342\226\240 Toronto

All

ho

BOUN DAB V- BAY KB Til KOB V

(\\>pyright

\302\251

1979, 19(58,19(50.1955 hy

McOriiu

Hill,

Inc.

rights

reserved. Bruited

in

(he

l_*ni(ed

States

of America. Xo part

of this

reproduced,

electronic,

stored

in :i retrieval

system,

or transmitted,

in

any

form

mechanical,

photocopying,

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or

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34507890KB KB

78:(2109

Library

of Congress Cataloging

in Publication

Datn

Seldiehring,

Boundary-layer

Hermann,

theory.

(McGraw-Hill

seriesin mechanical

engineering)

TrnusbiHon of (Ircnzschichr-Thcorie.

Jlibliography;

Boundary

17

p.

1.

Includes indexes.

layer,

I. Title.

TB574.B(5S28:i1979

029.132:17 78-17704

ISBN 0-O7-0r>5:W4-3

publication

any

prior written

may

means,

l\302\273y

This book was set in Atitiqun.

The editor was Frank

J.Cerra and

John

F. I larte.

the production supervisor was

First

Copyright 1951 hy (\342\226\240\342\200\242Brnnn (vorin. O.Braunsehe Nofhnchdruekerci u. Verlng)

published

in

the

(Wuian

language

under

the. title

\"(!H KNZSCI1I0HT-TIIKOIUK\"

OinhH,

and

Karlsruhe

First

Second

Third

English

Knglish

Knglish

Kdition

Edition

Edition

(Second Edition

(Fourth

(Sixth

Kdition

Kdifiou

of the hook) published

of (he book) published

of the book) published

in 1955

in 1900

in

1908

Contents

List of Tables

Foreword

Author's

Translator's

Preface

to the Seventh (Fngltah)

Kclition

ICdition

Preface to the Seventh

(Engltali)

From

the Author

s Preface to the First

(Herman) Edition

introduction

Pari

A.

I''iiri<lariicri1nl

laws

of motion

for

a

vimrou\302\253

fluid

CHAPTER

I.

Outline

of fluid

Real

I). Viscosity

i\\.

c.

ami

perfect

fluids

d. The

c.

f.

Compressibility

Principle

Ibigcn-Poisr-nillc

of

similarity;

Comparison between

References

motion

with

frit

lion

equations of flow the

the theory

Reynolds

of

n n< I

through

a

Mach numbers

pipe

perfect fluids

mid experiment

CIlAPTKR

II. Outline

of boundary

layer

theory

n.

h.

e.

References

The boundarydaycr

.Separation

Turbulent

and

flow

a

concept

vortex

in

formation

pipe and

in a boundary

layer

CIIAPTFR III.Derivation

of the

(Nn vicr-Stnkcs equations)

equations

of motion

of a compressible viscous fluid

a.

b.

c.

rl.

e.

Fundamental

(General

The rule

Relation

stress

equations

system

m Inch

at

between

of motion

and

continuity

body

applied

iu a deformahle

a

fluid

element

stress and

rate

thermodynamic

is strained

of deformation

pressure

in Now

.Stokes's hypothesis

f. Bulk

g.

The

References

viscosity

and

Navior-.Slokcs equations

to fluid

flow

CHAPTER.

IV.

Ceneral properties of (ho Navier-Ntokes

equations

a.

Derivation

of

Reynolds's principle

\"solutions\"

ca.seof very

caseof

very

illustration

of

of the

Navicr-Stokes equations

Reynolds

equations

number)

I

urge

Reynolds

numbers)

to (he limit

R

->oo

b. Frictionless flow

tin

c.

The Navier-Stokes

d.

The limiting

limiting

c. The

f. Mathematical

References

similarity

(very

from

(he

Navier-Stokcs equations

transport

equations interpreted

large

sntjdl

viscosity

as vorlreity

small

viscous forces

(veiy

of the process of going

XVI

xi

x x

I

I

;

r\302\273

V

o

I

\\->

20

21!

21

21

28

'M)

44

47

47

49

52

T>8

t>0

t>l

(54

OS

70

70

72

7*1

7t>

77

80

82

vi

Contents

CHArTER

V.

Exact solutions of the Navicr-Stokes equations

83

a. Farallel

1.Parallel flow

2.

flow

 

83

channel

and Couettc flow

84

through

a pipe

cylinders

problem

85

87

90

91

92

93

94

95

95

99

100

102

107

109

110

112

112

113

116

123

125

through

a straight

theory

The HagenPoiscnille

of flow

3. The flow between two concentric rotating

4.

The

suddenly

formation

in

a

pipe,

near nn

accelerated

in Couettc

Flow

C. Flow

5.

7.

8. A general

plane

The flow

exact solutions

in

plane

flow

wall; Stokes's first

motion

rest

flat

plate;

solutions

(Hiemenz flow)

stagnation

flow

channels

from

starting

oscillating class of non-steacty

Stokes'ssecond problem

flow

b. Other

9.

9a. Two-dimensional

11.Flow

12.

13.

10.

Stagnation

Stagnation

non-steady

in three-dimensional

rotating

disk

near a

Flow in convergent and remark

Concluding

Very slow motion

divergent

References

VI.

CHAPTER

a.

b.

c.

The differential

Parallel

The

equations for the easeof very slow motion

a

sphere

theory

of

lubrication

flow past

d. The Ilelc-Shaw

References

hydrod3rnamic

flow

Part

B.

Laminar

boundary

layers

CHAPTER

VII.

boundary

Boundary.layer

layer

on

a

plate

equation

for

two-dimensional

incompressible

a.

b.

Derivation

of boundary-layer

of

a

boundary

equations for two-dimensional layer

of the

boundary,

plate

The

A remark on

separation

c.

d.

e.

f.

the integration

layer

layer

of

along

higher

layer equations

Skin friction

The boundary

Ronndary

a flat;

order

References

flow

flow;

CIIAPTFR

a.

b.

c.

VIII.

General

of the

properties of tile

boundary-Ia3rer

equations

Ia3'cr on the

Dependence

\"Similar1'

characteristics of a boundary

the

boundary-Ia3rcr

boundary-layer

solutions of the

of

equations

equations

Transformation

into

the

d.

equation

The

References

momentum

and

energy.integral

equations for the boundary

Reynolds

ninnhcr

heat-conduction

layer

127

127

131

133

134

135

144

148

150

150

152

157

158

102

CHAPTER

IX.

dimensional

Exact

motion

solutions of the steady-state boundary-layer

'

a.

b.

c. Flow pasta

d.

c.

Flow

Flow

past a wedgo in a

convergent

cylinder;

for the

layer wake of flat

in the

channel

symmetrical

potential

plate

laminar

ease (Blasius series)

flow

given

by

at 7,croincidence

U(x)

=

jet

(low

Boundary

Flow

The two-dimensional

Parallel

f.

g.

slicams in laminar

Ut>

equations

\342\200\224

ax\"

in

two-

163

164

166

168

173

175

179

183

Contents

li.

Flow in the inlet

of a straight

i. The method of finite (liMcrcnees

length

j.

Boundary

References

Ia3fer

of second order

channel

CHARTHIl

X.

Approximate

equations

methods for

hound it ry-layer

the

solution

of the

two-dimensional,

steady

a.

b.

c.

Application

incidence

of the

The

dimensional

Comparison

momentum

equation

to the

flow

and

past a flat

plate at zero

for

two-

approximate method due to Th. von Karman

flows

between

the

K. Pohlhaiiscn

1.Flat plate at zero incidence

2.

3. Flow

Furl

Laminar

Two-dimensional

.stagnation

cylinder

past a circular

her examples

flow

approximate and exact solutions

flow

d.

e.

with adverse presume gradient; separation

References

CHAPTER

XI.

Axially

.symmetrical

and

(hrcc dimensional

hotindary

layers

a.

lOxaet

1.

2.

3.

4.

solutions for

near the

jet

axially

ground

symmetrical

wake

body

axinlly

boundary

symmetrical

layers

yawed

bodies

Rotation

The cimtlav

boundary

layers

The axially symmetric

fioimdory

layer

on a

of revolution

symmetric

layers

I). Approximate solutions for

e.

d.

1.

2.

3.

Approximate

Klow

in

Boundary

layers

Relation

Munglcr'a

between

solutions for

the entrance of a pipe

boundary

on bodies which do not rotate

boundary

layers;

layers

on rotating

axially

bodies of revolution

and

two-dimensional

transformation

Three-dimensional

1, The boundary

2.

Roinulnry

layers

boundary

layer

on a

on other

cylinder

References

CHARTER

XII.

Thermal

boundary

layers

in laminar

flow

a.

b.

c.

d.

Derivation

Temperature of

Theory

Kxact

of the

similarity

energy

equation

increase

in

through

heat

adiahatie

transfer

compression; stagnation

temperature

1.Couette flow

2. Pni.scuillc flow

solutions for the problem of temperature distribution

through

a channel

with

flat

boundary

layers

walls

in a viscous flow

e. HouiMlrtry.lnycr

f.

Comual

I.

simplifications

of

thermal

flows

properties

and

Forced

natural

'2. Adiahatie

wall

'A.

4.

Analogy

Kll'ect

between

of Rrandtl

heat

number

transfer

and

skin friction

g.

Thermal

I.

boundary

flow

layers

past

a

flat

in forced flow

1.Additional similar solutions of the

plate

.'1, Thermal boundary

4.

.\.")

t).

7.

Measurements on

layers

layers

Ia3rers

Rnrallel

at zero incidence

equations for thermal

bodies of arbitrary

boundary

shape

layers

on isothermal

Thermal boundary

Thermal boundary

cylinders Kll'ect of free-stream turbulence

on walls with an arbitrary

on rotationally

and other

body

symmetric

shapes

temperature

and

rotating

distribution

bodies

h.

Thermal

Reference.**

boundary

layers

in natural

flow

vm

Content*

CHAPTKk

XIII.

Laminar

boundary

layers

in compressible (low

a.

Ii.

Physical

Relation

considerations

between the

1.Adiabalic wall

velocity

and the

temperature

2.

Tlio

Heat transfer

Mill,

((Int.

plate,

dp/d.c

\342\200\224

pressure

0)

e.

d.

pin to at zero incidence

layer

with non-zero

1.bOxaetsolutions

Boundary

1.1.Tim

2.

Interaction

gradient

1.2.iSclf-siniilai'solutions

Approximate,

Ijotween

methods

shock

lllingworth-iStcwartson

tt'avp

transformation

boundary

e.

and

layer

Pclorcneos

fields

OHAPTKK

XIV.

Poiimbivy

layer

control in laminar

flow

a.

Mel

1.Motion

bods

of

boundary

of Ilie solid

layer

wall

eoutrol

2. Acceleration of flic boundary

3. Kurt

inn

layer

(lilowing)

difl'ercnt

5. of transition

4. of a

Injection

Prcvcnlion

(i. Cooling

gas

liy

I ho provision ofsnltablc

of Hie wall

suction

I). llonndary-hiyer

1.Theoretical resnlls

1.1.Fundamental

1.2.Kxaet

1.3.

2. Kxpeiimental

Injection

of

a

conations

solutions

Approximate .lolnlions

2.1.Increase in lift

2.2.Decrease, in

results on suction

drag

gus (Pinavy

equations

solutions

e.

1.Theoretical results

2.

1.1.The fundamental

1.2.Kxaet

1.!!.

solutions.

Approximate

Kxperhnciital

dill'crent

boundary

layers)

results

References

shapes.

1)27

327

330

332

332

333

340

340

340

344

352

358

372

378

378

370

 

380

381

382

Laminar

aerofoils

382

 

382

383

383

383

384

302

304

304

307

300

30!)

300

402

402

4()2

403

('11APTKP XV.

Ps'on

steady

boundary

layers

a.

Ocuoral

1.

2. The

remarks on (he calculation

reflations

of non-steady

Hows

boiindarv

layers

Boundary-layer

method

3. ('.('.bio'smethod

4.

5.

().

Kxpaiision

Similar

and

of successive

for

approximations

external

periodic

when

into a series

semi-similar

solutions

formation

a

sleady stream is perturbed

start of motion

solutions

after

slightly

Approximate

1). Pmmdar\\--layer

1.Two-dimensional ease

impulsive

2.

Axially

symmetrical

(oriuafiou

hiiuiidarv-la^er

cylinder

problem

c.

d.

HouiHhiry-laycr

Kxperiniciital

in

accelerated motion the start ing process

at rest

>

oscillations

pciiurhatinn

iuvesl igat ion of

(lows

in

fluid

theory

flow

of hnvmonic

with small,

flow

fbrough

a

e. Periodic

1.

2.

('.('.bin's

Oscillating

3. Kxtcrual

4.

Oscillating

harmonic

pipe

I. Non-steady, compressible liouudnry

layers

408

408

408

410

413 411

415

415

4|{>

4|()

420

423

425

428

428

432

434

43(>

.(;W

Contents

1.

2.

Boundary

Flat

layer

behind

a

moving

with

plate at. xcro incidence

temperature

References

normal

variable

shock wavo

free-stream velocity

and

surface

Pari

C. Transition

CITAI'TKR XVI.

Origin

of turbulence

T

a.

h.

1.Transition

2.

1.

Principles

2.

3.

4.

5.

1,

Sonic

experimental

results on transition

in

in

pipe flow

(he

boundary

of

layer

theory

remarks

stability

from

Inmhnu-

body

(lows

to turbulent

Transition

of the

Introdiietor}'

Foundation

The Orr-Sommcifcld

The

on a solid

of laminar

of the method of small

equation

disturbances

eigenvalue

problem of the Oir-Sommcrfcld

of stability

as they

apply

into

stability

of neutral

st-ability

stability

Ocncral

properties

equation

tn

the

c.

Results of the

plate

theory at zero incidence

Results for the

free

boundary

Someolder investigations

of tho curve

(hit

plate

of

2, Calculation

3,

d. Comparison of the theory 1.Older measurements

2.

Verification

of the

c.

KfTect

of oscillating

remark

Concluding

f.

References

with experiment

by experiment

of transition

theory

of

stability

stream on transition

How

layer

on a flat

CIIARTKR

XV11.

Origin

of turbulence.

IT

a.

b.

KM'cct

of

pressure

gradient

on

transition

in

position of the point of instability

in a boundary

layer

on convex walls

(centrifugal

boundary

forces)

layer along smooth w;d!s for prescribed body shape

Determination

of

of the

layer

c. rCltect

d.

KlTc.ct

1.

of suction on transition

of body forces on transition

2. The flow

Boundary

non-homogenous fluids

transfer

and

(stratification)

e. FlTccUs

1.

due to heat

compressibility

2. The cficct of heat transfer

3. The efTectof compressibility

Stability

f.

of a boundary

1, Flow between concentric

2,

3,

Boundary

Stability

layers

influence

layer

fg.J The

1.

Introductory

remark

in incompressible flow

in the presence of three-dimensional

disturbances

rotating

cylinder

on concave walls

of three-dimensional

boundary

layers

of roughness on transition remark

roughness elements

2. Single, cylindrical

3.

Distributed

Introductory

roughness

flows

h. Axially

References

S3'mmct rical

ClIAl'TKR

XVI11.

a. Introductory

Pari

D. Turbulent

Fundamentals

of turbulent

remarks

boundary

flow

layers

X

Contents

1>.

c.

d.

Moan

Stokes

motion

and

lluctuatinns

Additional,

Derivation

\"apparent''

of

the,

turbulent

stresses

stress tensor of apparent

on

fluctuating

in turbulent

turbulent

streams

equations

e.Some measurements

f.

g.

Engcrgy

Wind-tunnel

distribution

References

turbulence

turbulent,

friction

velocities

from

CHAPTER

XIX.

Theoretical assumptions for the calculation

a. Fundamental

e. Universal

b. Prandtl's

e. further

d. Von Karman's

equations

mixing-length

assumptions for

similarity

theory

the. turbulent

hypothesis

laws

shearing stress

taw

1.Von Karman's velocity-distribution

2. Prandtl's

Kurt her development of theoretical

(.

velocity-distribution

References

law

velocity-distribution

hypotheses

of turbulent

the Navicr

flows

CHAPTER

XX.

Turbulent, flow

through

pipes

a-

b.

c.

d.

c.

f.

g.

h.

i.

j.

Experimental

Relation

Universal

Universal

Pipes of non-circular

Rough

Other

results for smooth

law of friction

pipes

and

laws

between

velocity

for

very

distribution

large

velocity-distribution

resistance

law

for

pipes and

Reynolds

large

numbers

Reynolds numbers

smooth pipes at very

cross-section

equivalent,

sand roughness.

difTtiscrs

a

pipe

of polymers

of

types Flow in curved

Non-steady

roughness

pipes

and

flow

through

by

Drag

reduction

the addition

References

CHAPTER. XXI.

Turbulent

rotating

disk; roughness

boundary

layers

at,

zero

pressure

gradient;

flat

a. The smooth Hat

1.Resistance formula deduced from the

2. Resistance formula

3.

Further

4. ICfl'ert

refinements

of finite,

f>.

Boundary

rotating

\"free\"

deduced from

the

dimensions; boundary

with

suction and

layers

disk

disk

for

plate

'/7-lb-powcr

velocity-distribution

logarithmic

velocity-distribution

layers

in corners

b. The

c. The

blowing

1.The

2.

The disk in a housing

rough

plate

1.The resistance formula

2.

'1.Transition

Measurements on

from

a

single

a uniformly

roughness

a

rough

plate

elements

surface

smooth to

d. Admissible roughness

References

rough

(

plate;

law

law

CIIAPTKR

XXII.

The incompressible turbulent

boundary

layer

with

pressure gradient

a. Koine

I).

\342\226\240

The

experimental

calculation

results

1.tJeiicnd remarks

of two-dimensional

2. 3. integral

Truekenbrodt's

Rasir equations

method

turbulent

boundary

layers

Contents

xi

4.

5.

6.

Quadrature

Application

for

the calculation

of plane

turbulent

turbulent

boundary

layers

of the method

on the behaviour

pressure gradient

boundary

layers

layers

boundary

Remarks

of a

of the

wilh

boundary

7. Turbulent

8.

Boundary

Turbulent

suction and injection

tnaximuni

lift

on cumbered walls

layers

boundary

divergent

on nviofoils;

layers

boundary

c.

d. Three-dimensional

1.

2.

3.

Boundary

Boundary

layers

layers

Convergent

and

References

on bodies of revolution bodies

on rotating

layers

layers

in the presence

CHAPTER

XXIII.

Turbulent

boundary

layers

in compressible (low

a.

b.

c.

1.Turbulent

2.

3.

Relation

1.The

2.

3.

Influence

Oeneral

remarks

heat

between

between

transfer

The fundamental

Relation

equations

velocity

of beat

of heat from

distribution

the

for compressible

coefficients

for

exchange

arid

from

temperatnro

a

flat

rough

in

plate

surfaces.

laws

flow

momentum

distribution

transfer

The transfer

Temperature

of

compressible (low

of friction

1.The flat

2.

Variable

Macb number;

plate

at zero

pressure

incidence

References

and

CHAITER

XXIV.

Free

turbulent

flows;

jets and

wakes

a.

b.

c.

General

Estimation

remarks of the increase in width

smoothing out of a velocity

jet

boundary

behind

jet

free

and of the decreasein velocity

discontinuity

a single

body

Examples

1.The

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

Free

Two-dimensional wake

jet

jet

wall

in

The wake behind a ro\\v of bars

The two-dimensional

The circular

7. The two-dimensional

Diffusion

of temperature

d.

turbulent

flow

References

heat

CHAPTER

XXV.

Determination

of profile

drag

n.

b.

c.

d.

c.

Gcncriil

The experimental

experimental

Calculation

The

remarks

of

method due to Betz

method

due to Jones

cascades

number

lx>ssesin the flow 1.General remarks

2.

3.

influence

Effect

of

of

profile

Maeh

drag

through

Reynolds

number

References

Bibliography

Index of Authors Subjeet Index Abbreviations List of most commonly

used symbols

077

084

\"80

0H7

0!)0

(>!)()

0!)2

0!)2

095

0'.)0

/>07

702

702

702

703

700

707

707

712

713

715

710

723

724

72!)

729

731

735

730

737

739

744

745

747

750

752

755

758

75a

75J)

701

704

70()

76J)

772

775

777

780

797

807

813

815

LislofTables

Tabic

Table

I.I: Viscosity

1.2:

Density,

conversion factors

viscosity, ninl kinematic

viscosity

of water

Mini nil-

in terms of

I

'!:Kinematic

temperature

Table

Table

2.1:Thickness of

viscosity

boundary

liii'liiilfiil.

layer,

How

o,:il trailing

edge of Ihil

nud axirdly

philo nl. zero incidence

/symmetrical

How with

(use

in parallel

Tahle 5.1:Functions

stagnation

from

N,

occurring in the solution of plane

point. iMane

|H)

Kroossliiig

casefrom

J

llowarth

K, M. Sparrow and

[14);nxiiilty symmetrical

Tabic 5.2:Values of the functions needed for

1>3*

the description of tin- How of n di.sk

nt

a

.1.h, flregg

huge

distance from

|.'!2)

rotating

the wall,

in a Hnid at rest, calculated n!. the wall and

as calculated

Table

7.1; The function

afU-r

/(i/)

for

the boundary

layer

along

layer

a Hat

for

plate at 'zero incidence,

a Hat

plate at

zero

of