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I)

1857 - SEPOY MUTINY: a) ROOT CAUSE OF THE MUTINY:


i) ii) iii) iv) v) The conditions of service in the company's army and cantonments increasingly came into conflict with the religious beliefs and prejudices of the sepoys. The upper castes in the army, perceived loss of caste due to overseas travel. The rumours to converting sepoys to Christianity. Low salaries and the racial discrimination practised by British officers in matters of promotion and privileges. The indifference of the British towards leading native Indian rulers such as the Mughals and ex-Peshwas and the annexation of Oudh were political factors triggering dissent amongst Indians. The Marquess of Dalhousie's policy of annexation, the doctrine of lapse (or escheat) applied by the British, and the projected removal of the children of the Great Mughal from their ancestral palace at Red Fort to the Qutb (near Delhi) also angered some people. The final spark was provided by the rumoured use of tallow (from cows) and lard (pig fat) in the newly introduced Pattern 1853 Enfield rifle cartridges. Soldiers had to bite the cartridges with their teeth before loading them into their rifles, and the reported presence of cow and pig fat was religiously offensive to both Hindu and Muslim soldiers. Mangal Pandey a Sepoy killed a higer official in first week of May 1857 in Barrackpore. He was hanged for the charge. 10th May 1857 Mutiny broke in Meerut. 11th May 1857 they reached Delhi and marched to Red Fort. Mughal Emperor , Bahadur Shah II is reclaimed his throne. He was proclaimed Shehenshah-e-Hindustan. British Fought with the sepoy near Delhi. The last significant battle was fought in Gwalior on 17th June 1858 in which Rani Lakshmi Bai was killed. Tatya Tope Continued his war till 1859. Company rule was converted to British government Rule. The British stopped the policy of seizing land from the princes, decreed religious tolerance. They began to admit Indians into the civil service (albeit mainly as subordinates). They also increased the number of British soldiers in relation to native Indian ones. Bahadur Shah was exiled to Rangoon, Burma, where he died in 1862. With the escape of Nana Sahib and the death of Bahadur Shah Zafar came the end of Peshwaship and the Mughal Rule.

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vii) viii)

b) CAUSES OF THE MUTINY:


i) ii) iii) iv) v) vi) vii) i) ii) iii) iv) v) vi)

c) RESULT OF THE MUTINY:

II)

1858 - GOVERNMENT OF INDIA ACT: a) ROOTCAUSES OF THE ACT: i) This Declaration is due to 1857 Sepoy Mutiny.
ii) iii) Queen Victoria issued a declaration on November 1, 1858, placing India under direct government of the Crown. This declaration was called the 'Magna Carta of Indian Liberty'.

b) IMPORTANT IMPLEMETATION OF ACT 1858: i) A viceroy was appointed in India. ii) Princes were given the right to adopt a son (abolition of Doctrine of Lapse). iii) Treaties were honoured. iv) Religious freedom was restored and equality treatment promised to Indians. v) Began to admit Indians into the civil service. III) 1867 EAST INDIA ASSOCIATION: i) The GRAND OLD MAN OF INDIA Dadhabahi Naoroji (First Asian to British MP) intiated established the EAST INDIA ASSOCIATION in London. ii) It was formed in 1867. iii) It opened braches in Bombay, Kolkata & Madras in 1869. iv) It was closed in 1880. IV) 1876 INDIAN NATIONAL ASSOCIATION: i) Surendranath Banerjee and Anandh Mohan Bose created Indian National Association. ii) Surendranath Banerjee is also called as Rastra Guru. iii) Its first annual conference held in Calcutta. iv) It Merged with Indian National Congress in 1885. V) 1885 FORMATION OF INDIAN NATIONAL CONGRESS: a) HISTORY OF FORMATION: i) Lord Dufferin was the Viceroy of India at the time of Formation of INC. ii) It was founded by the suggestion of Allan Octavian Hume (A.O.HUME). iii) Indian National Congress was formed on 28th December 1885. iv) It was founded at Gokuldas Tejpal Sanskrit College in Mumbai with 72 delegates. v) The first session of INC held in Mumbai in 28th , 29th and 30th December 1885. vi) First General Secretary of INC is HUME. vii) First General President of INC is UMESH CHANDRA BANERREJEE. viii) William Wedderburn and John Jardine were the other two british members in founding of INC. ix) Dadabhai, the grand old man of India, suggested that the Indian National Union be named as Indian National Congress. x) It was presided over by Mr. W.C. Banarjee. A.O.Hume, K.T.Telang, Subramanya Aiyar and Dadabhai Naroji were among the distinguished speakers of the session. xi) President of INC for Second session is Dadabhai Naroji. xii) Dadabhai Naoroji was one of the Moderate leaders of the Congress. b) NEGATIVE REACTIONS: i) Muslims viewed that Members of INC is dominated by Hindus.

c)

CONGRESS SESSIONS:

Year 1885, 1882 1886 1893 1906 1887 1888 1889 1890 1895, 1902 1905 1907, 1908 1909 1916 1917 1919 1920 19,211,922 1923 1924 1925 1928 1929 1931 1932, 1933 1934 1936 1937 1938

Venue Bombay , Allahabad Calcutta Lahore Calcutta Madras Allahabad Bombay Calcutta Poona , Ahmedabad Banaras Surat , Madras Lahore Lucknow Calcutta Amritsar Calcutta (sp.session) Ahmedabad, Gaya Delhi (sp.session) Belgaon Kanpur Calcutta Lahore Karachi Delhi , Calcutta Bombay Lucknow Faizpur Haripura W.C.Bannerji

President Dadabhai Naoroji " " Badruddin Tyyabji (fist Muslim President) George Yule (first English President) Sir William Wedderburn Sir Feroze S.Mehta S.N.Banerjee G.K.Gokhale Rasbehari Ghosh M.M.Malviya A.C.Majumdar (Re-union of the Congress) Annie Besant (first woman President) Motilal Nehru Lala Lajpat Rai C.R.Das Abdul Kalam Azad (youngest President) M.K.Gandhi Sarojini Naidu (first Indian woman President) Motilal Nehru (first All India Youth Congress Formed) J.L.Nehru (Poorna Swaraj resolution was passed) Vallabhbhai Patel (Here, resolution on Fundamental rightsand the National Economic Program was passed) (Session Banned) Rajendra Prasad J.L.Nehru J.L.Nehru (first session in a village) S.C.Bose (a National Planning Committed set-up underJ.L.Nehru). S.C.Bose was re-elected but had to resign due to protestby Gandhiji (as Gandhiji supported Dr.Pattabhi Sitaramayya). Rajendra Prasadwas appointed in his place. Abdul Kalam Azad Acharya J.B.Kriplani Dr.Pattabhi Sitaramayya.

1939 1940 1946 1948

Tripuri Ramgarh Meerut Jaipur

VI)

VII)

1903 - SWADESHI MOVEMENT: i) The proposal of partition of Bengal by Viceroy of India, Lord Curzon became publicly known in 1903. ii) The Bengal was Partitioned into East Bengal and Assam. iii) As a result Swadeshi Movement was raised in Bengal. iv) This movement involved Boycott and selling of British Products.(Burnt the Products) v) The movement was strongly influenced by the writings of Sri Aurobindo Ghosh. vi) The proclamation of Swadeshi movement was made on 7th Aug 1905 in a meeting held at Calcutta hall. vii) But still government announces the partition on 16th oct 1905. And thus this day was declared as day of mourning in Bengal. viii) The Movement Failed due to following reasons: It failed to get support from the Muslims. The government started repressing the meetings, procession and press etc. Internal problems like splitting of congress, the apex all India organization weakened the movement. Many great leaders took retirement some were deported while some were arrested. The movement became leaderless. Many parts of the country was still not prepared to adopt the new style and stage of politics. The next reason was that movement lacked in affective party structure and organization. 1905 - PARTITION OF BENGAL: i) Partitioning Bengal was first considered in 1903. ii) The government officially published the idea in January 1904. iii) The Partition of Bengal was announced by Viceroy of India, Lord Curzon. iv) It was made on October 16, 1905. v) The Partition of Bengal as Assam and East Bengal. vi) The new province would consist of the state of Hill Tripura, the Divisions of Chittagong, Dhaka and Rajshahi (excluding Darjeeling) and the district of Malda incorporated with Assam province. vii) This Created a large Political Crisis. viii) Due to this political crisis the separated Bengal was again reunioned in 1912. ix) The administrative part for british India was moved from Kolkata to New Delhi. x) Bengal, which included Bihar and Orissa since 1765, was admittedly much too large for a single
province of British India.

VIII)

xi) 1906 ALL INDIA MUSLIM LEAGUE: i) The Party was founded by Aga Khan III. ii) Syed Ahmad Khan (1817-98) helped form the All-India Muslim League (AIML). iii) It is a political organization of India and Pakistan founded in the year 1906. iv) It was founded by the All India Muhammadan Educational Conference at Dhaka (now Bangladesh),
in 1906, in the midst of the protests over the partition of Bengal in 1905.

v) vi)

Its original purpose was to safeguard the political rights of Muslims in India. Ahmad Khan originally founded the All India Muhammadan Educational Conference in 1886.

IX)

1906 ALL INDIA MUSLIM LEAGUE: