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*Kyung Soo Woo, *Yeong Jun Kim, *Hyun Il Yoo, **Jaekwon Kim, ***Sangboh Yun, and *Yong Soo Cho

*School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Chung-Ang University, KOREA

**Computer & Telecommunications Engineering Division, Yonsei University, KOREA

***Telecommunication R&D Center, Samsung Electronics Co., LTD, KOREA

Email: yscho@cau.ac.kr

AbstractIn this paper, two receive diversity combining tech-

niques are proposed for cooperative relay systems based on

single-carrier frequency division multiple access (SC-FDMA)

when DFT spreading sizes for a mobile station (MS) and relay

station (RS) are different. A simplied-MRC (S-MRC) technique

performs diversity combining in the time-domain by using the

estimated channel weights and initial estimates obtained by

SC-FDMA signal detector. An interference rejection-MRC (IR-

MRC) technique performs diversity combining in the frequency-

domain by adjusting DFT spreading size at the receiver. It

is shown by computer simulation that the proposed receive

combining techniques achieve a signicant diversity gain over

the conventional ones.

Index TermsSC-FDMA, multi-hop relay, cooperative relay,

S-MRC, IR-MRC

I. INTRODUCTION

Multi-hop relay (MR) networks have garnered signicant

attention as an extension of conventional single-hop cellular

networks by combining a xed cellular infrastructure with

multi-hop relaying technology [1]. Fixed relay-based cellular

networks can reduce the propagation losses between a base

station (BS) and a mobile station (MS) by passing through

a relay station (RS). The MR can be used effectively for

throughput enhancement at shadowing regions and for cell

coverage extension [2]. Recently, cooperative relays have been

proposed in a variety of ways to achieve the benets of spatial

diversity, higher throughput, and lower energy consumption

[3]. On the other hand, single carrier-frequency division mul-

tiple access (SC-FDMA) was selected for uplink transmission

in 3GPP long term evolution (LTE) due to its low PAPR

properties compared to OFDMA [4]. Currently, the MR system

based on SC-FDMA is considered as one of strong candidate

techniques for uplink in LTE-Advanced (LTE-A) [5].

When spreading sizes of discrete Fourier transform (DFT)

in MSs and RSs are the same in SC-FDMA-based cooperative

relays, the sizes of subcarriers over which data symbols are

spread in the frequency-domain for MSs and RSs are the same.

In this case, the receive diversity combining can be easily

performed in the frequency-domain by using the conventional

maximum ratio combining (MRC) technique after fast Fourier

transform (FFT) processing. However, in a more general

situation where spreading sizes of DFT in MSs and RSs are

different, the conventional MRC technique cannot be used

Fig. 1. An example of receive diversity for an SC-FDMA-based cooperative

relay

for receive diversity combining in the frequency-domain since

data symbols are spread over different sizes of subcarriers.

A maximum likelihood (ML) detection technique with a high

computational complexity is required to detect the transmitted

symbol in this case.

In this paper, two receive diversity combining techniques

are proposed for SC-FDMA-based cooperative relay systems

when DFT spreading sizes for MSs and RSs are different. The

rst technique named as a simplied-MRC (S-MRC) performs

diversity combining in the time-domain by using the estimated

channel weights and initial estimates obtained by SC-FDMA

detector. The second technique named as an interference

rejection-MRC (IR-MRC) performs diversity combining in

the frequency-domain by adjusting DFT spreading size at

the receiver. Performances of the proposed techniques are

evaluated by computer simulation.

II. PRELIMINARIES

Fig. 1 shows a typical scenario of receive diversity for SC-

FDMA-based cooperative relays. Each transmission period is

divided into two phases. In the rst phase, MSs transmit their

own information while RS and BS listen. In the second phase,

RS retransmits the received information while BS listens. The

received signal from the uth MS,Y

u

, and the received signal

from RS,Y

R

, both at BS can be expressed in a matrix form

as

Y

u

= H

u

X

u

= H

u

F

u

x

u

(1)

978-1-4244-2515-0/09/$25.00 2009 IEEE

Y

R

= H

R

X

R

= H

R

F

R

x

R

(2)

where

x

R

=

_

x

T

0

, , x

T

u

, , x

T

U1

T

H

u

= diag [H

u

(0), H

u

(1), , H

u

(N

u

1)]

H

R

= diag [H

R

(0), H

R

(1), , H

R

(N

R

1)]

Here, F, x, and H denote the DFT spreading matrix, signal

vector before DFT spreading, and channel matrix, respectively.

Also, u, R, and U denote the uth MS, RS, and the number of

MSs, respectively. Noise terms are ignored in these equations.

Note that the DFT spreading sizes of RS and MSs, N

R

and

N

u

, are usually different.

In order to combine the signals transmitted from RS and

MSs, the signals transmitted from MSs are rewritten as

Y

M

= H

M

F

M

x

R

(3)

where

Y

M

=

_

Y

T

0

, , Y

T

u

, , Y

T

U1

T

H

M

= diag [H

0

, H

1

, , H

U1

]

F

M

= diag [F

0

, F

1

, , F

U1

]

By using the MRC technique, Y

M

and Y

R

can be com-

bined as

_

H

H

M

Y

M

+H

H

R

Y

R

_

=

_

H

H

M

H

M

F

M

+H

H

R

H

R

F

R

_

x

R

(4)

Since the term, H

H

M

H

M

F

M

+ H

H

R

H

R

F

R

, in (4) is not

a diagonal matrix, the conventional MRC technique cannot

be applied to SC-FDMA-based cooperative relays when DFT

spreading sizes for RS and MSs are different. The ML solution

for the combined signal in (4) can be given by

x

R

= argmin

xR

_

_

_

_

_

H

H

M

Y

M

+H

H

R

Y

R

_

_

H

H

M

H

M

F

M

+H

H

R

H

R

F

R

_

x

R

_

_

_

_

2

(5)

Note that the ML solution for detection of x

R

requires

a high computational complexity. When the ZF or MMSE

detection techniques are used to lower the computational

complexity, the complexity for obtaining the inverse matrix

of H

H

M

H

M

F

M

+ H

H

R

H

R

F

R

becomes higher as the DFT

spreading size increases. Also, the performance of ZF or

MMSE detection technique can be degraded signicantly if

H

H

M

H

M

F

M

+H

H

R

H

R

F

R

is not a non-singular matrix.

III. A SIMPLIFIED MRC

By multiplying complex conjugate matrices of channel, H

u

and H

R

, on both sides of (1) and (2) and taking IDFT, the

received signal at the BS can be rewritten as

F

1

u

H

H

u

Y

u

= F

1

u

H

u

2

F

u

x

u

(6)

F

1

R

H

H

R

Y

R

= F

1

R

H

R

2

F

R

x

R

(7)

where

F

1

u

H

H

u

Y

u

= [r

u

(0), r

u

(1), , r

u

(N

u

1)]

T

F

1

R

H

H

R

Y

R

= [r

R

(0), r

R

(1), , r

R

(N

R

1)]

T

and

r

u

(l

u

) =

1

N

u

Nu1

mu=0

|H

u

(m

u

)|

2

X

u

(m

u

)e

j2mulu

Nu

r

R

(l

R

) =

1

N

R

NR1

mR=0

|H

R

(m

R

)|

2

X

R

(m

R

)e

j2m

R

l

R

N

R

Right-hand sides of (6) and (7) can be rewritten as

F

1

u

H

u

2

F

u

x

u

=

x

u

(0) x

u

(N

u

1) x

u

(1)

x

u

(1) x

u

(0) x

u

(2)

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

x

u

(N

u

1) x

u

(N

u

2) x

u

(0)

g

u

(0)

g

u

(1)

.

.

.

g

u

(N

u

1)

(8)

F

1

R

H

R

2

F

R

x

R

=

x

R

(0) x

R

(N

R

1) x

R

(1)

x

R

(1) x

R

(0) x

R

(2)

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

x

R

(N

R

1) x

R

(N

R

2) x

R

(0)

g

R

(0)

g

R

(1)

.

.

.

g

R

(N

R

1)

(9)

where

g

u

(l

u

) =

1

N

u

Nu1

mu=0

|H

u

(m

u

)|

2

e

j2mulu

Nu

g

R

(l

R

) =

1

N

R

NR1

mR=0

|H

R

(m

R

)|

2

e

j2m

R

l

R

N

R

(8) and (9) can be expressed by the cyclic convolution as

follows:

x

u

(l

u

)

Lu1

1=0

g

u

(

1

) =

_

Lu1

1=0

r

u

(l

u

+

1

)

_

Lu1

2=1

_

x

u

(mod(l

u

2

, N

u

))

Lu1

1=2

g

u

(

1

)

_

+

_

x

u

(mod(l

u

+

2

, N

u

))

Lu21

1=0

g

u

(

1

)

_

(10)

x

R

(l

R

)

LR1

1=0

g

R

(

1

) =

_

LR1

1=0

r

R

(l

R

+

1

)

_

LR1

2=1

_

x

R

(mod(l

R

2

, N

R

))

LR1

1=2

g

R

(

1

)

_

+

_

x

R

(mod(l

R

+

2

, N

R

))

LR21

1=0

g

R

(

1

)

_

(11)

where mod(a, b) and L denote the remainder of division of

a by b and the length of channel, respectively. Substituting

initial estimates obtained by SC-FDMA detector, x

u

(l

u

) and

x

R

(l

R

), into (10) and (11), and then adding (10) and (11), we

can obtain (12). S

u

in (12) denotes the set of indices allocated

to the u-th MS before DFT spreading at RS. If the channel in

x

u

(l

u

) =

1

Lu1

1=0

g

u

(

1

) +

LR1

1=0

g

R

(

1

)

_

Lu1

1=0

r

u

(l

u

+

1

)

_

+

_

LR1

1=0

r

R

(l

R

+

1

)

_

Lu1

2=1

__

x

u

(mod(l

u

2

, N

u

))

Lu1

1=2

g

u

(

1

)

_

+

_

x

u

(mod(l

u

+

2

, N

u

))

Lu21

1=0

g

u

(

1

)

__

LR1

2=1

__

x

R

(mod(l

R

2

, N

R

))

LR1

1=2

g

R

(

1

)

_

+

_

x

R

(mod(l

R

+

2

, N

R

))

LR21

1=0

g

R

(

1

)

__

, (12)

for 0 l

u

< N

u

, l

R

S

u

Fig. 2. A block diagram of an IR-MRC

a resource block (RB) allocated to a user can be assumed to

be frequency non-selective, (12) is given by

x

u

(l

u

) =

g

u

(0) x

u

(l

u

) + g

R

(0) x

R

(l

R

)

g

u

(0) + g

R

(0)

,

for 0 l

u

< N

u

, l

R

S

u

(13)

IV. AN INTERFERENCE REJECTION-MRC

Fig. 2 shows a block diagram of the proposed IR-MRC

technique consisting of SC-FDMA signal detection, ordering,

rejection, adjustment, combining, and slicing. If the average

power of the signal vector received from the th MS, , is

the lowest, the process of interference cancellation can be

expressed in the frequency domain as

Y

R

= Y

R

H

R

F

R

J

u

= H

R

F

R

_

0

1Np

x

T

u

0

1Nn

T

(14)

where

J

u

=

_

x

T

0

x

T

u1

0

1N u

x

T

u+1

x

T

U1

T

N

p

=

u1

u=0

N

u

N

n

=

U1

u= u+1

N

u

After interference cancellation, the process of adjustment in

spreading size of the signal, , can be expressed as

Y = S

I +

NR/N u1

i=1

W

(iN u)

W

(Np)

Y

R

(15)

where

W

(a)

= diag

_

0, , e

j2mRa/NR

, e

j2(NR1)a/NR

_

Fig. 3. A concept of spreading size adjustment in IR-MRC

Y

R

, W

(a)

, and I denote the N

u

1 vector after adjustment of

spreading size, phase-rotational matrix, and N

R

N

R

identity

matrix, respectively. Here, S is dened by

S = diag [, , , ]

. .

N u

(16)

where

=

_

1 0

1(NR/N u1)

u

N

R

and

1 N

R

/N

u

, respectively.

Fig. 3 shows the concept of spreading size adjustment in

the proposed IR-MRC. As shown in Fig. 3(a), the time-

domain signal of

Y

R

after (14) resides at the position of

the resource allocated to the uth MS in the signal vector

transmitted from RS. As shown in Fig. 3(b), the process of

multiplying W

(a)

by

Y

R

corresponds to shifting the time-

domain signal of W

(a)

Y

R

to the starting point of the signal

vector transmitted from RS. Fig. 3(c) shows the process of

constructing a repetitive pattern of W

(a)

Y

R

in the time-

domain. Note that the time-domain signal with a repetitive

pattern with a period of N

R

/N

u

corresponds to comb pattern

with a spacing of N

R

/N

u

in the frequency-domain. Then, we

obtain the vector of

Y with a size of N

u

1 in (16), by

multiplying S by the vector with the repetitive pattern as can

be seen from Fig. 3(d).

In a similar way, the channel matrix can be expressed as

H = S

I +

NR/N u1

i=1

W

(iN u)

W

(Np)

H

R

(17)

Finally, the receive diversity combining for IR-MRC is

given by

x

u

= F

1

u

_

H

H

H +H

H

u

H

u

_

1

_

H

H

Y +H

H

u

Y

u

_

(18)

Since the matrix,

H

H

H +H

H

u

H

u

, in (18) is diagonal,

a simple scalar operation can be used for receive diversity

combining in IR-MRC. The processes from (14) to (18) are

repeated to detect the other transmitted signals. Constraints for

IR-MRC are given as follows:

N

R

=

U1

u=0

N

u

(19)

mod(N

R

, N

u

) = 0 (20)

V. SIMULATION

In this section, performances of the proposed receive diver-

sity combining techniques for SC-FDMA-based cooperative

relays are evaluated. Parameters for simulation are summarized

in Table I. It is assumed that the detected signals at RS are

error-free.

Fig. 4 shows BER performances of receive diversity com-

bining techniques for SC-FDMA-based cooperative relays.

From this gure, we can see that BER performance of the

conventional MRC technique with ZF detector, denoted by

the square, is worse than that of SISO case (solid line)

because H

H

M

H

M

F

M

+ H

H

R

H

R

F

R

, in (4) becomes near-

singular matrix. We can also see that the proposed S-MRC

technique, denoted by the circle, and the IR-MRC technique,

denoted by the triangle, achieve E

b

/N

0

gains of 8dB and

7dB, both at the BER of 10-3, compared with the SISO case,

TABLE I

PARAMETERS FOR THE SIMULATION

RS MS

DFT Spreading Size 48 24

Number of Stations 1 2

Modulation 16QAM

Bandwidth 0.625MHz

Carrier Frequency 2.3GHz

Cyclic Prex 12.8us

FFT Size 64

Channel Model ITU-PedB

5 10 15 20 25 30

10

5

10

4

10

3

10

2

10

1

ITUPedB, speed=3km/h, 16QAM

E

b

/N

0

u

n

c

o

d

e

d

B

E

R

SISO

MRC ZF

SMRC

IRMRC

IRMRC (slc)

IRMRC using SMRC (slc)

Fig. 4. BER performances of receive diversity combining techniques for

SC-FDMA-based cooperative relays

respectively. The S-MRC technique performs slightly better

than the IR-MRC technique at low E

b

/N

0

. However, the IR-

MRC technique performs better than the S-MRC technique at

high E

b

/N

0

(above 21dB). Also, the IR-MRC technique using

the output of S-MRC as initial estimates performs the best

among receive diversity combining techniques at the region

above 18dB. Here, (slc) corresponds to the case where initial

estimates obtained by the signal detector are sliced.

VI. CONCLUSION

In this paper, we proposed two receive diversity combining

techniques for SC-FDMA-based cooperative relay systems

when DFT spreading sizes for MS and RS are different. It was

shown that the S-MRC technique performing diversity com-

bining in the time-domain is effective in obtaining diversity

gain at low E

b

/N

0

region. It was also shown that the IR-MRC

technique performing diversity combining in the frequency-

domain by adjusting DFT spreading size performs better at

high E

b

/N

0

region.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

This research is supported by Samsung Electronics, and

UCN Project, Knowledge and Economy Frontier R&D Pro-

gram of MKE in Korea as a result of UCNs subproject 09C1-

C2-11T.

REFERENCES

[1] R. Pabst et. al., Relay-based deployment concepts for wireless and

mobile broadband radio, IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 42, pp. 80-89, Sept.

2004.

[2] H. Wu, C. Qiao, S. De, and O. Tonguz, Integrated Cellular and Ad Hoc

Relaying Systems: iCAR, IEEE J. Select. Areas Commun., vol. 19, pp.

2105-2115, Oct. 2001.

[3] T. Himsoon, W. P. Siriwongpairat, Z. Han, and K. J. R. Liu, Lifetime

maximization via cooperative nodes and relay deployment in wireless

networks, IEEE J. Select. Areas Commun., vol. 25, pp. 306-317, Feb.

2007.

[4] H. G. Myung, J. Lim, and D. J. Goodman, Single Carrier FDMA for

Uplink Wireless Transmission, IEEE Vehicular Technology Mag., vol. 1,

pp. 30-38, Sept. 2006.

[5] REV-080019, Consideration on technical candidates for IMT-advanced,

3GPP RAN IMT Advanced Workshop, Shenzhen, Apr. 2008.

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