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New Frontiers of Research Throguh Vedic Knowledge

-Arun Kumar Upadhyay, IPS, M.Sc., AIFC

B-9, CB-9, Cantonmnt Road, Cuttack-753001 (Orissa)
0671-2304172/2304433 Mob-09437034172
Email <>
1. Introduction- (a) How Veda is Foundation of Science-Veda indicates two things-(i)
The Brahma or world (1) itself, and (ii) The text in word form. Both forms are apauru¾eya or
‘super human’. Veda Brahma is super human in the following respects-
(1) Puru¾a is an entity living in Pura or closed structure. If we study hierarchy of structures
only, it does not amount to the whole world. There is dark matter, energy field in seemingly
empty space, and the space itself. Possibly, the primordial material of creation-Rasa- is be-
yond all that. (2)
(2) Veda is v¢k or measure of that puru¾a. It is vacant space between two puras and size of
different levels of puras. Again the dynamics of creation-Yaj®a-is beyond measure of v¢k.
Veda is word form is a representation of real world and so, it is foundation of sciences.
This representation is achieved in following ways-
(1) V¢k in spoken or written form corresponds to real structure of universe. Specially,
Devan¢gar¤ script (3) is perfect parallel to sizes of solar system and galaxy and by extension to
Br¢hm¤, it represents the whole of visible universe.
(2) Pure v¢k represented in a language is distorted by personal bias or character, knowl-
edge, perception and angualrities. Firstly, the v¢k is to be perceived by a ¨¾i (4) who sees
inner-relation between three environs-¢dhidaivika (space, cosmic), ¢dhibhautika (physical
world), ¢dhy¢tmika (within human body). The remaining traces of human bias are eliminated
by considering the inner unity of thought of several ¨¾is. Thus, vedas in word form also is
Thus, vedas as world or word form-both are word (v¢k) of God (Brahma) and are super-
(b) Why Veda is preferred to other scriptures-Tora. Bible, Koran and Avesta also are
word of God and God does not speak falsehood anywhere. But the style of other scriptures is
story like pur¢´as meant for masses. The language, script or manner of presentation is not
classified in scientific style.
Vedas are science of world in following manners-(i) There is six fold correspondence
between Brahma and v¢k through Devan¢gar¤ and Br¢hm¤ scripts extended to 172 symbols of
of Vij®¢na v¢k (scientific letters and symbols) of Vedas. (3)
(ii) Vedas are classifed four-fold by 3 parts including one original-
Veda Element Meaning of verb vid (5)
§k Form to exist
Yajur Motion to gain
S¢ma Knowledge to know
Atharva Foundation to consider
(b) Universe Scattered galaxies Collection of mantras in Samhit¢
Galaxy Brahm¢´²a Br¢hma´a
(Start of motion, v¢yu) (Procedures)
Solar system Fire energy (ara´i) ¡ra´yaka (Link with cosmic energy, devotion)
Earth Base to sit (Creation) Upani¾ad (=to sit)-settled principles
(c) Whether Vedas contain superior knowledge-Ludwig Fuerbach in his books “Philoso-
phy of Religion” and The “Essence of Christianity” has explained faith in scriptures as the
surrender of primitive illiterate man to supernatural mystries. In the era when the top-most
physicists and mathematicians perceived their theories of inherent unity and connectedness
of universe, persons facing difficulty in science and math since school days think that earlier
men were more ignorant.
Superior knowledge existed all over the world in Vedic age is evident from the following
(1) People of Mexico were able to calculate solar eclipse 7000 years ago for which there is
no exact method till today. But historians ascribe only pictorial script to them, though in
modern scientific era, no new language has been created.
(2) Vedic literature read with S¦rya-siddh¢nta (Book of Enoch in Ethiopean version of
Bible, Ina=sun) accurately describes the size of universe, extent of dark matter etc. They also
give rotation period of galaxy (manvantara) which is not measured till today.
(3) Vedas describe 13 levels of world structures (6) out of which only 9 levels are separately
studied in modern sciences. Cosmology theories describe only isotropic, homogenous uni-
verse which completely ignores various levels ofstructures.
(4) From highest structure till man, successive images are created. To some extent,
Anthropic Principle(7) in modern cosmology assumes these and static relations are known.
Dynamic relation between man, earth, solar system, galaxy is still to be understood.
(5) Science of medicine included interaction of man and animals with plants and minerals
which was more detailed in ancient times than in modern materia-medica.
(6) Residue of original rasa at each level of creation is defined. (8)
(7) Universe is described in 5 to 10 dimensional entities about which modern cosmology is
in doubt. (9)
(8) Veda is par¢ and apar¢ vidy¢ both. One is unity of thought, the other is classification.(10)
Science is classified knowledge and we are in search of unification now. Par¢ and apar¢ vidy¢
are also called vidy¢-avidy¢, j®¢na-vij®¢na.
(2) Vedic Science and its perception-
What is Vedic science ? Is it arbitrary interpratation or twisting of words ? Or, is it search
of some concepts of words of science in Vedic literature ? It is none of these.
It has been mentioned that §¾i is a person who perceives unity of principles in 3 environs
or have some parallel in other worlds.
There is a trend in so called scientific analysis of Vedas to vaguely understand own branch
of science and to twist some vedic words to suit his concepts. That way, science or its present
state is foundation of vedas. We are not treating Vedas as foundation of knowledge.
We have to develop our sciences in line of Vedas.(11) Then only, Veda is a useful source.
This needs the following steps-
(1) Understanding the scheme of Vedic science based on 10 fold interpratation of cosmic
origin. (12) Ten views of N¢sad¤ya s¦kta represent 10 dimensional world.
(2) For some purposes, 5 dimensional world is complete as in mechanical sciences.
Complete description needs 5 to 10 dimensional views resulting in 6 philosophies, 6 scripts
(3) Meaning of each Vedic word is to be understood in scientific sense. Pa´²ita Madhus¦dana
Ojh¢ and his students Motilal Shastri, Giridhar Chaturvedi have explained definitions of
various vedic terms. These are to be made more precise and a dictionary is to be made.
(4) In last 600 years after S¢ya´a, we have omitted translations of numerical words in
vedas. Sahasra, ko°i, kharva, par¢, ºa¬ku-mean different numbers, but all are taken as infi-
nite. By analysing these terms, we get quantitative description of world which can be partly
verified by modern sciences. This gives clue to many more new structures which can provide
future direction to modern sciences.
(5) Scientific theories are to be tested and verified in 3 ways called sahasra-º¤r¾a (source
element or cosmic field), sahasr¢kºa (heliocentric view, sun is eye=akºa), sahasra-p¢da (physi-
cal world on earth)
(6) Dynamic process of each system-cosmic, human, atomic, physical, social, economic,
geographical etc. is to be understood by yaj®a (creation) model.
(3) Problems of modern Cosmology-
(A) V. L. Ginzburg has idenified 7 key problems in Astrophysics (12) -
(i) Experimental checks and applicability of the general theory of Relativity.
(ii) Gravitational waves.
(iii) Cosmological problem-Relation between cosmology and hiigh energy physics.
(iv) Nutron stars and pulsars. Physics of black holes.
(v) Quasars and galactic nuclei. Formation of galaxies.
(vi) Origin of cosmic rays and cosmic, gamma ray and x-ray radiations.
(vii) Nutrino astronomy.
(B) Einstein’s theory of Gravitation (General Theory of Relativity) has been generalized in
four broad directions (13) -
(i) Theories based on four dimensional manifolds described by geometries more general than
(a) Weyl and Eddington uniting electromagnetism and gravitation.
(b) Geometries using torsion-Elie Cartan Geometry. This was attempted by Einstein, R.
Finkelstein, teories of supergravity model and beyond unified model.
(c) Differential geometries by J. A. Schouten.
(ii) Gravitational theories with additional factors-
(a) Scalar Tensor theories of Jordan,-Brans-Dick, using scalar field.
(b) Finsler geometries-metric is a scalar function of point and vector.
(c) Biometric theories of Rosen and others.
(d) Fourth order field equations like super-gravitation and Twister theory of Penrose.
(iii) Action at a distance theories-R. Feynman ad J.A. Wheelerr introduced absolute absorber
in future explaining influence of remaining universe. Hoyle-Narlikar theory is an example.
(iv) Quantum theories of gravitation. This places a lower limit to length and time-
Planck’s distance=1.6 x 10-35 meters.
Least time interval =10-43 seconds (in which light ray will travel that distance). This is still at
elementary stage with following preliminary steps-
(a) Quantization of weak gravitational field.
(b) Particle pair creation in expanding universe.
(c) Gravitational modelling of elementary particles.
(d) Super symmetry and Supergravity.
(C) Various dimensions have been assumed in such theories-
(i) 3 dimensional space in Laplac theory of cosmology.
(ii) 4 dimensional space-time continuum in Einstein’s relativity theory.
(iii) 5 dimensional Kaluza-Klein Theory uniting gravitational and electromagnetic fields.
(iv) 6 dimensional theory of gravitational and Electro-weak interactions by Weinburg-Salam.
(v) Multi-dimensional theory with 2 time like co-ordinates.
(vi) Ten dimensional string theories- 5 alternative models have been proposed (14).
(4) Solution by Vedic Model-
(1) Unification models started with observation of P.A.M. Dirac in 1935 that ratio between
effective or defined size of electron and theoretically visible universe was 1040. Same was the
ratio of gravitational and electromagnetic forces between electron and nucleus. Salam-Wienburg
theory is based on same ratios 1040, 1080 with other 2 forces (15).
Next development should focus on smaller class of real world structure. There are 7
lokas corresponding to 7 tongues of Agni (16). Each closed system (ma´²ala) loosely called a
sphere is practical limit (ko°i) of the world for component spheres and is 107 times it. So, 107
is called ko°i. The higher spheres starting from man are called ma´²alas-(i) Bh¦, (ii) Saura,
(iii) Parame¾°h¤, and (iv) Svayambh¦. Bh¦-ma´²ala (earth) is 107 times man, saura (solar
system) is again 107 times Bh¦-ma´²ala and so on (17) . Around bh¦-ma´²ala, there is a zone
of influence of earth called chandra-ma´²ala, as it contains orbit of chandra (moon). Includ-
ing this, there are 5 levels of viºva higher than man, so world is called pa®cha-parv¢ (of 5
levels) or a tree with 5 stages of branching (18). Man is the 6th world or viºva. 7 lower viºva are
each 105 times smaller than man. Thus, 7th or smallest level comes to 1.6 x 10-35 meters and
is called (19) ¨¾i . This comes to same size as Plancks length (para 3B IV). Separate sizes are
given in vedic literature for cell (kalila), atom (j¤va), nucleus (ku´²alin¤). Below that, the
particle sizes are not defined in quantum mechanics. Names from lowest level are ¨¾i (string),
pitar (=parents, prototype for creation), deva-d¢nava (light, darkness), jagat (moving parti-
cles) of 3 types (20) -lepton (chara=moving), baryon (heavy, sth¢´u=fixed), meson (link parti-
cles, anup¦rva =after and prior). Thus, there are 13 levels of viºva and not infinite system of
hierarchy as postulated in Mathematical Systems Theory of Kalman. Hence, viºva (closed,
complete and inter-connected system, world) is used to indicate number 13 in astronomy
texts. These levels are-
Five parva of world tree
World level Ma´²ala name God Vowel Consonant Corresponding Chakra
(Inner letters within human body)
1. Universe Svayambh¦ Brahm¢ A h Viºuddhi
2. Galaxy Parame¾°h¤ Vi¾´u I y An¢hata
3. Solar Saura Indra U v Sv¢dhi¾°h¢na
4.Sphere of moon orbit Chandra Soma § r Ma´ip¦ra
5 Earth Bh¦ Agni μ l M¦l¢dh¢ra
Note-(1) Brahm¢= Grand, whole world. Vi¾´u= encloser (to vest in). Indra= burning (Indha
=to burn), Soma= dilute energy. Agni= concentrated matter or energy.
(2) Concentration of matter/energy was process of creation or agri (leading, first). So, this
form is called agni (21). All the 5 parvas are levels of agni, last being most concentrated for
earth. Out of these, the last 3 are called N¢chiket¢ (chiketa=distict, n¢chiket¢=intermixed).
So, sun-moon-earth are called 3 eyes of ¹iva. Joint pronounciation of the three vowels-
(u+¨+¶) becomes hulhuli (gargling sound) which has become holi in sanskrit meaning pious
(as holy in English).
(3) Chakras in human body are inorder of Saundarya-lahar¤, vrese 9 by ¹ankar¢ch¢rya. This
is parallel to order of creation, hence it is called s¨¾°i-krama. These are centers of various
aspects of human body and their symbols are letters pronounced from lower part of stomach.
Other 8 worlds (viºva) are-
6. Man = 1.6 meters
Level nos. 7 8 9 10 11 12 13
Worlds Kalia J¤va Ku´²alin¤ jagat Deva-d¢nava Pitar §¾i
Modern names (cell) (atom) (nucleus) (particles) (quarks ?) (proto-type) (String)
Sizes 10-5 m 10-10 m 10-15 m 10-20 m 10-25 m 10-30 m 10-35 m
Size below nucleus level is not defined. Effective zones of electron is same as this size
10 m. Both are formed of quarks. However, symmetry of ratios indicates that missing gaps
between nucleus and fundamental string -levels 10 11, 12 should be in same ratios as indi-
cated above.
There is a cross symmetry in number of higher and lower viºva and their ratios as powers
of 10. Higher viºvas are 5 (including moon orbit) or 5 ma´²alas starting from man in ratios of
107 each. Lower lokas are 7 with ratio of 105. This power of 10 indicates that universe should
be 10 dimensional. Effect of 10 dimensions can be seen in many other levels shown later.This
settles the problem that dimensions number can not be 11 as conjectured.
Lower structures are images of universe. Visible universe has 1011 particles as galaxies.
Each galaxy has 1011 particles as stars. As image of both, Human brain (22) has 1011 kalila
(nurons). So 1011 is called kharva (powder form or broken into particles). Countable world
Ga´eºa (ga´an¢ = to count) is also kharva (meaning dwarf also). For 10 dimensions, its power
number 11 is calle Rudra (which breaks).
(2) Aharga´a scale-
There is another scale of measuring universe with earth as unit. Higher measures are in
power of two. Within earth itself, there ar 3 concentric spherical shells making 3 aharga´as
equal to earth size. 4th aharga´a is twice the size of earth, 5th aharga´a is 22 size and so on.
Thus, radius of nth aharga´a is r x 2 n-3, where r is radius of earth. Starting from earth’s
surface, blocks of 6 aharga´as are called ‘stoma’ (collection) giving stomas at 9, 15, 21, 27,
33 aharga´a which is defined as limit of solar system. Middle of 1 to 33 aharga´a is 17th.
Including that, there are 6 ‘va¾a°k¢ra’ (i.e. 6 zones of v¢k). (23)
9th aharga´a = 26 radius of earth= 64r (Soma ma´²ala) moon is at 61r distance.
15th aharga´a=212 r = up to 30% distance till venus orbit=Bhuvar loka.
17th aharga´a=214 r=just crosses sun which is sustaining lfe, i.e. Praj¢pati, so 17 is called
Praj¢pati. From earth surface, it is 15th, so earth day and kalpa (day of Brahm¢) are divided
into 15 muh¦rtta or manvantara.
21st aharga´a = 218 r. It just crosses saturn orbit which is called ‘ratha’ of sun (25) or more
properly wheel of the it is ‘rathantara s¢ma’ (s¢ma =field of influence) Up to this
region rays of sun are sustaining life, so this is center of ‘n¢chiketa’ svarga extending to 4
aharga´a on either side of 17th (sun) , i.e. 13th to 25th.
27th aharga´a=This is at 24 aharga´a from earth’s surface. 24 measure is g¢yatr¤ chhanda
(meter of verse or of space). For sun, it is S¢vitr¤, or Maitreya-ma´²ala. With sun diameter
taken as 1 yojana, this is at 1 lakh yojana from sun-center. This sphere is bh¦mi (=earth, land
for creation) of solar system, hence bh¦mi is stated at 1 lakh from sun (26) .
33rd aharga´a-This is extent of solar system called dyu (sky) of saura ma´²ala. This is
defined in two ways-in this zone, light of sun is more than the background of galaxy (dyu=light).
Or, an object will remain in sun’s orbit till this distance due to its gravitation. But creative
zone-‘bh¦mi’ is up to 27th aharga´a only.
Element of dyu or ‘rasa’ content in each aharga´a level is a deva. For 33 aharga´a, we have
33 devas (27)-8 vasu, 11 rudra, 12 ¢ditya, and 2 dy¢v¢-p¨thiv¤ (sky-earth) or aºvins (border
regions between vasu-rudra, rudra-¢ditya).
Starting from outside, in rare medium, ‘rasa’ or ‘¢nanda’ is maximum. On crossing each
aharga´a, 99 out of 100 parts of rasa density is consumed in creation, i.e. ¢nanda is reduced
100 times (28). Thus, starting from earth, ¢nanda of each aharga´a loka increases 100 times.
From earth’s surface to 33rd aharga´a, there is gap of 30 aharga´a corresponding to 10030 or
1060 ratio of ¢nanda. 1060 is the number of electron-positron pair in solar system. Image of
this process is made in preparation of homeopathic medicine. At each step, medicine is
diluted 100 times, then its potency or ¢nanda content increases by 1 like that of aharga´a
zone. At 30 potency, we reach end of solar system, whose image is ma´ip¦ra chakra (naval
region) in human body. Thus, 30 potency medicine is used for most ailments, as they are
related to digestive system. This centre is called energy body (Pr¢´amaya-ko¾a).
Exponential scale of aharga´a is perceived as linear scale on earth like perception of sound
intensity (Helmholtz principle). For ¢ditya-ratha in 20-21 aharga´a, we have sun place at
Ko´¢rka and Ratha-y¢tr¢ center at Pur¤ at 200+ latitudes. After 33 aharga´a, energy of sun is
like average of galaxy in that region, so sun is called m¢rta´²a (dead egg). At 330+ latitude in
Kashmir, there is M¢rta´²a (Ma°°an s¢heb) temple.
Division of galactic regions is by chhandom¢-stoma at 24 (g¢yatr¤), 44 (tri¾°up), 48 (jagat¤)
aharga´a-these are letter numbers of chhanda.
G¢yatr¤ is measure of world as 107=223.5 in aharga´a scale. Starting from man, g¢yatr¤ is
earth, 107 times size of man. From earth, next level is s¢vitr¤ (sava=to create or produce) or
bh¦mi (earth, place for creation) of solar system (27 aharga´a). Next levels are parame¾°h¤
(galaxy) and svayambh¦ (universe) ma´²alas shown in 4(1). Region from 1 to 15 aharga´a is
bhuvar-loka. 15 to 33 is svar-loka in broad sense. Its center 24 (g¢yatr¤) is taken as svar-loka.
Maharloka is 44th aharga´a, more correctly it is 43 aharga´a equal to letters of M¢heºvara
s¦tra which is foundation of tantra or creation and of sanskrit grammer. Each chhanda ex-
tends to 2 less and 2 more letters (29). This is a region of 100 light year diameter around sun
which is width of spiral arm of galaxy here.
Limit of galaxy is arrived at 49 aharga´a (within scope of jagat¤ chhanda of 48 letters) equal
to diameter of 105 light years. Galaxy is start of motion in universe, so each of 49 aharga´a
zones is a marut (=wind or motion). For first 33 marut zones starting from earth, we have 33
devas. So, the marut zones from galactic center are similar divisions, called brothers of
devas. For 33 devas, we have 33 consonants from ‘k’ to ‘h’ and a total of 49 letters in
devan¢gar¤ script-i.e. a nagara (city) of devas in symbols.
Tapah loka is region of ‘Tapa’ or interaction of Brahm¢ (30), corresponding to visible
universe. As Br¢hm¤ script has 64 letters (31), tapah loka extends to 67 aharga´a (including 3
within earth). This gives a radius of 13 x 109 light years. Tradition of Br¢hm¤ is continued in
Kanna²a and Telugu scripts (of Kar´¢°aka and Andhra pradesh) which was region of human
Brahm¢ then, probably at time of K¢rttikeya who started year with Dhani¾°h¢ star in 16,000
BC in consultation with him (Mah¢bh¢rata,vana parva, chapter 301). Then year started with
rains, so rains and year both were called var¾a (¢).
Galaxy has 3 zones. Central ‘flat’ disc is ¢k¢ºaga¬g¢, because rotation is more in this
region-ga¬g¢ means river (gam=to go). Spherical subsystem is galaxy or parame¾°h¤. 10 times
this size equals to 52 aharga´a and is called K¦rma (32) or Goloka which creates the child
Vi¾´u (galaxy) in its womb.
(3) Sahasra scale-
Measure of ‘rasa’ or ‘¢nanda’ at each level is sahasraº¤r¾a (º¤r¾a=source, head) method.
Measure with earth base is sahasra-p¢da (earth is the end product or p¢da =foot) method.
Next is measure from sun or any center of motion. Dynamics of creation is called r¢sa, center
is K¨¾´a, gop¤ like planets move round it in ‘Braja’ (motion area) or field. For 5 centers of
r¢sa, there are 3 sahasra (fields) each (33) making a total of 15 sahasra as source (uktha)of
creation. Their v¢k measure is in exponential scale. Three zones of influence are in ratio of
1000, so sahasra (saha=together, sra=moving) means 1000.
With sun at center, loka-s¢hasr¤ is up to 1000R (R=radius of sun) or roughly till largest
planet Jupiter. Beyond that, Brahm¢´²a perception starts, so it os called Brahma´aspati. For
earth at 200 and Jupiter at 1000 units distance, medicines of 200, 1000 potency are prepared
in homeopathy. This indicates that due to dynamic r¢sa also, ‘rasa’ is divided by 100 at each
level of linear scale from sun.
Veda-s¢hasr¤ is from 100R to 105 R. Region between 100R and 1000 R is common, this is
place of yaj®a or creation zone of sun. V¢k (measure) s¢hasr¤ is from 104 to 107 R, which
extends till 33 aharga´a.
In creation process, base form of rasa is ¢pah, or asura. Thisis not transformed , creation is
only from deva part, (20) causing motion. Asuras are divided into 99 parts and Devas in 33
parts. So, created world is only 1/4 th (34). Remaining part 75% is dark matter, modern esti-
mates vary from 10 to 90%. Due to sun, rasa is split in 33 aharga´a zones, each being a deva.
Each deva creates 3 types of asura in static ¢pah-Bala, Namuchi, V¨tra (35). V¨tra creates
enclosure of boundary of a form. Bala separates the body from surroundings and concen-
trates. Namuchi mixes with surroundings and causes dissipation or (36) death (muchyu= m¨tyu
(5) Ten Dimensions-
Identification of structure or pura is puru¾a description. Measure of space is v¢k. This is
field of ºr¤ (feminine) description. Description starting from space is ºr¤ which does creation
through 3 gu´as. At beginning or rasa stage, 3 gu´as are 3 complementary qualities which
cancel each other in equilibrium-like quark they are named colours (37). With 3 gu´a combi-
nations 23=8 forms of Prak¨ti (creative form, k¨ti=creation) made from ºr¤. From Prak¨ti,
gu´a take different qualities-tama (dark) is inactive, sattva is potential energy and rajas is
dynamics. Sattva and rajas create 8+8 vik¨tis (created and not creating further). Conscious
puru¾a is undisturbed 25th element. This explains 25 elements of s¢¬khya philosophy which
gives 5 dimensional space with 5 tanm¢tr¢ (basic units of measure), 5 mah¢bh¦ta etc. This is
count of distinct forms. Parallel to it , there are 5 indistinct dimensions making a total of 10
dimensions. This separation of 5+5 dimensions may be termed as metric-local, quantum-
field, digital-analogue etc.
Ten dimensions may also be thought from 3 dimensions of space by Vi¾´u. Vi¾´u has 3
dimensions for each of three aspects- (i) measure (pada) for space, (ii) boundary of forms
and (iii) field of influence (vikrama) (38). One undisturbed element is rasa-the 10th dimension.
The 10 dimensions may be termed as follows-
0-Zero volume element called chit, point.
1-Line element, measure and ratio, dy/dx etc.
2-Area element, boundary surface, ºarman, p¨¾°ha.
3-Volume, ¡yu or ¡yatana, ghana.
4-Matter element caused by expansion of universe, 4-headed Brahm¢.
5-Time element-cyclic change gives janya k¢la or measured time, irreversible change causes
death or nitya k¢la. Both are 5 headed mah¢k¢la ¹iva.
6-Chetan¢ is agency causing chayana (organization). Mechanical world left to itself disinte-
grates due to entropy. This element is divided into 5 elements. First is creation of boundaries
of each form. This is 6 headed Skanda (=to fall, or to come out) incarnation of Vi¾´u.
7-§¾i (string) is force between two forms within boundaries. This is of 7 types for 7 lokas. For
4 higher spheres or 4 measured lower levels-4 measured forces exist in physics. Other 3 are
for 3 intermediate higher lokas or 3 immeasurable lower levels are not measurable.
8-N¢ga-This isv¨tra, ahi, or gaja-each indicating number 8. This is curling force or boundary.
9-Randhra or nanda indicate number 9. This is Due to difference, dissipation or death occurs.
This process is called namuchi. Randhra means hole or deficit, nanda is gradation in levels.
10-Rasa or ¢nanda-This is source or scalar field present everywhere.
(6) Classes of Mathematics-For two branches of knowledge, Ga´eºa (countable,
ga´ana=to count) and Sarasvat¤ (rasa=abstract), there are two broad classs of mathematics-
Ga´eºa Sarasvat¤
Discrete Field
Algebraic (r¢ºi) Geometric (kºetra)
Pure Applied
Exact (sak¨ta) Approximate (asak¨ta)
Finite Infinite
Theory (Bh¢va) Algorithms (Bh¢vita)
Bh¢skara-1 has mentioned r¢ºi and kºetra methods of ga´ita in his commentary on
¡ryabha°¤ya. Texts like Siddh¢nta-drapa´a give sak¨ta (exact or one time) method and asak¨ta
(repeated, successive approximation). Bh¢skara-1 also mentions 4 b¤jas-sub-class of r¢ºi-
1st-gulika ( ka. abstract unknown quantity), y ¢vat-t¢vat (ya, dependent variable)-now called
x and y in algebra and calculus.
2nd-Varga-avarga (square and root)
3rd-Ghana-aghana (cube and root)
4th-Vi¾ama (mixed).
These are simple equations, quadratic, cubic and more than one unknown or mixed.
He mentions 4 traetises of earlier ¢ch¢ryas at two places (A-1/1, A-2/9)-Maskar¤, P¦ra´a,
Mudgala, P¦tana which may indicate 4 p¢da (branches) of mathematics like 4 p¢da of Brahma.
Maskar¤ may mean collection of algorithms (maska=repetitive exercise, maskari=wielder of
rod, a sany¢s¤ with stick. In English also, log=rod has given algorithm). Mudgala (mudga=grains
of pulse) may mean discrete mathematics. P¦ra´a (=filling, summation is integral calculus)
and P¦tana(=rectification, in differential calculus) are two opposit branches of abstract in-
finitesimal mathematics. Mah¢bh¢rata, º¢nti parva (47/12) mentions Bh¢skara (or Maskar¤),
P¦ra´a among the sages surrounding Bh¤¾ma at his last moment. Maudgalya (of Mudgala
clan) has also been mentioned, but no indication is given about their knowledge of mathemat-
ics. Maskar¤ and P¦ra´a are mentioned as mathematicians in Bodhapr¢bh¨ta (commentary by
¹rutas¢gara) and Bh¢vapr¢bh¨ta of Kunda-Kunda. each of mathematics branches gives rise to
a school of philosophy and these schools were up-rooted after advent of Siddh¢rtha Buddha
(1887-1807 BC). Makkhali Goº¢la (Maskar¤. Goº¢la is the gotra stated by the 10th Sikh Guru
Govinda Singh ji also), P¦ra´a Kaºyapa and Mudgala are mentioned as three sects uprooted
by him. Possibly, that period ended the formal texts of mathematics as well as surgery in
name of non-violence (40).
Felix Kleene (41) had classified branches of mathematics in his Erlangen (an university in
Germany) programme on basis of invariant groups in projective geometry. Geometry is basi-
cally a field theory. Through group theory, discrete element was joined. Image nature of
variuos structures was explained through projections. Thses projections should be modified
as linear, logarithmic, exponential and differential elements in stead of linear only because of
real nature of world structures.
(7) Language and Philosophy-Language is a re-presentation of world-v¢k(space, or
word) extends as much as Brahma (the whole world) (42). Thus, according to description of
Brahma in 5 to 10 dimensions, there are 6 branches of darºana (philosophy) or darºa-v¢k
(=visible word, script). Number of letters in a script depends on dimension numbers (43) or
partitions of salila (uniform rasa)-
52 is English, French.
62 is latin, Hebrew, Russian, Gurumukhi.
72 is Devan¢gar¤ script (Hind¤, Bangl¢, O²iy¢. Gujar¢t¤)
82 is Br¢hm¤ script (Kanna²a and Telugu)
(8+9)2 is Vij®¢na lipi of vedas.
103 to 104 letters are in Chinese script.
Philosophy also has six branches puru¾a is of six types (44) as v¢k or darºana. These are
divided into two parts-(i) Vedic, which assumes an unified conscious element and (ii) Non-
Both are of 3 types each-
Subject Vedic Non-Vedic
Observation S¢¬khya Ch¢rv¢k
+logic Vaiºe¾ika Bauddha
+limit of logic ¹¢r¤raka (ved¢nta) Jaina (Sy¢dv¢da)
Vedic have two classes corresponding to forms of puru¾a-
Puru¾a Ga´eºa Sarasvat¤
1. Kºara (individuals) S¢¬khya Yoga
2. Akºara (class) Vaiºe¾ika Ny¢ya
3. Avyaya (¹¢r¤raka) M¤m¢ns¢ (p¦rva) Ved¢nta (uttara m¤m¢ns¢)
Other philosophies are sub-classes of these.
(8) ¡yurveda (45) - For 3 gu´a or dimensions or space, ¢yurveda has 3 triads-
(a) Three types of food as per their effects on mind and body-
Sattva-Healthy, calm. Raja-Energetic, arousing. Tama-harmful.
(b) Three types of energy in body-
Pr¢´a-Dynamic function indicated by breath.
Tejasa-Essence of Dh¢tus of body.
Ojasa-Individual consciosness, Immunity.
(c) Three do¾as of puru¾a cancel each other like 3 gu´as of prak¨ti-v¢ta, kapha, pitta.
The ¨¾is explaining them in Charaka Samhit¢ have similar names-K¢pya, V¢yorvid, Mar¤chi
(hot rays of sun, pitta also creates fever)
Complete balance of 3 do¾as is health-other 7 combinations create 7 defects in human
Edible foods have two sources-from living, from plants and minerals. Effect wise also,
they are two-nourishing, others. Eating methods are four-drinking, chewing, sipping, and
licking. Qualities of food are 20 =5 mah¢bh¦ta x 4 methods of eating. rasa or taste is of 6
types, being boundaries of 5 mah¢bh¦ta or enclosed in 7 lokas-
Madhura = Earth + ¡p. T¤kº´a =teja + v¢yu.
Amla =Earth +teja. Ka°u = v¢yu +¢k¢ºa
Lava´a = ¢p +teja, Ka¾¢ya =earth +v¢yu.
Combinations of 6 rasa are of 26-1 =63 types. All together (one type) and 6 rasa are
excluded, other 56 combinations of 2 to 5 rasa are bhoga (cooked food). For 10 dimensions
of world, 10 items are ckecked in diagnosis-prak¨ti (constitution),vik¨ti (defects), s¢ra (es-
sence), sa¼hanana (absorption), pram¢´a (standard), s¢tmya (assimilation), satva (inherent
ability), ¢h¢raºakti (energy from food), vy¢y¢maºakti (effect of excercise), vaya (age).
Treatment is by 3 means-O¾adhi (medicine), food, conduct. O¾adhi is applied in 6 ways as
per disease and its source. There are 12 symptoms of improvement.
Surgery instruments in Suºruta sa¼hit¢ are 101, equal to branches of Yajurveda. ¹atapatha
br¢hma´a (10/5/4/12) gives bone numbers in human body as 360 equal to number of days
in a civil year.
Like 7 lokas, there are 7 dh¢tus. They are produced from food after 7 stages of digestion-
Stage Product Nature Waste (mala)
1 Rasa Nourishes Stool
2 As¨k Particles of blood Pitta.
3 M¢¼sa Muscle, skin Ear wax etc.
4 Meda Fat Sweat
5 Asthi Bone frame Hair, nails
6 Majj¢ Bone marrow Gland secretion
7 ¹ukra Semen, egg Fertilized cell
Action of medicine is of 50 types = 3 food effects + 37 medicine effects + 10 self im-
provements. 40 medicines (including 3 foods) are equal to 40 pots of soma called graha in
¹tapatha br¢hma´a. 40 chapters of white yajurveda, 40 devat¢ of tantra (Tantr¢loka, 30/25-
27), 40 navar¢tra in a year, 40 parts of brain.
Creation sequence is 7 lokas, 8 divya s¨¾°i (8 fold prakr¨ti) and 6 earth creations. Thus 786
means to start (Bismillah in Islam).
(9) Other classes- Branches of Vedas are according to 10 dimensions-
§k-21 branches= 20 ends of 10 dimensions + 1 formless origin.
Yajurveda- 101 branches = 10 forms x 10 motion + 1 formless.
S¢maveda - 1000 branches = 10 foms x 10 motion x 10 effects.
Atharvaveda- 9 branches = 9 measurable references excluding scalar field.
Similarly, there are 10 mah¢vidy¢ in tantra, 10 commandments in Bible, and 10 gurus in
Sikhism. Classifications parallel to world strucure also exist in political science, grammer,
sociology, economics, agriculture etc.
(1) Word and Universe are two forms of Brahma-
Ûo dmd ~«÷Umo ê$no eãX ~«÷ na§ M `V²Ÿ& emãXo ~«÷{U {ZîUmV: na§ ~«÷m{YJÀN>{VŸ& (_¡Ìm`Ur AmaÊ`H$ 6/11)
(2) All pervading element is rasa, it gives ¢nanda-
`Û¡ VËgwH¥$V§ agmo d¡ g:Ÿ& ag§ øodm` bãÜdm @@ZÝXr ^d{VŸ& H$mo øodmÝ`mV² H$: àmUmX² `Xof AmH$me AmZÝXmo Z ñ`mV²Ÿ&
(V¡{Îmar` Cn{ZfX² 2/7/2)
(3) V¢k and Brahma have similar extent- (article on Vedic origin of scripts)-
B`§ `m na_opîR>Zr dm½Xodr ~«÷ g§{eVmŸ& (AWd© 19/9/3)
dmMr_m {dídm ^wdZm{Z A{n©Vm --- (V¡{Îmar` ~«m÷U 2/8/8/4)
dm{J{V n¥{Wdr, dm{JË`ÝV[aj§, dm{J{V Úm¡:Ÿ& (O¡{_Zr` ~«m÷U Cn{ZfX² 4/22/11)
`mdX² ~«÷ {dîR>{V VmdVr dmH²$ (F$H²$ 10/114/8)
(4) Various meanings of §¾i are explained in ‘Mahar¾i-kula-Vaibhavam’ of Pt. Madhusudan
Ojha in 2 volumes by Rajsthan Oriental Research Institute, Jodhpur. Also see chapter 5/4 of
Jagadguru Vaibhavam by Sri Ojha, published by Rajasthani Granthagar, Jodhpur.
(5) F$½ä`mo OmVm§ gd©emo _y{Îm©_mhþ:, gdm© J{V`m©Owfr h¡d eídV²Ÿ&
gdª VoO§ gm_ê$ß`§ h eídV², gdª hoX§ ~«÷Um h¡d g¥îQ>_²Ÿ& (V¡{Îmar` ~«m÷U 3/12/9/1)
doX ={dX² +KÄm²
Four meanings of vid verb are as per P¢´ini dh¢tup¢°ha- 4/60-existenc, 2/57-to know, 10/
177-place of consciousness, 6/41-to get, 7/13-to consider (same as 10/177).
(6) 13 world structures (viºva) are described later in para 4 (1).
(7) Anthropic Principle is described in ‘A Brief History of Time’ by Stephen Hawkins, last
(8) Note 2 above and Taittir¤ya upani¾ad (2/8). B¨had¢ra´yaka upani¾ad (4/3/1) gives an-
other sequence of lokas.
(9) Dimensions explained in para (5).
(10) J®¢na and Vij®¢na-
_mojo Yrkm©Z_Ý`Ì {dkmZ§ {eënemñÌ`mo:Ÿ& (A_aH$mof 1/5/6)
Also see G¤t¢ (7/2, 9/1, 18/20) and Bh¢gavata pur¢´a (11/19/14,15).
(11) All sciences follow vedas-(Manusm¨ti)-
doX eãXoä` EdmXm¡ n¥WH²$ g§ñWmíM {Z_©_oŸ& (1/21)
g gdm} @{^{hVmo doXo gd©kmZ_`mo {h g: (2/7)
(12) Ten dimensional (daºa-v¢da) view of N¢sad¤ya s¦kta in Brahmasiddh¢nta of Madhus¦dan
Ojha. See‘Physics of the 20th Century-History and Outlook’ by Mir Publishers, Moscow-last
chapter by V.L. Ginzburg, page 298.
(13) See-‘Space Time Gravitation’ by Mir Publishers, Moscow-chapter 3.
(14) For various models of string theories, see-‘The Elegant Universe’-By Brian Green, Vin-
tage Books, Newyork.
(15) Salam Wienburg Theory can be seen in note (13). Assumption of 1040 as basic ratio can
be seen in several books of nuclear physics, cosmology.
Semi-technical book-‘The Universe Around Us’-by J.V. Narlikar, Oxford University Press
may be seen.
(16) 7 tongues of Agni and 7 lokas etc. from that-
H$mbr H$ambr M _ZmoOdm M, gwbmo{hVm `m M gwYy_«dUm©Ÿ&
ñ\w${b{“Zr {dídéMr M Xodr bobm`_mZm B{V gßV {Oˆm:Ÿ&& (_wÊS>H$mon{ZfX² 1/2/4)
gßV B_o bmoH$m `ofw MapÝV àmUm, Jwhme`m {Z{hVm: gßV gßVŸ& (_wÊS>H$mon{ZfX² 2/1/8)
(17) Diameter of earth is given in all texts of jyoti¾a. Actually, yojana value is determined
from that. Error is made in assuming that all yojanas are one. On earth itself, Bh¢skara-II has
used nautical yojana of 8 Kms. in Siddh¢nta-ºiroma´i and survey yojana of 16 Kms. in L¤l¢vat¤.
Comparing distances of sun and star planets, steller (bha) yojana comes to 27 nautical or bh¦-
yojana. Here, bha =stars or 27 both. Siddh¢nta-darpa´a (19/108-114) defines zones of heat,
brightness, and light of sun as 2000, 1 lakh and 25 lakh times diameter of sun. Vi¾´u pur¢´a
(2/7/5) states that bh¦mi of sun or maitreya ma´²ala is 1 lakh yojana from sun. This yojana
is equal to sun diameter. Orbit of moon (diameter) is 1 lakh yojana in terms of bh¦-yojana.
Circumference of Brahm¢´²a is given as 1.87 x 1016 bha-yojana in S¦rya-siddh¢nta (12/80)
which gives diameter as 1021 meters = 105 light years. Brahm¢´²a is defined to be the limit of
reach of sun rays. In that sense, it is called parama-pada of Vi¾´u (sun) as collection of suns
in §k (1/22/20). In §k (1/123/8), u¾¢ is stated 30 yojanas or dh¢ma in west Varu´a direc-
tion from sun rise. Thus, vedas use dh¢ma-yojana, where 150 circumference of earth (twilight
zone taken in Indian astronomy. Western convention is 180) is 30 yojana or 1 yojana is 55.5
Kms. In that unit, circumference of Great cave (guh¢) i.e. galaxy is par¢rddha (0.5 x 1017)
vide Ka°ha upani¾ad (1/3/1) or §k (1/164/12).
(18) 5 nodes (parva) or stages of world-
nÄMnmX§ {nVa§ ÛmXeH¥$qV {Zd: Amhþ nao AY} nwar{fU_²Ÿ&
AWo_o AÝ` Anao {dMjU§ gßVMH«o$ fS>a Amhþa{n©V_²Ÿ& (F$H²$ 1/164/12)
Here, great pura of Brahm¢´²a is called par¢-ardha i.e. half of 1017 yojanas (circumference).
In reply to question in §k (10/81/4), Taittir¤ya br¢hma´a (2/8/9/6) tells that Brahma is
forest and tree with 5 parva mentioned above.
~«÷ dZ§ ~«÷ g d¥j AmgrV² `Vmo Úmdm n¥{Wdr {ZîQ>Vjw:Ÿ&
(19) Viºva means sarva (complete). It is closed and there is a link to close it. Kalila (cell) with
these 3 qualities is viºva-
gyú_m{Vgyú_§ H${bbñ` _Ü`o {dídñ` òîQ>ma_ZoH$ê$n_²Ÿ&
{dídñ`¡H§$ n[adopîQ>Vma§ kmËdm {ed§ empÝV_Ë`ÝV_o{VŸ& (ídoVmídVa Cn{ZfX² 4/14)
Cell is called kalila as it collects all materials in womb for its growth-
VÌ àW_o _m{g H$bb§ Om`VoŸ& (gwlwV g§{hVm, emara ñWmZ 3/9)
g gd© JwUdmZ² J^©Ëd_mnÝ© YmVw H$bZrH¥$V: Aì`º$ {dJ«h: (MaH$ g§{hVm, emara ñWmZ 4/9)
This is v¢l¢gra (hair end of 4 micron size), and start of life (j¢tar¦pa)-
dmbmJ«_m̧ öX`ñ` _Ü`o {díd§ Xod§ OmVê$n§ daoÊ`§ (AWd©{ea Cn{ZfX² 5)
Atom (j¤va) is ten thousand part of that, not destroyed in chemical reaction-
dmbmJ« eV^mJñ` eVYm H${bnVñ` MŸ& ^mJmo Or d: g {dko`: g MmZÝË`m` H$ënVoŸ& (ídoVmídVa Cn{ZfX² 5/9)
Ku´²alin¤ (nucleus) outer sphere is 107 parts of hair end and inner layers are 10 and 100 parts
of that as per ½a°-chakra-nir¦pa´a (7/8). Lower worlds are successively 105 parts starting
from man-
dmbmJ« eVgmhò§ Vñ` ^mJñ` ^m{JZ:Ÿ& Vñ` ^mJñ` ^mJmYª VËj`o Vw {ZaÄOZ_²Ÿ& (Ü`mZ{dÝXw Cn{ZfX² 4)
(20) Micro worlds start from ¨¾i-
F${fä`: {nVamo OmVm: {nV¥ä`mo Xod XmZdm:Ÿ& XodoäíM OJËgdª Ma§ ñWmÊdZwnyd©e:Ÿ& (_Zwñ_¥{V 3/201)
§¾i is asat-pr¢´a (invisible force) and a string (rassi in Hindi) which pulls-
AgÛm BX_J« AmgrV²Ÿ& VXmhþ: qH$ VXgXmgrV² dmd VXJ«o @gXmgrV²Ÿ& VXmhþ:-Ho$ Vo F$f`: B{VŸ& àmUm dm F$f`:Ÿ& `o `V²
nwamñ_mV² ({dídñ_mV²) BX§ ({dídg¥pîQ>¨) BÀN>ÝV: l_oU Vngm A[afZ², Vñ_mV² F$f`: (eVnW ~«m÷U 6/1/1/1)
(21) Agni is p¨thiv¤ (earth) and concentrated energy (teja)
B`§ (n¥{Wdr) ø{½Z:Ÿ& (eVnW ~«m÷U 6/1/2/14, 6/1/1/29, 7/3/1/22)
VoOmo dm Ap½Z:Ÿ&(eVnW ~«m÷U 2/5/4/8, 3/9/1/19, V¡{Îmar` ~«m÷U 3/9/5/2)
It was created first (agri), so it is called ‘agni’-
g `Xñ` gd©ñ`mJ« g¥Á`V Vñ_mX{J«°, A{J«h© d¡ V_p½Z[aË`mMjVo namo@j_²Ÿ& (eVnW ~«m÷U 6/1/1/11, 2/2/4/2)
(22) Number of lomagartta (in a year) is equal to number of nakºatras (stars)
Eä`mo bmo_JÎm}ä` D$Üdm©{Z Á`moVtî`mZ²Ÿ& VÚm{Z Vm{Z Á`moVt{f, EVm{Z Vm{Z ZjÌm{UŸ& `mdÝË`oVm{Z ZjÌm{U VmdÝVmo bmo_JÎmm©:Ÿ&
(eVnW ~«m÷U 10/4/4/2)
Puru¾a (each pura) is samvatsara (year) and lomagartta number in each is equal-
Xe d¡ gh òmÊ`îQ>m¡ M eVm{Z gådËgañ` _whÿÎmm©:Ÿ& `mdÝVmo _whÿ Îmm©: Vm dpÝV nÄMXeH¥$Ëd: {jàm{UŸ& `mdpÝV {jàm{U VmdpÝV
nÄMXeH¥$Ëd EVhu [UŸ& `mdpÝV EVhu {U VmdpÝV nÄMXeH¥$Ëd BXmZr{ZŸ& `mdÝVr XmZr{Z VmdÝV: nÄMXeH¥$Ëd: àmUm:Ÿ&
`mdÝV: àmUm: VmdÝVmo@º$Zm:Ÿ& `mdÝVmo@º$Zm: VmdÝVmo {Z_ofm:Ÿ& `mdÝVmo {Z_ofm: VmdÝVmo bmo_JÎmm©:Ÿ& `mdÝVmo bmo_JÎmm©:
VmdpÝV ñdoXm`Zm:Ÿ& (eVnW ~«m÷U 12/3/2/5)
Lomagartta in a year = 10,800 x 157 =1.84 x 1012 (cell in human body). Puru¾a is 10 times
larger than bh¦mi (puru¾a s¦kta, 1), so particles in a bh¦mi are 1011.
(23) Six v¢k are six va¾a°k¢ra-
dmJ² d¡ dfQ²>H$ma: .... f{S>{V F$Vdmo d¡ fQ²> VV² .... Vñ_mXod§ dfQ²> H$amo{VŸ& (eVnW ~«m÷U 1/7/2/21)
Ì`mo d¡ dfQ²>H$mam dO«mo Ym_ÀNm{к$:Ÿ& (EoVao` ~«m÷U 3/7)
Ì`mo d¡ dfQ²>H$mam dO«mo Ym_ÀNm{к$:Ÿ& ... AW `: g_: gÝVVmo {Zhm©UÀN>ËI Ym_ÀN>V² ... AW `oZ¡d fQ²> namYm}{V g [aº$:`Ÿ&
(JmonW ~«m÷U CÎma 3/3)
(24) Praj¢pati is 17- àOmn{Vd£ gßVXe:Ÿ& (JmonW ~«m÷U CÎma 2/13, 5/8)
gßVXe: àOmn{V: (V¡{Îmar` g§{hVm 1/3/3/2, EoVao` ~«m÷U 8/4)
(25) ¡ditya is ratha, rathantara s¢ma crosses it-
Agm¡ dm Am{XË` Ef aW:Ÿ& V§ Va{V B{V aWÝVa_²Ÿ&(eVnW ~«m÷U 9/4/1/14)
Heat zone is till 100 yojana and brightness zone is till 1000 yojana (sun diameter = 1 yojana).
These are distances of earth and saturn orbit.
eV `moOZo h dm Ef (Am{XË`:) BVñVn{VŸ& (H$m¡frV{H$ ~«m÷U 8/3)
ghò§ h¡V Am{XË`ñ` aí_`:Ÿ& (O¡{_Zr` Cn{ZfX² ~«m÷U 1/44/50)
There are 3 s¢ma within earth and 3 outside-
Vñ`m EVV² n[a{_V§ ê$n§ `XÝVd}{X (^y{nÊS>:)Ÿ& AW¡f ^y_m@n[a{_Vmo `mo ~{hd}{X: (_hmn¥{Wdr)-(EoVao` ~«m÷U 8/5)
n¥{Wì`m{__o bmoH$m: (n¥{Wdr, AÝV[aj, Úm¡) à{VpîR>Vm:Ÿ&(O¡{_Zr` Cn{ZfX² ~«m÷U 1/10/2)
S¢ma of earth are rathantara, vair¦pa and ºakvara. Three s¢ma of sun are-b¨hat, vair¢ja,
`Û¡ aWÝVa_² VÛ¡ê$n_², `X² ~¥hV², VÛ¡amO_²Ÿ& `ÐWÝVa VÀN>mŠda_²Ÿ& `X² ~¥hV², VV² a¡dV_²Ÿ& (EoVao` ~«m÷U 27/7/13)
Also see Aitareya br¢hma´a (19/6/18), Taittir¤ya br¢hma´a (1/4/6). Stoma of rathantara
are 9, 15, 17, 21-
àmUmo d¡ {Ìd¥V², AY©_mg: nÄMXe: g§dËga:, gßVXe, Am{XË` EH$qde-EVo d¡ ñVmo_m:Ÿ& (VmÊS>ç _hm~«m÷U 6/2/2)
Praj¢pati is at 17 stoma-
gßVXe Ed ñVmo_mo ^d{V à{VîR>m`¡ àOmnË`¡Ÿ& (VmÊS>ç _hm~«m÷U 12/6/13)
Earth is standard of measure-
AñVäZmX² Úm_¥f^mo AÝV[aj_{__rV d[a_mU§ n¥{Wì`m:Ÿ& (F$H²$ 8/42/1)
`ñ` ^y{_: à_m AÝV[aj_wVmoXa_²Ÿ& (AWd© 10/7/32)
Hor¢ means half division of r¢ºi, corresponding to aho-r¢tri (day-night) parts of ahar (day).
So, aharga´a in space should mean double. In calender making, this means day-count.
(26) See note 17.
(27) 33 devas-B{V ñVwVmgmo AgWm [aemXemo `o ñW Ì`íM qÌeÀMŸ& _ZmoXo©dm `{k`mg:Ÿ& (F$H²$ 8/30/2)
(28) See note (8). Asuras are 99, killed by Indra with ‘Dadh¤chi’ bones-33 in backbone-
BÝÐmo XYrMm¡ AñW{^d¥©ÌmÊ` à{VîHw$V:Ÿ& OKmZ Zd{VZ©dŸ& (F$H²$ 8/42/1)
(29) Chhanda can extend to one or two letters less or more as per Pi¬gala Chhanda ¹¢stra-
D$Zm{YHo$Z¡Ho$Z {ZM¥X² ^y[aOm¡Ÿ&(3/59) Ûmä`m§ {damQ²> ñdamOm¡Ÿ& (3/60)
(30) ~«÷m Vn{g (à{VpîR>V_²)-(EoVao` ~«m÷U3/6, JmonW ~«m÷U CÎma 3/2)
From Tapa is created Parame¾°h¤ or Brahm¢´²a-
gmo@`§ nwéf: àOmn{VaH$m_`V ^y`mÝËñ`m§ àOm`o` B{VŸ& gmo@lmå`V, g Vnmo@Vß`V ... g¡dmñ_¡ à{VîR>m A^dV²Ÿ& VV AmÊS>§
(~«÷mÊS>) g_dÎm©VŸ& (eVnW ~«m÷U 6/1/1/9-10)
Also see Gopatha Br¢hma´a p¦rva (1/2).
(31) {ÌfpîQ>: MVw: fpîQ>dm© dUm©: eå^w_Vo_Vm:Ÿ& (nm{UZr` {ejm 3)
(32) K¦rma is that which creates-g `ËHy$_m} Zm_Ÿ& EVÛ¡ê$n§ H¥$Ëdm àOmn{V: àOm Ag¥OVŸ& `Xg¥OV² AH$amoV² VV²
`X² AH$amoV² Vñ_mV² Hy$_©-(eVnW ~«m÷U 7/5/1/5)
Size of K¦rma is 1018 yojana. Here, ºa¬ku =1013.
_mZoZ Vñ` Hy$_©ñ` H$W`m{_ à`ËZV:Ÿ(7) e‘>mo: eVghòm{U `moOZm{Z dnw: pñWV_²Ÿ&(Zan{VO`M`m©, ñdamoX` _| Hy$_© MH«$)
¹a¬ku is base of ºakvara s¢ma. Lokas were created in it-
VX² (e‘x> gm_) C grXpÝV B`{_Ë`_mhþ:Ÿ&(12)
e‘x>^dË`•mo Y¥Ë`¡ `Ûm AY¥V§ e‘x>Zm VÔmYma(11) (VmÊS>ç _hm~«m÷U 11/10)
Within ºakvari, lokas were created-
`{X_mZ² bmoH$mZ² àOmn{V: g¥îQ²>doX§ gd©_eŠZmoX² .... VV² eŠdar Zm§ eŠdarËd_²Ÿ& (EoVao` ~«m÷U 5/7)
Its stoma is based on chhanda, so it is called chhandom¢ stoma-
Jm`Ì_`Z§ (24) ^d{V ~«÷dM©g H$m_ñ`, Ì¡îQw>^_`Z§ (44) ^d{V AmoOñH$m_ñ`, OmJV_`Z§ (48) ^d{V newH$m_ñ`Ÿ&
(VmÊS>ç _hm~«m÷U 14/4/10)
VÚÀN>ÝXmo{^{Z©{_©Vm: Vñ_mV² N>ÝXmo_m:Ÿ& (H$m¡frV{H$ ~«m÷U wn{ZfX² 26/7)
Brahmavaivartta pur¢´a, prak¨ti kha´²a, chapter 3 tells birth of vir¢°a (grand) child from
goloka (galaxy-region of radiation).
(33) Four types of r¢sa are described by Madhus¦dana Ojh¢ in Essence of Bh¢gavad G¤t¢-
Commentary by A.S. Ramnathan-by Rajsthan Patrika, Jaipur. This is based on cycles of earth
motion-daily, annual, ayana (precession of earth axis in 26000 years) and fourth is lunar
month cycle. Fifth r¢sa should be its effect on human body. Bh¢gavata pur¢´a tells that crea-
tion is by r¢sa. (also Brahma-vaivartta pur¢´a, prak¨ti kha´²a, 3). R¢sa dance has one person
(K¨¾´a) in center, others move round him (Agnipur¢´a, chapter 338). R¢sa creates 3 s¢ma or
s¢hasr¤ (fields of influence) around each center or pura. For 5 pura or viºva, there are 15
ghòYm nÄMXem{Z CŠWm `mdX² Úmdm n¥{Wdr Vmd{XV² VV²Ÿ&
ghòYm _{h_mZ: ghò§ `mdX² ~«÷ {dpîQ>V§ VmdVr dmH²$Ÿ& (F$H²$ 10/114/8)
Three fields are loka,veda, v¢k-created due to balance between Indra (outward radiation)
and Vi¾´u (attraction)-
C^m {OkWwZ© namO`oWo, Z nam{Oko H$VaíM Z¡Zmo:Ÿ& BÝÐíM {dîUy `Xnñn¥YoWm§ Ì¡Ym ghò§ {d VX¡a`oWm_²Ÿ&(F$H²$6/69/8)
qH$ VV² ghò{_{V ? B_o bmoH$m:, B_o doXm:, AWmo dm{J{V ~«y`mV²Ÿ& (EoVao` ~«m÷U 6/14)
(34) World and creatures are 1/4th of Puru¾a (Brahma)-
nmXmo@ñ` {dídm ^yVm{Z {ÌnmXñ`m_¥V§ {X{dŸ& (nwéf gyº$, F$H²$ 10/90/3)
(35) Z_w{M-Anm§ \o$ZoZ Z_wMo: {ea BÝÐmo XdV©`:, {dídm `XO`: ñn¥Y:Ÿ& (F$H²$ 8/14/13)
Also see ¹atapatha br¢hma´a (5/4/1/9, 12/7/1/10, 12/7/3/4) Taittir¤ya br¢hma´a (1/7/
1/6,77) etc.
~b-BÝÐmo ~b§ ~bn{V: (eVnW ~«m÷U 11/4/3/12, V¡{Îmar` ~«m÷U 2/5/7/4)
~b§ öX`o (V¡{Îmar` ~«m÷U 3/10/8/9)
V¨tra creates boundary by enclosure-
d¥Ìmo h dm BX§ gdª d¥Ëdm {eí`oŸ& `{XX_ÝVaoU Úmdm n¥{Wdr g `{XX§ gdª d¥Ëdm {eí`o Vñ_mX² d¥Ìmo Zm_Ÿ&(eVnW ~«m÷U 1/1/
(36) Separate block created out of uniform samudra (muchyu=separated) is reason of death,
so death is m¨tyu-
g g_wÐmX_wÀ`V g _wÀ`w a^dV² V§ dm EV§ _wÀ`w gÝV§ _¥Ë`w[aË`mMjVoŸ&(JmonW ~«m÷U, nyd© 1/7)
(37) Quality of quarks are called colours-see for example at page 136 of QED (Quantum
Electro-dynamics) by R.P. Feynman. That just indicates complementary balancing quality.
Similarly 3 gu´as of Prak¨ti are called colours-
AOm_oH$m§ bmo{hV-ewŠb-H¥$îUm§ ~ˆr àOm: g¥O_mZm§ gê$nm:Ÿ&
AOmo øoH$mo Owf_mUmo@ZwfoVo OhmË`oZm§ ^wº$^moJm_Omo@Ý`:Ÿ&&(ídoVmídVa Cn{ZfX² 4/5)
(38) BX§ {dîUw{d©MH«$_o ÌoYm {ZXYo nX_²Ÿ& (F$H²$ 1/22/17)
(39) See introduction and text of ¡ryabha°¤ya, Bh¢skara commentary edited by Prof. K.S.
Shukla, INSA, Delhi-2.
(40) See fro example ‘Majjhima Nik¢ya’. Detailed analysis is in ‘Bauddha Dharma and Bihar’-
published by Bihar Rashtrabhasha Parishad, Patna-4.
(41) See-‘Nature and Growth of Modern Mathematics’-by Edna Kramer or note (13).
(42) Six forms are created from one formless source-
gmH$ÄOmZm§ gßVW_mhþaoH$O§, f{S>Ú_m F$f`mo XodOm B{VŸ& (F$H²$ 1/164/15)
Space is measured by chhanda, there are 6 v¢k (scripts)-
Jm`ÌoU à{V {__rVo AH©$_², AH}$U gm_ Ì¡îQw>^oZ dmH$_²Ÿ&
dmHo$Z dmH§$ {ÛnXm MVwînXm @jaoU {__Vo gßVdmUr :Ÿ&&(F$H²$ 1/164/24)
(43) Gaur¤ v¢k splits salila (water, uniform source matter) in 1,2,4,8,9 and thousand parts to
create different scripts-
Jm¡ar{_©_m` g{bbm{Z VjVr, EH$nXr {ÛnXr gm MVwînXrŸ&
AîQm>nXr ZdnXr ~^ydwfr, ghòmjam na_o ì`mo_Z²Ÿ&(F$H²$ 1/164/41)
(44) See (42) above. Also fS²>{dYmo d¡ nwéf:Ÿ& (EoVao` ~«m÷U 10/39)
(45) See Shodha Prabh¢ of July, 2002, LBS Rashtriya Sanskrit Vidyapitha, Delhi-16.

Distance of nth ahargana =r x 2
Ahargana 3
5th =4r

Rathantara sama

17 ahargana 21 ahargana

15 12

Venus orbit

Aditya ratha or wheel

Saturn orbit

Vair¦pa s¢ma 27 33 aharga´a