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Chapter I THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND This chapter presents the background of the study, the objectives,

problem and its significance, the scope and delimitation, as well as the definition of important terms.

Introduction In most stage performances, during the curtain call, main actors usually gather the most applause for a job well done. However, the audience still look forward of seeing the people who worked behind the scenes, who deserves recognition for a master piece, the director and his artistic team. A play may have one or more directors depending on its production needs. Clurman (1974) stated that though the directors do not act, he is responsible for the kind of acting we see on stage and that though he does not usually design the sets, he is responsible for the kind of impression he sets make which implies to everything else on stage. According to Ommaney (1972), Directors are the people upon whom the success and failure of the play most largely depends on. They are responsible for the unification of all the production elements and must be able to delegate authority. They are also responsible for the morale of the people in the production and must help them work together for the success of the play. Different directors have their own way of directing the play. After the directors analyzed the play, their approach to whatever type they feel best to reveal the essence of it will uncover its dramatic content; intensify certain elements and minimize others in order to achieve the productions maximum emotional value that his imagination could find, G. Brown and Garwood (1936). According to Jouvet (as cited in Cole and Chiney,

1963), The director follows his instincts and directs the play he feels and loves, and distorts most of the others to his personal taste. De la Cruz (2004) stated, the unique artistry of directors may be the result of personal experiences that have influenced their approach to theater and the kind of creative work they do. One of the approaches is a collaborative approach where-in the director is not the lone source of artistic ideas for the play. The collaboration may be between two or more directors, a director and his artistic staff, director and playwright and others. Dulaang U.P, the official performing group for theater of University of the Philippines presents four to five plays each season. As the founding artistic director and professor emeritus, Tony Mabesa was given the priviledge to direct a play each season. On the universitys 100th founding anniversary, Mabesa decided to present the musical version of Floy Quintos Isang panaginip na Fili, a play that was presented as a straight play in 1991, 1992, 1993 and 1996 under his direction, (Mabesa 2008). This was supposed to be collaboration between Mabesa and Quintos but eventually Mabesa decided to work as the artistic consultant and leave the directorial job to Quintos.

Objectives of the Study This study aimed to write a case study about the the collaborative directing approach in Floy Quintos Isang Panaginip na Fili. Specifically, it aimed to:

1. Identify the functions of two directors. 2. Describe the work done by the two directors. 3. Describe the collaborative relationship of two directors.

4. Explain the implications of a collaborative directing in a production.

Scope and Limitations of the Study The study is limited in describing the collaborative directing approach of Floy Quintos a director in television, events, concerts and theater and the playwright of Isang Panaginip na Fili with Professor Emiritus Tony Mabesa, a multi-awarded director, actor, playwright and director for over five decades, and, which was presented by Dulaang U.P. this year in celebration of University of the Philippines Centennial year celebration. The researchers used a case study type of research.

Significance of the Study The researchers intend to describe the collaborative directing approach used by Floy Quintos with Tony Mabesa as the artistic consultant. Theater people need to be exposed on different approaches done by different directors on different plays. This will help them to broaden their insights, knowledge and ideas towards directing. This will help theater professors and instructors to have concrete examples of collaboration approaches during their lectures and discussions with the students. The students on the other hand who have very limited exposure in directing can have an overview on how the collaborations are done. This will help them to have pictures in their minds and not just theories suggested by the books. Amateur directors will have the idea on how collaboarations are done which they can use in directing their own plays. Since they get some of their styles and adopt some techniques from other directors, a documentation of well known professional directors will give them good insights. This study will help the

directors who will restage or do some adaptations of the same play or stage a production of the same play could consider the collaborative approach as an option in directing. Theater administrators of theater organizations will find this study very helpful in their search for the directors and consultants suited for the play that they are going to produce Thus the approach of the director, the consultant and the management style of the producer or the production manager should jive accordingly. Theater inclined people who are fond of watching plays who do not necessary need to be directors may find this study very amusing for it will give them the idea on how the play they watched were prepared. This will give those glimpses on what are happening behind the stage. This may help them appreciate more theater arts. Theater critiques that do not necessary need to be knowledgeable on theater may find this study helpful with their criticisms. Critiques may give judgments on the approach used by the director of the plays without knowing the process involved in directing. This will give them background on how the play was prepared by the director and his team. With this they may have reasonable evaluations on the approach by the director on the play, the selection of actors and others. Abroad, the directing approaches of the directors of the plays are documented through production theses. There are also books that discusses step by step guide on how productions should be run in Western settings. There are also famous foreign directors who published their journals in directing plays. This study promotes the formulation of directing modules, books, production theses and studies of the same kind that will discuss about the essence of collaboration in theatere in the Philippines. Thus books and

modules, will serve as guide to young directors, students and amateur theater companies to a step by step process of directing in Filipino setting. This study also serves as a remembrance of a famous directors legacy in Philippine theater. The artists of our country may not have much documentation of the step by step process of doing their work. They may not have enough time to document each process and approach or may not have the means to document it by their own. This study can be a good reference toward the directors work since it will describe the process the director will undergo.

Figure 1: Theatrical Framework Directorial Functions

Play selection Conceptualization Artistic Staff Selection Designing

Preparation

Casting *

Line Reading*

Implementation
Blockings*

Polishing and TechnicalDress Rehearsals*

Presentation
Legend:*- stages to be observed by the researchers / - information gathered through interviews 6

Figure 2: Work Framework

Planning Stage
Selection of Production, Theater Organization and Director; Gathering of information about Directing, Director, Directing Approach, Formulation of Data Gathering Tools

Observation Stage
Observations through Checklists; Interviews of the Director, Actors, artistic staff and other people concerned; Journals, Audio-Video Documentation of the Collaborative Directing Approach in Isang Panaginip na Fili

Presentation of Gathered Data Stage


Systematic arrangement of raw data collected through the observations to make it logical

Definition of Terms For clearer understanding of the terms used in this study, below are their meanings:

Approach. To begin or to deal with (Websters Dictionary and Thesaurus for Students)

Artistic Consultant.

The person to consult on issues of an artistic nature that relate to the

production or theater company (Fowler,2008)

Audition. A trial run or try-out for a particular part in a play (Daniels,2003).

Casting. Selection of the best performers for a particular production, (L. Rubin,email,March 5, 2008).

Collaboration. The act of working together with one or more people in order to achieve something (Vera,2007)

Directing. Directing is managing, guiding and controlling the show. It is an art and science of controlling the show, (B. E. Sadorra,interview,March 7, 2008).

Directing Approach. It usually means the conceptual basis for a production. It can also mean the method for rehearsal (there are many different ways to rehearse) and it can mean style of performance, (L. Rubin,e-mail,March 5, 2008). a mechanism someone, commonly the director or the theater group, comes up with a signature of the show. It is 8

a method in which it makes the production something different among others which leaves a the audience something to look for, (B. E. Sadorra,interview,March 7, 2008). In this study the word Directing Approach will only include the directors approach towards casting and rehearsing.

Director. Someone who manages the entire production covering all aspects. He is the one in-charge in controlling the spectacle of a show (B. E. Sadorra,interview,March 7, 2008).

Rehearsal. It is when the director has to do the ff. for the actor: explain extensively the set, floor plan, and other mise-en scene elements which will play a large part in staging; predetermine entrances and exits to ensure a smooth flow of scenes; introduce the actors to the directors point of view of the show (if the actors were not involved in the preliminary planning stages); provide general conceptions of the production; and finally, provide the rules and regulations of the venue and of the production process, (De la Cruz, 2004).

Chapter II REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES

There have been papers and varied studies written in the country and abroad that discusses Directing, Casting and Rehearsal. Below were the literatures most influential in this study.

Conceptual Literature

Foreign

Directing/Director According to Rubin (e-mail,March 5, 2008): The director is concerned with the final, artistic product. He/she is the person who brings together all the different elements that affect this artistic product: acting, style, design, concept, technical support, collaborators work in music, choreography, stage fights etc. The overall aim is of artistic harmony and focus on the rhythm of the performance. In other words, the director is the central force for consistency of all the diverse elements at work in any production. Grotowski (cited by Abeson 2007)said that a teacher or a director has to have had experience as an actor to teach or direct actors, they dont necessarily have to have succeeded as actors; they just need the experience. Directing is an art whose product is the mot ambiguous, perhaps the most mysterious in the theater, Cohen (1981). It may not be directly sensed, as visible as

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costume and scenery or as audible as the actors voice but yet, directing underlies everything we see and hear in the theater. Abeson (e-mail, March 15, 2008) said: Directing must never be be about imposing results, either emotional or otherwise, on the actors. Too often, directors demand a fruit without a tree (cry,get angry) which, as we know, is impossible in nature and human nature. The director should have an understanding of the process (the tree) that would produce the fruit (the feeling). Directors should also know, from the outset, what idea of the piece is and communicate that to everyone, actors, designers, etc. and then ensure that the idea is threaded, like a needle, through everything. The director is in charge of everything that the audiences senses perceive on stage, Clurman (1972). He is responsible for the unification of all the production elements from the aesthetic requirements to the morale of the crew in order to achieve success. At the technical level, the director is the person who organizes the production. This involves scheduling the work process and supervising the acting, designing, staging, and technical operation of the play. This is the easiest part of the directorial function. While on the fundamental level, he inspires the creation of theater with each production. He conceptualizes the play, gives it vision and purpose- social and aesthetic-and inspires the company of artists to join with him in collaboration, Cohen (1981).

Directing Approach Directingl approach is the totality of the directors personal treatment of the play, actors and the processes he undergoes during the production. It will include the way he conducts casting, rehearsals and other activities he does for the play. It may include the alteration of the plays period, style, look or behavior whether they involve departures from or adherence to the givens of the original text Davis. It usually means the

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conceptual basis for a production, it can also mean the method for rehearsal (there are many different ways to rehearse) and it can mean style of performance, (L. Rubin,email,March 5, 2008). After the director analyzed the play, his approach to whatever type he feels best to reveal the essence of it will uncover its dramatic content; intensify certain elements and minimize others in order to achieve the productions maximum emotional value that his imagination could find, G. Brown and Garwood (1936). According to Louis Jouvet (as cited in Cole and Chiney,1963), The director follows his instincts and directs the play he feels and loves, and distorts most of the others to his personal taste. Abeson (e-mail, March 15, 2008) said: I approach casting from the point of view of the development of talent, rather than the use thereof. As Im a teacher as well, it becomes very important to use the text as a pretext for the growthof the actor, the deepening and expansion of their range and, therefore, of their castability. We want the agents, casting directors to say, Wow, we didnt know the actor could do that. Also, its a ripoff to teach an actor what they already know. Regarding rehearsing, as indicated above, too often rehearsals are a numbling repetition of imposed results (line reading, blocking, emotional results) from the first day of rehearsals through performance. This produces staleness and a lack of fun, humanity etc. Rehearsals should explore the lives of the scenes, the lives of the characters, through improvisations, actions, that lead, inevitably, to the lines of the text. Starting with line readings from the start turns the actors off to the life underlying the words. Each director has his own individual attitude and method, and that his approach is different for each production. And also, it is clear that an experienced director achieves his best result by creating working condition in which the actor is given the freedom within the bounds of the agreed interpretation for the particular production.

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Collaboration Collaboration is a partnership between individuals in obtaining certain goal. Collaboration is necessary in almost everything we do of real significance and is achieved by working together, Cecilia (2003). One governing premise of theatrical productions is that it is a collaborative effort and that we expect each theatre worker to treat all others with respect, Catron (n/d). The director works with the key individuals and other staff, coordinating research, stagecraft, costume design, props, lighting design, acting, set design and sound design for the production. The director may also work with the playwright on works in progress. In contemporary theatre, the director is generally the primary visionary, making decisions on the artistic concept and interpretation of the text. A director is responsible for the inspiration behind a concept that elevates a play from a textual or non-textual existence to a live experience. The director works collaboratively to fulfill this vision or concept with composers, choreographers, designers, and actors. Much of the creative aspect of directing is inherent in the individual.

Artistic Consultant An Artistic Consultant is a person with experience and expertise in directing. His duty is to give comments and remarks on the performance on stage. Directors consult the Artistic Consultant when it comes to the issues of an artistic nature that relate to the production or company, Fowlers (2008).

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Local Directing/Director De la Cruz (2004) asserted that, directing is a process in which a directors creative intelligence engages and meshes with other creative intelligences t a variety of levels and intensities of commitment. As for B. E. Sadorra, Directing is managing, guiding and controlling the show. It is an art and science of controlling the show. (interview,March 7, 2008). Director is someone who manages the entire production covering all aspects, and the one in-charge in controlling the spectacle of a show, (B. E.

Sadorra,interview,March 7, 2008). De la Cruz (2004) enumerated the directors job description as the following: mediating with the producers, choosing the script, absorbing the script, conducting the dramaturgical research, performing the structural analysis, auditioning and casting, planning a rehearsal schedule, preparing for and attending design conferences, meeting with additional collaborators, such as choreographers, composers, audiovisual specialist, rehearsing the actors, participating in the paper tech, attending the technical and dress rehearsals, fine-tuning the performers.

Directing Approach Different directors have their own way of doing the above process. They have their own Directing Approach in casting and rehearsing. According to L. Roman (personal comunication,March 7, 2008), directors are like adults with their own ways of feeding a bunch of kids. De la Cruz ( 2004) stated, the unique artistry of directors may

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be the result of personal experiences that have influenced their approach to theater and the kind of creative work they do. Directing Approach is a mechanism someone, commonly the director or the theater group, comes up with a signature of the show. It is a method in which it makes the production something different among others which leaves a the audience something to look for, B. E. Sadorra (interview,March 7, 2008). As for his approach, he said that his directing approach varies from one production to another. It depends on what show or production he is handling. Commonly, he choreographs choral interpretation as an integral part of the show.

Collaboration Vera (2007) called collaboration in theater as a collective work. Accotrding to him, collaboration, which used to mean the betrayal of others by working with an enemy, especially an occupying force, has turned into its complete opposite: the act of working together with one or more people in order to achieve something. Related Studies Western Theater students and majors conducted researches about directing for a play. There are even some Western directors who shared their own approaches in Directing on their production theses. Ferguson (1999) ion his thesis about his direction of Approaching Zansibar, described the auditions as a two day event, four hours each evening with 10 minutes interval for every candidate who prepared 3-5 minute monologue and the remaining 5 minutes for playing. She used a color blind casting which made her actors happy. She

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described the process as: first week, read-through, second week, blocking the entire play, third and fourth week, clarifying and reblocking while the actors are off-book and fifth week, finalizing the blocking of the scenes and creating other stage business. Holden (2007) in his thesis about his directing approach in directing Tom Stoppards Rosencrantz & Guildenstern Are Dead, said that during their auditions, the candidates were asked to present a two-minute comedy monologue from an Elizabethan or Shakespearean play. She said that she looks on the attitude, vocal ability, body types, body size, shape, and posture in casting his actors. He also starts rehearsals with readthrough, blockings, polishing, and in the final week, the technical and dress rehearsals. Each rehearsal should begin with warm-ups and announcements of the Stage Managers. Sutton (2006) in her thesis describing a directors approach to Schoolhouse Rock Live!, required the candidates for audition to prepare sixteen bars of a contemporary musical or pop music piece and be ready to learn choreography. According to her, the audition administrators are composed of the following: director, musical director, the conductor and a couple of faculty members who routinely attend auditions, to evaluate the progress of the students and serves as advisers during the casting process. The first week of rehearsals was devoted to music, second and third week to blocking, movement and choreography, fourth week to cleaning up transitions and polishing choreography and blocking, and fifth week for the technical elements of the show as lights, sounds, costumes and special effects. Rawlings (2005) described theater as the most collaborative of all the arts. For her, the goal of collaboration - innovative creation through collective problem-solving
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supersedes the concepts of individual ego and creative ownership. Several people

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working together can achieve a more creative and dynamic vision for a production that cannot be found in a person working alone.Here integrity is more important than self recognition. Though collaborators approaches may vary, progress in collaboration is based on each person's willingness to actively engage in the exploration of ideas. According to Webber (2006), various members of the creative team form the parts of a collaborative system, where each creates alone, is influenced by the creations of the othermembers, after which they proceed both independently and interdependently.

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Chapter III METHODOLOGY This chapter presents the research design, the subject of the study, the phases of the study, and the data gathering tools that will be used in order to obtain objective results of the study.

The Research Design A case study design was used by the researchers. Case study research may focus on individual subjects and go into great depth and detail in describing them. This design was utilized in this study to present the collaborative approach of Floy Quintos with Tony Mabesa as the artistic consultant in directing Isang Panaginip na Fili. This was done through a series of observation, checklist, interviews with the people involve, journals and video or audio documentation of the approach the said directors used.

The Subject of the Study The subject of the study is the collaborative directing approach of directorplaywright Floy Quintos (see appendix B for an article about him) with Professor Emeritus at UP, Antonio Tony Mabesa (see appendix A for an article about him) as the artistic consultant. The research focused in describing the collaboration between Floy Quintos and Tony Mabesa in directing Isang Panaginip na Fili. The production was expected to be big for it is the Centennial Year Anniversary of the University of the Philippines presentation of Dulaang U.P.

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The Phases of the Study The study is a description of the work and collaborative relationship between Floy Quintos and Tony Mabesa in directing This underwent three stages, namely: Planning stage: This include the selection of the production and the directors to be observed, gathering of information stated from theater books and directors journals; Observation Stage: The actual observation of the directing approach of Isang Panaginip na Fili with Director Tony Mabesa and Floy Quintos which included checklists, interviews, journals and audio or video recordings of the process; Presentation of the Data Stage: This include the analysis of the gathered data and systematically arranging it in order to present Collaborative Directing as an approach in directing a Isang Panaginip na Fili. PROCEDURES Planning Stage The researchers chose to observe Dulaang U.P.s Isang Panaginip na Fili as directed by the playwright Floy Quintos with U.P.s Professor Emeritus Tony Mabesa as the artistic consultant. The researchers prepared the checklists and questions in preparation for the observation. Information about directing approach, casting and rehearsing were also gathered from books, earlier theses and researches, journals and interviews of theater inclined people and directors, to help the researchers understand the approach on process the director had underwent. Observation Stage Observation was done through out the casting and rehearsing of the play. This includes checklists and journals on how the play was directed. This also includes interviews on the Directors, the artistic staff, the auditioners, the actors and other people concerned. Researchers also used Audio and Video recordings.

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Presentation Stage The data from the observations were organized systematically to provide a picture of the approach done by the directors. The Isang Panaginip na Fili: A Case Study of A Collaborative Directing Approach presented the collaboration between Floy Quintos as the playwright/director and Tony Mabesa as Artistic Consultant, as well as the implication of the collaborative directing approach in a production. The Data Gathering Tools In order to achieve the accuracy provided by the law of Triangulation, the researchers will use checklist, observation and interviews to gather data. Observation. The researchers recorded how the directors acted, behaved and interacted with their company during casting-audition and rehearsals. Interviews. Along with the observation, interviews were conducted for clarifications and immediate reactions of the subject towards his actions. Interviews on the side of the actor were also conducted in order to avoid biases and make clarifications on both parties. This also include interviews via e-mail with international directors Anthony Abeson and Leon Rubin. Checklist. Checklist was administered during the observation in comparison to the researched data. This checklist was content validated by experts. Journals. Journals were written during observations to document the process. It include the things that researchers noticed on the approach they are documenting. After each casting or rehearsing phase observed, the researchers interviewed the director, actors and other people concerned to make clarifications and explanations on the things noticed and written on the journals.

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Audio and Video Recordings. To avoid any bias, audio and video recordings were made on interviews to concerned people.

Figure 3: Work Flow Chart Selection of the production and director Gathering of information Formulation and validation of checklist Arrangements with the Production and the Director Observation using the checklist and journals Interviews for clarification Analysis of gathered data

Comparison of different observed data and verification Systematic arrangement of facts

Generalization

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Chapter IV PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION

This chapter provides a discussion on how Floy Quintos and Tony Mabesa directed Isang Panaginip na Fili. The information were gathered through observations and participation on the whole casting process, auditions and rehearsals.

Presentation and Analysis of Data A checklist was developed by the researchers based on books, journals and prior researches as well as from the lectures of Directors in CCP. This checklist was validated by theater directors (see appendix for the profiles of the validators). The checklist (see appendix for the checklist) was answered by the researchers while observing the activities of Tony Mabesa and Floy Quintos while directing Isang Panaginip na Fili. The researchers used different checklists for Mabesa and Quintos. From the first day of the observation, the researchers kept a journal of their observations in the production. There the activities not listed in the checklist were written as well as quotations from the member of the productions, Tony Mabesa and Floy Quintos. The journal also includes the insights of the researchers as part of the production. The original journal was written in Filipino but for the sake of formality in this research, the researchers translated some of the entries in English. For the sake of authenticity, some passages quoted from Tony Mabesa, Floy Quintos and other staff were

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chosen to be in original language they are spoken. Many original entries from the journal were ommited for their lack of relevance for the research. To complete the triangulation process, the researchers decided to interview the Artistic Staff and some of the actors on how Tony Mabesa and Floy Quintos directed the play. The interview was also done to clarify some things that were not totally explained in the journal entries and the checklist. Tony Mabesa and Floy Quintos were also interviewed to get their insights and clarify their roles for the production.

The Functions of Two Directors Dulaang U.P, the official performing group for theater of University of the Philippines presents four to five plays each season. In a school based organization like this, they put importance on the work of their pioneers like Professor Emiritus. In his lecture in CCP Tony Mabesa said that as the founding Artistic Director and Professor Emiritus, he was given the priviledge to direct a play each season. Carlo Cannu and Cholo Geno confirmed it during their interview. On the universitys 100th founding anniversary, Mabesa decided to present the musical version of Floy Quintos Isang Panaginip na Fili, a play that was presented as a straight play in the years 1991, 1992, 1993 and 1996 under his direction. According to Mabesa in his interview, he requested Quintos to write a musical version of the original staright play. Quintos went on a vacation to finish his work. According to him, the script which is a lot simpler than the original was already done by summer of 2007, ready for the centennial production.

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The production started with Tony Mabesa as the director of the production (see appendix for documents that proves he was originally the director). Due to his age and busy schedule decided to collaborate with Floy Quintos - a theater, television, commercial, concert and events director. He was also the playwright of the play. This collaboration gave way for a non-faculty to direct a play for Dulaang U. P. In an interview, he said that he was a once a student of Mabesa and worked with him as playwright or consultant in many theater productions. This was confirmed by Mabesa on his interview. During the CCP lecture, he narrated how Mabesa mentored him as a theater artist. He said that his first theater job for Tony was being a costume department staff, and from there, their teacher-student relationship as well as their friendship started. Now, he writes plays for Mabesa. This reminds the researchers that even famous theater artists start from scratch. A theater production can be a collaboration between two directors, in this case Tony Mabesa and Floy Quintos. Eventually, Mabesa decide to work as the Artistic Consultant and leave the directorial job to Quintos. In his interview, Mabesa said that it was time for Quintos to direct his own play. According to Floy Quintos and the other actors and Artistic Staff the decision of Mabesa to refuse directing the play was because of his old age and of his busy schedule for he was also the director of the same play in Angeles University Foundation.

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Figure 1: Name Occupation (Career, position in U.P. etc) Function in the Production Responsibility for the producttion Director 1 Antonio Tony Mabesa Professor Emiritus Founding Artistic Director Faculty Artistic Consultant Give suggestions and remarks for the performances Director 2 Floy Quintos Non-Faculty Free lance director, play wright Playwright/Director Bring together all the different elements that affect this artistic product: acting, style, design, concept, technical support, collaborators work in music, choreography, stage Did for the production Planning fights etc. Execution

The figure shows the functions of the two directors. The Professor Emiritus askded the non-faculty Playwright to collaborate with him. The Professor Emiritus who planned the production served as the Artistic Consultant and the Non-Faculty Playwright worked as the Playwright/Director. According to the books, the responsibility of an Artistic Consultant is to give comments and suggestions but he planned the production and helped the Playwright/Director ion directing the play. The Playwright/Director on the hand shared lots of his responsibilites with the Artistic Consultant.

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The Work Done By The Two Directors Tony Mabesa stated that he prepared the Fili production and he composed the Artistic Staff. This was confirmed by Cholo Gino in his interview stating that Tony Mabesa himself invited him to be the choral master for a play, that Tony himself will direct. Floy Quintos said that the only artistic staff he invited to join the production was CJ Javier, Winter David and on the later part Jomari Jose to be the stylist. The artistic staff was composed of the original artistic staff that he planned to utilize for his Isang Panaginip na Fili production at Angeles University Foundation which all ended up to work for DUP. It is just after the line reading rehearsals when he decided to leave the directorial job to Floy Quintos. He is present and actively engaged himself during the casting and auditions period. From time to time, he visited the rehearsals, gave comments during company call and personally talked with the artistic staff and actors for his suggestions. The checklist, journal and interview compliment each other. Basically, Tony Mabesa did the casting of the show. Based on the observations and interviews done, the researchers found out that auditions is just one of their ways in casting for a play. According to Dean and Carra, aside from open auditions a personal interview can be made. The checklist, journal and interviews proves that Tony Mabesa and Floy Quintos did both. Auditions followed the process similar to Western and Philippine directors such as Dean and Carra, Daniels, Cohen, Rubin, Balasoto and others who were the basis of the checklist developed and answered by the researchers during the observation. The researchers also found out that in the journal and affirmed during the interviews with Floy Quintos and Tony Mabesa that the casting is open to all kind of actors such as;

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screen actors, students, and theater actors. The audition process came up to this pattern: filling out of forms with pictures, giving the candidates their own scripts, cold reading, entering the venue in groups, allowing other applicants to watch while an applicant was doing his presentations and singing a prepared song are a usual thing during auditions in a musical in U.P. According to Daniels, the auditions maybe in cold reading, specificprepared piece and prepared piece auditions. In the case of Fili, the checklist, journal and interviews proved that cold reading was done during the auditions aside from a prepared song to be performed before the panel. The panel according to Clurman must be composed of the crucial three who were the Producer, the Playwright and the Director. In this case, there are four: Tony Mabesa (Artistic Consultant and still one of the directors by that time), Floy Quintos (Playwright/ Director), C. J. Javier (Composer), and Cholo Gino (Choral Master). Though according to Quintos, the weight of their opinions in deciding on who will portray the roles is fair, but still Mabesa will have the last say. After the auditions the panel lead by Mabesa discussed who were in and who were out. Mabesa with the help of Quintos started to mental cast the production and contacted some professional theater actors such as Nonie Buencamino and Arnold Reyes as what the journal stated. The journal showed lines of Mabesa and Quintos stating that the production needs an all star cast of singers and actors. Tony Mabesa and Floy Quintos cleared this issue by saying that it was Dulaang U.P.s centennial presentation thats why it should have a very good line-up of actors. According to them, they need singers for the play since it was a musical and they need stars for the plays marketability. The line reading rehearsals was conducted by Tony Mabesa. According to the journal entry, he was with Floy and CJ. Tony Mabesa, like what he did during the

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auditions, introduced the Artistic Staff before the actors as well as the actors and their roles and introduced themselves for formality. The journal stated that by that time he was not very strict with tardiness. The journal shows that Tony suggested to the actors the characters they need in every line. He always give notes and reminders for the actors in delivering each line. He explained the motivations and the prior events before each line was spoken. After the reading of the first act, they had a twelve-minute break. Tony Mabesa was out for a long time for his other production and went back at the 10th rehearsal which was the run-through of the whole act 1,as what was written in the journal. Floy Quintos, cleared things out during the interview. According to him, Mabesa asked him as one of the directors to block all the major production numbers of Act I and when he came back from the Pampanga, he will do the rest of the job. But according to Quintos, Mabesa was satisfied with his work and decided to leave the directing job to Quintos. Mabesa then became the Artistic Consultant of the Production. Most of the tasks of a director were done by Floy Quintos who always assess what he needs from the actor, explains the exposition of the play, discuss important details, read and analyzes the plot, make his actors familiarize the interpretation and interrelationship of the characters, interpret the metaphorical part of the play, show the actors what to do and ask them to repeat, assess what they exactly want from the actors, give specific objective in asking the actors what to do, assess what he needs from the actor requires stage-combat, want to see his actor discover the hidden exploration, build (or tries to build) harmonious relationship with the actors, does visual pictures and describe it to the actors, , focuses on acting skill, permit an actor to run a scene once

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again if he wants satisfaction of feeling that he has mastered, call a rehearsal for an individual actor alone, give special treatment of individual problems, does visual pictures and describe it to the actors, discuss important details, correct right pacing when wrong every time, trace the ground plan of the set with tape, chalk or paint, indicate the entrances, show the actors where the steps and platforms are to be found, rustle up benches, chairs, tables, couches wherever they are able to find them, use adequate props, furniture etc., sit very close to the stage, carefully designates where he prefer the actor to cross, sit and stand, move actors around with their guidance, tell precisely from the beginning where they are to stand, sit, move, and at each moment, is open to suggestions for changes in blocking which are indisputable improvements, take note the blockings thats wrong, pay attention to precision timing, explains set floor plan and mise en sene, polish the emotion and timing, demonstrate the movements to the actor in dress rehearsal after a run, set a deadline for learning their lines. Sometimes he motivates the actors to do more by praising the positive things they have made, interrupts the scene to explain what is amiss and how it is to be improved, considers adjustments if the actors complain, works on detail for the actors to be good, goes over difficult scenes innumerable times, prefaces demonstration with apology, gives the actors their freedom to move get on their feet first, lets them know the proper way of holding the props, shows the proper manner of walking, allows the actors to ad lib their crosses and movements. He seldom reads the script first before the actor and let actors carry their scripts to act in their blocking rehearsals. Though Tony Mabesa was not in the rehearsals everytime as the Artistic

Consultant, he often assess what he needs from the actor, explain the exposition of the

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play, discuss important details, read and analyzes the plot, make his actors familiarize the interpretation and interrelationship of the characters, interpret the metaphorical part of the play, shows the actors what to do and ask them to repeat, assess what they exactly want from the actors, give specific objective in asking the actors what to do, assess what he needs from the actor, want to see his actor discover the hidden exploration, build (or tries to build) harmonious relationship with the actors, require full voice in each rehearsal, has a straight run through of the play every act, sit very close to the stage, provide constant supervision to inexperienced actor, whenever he was there. Sometimes he interrupts the scene to explain what is amiss and how it is to be improved, does visual pictures and describes it to the actors, focuses on acting skill, does visual pictures and describe it to the actors, discusses important details, works on detail for the actors to be good, suggests ideas through personally demonstration by acting them out, lets them know the proper way of holding the props, explains set floor plan and mise en sene, polishes the emotion and timing, demonstrates the movements to the actor in dress rehearsal after a run. He seldom gives special treatment of individual problems, shows the actors what to do and ask them to repeat, reads the script first before the actor. For the record, he tell his suggestions to Floy Quintos, the director. This was supported by journal entries stating that he always gives his suggestions, commendations and comments during company calls. Part of his work as the Artistic Consultant, Tony Mabesa invited some of the artists and staff to watch the on-going play in Angeles University Foundation, a straight play version of Isang Panaginip na Fili in which he was the director. The researchers got the chance to watch it. Similarities in concepts, characterizations and blockings can be found

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in two shows (the AUF play and of DUP), but the straight play was a lot simpler than the musical version. This was because of what Mabesa said that he wants Isang panaginip na Fili to be a simple one, while Quintos described his approach in his interview as baroque. Tony Mabesa became the third eye to criticize the play. According to him in his interview, his role as the Artistic Consultant is to give a little bit of ideas on scenes to make it more effective, this statement was affirmed by Floy Quintos in his own interview. The actors like Carlo Cannu, Gelo Pascual, Marili Ilagan and Franco Laurel also shares the same idea on Mabesas duty as Artistic consultant. When the company transferred to Wilfrido Ma. Guererro Theater for final rehearsals and polishing, Tony, Floy were there to improve the play. It was Mabesa who made the schedule of actors to perform on every presentation as well as the schedules. During the playing dates, minor revisions were made. The Basilios imprisonment was improved with Mabesas comment of not using handcuff to Basilio anymore. Another revision was the way the Matang lawin! line must be delivered by one of the tulisan, in that case it was Eldon John Mendez, one of the researchers. According to Mabesa to make it realistic, that line must be said off stage, and Quintos accepted the

Tasks of Directors

Playwright/ Artistic Director Consultant kabataan, halikayot kamiy naghihintay sa inyo. line in his During Pepe Rizals O Both
final song Quintos asked the actors to look at the audience which they did not do before.

suggestion. During the final stretch of performances, Quintos made his final revision.

Planning Figure 2: Casting Selection of the Artistic Staff Line Reading

Auditions Polishing

Execution Blockings Decision Making

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Figure 2 shows that the two directors have different tasks done. The artistic Consultant led the planning, casting, selection of Artistic staff and line reading rehearsals. On the other hand, the playwright/Director led the Execution, blockings, adjustments and TDRs. Both of them were responsible for the auditions and polishing. Figure 3: Division of Work Appointment of Artistic Staff Casting Blockings Adjustments TDR Legend: X- leader of the activity O- helped/gave suggestions for the activity Artistic Consultant X X O O O Playwright/Director O O X X X

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Figure 3 shows that though the Artistic Consultant led the appointment of artistic staff, casting of actors and line reading rehearsals, the Playwright/Director gave his comments and sproposals during the process. On the other hand, the Playwright/Director accepted the ideas and suggestions of the Artistic consultant during the blocking and polishing and Technical Dress Rehearsals. The Collaborative Relationship Before the said production, Tony Mabesa and Floy Quintos worked a number of times. According to Quintos in his interview, there were times that Mabesa consulted him in directing past productions and vice versa. Quintos was the playwright of the play which was presented and directed by Mabesa lots of times before this production. Floy wrote plays for Mabesa. Quintos was a student of Mabesa. These according to Floy made their collaboration a good one, without any major collision of ideas. Mabesa respected Quintos as the director of the play and Quintos on the other hand respected Mabesa as his teacher and artistic consultant. During his interview Floy said that even other people call Mabesa as Tony, he always call him as sir. Quintos prayer before the preview of the show pertaining to Mabesa was like this, Thanks for my friend, my teacher, my mentor Never Ive been guided so well. Mabesa during his interview said that most of his suggestion was accepted by Quintos for he is older than him. According to Quintos, the amount of artistry of an artist in collaboration can never be quantified. Tony Mabesa was very strict during the auditions with regards to conformity and formality. Quintos let Mabesa do his stuff, for that time, he was thinking that he will just be a supporting director to Mabesa, he added.

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The chorus all came from the auditions who most of them are not Dulaang U.P. members but from different schools and different theater organizations as well as some secondary lead roles such as Delphine Buencamino and Shaddai Solidum for Juli, JC Santos and Jay del Rosario for Basilio,Charlie Magalit and Sheena Jamora for Pulita Gomez, Greg de Leon as Tales, Jeremy Barona for Padre Florentino, Mary Jane Alejo for Hermana Bale, Allen Diansuy, RJ Solis and RJ Camangon for Juanito/ Isagani, Carlo Cannu for Ben Zayb, Arkel Mendoza for Imuthis/Gobernador Heneral and Eric dela Cruz for Tunying/Simoun. The other lead role such as Franco Laurel as Pepe, Only Torres as Tunying Simoun, Meynard Penalosa as Padre Camora and JM de Guzman as Basilio were Floy Quintos contact. Tony Mabesa called Joel Molina as Pepe Rizal, Stella Canete and Astarte Abraham as Maria Clara, Allan Palileo as Padre Cammora, Jacques Borlaza as Padre Salvi, Anril Tiatco as Padre Irene, Emelyn Santos and Ces Quesada as Dona Victorina and Peter Serrano as Imuthis (see table 4). Marili Fernandez- Ilagan, being a Hermana Bale was a special case. Ilagan appeared on the journal as a woman who was there during the panels discussion and a sure part of the cast though she did not underwent the audition process. Tony Mabesa explained in his interview that originally, Ilagan should be an Assistant director to him. Ilagan was his Masters student and that she was very good in his class. Since Mabesa quitted directing Fili, Ilagan became the dramaturg and portrayed the role of Hermana Bale. Ilagan affirmed this it on her interview. The whole cast was not yet complete until the 24th rehearsal with Allan Palileo as Padre Camora. Allan Palileo was invited by Mabesa to be the alternate Meynard Pealosa

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who cannot commit to all of the shows. As the rehearsals were in progress, Tony and Floy filled up vacant slots in the cast with people they already know. During the interview, Floy Quintos revealed that casting may seem very formal just like in the auditions that Tony wanted a lot of conformity and formality but it was never been very formal. Since Tony Mabesa was the Professor Emiritus in theater arts in UP, and mentored a lot of theater artist including Floy Quintos, himself. He basically know who will fit on each character. It is aside from the fact that he directed the first two version of Fili including the collaboration Noli /Fili of Ricky Lee and Floy Quintos as what was written on the souveneir program. As for the qualities that Tony eyes on an actor to be casted and invited to portray the role, Floy Quintos answered that there is something in a director that will determine if a person is fit for the role. As long as Tony Mabesa knew the actor, as long as the actor can sing, as long as the actor is marketable and the actor is appropriate for the role in his eyes they are invited. This was true in the case of Jay del Rosario who played Basilio in one of the shows. According to Floy Quintos, it was Mabesa who wanted Jay to be Basilio. Tony Mabesa explained in his interview that he chose Jay for the reason that he looks like a poor young man like Basilio. And because of the saying, No one can say no to Tony Mabesa, like what almost every body say during the production and during the interviews, Jay was chosen. Eventually according to Quintos and Mabesa, after a poor performance, Jay was given only one show. Quintos narrated in his interview that he gave a ring to Mabesa, firing del Rosario for the role. He told Mabesa, Sir Tony maganda sana yung show, si Jay ang nag-Basilio,nagtawanan ang mga tao,nasira ang show. Tatangalin ko na siya sa role.

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Same was true with the case of Eric dela Cruz who originally should portray the role of Pepe Rizal. Floy Quintos explained in the interview that they were on a dinner with Eric and Tony when Eric proposed and insisted to Mabesa and to him if he could portray the role of Tunying/Simoun. Quintos did not like the idea for dela Cruz was not a singer but it was Mabesa who approved it, and he got the role. In his interview, Quintos narrated his talk with dela Cruz when the latter asked for the role, Narinig mo na ba yung music? Good luck nalang sayo! With the permission of Floy Quintos, they omitted some of the lines from the script. Floy Quintos said that Tony did not want to omit any word if possible for he respects the authority of the Playwright with regard to the play. The checklists showed that Quintos and Mabesa did most of the tasks that foreign and other local directors do during the process of directing. These also revealed that the two directors had different roles in the production. Both Tony and Floy always let the actors read scenes from the play, asks the actors theatre background, see if the actor knows how to project effectively, observe actors playing ability for kind and style of the play, does short talks with the actors, sees if the actor is physically suited to the character, want a convincing actor in a role, does personal interview, focuses more on physical appearance, consider the age of an actor in giving them roles, and seek theatre-oriented people. Sometimes during the auditions and casting, both of them motivate the actors to do more by praising the positive things they have made, criticize the acting and make it aloud, arouses empathy of the actor for their desired role, focus more on physical appearance, focus on the acting experience, choose tryout scenes in advance, choose a good script in each roles. They never had call backs.

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Tony Mabesa was not present all the time but journal entries presents that he always gave his instruction to Floy Quintos and other Artistic Staff and actors. The journal shows that on the days that Tony Mabesa was present in the rehearsal, he always give his notes and comments during company call. He also gave his personal notes to Floy Quintos, Van Manalo and Cholo Gino. During his interview, Cholo Gino remembered when Mabesa scolded him about being too precious in his work; this incident was confirmed by Mabesa himself on his interview. Mabesa, always move around the venue to personally talk to the actors and give his suggestions. The researchers Louie Lavaro and Ejay Mendez who were part of the production experienced to be given personal suggestions by Mabesa.

The Implications of Collaborative Directing Though many people believe that Tony Mabesa as the Artistic Consultant was the most powerful person in the production for he casted and chose the artistic staff of the show like what Cholo Geno said on his interview, he cleared that he was just a consultant and he left the decision making to Floy Quintos, the Playwright/Director. Floy always accept his suggestions for the reason that he is older than him and he is his teacher and mentor. According to Floy, the play was a collaboration of his and Tonys ideas and was just a give and take process. Floy also said that he did not have any problems with Mabesa in directing the play. In an interview for Tribe of Net 25, Tony Mabesa said that his inputs are very minimal for the play for Floy did a good job in directing it. Quintos affirmed it by saying that theres no major revision done by Mabesa in his directing on

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his interview. The work of Artistic Consultant is to give comments and suggestions to the director in improving the play. They asked each others opinion before making judgments. They consulted each other on how they will do things. Tony Mabesa respected Floy Quintos as the Playwright/Director of the play. On the other hand, Quintos respected Mabesa as his mentor, teacher and Artistic Consultant of the production. In his interview, Quintos said that the give-take process helped them avoid major conflicts.

Chapter V

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SUMMARY, CONCLUSION, AND RECOMMENDATION

This chapter discusses the summary of the study, the findings of the checklist, journals and interviews, the outcome of the study as well as the recommendation as to the merits that this study may serve to end users.

SUMMARY The study used three instruments to document the Collaborative Directing Approach in Isang Panaginip na Fili. The first instrument was observation with the use of a checklist validated by theater aficionados. The items there came from the books, journals, and news or feature articles form western countries and in our country. It also includes entries from the lectures of Directors and Playwrights in CCP. The division of work between the two directors was evident in this instrument. The second instrument was the journal. Here the things that are not included in the checklist but done by the two directors were noted. It also contains passages from the Artistic Staff, Director and Tony Mabesa himself. The entries came from the researchers perspective as observers and as members of the production. The third instrument was the interviews with Artistic Staff, Actors, Tony Mabesa and Floy Quintos. These were done to clarify things and get their insights on working with the two directors.

SUMMARY FINDINGS:

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The study yielded the following findings: 1. There were two directors in the production: The Playwright/Director and the Artistic Consultant. 2. The Artistic Consultant initially functioned as director before asking the Playwright to collaborate with him in directing the play. 3. The Artistic Consultant planned the aesthetic aspects of the production. 4. The Director executed the plans of the Artistic Consultant for the production. 5. The Director worked with the cast and artistic staff chosen by the Artistic Consultant. 6. The Artistic Consultant and the Playwright/Director worked together in auditions, line reading rehearsals and polishing rehearsals. 7. Consultations between the Artistic Consultant and Playwright/Director were made before decision-making which helped them avoid conflicts.

CONCLUSIONS: After a comprehensive analysis of the data gathered and observed, the following conclusions were made: 1. One of the directors served as the Artistic Consultant who planned the production while the other one executed it and served as the Playwright/Director. 2. Both of the directors consulted each other in doing their duties. The Playwright/Director gave his suggestions to the Artistic Consultant in planning

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the production. On the other hand, the Artistic Consultant shared his ideas to the Playwright/Director in executing the play. 3. The two directors worked together and supplemented each other in planning ang executing the play. 4. Collaborative directing requires good communication and frequent consultation between the directors. RECOMMENDATIONS After the analysis of facts and information, the following recommendations are given: 1. To theater organizations which are planning to mount a play may consider having an artistic consultant in their production. 2. To theater professors and instructors to clarify and define the roles and responsibilities of Directors and Artistic Consultants. 3. To future researchers to document the approach that will be done of other directors and artistic consultants. 4. The future studies to consider the documentation of directing approach of other plays of other directors.

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References

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De la Cruz, Edgardo Bengson. (2004). Directing for Theater A Personal Approach. University of the Philippines Press. Quezon City.

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Holden, Marteen Lee. (2007). A Directors Approach to Tom Stoppards Rosencrantz & Guildstern Are Dead. Retrieved March 3, 2008, from, http://bearddocs.baylor.edu/bitstream/2104/5064/1/martin_holden_masters.pdf.

Rawlings, Cara Elizabeth. (2005). Civil War:a collaboration in direction and choreography.Retrieved October 2008,from, http://etd.vcu.edu/theses/available/etd09062006-101442/

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Webber, Collin. (2006). Specdulation and Innovation:applying practice led research in the creative industries.Retrieved October 2008,from, http://www.speculation2005.qut.edu.au/papers/Webber.pdf

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Catron, Louis. (n/d). Stage Directions,Retrieved October 2008,from, http://lecatr.people.wm.edu/stagedirections.html

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Fowler, Robert III. (2008). Exhibit 10.31. Retrieved October 9, 2008, from http://www.secinfo.com/dVut2.65c2.t.htm

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Smith, Jeremy. (2007). Exclusive Interview: Anthony Abeson.Retrieved March 6, 2008,from, http://www.anthonyabeson.com/

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