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Iron And Steel Manufacturing Processes

Steel making is a complicated processes involving many stages and yielding thousands of by-products. Steel can be produced either from steel scrap or iron. The process used for the manufacturing of iron& steel has a bearing on the cost of production & the quality of the steel produced. The Iron Making process The first step in the steel making process is producing iron from iron ore. The process is called the iron-making process. Three different methods can be used for the production of iron from Iron ore. They are: 1. 2. 3. Coke-Ovens -Sinter-Blast Furnace (BF) Route Direct Reduction Technique Smelting Reduction Technologies

1. Coke-oven-Sinter-BF route Coke-oven-Sinter-BF route is used by integrated steel plants that produce steel from iron ore. In this process, the iron ore is first subjected to a sintering process. Sintering is the technology for agglomeration of iron ore fines into useful Blast Furnace burden material. Simultaneously coke is prepared in coke ovens from coal. The treated iron from the sintering plant is fed in to the Blast furnace along with coke. The blast furnace basically does the function of converting iron oxide in to liquid iron. Coke is used as a reducing agent as well as fuel. The output from the furnace is the pure iron in molten stage, which is called hot metal. The hot metal output from the Blast furnace is either directly fed in to the Basic Oxygen Furnace or used for producing pig iron.

Pig iron- definition- Liquid iron from blast furnace solidified in moving metal moulds of a "Pig Casting Machine". Named long ago when molten iron was poured through a trench in the ground to flow into shallow earthen moulds and arrangement looked like newborn pig sucklings. 2. Direct Reduction Technique The Direct reduction technique is an alternative to the Blast furnace technique. Iron ore is first crushed and reduction agents remove the impurities and oxygen. The reduction agents used in this process are coal and gas. Reducing gases used here are carbon monoxide, hydrogen and their mixture, which are generally found in natural gas. This produces 97.0 percent pure iron, which is called, solid Sponge Iron or direct reduced iron or hot briquetted iron. It is used as substitute for steel scrap in Electric Arc Furnaces. 3. Smelting Reduction Technique Smelting reduction technique is the third technique used for the production of iron from iron ore. Here the hot metal (liquid iron) is produced from iron ore in two steps. Ores are partly reduced in the first step and then final reduction and melting, takes place in the second stage. Different processes are used for smelting. COREX technique is the latest process used for smelting. Here coal is directly used in a melter gesifier as an energy carrier & reducing agent, thereby eliminating the need for a Blast Furnace, Sinter Plant & Coke Ovens. The other smelting techniques are Hismelt, Ausmelt, Romelt, Plasmasmelt and The Direct Iron Smelting Reduction (DIOS)

The Steel Making Process The second stage in iron and steel making is the steel making process. Generally two types of techniques are adopted for steel making. They are the Basic Oxygen Furnace (BOF) type and Electric arc furnace (EAF) type. Basic Oxygen Furnace Technique (BOF)

The Basic oxygen furnace is used for producing steel from the refined iron. Hot metal from the Blast furnace, which is a pear shaped furnace or reduced iron from the smelting plant is fed in to the Basic Oxygen Furnace (BOF) after pre-treatment to remove undesired elements like sulfur, silicon or phosphorous. Molten Steel in liquid form is obtained. Impurities go out in gaseous form and as slag. The liquid steel produced here is called crude steel. Electric Arc Furnace (EAF) Steel scrap or Pig iron or Sponge iron is used as the raw material in this process. Here the raw material is melted using heat generated with the aid of an electric arc produced by graphite electrodes. Here again the output is crude steel. The crude steel produced from the above said processes are either used for producing ingots or fed in the continuous casting process cycle. Ingot-definition- Molten steel cast in vertical cast iron moulds intended for rolling after heating in two stages i.e. in a primary mill and then in a finishing mill.

Crude Steel To Finished Steel In the Continuous Steel Casting process, liquid steel is directly cast into semi-finished products, which eliminates the need for primary rolling of ingots. The crude steel or liquid steel is poured into a reciprocating refractory-lined receptacle, called a Tundish. Below the Tundish are water-cooled copper moulds of desired size. The steel solidified in the moulds is slowly pulled out to produce an "endless" strand, which is gas-cut to desired lengths. This steel is called semi-finished steel. The semi-finished steel is fed in to re-rolling mills to get finished steel products. Finished steel products are classified in to two types: 1. Finished Carbon Steel As per the International Iron & Steel Institute (IISI), Finished Carbon steel is defined as steel that has properties made up

mostly of the element carbon, and which relies on the carbon content for structure. Finished Carbon steel can be further classified in to three types: a) Long products b) Flat products and c) Other carbon steel products. Long products are Bars, rods, channels, angles and other structural materials. They are used in the construction and engineering industry and, to some extent, in the manufacturing sector. Flat products consist mainly of sheets, coils and plates. They may be hot-rolled, cold-rolled or galvanized and find use mainly in automobile, shipbuilding and the white goods/consumer durables sectors. 2. Finished Alloy Steel Alloy steel is defined as a material containing Iron, carbon (less than 2.0 percent), Silicon, Manganese plus Alloy elements like Chromium, Vanadium, Molybdenium, Tungsten, Nickel, Lead, Naboium, Copper etc. Alloy steels can be further classified into two categories: a) Stainless Steel And b) Alloy Steels. Stainless steel is alloy steel that contains more than 10.0 percent chromium, with or without other alloying elements. Stainless steel has special properties like high level of corrosion resistance and the ability to maintain its strength at high temperatures.

Influence of Elements in Steel


Alloy steel has different Elements in addition to Iron (Fe) in it. This is the reason the term "ALLOY" steel. Different elements added to Iron gives steel different characteristics. This is required to give steel different properties which are required for different applications. These Elements are responsible in making steel Mild, Hard, Spring, Die, Tool and so on for various requirements in different industry and home. Below is the list of elements required for ALLOY steel.
Aluminum Columbium Niobium Tellurium Boron Copper Tin Calcium Hydrogen Carbon Lead Cerium Silicon Tungsten Chromium Sulphur Vanadium Cobalt Nickel Tantalum Zirconium

Manganese Molybdenum

Nitrogen Phosphorus Selenium Titanium

Aluminum (Al) As a deoxidizer, up to 0.05% aluminum may be added to steel. For increasing fine grain characteristics or subzero impact properties, up to 010% may be added. Nitriding steels contain about 1% aluminum for promoting a high surface hardness when heated in ammonia. Still larger additions made to heat resisting steels promote resistance to scaling. Approximately 5% added to chromium steel increases electrical resistivity. Boron (B) The addition of about 0.003 % of boron confers increased harden ability to steels in the quenched and tempered condition. Further, it has been found that the addition of 0003% boron to low carbon, 050%

molybdenum steel in the normalized condition doubles the yield strength and gives a 30% increase in tensile strength, but the advantage due to boron is very slight when molybdenum is less than 0.35% causes difficulty in forging. As much as 2% may be added to steels used in nuclear engineering. Calcium (Ca) This metal in the form of calcium silicide is sometimes added to steel as a deoxidizer and degasefier. Carbon (C) Carbon is essential in steels which have to be hardened by quenching and for example, in austenitic manganese steel which is required to have high resistance to wear. The maximum hardness obtainable in any carbon steel is a function of the carbon content which may vary up to about 2% according to the purpose for which the steel is to be used. It occurs in varying forms according to the percentage present, and the heat treatment to which the steel has been submitted. (See allotropy and transformation range). Cast irons usually contain from about 1.8% to 4.5% carbon, present either as free carbon (graphite) and/or combined carbon (cementite), the varying distribution of the carbon between these two forms considerably influencing the strength and hardness. (See also Carbon Steel). Cerium (Ce) A metal of the rare earth class which in many respects resemble the alkali metals. The hot working properties of high alloy corrosion- and heat-resistant steels maybe improved by the addition of cerium, whilst in cast iron, cerium acts as a deoxidizer and desulphurizer but when the sulphur content has been reduced to a value of about 0015%, the cerium enters into solution in the cast iron and functions as a powerful carbide stabilizer. In amounts above 002%, cerium is the operative factor in the production of nodular graphite structures in cast iron.

Chromium (Cr) As an alloying element in steel, chromium increases the hardenability and in association with high carbon gives resistance to abrasion and wear. 4%is present in high speed steel and up to 5% is present in hot die steels. In Structural steels it may be present in amounts up to about 3 %. Simple chromium-carbon steels are used for ball bearings having high elastic limit and high uniform hardness due to the uniform distribution of the hard carbide particles, but for most structural purposes chromium is used in conjunction with up to 4 % nickel and small amounts of molybdenum or vanadium. Chromium is unique in its effect on resistance to corrosion and scaling and is an essential constituent in all stainless steels, e.g., stainless cutlery steels contain 12% to 14% chromium, whilst in steels of the austenitic corrosion-resisting type, 18% chromium is associated with 8% nickel, and small amounts of other elements. In heat-resisting steels, chromium is present in amounts up to 30%, and it is an important element in many of the highly alloyed heat-resisting materials, whose iron contents are so low that they cannot be regarded as steel. Chromium is also used as an alloying addition to high duty cast irons. Cobalt (Co) In some steels used for nuclear engineering cobalt is an undesirable impurity, even in amounts as small as 002%. Unlike most other alloying elements cobalt reduces hardenability. It raises the red hardness of steel and this is the reason for adding 5% to 10% cobalt to certain types of high speed steels, developed for the specific purpose of cutting exceptionally hard materials. Heat resisting alloys with high cobalt contents have been developed for use in gas turbines. Cobalt is added to the extent of up to 40 % to magnet steels requiring high coercive force and it is used in electrical- resistance alloys. In the sintered hard metals Cobalt acts as the binding metal.

Columbium (Cb) (See Niobium) Copper (Cu) The addition of about 0.20% copper to low carbon steel may increase its resistance to atmospheric corrosion by as much as 20% to 30%. In amounts of about 050% copper appreciably increases the tensile and yield strengths. The addition of increasing amounts of copper leads to defects in rolling. High yield point structural steels containing copper, in association with chromium and appreciable percentages of silicon and phosphorus have been developed. Copper is also added to some stainless steels to improve corrosion resistance. Hydrogen (H) Hydrogen in steel is an undesirable impurity which is introduced from moisture in the atmosphere or the charge during melting. If a large amount of hydrogen is present in the liquid steel, some may be liberated on freezing giving an unsound ingot, evolution of hydrogen subsequently when the solid steel cools may cause hair line cracks. Hydrogen can be reduced to safe proportions by casting in vacuum or by prolonged annealing. It may also be introduced into steel by electrolytic action or by pickling and may then cause brittleness. Lead (Pb) The addition of about 025% lead improves machinability. It also causes a reduction in fatigue strength, ductility and toughness but this only becomes serious in the transverse direction and at high tensile levels. In creep resisting alloys very small amounts of lead may be harmful. Manganese (Mn)

Manganese fulfils a variety of functions in steel. (a) It is used as a deoxidizing agent in nearly all steels.(b) It forms manganese sulphide inclusions which in the ingot are spherical. In the absence of manganese sulphur forms interdendritic films of iron sulphide causing brittleness at forging temperature (hot shortness). (c) It effectively increases harden ability and up to 1.5% is added for this purpose. (d) In larger amounts it is used to stabilize austenite, as in 14% manganese steel. Molybdenum (Mo) Molybdenum is used very widely because of its powerful effect in increasing hardenability and also because in low alloy steels it reduces susceptibility to temper brittleness. It forms stable carbides, raises the temperature at which softening takes place on tempering and increases resistance to creep. In high speed steel it can be used to replace approximately twice its weight of tungsten. The corrosion resistance of stainless steel is improved by molybdenum additions. Nickel (Ni) The addition of nickel, in amounts up to 8% or 10 %, to low carbon steel, increases the tensile strength and considerably raises the impact resistance. 9% nickel steels are useful at very low temperatures. In engineering steels it is widely used, often with chromium and molybdenum. High nickel increases resistance to corrosion, and in combination with chromium, is used in the austenitic corrosion-resisting steels. Certain ironnickel alloys have unique properties. 25% nickel steel is practically non-magnetic. Alloys with about 36% nickel have very low coefficients of expansion, whilst with 50% to 785% nickel, alloys are obtained having very high magnetic permeability in low fields. An alloy containing 29% nickel, 17% cobalt is used for sealing with certain borosilicate glasses. Niobium (Nb)

The metal is also known as columbium. It occurs in association with tantalum, to which it is closely related. Niobium is a strong carbide-forming element and as such is added to certain austenitic corrosion-resistant steels of the 18/8 chromium-nickel type for the prevention of intercrystalline corrosion. Where niobium is used as the stabilizer, it is usually specified that it should be present in an amount at least 8 times that of the carbon content. Further, niobium is often used as a constituent of the electrodes used in the welding of such steels. Niobium is added to heat-resisting steels and enhances creep strength. In small amounts, of the order of 005%, it increases the yield strength of mild steel. Nitrogen (N) Nitrogen can combine with many metals to form nitrides and is thus applied to the case hardening of steel, the usual source for this purpose being ammonia. The incorporation of nitrogen in austenitic chromium-nickel steels stabilizes the austenite and increases the strength. In carbon steels it has an influence on creep. (See Abnormal Steels) Phosphorus (P) Although it has been used to increase the tensile strength of steel and to improve resistance to atmospheric corrosion, phosphorus is usually regarded as an undesirable impurity because of its embrittling effect. In most British specifications the maximum permitted is 005 %, but in steel for nitriding it may be restricted to a maximum of 002 % since during the nitriding treatment phosphorus has a temper embrittling effect. Selenium (Se) A metalloid closely resembling sulphur in its properties. It is sometimes added to steels to the extent of 02 % to 03 % to improve machinability.

Silicon (Si) Silicon is a powerful deoxidizer, and as such is used in steel making processes in amounts up to about 08%. When used as an alloying element, silicon in small percentages will increase the tensile strength and yield point of structural steels. It is used in amounts of 15% to 2% in silicon-manganese spring steels and ultra-high tensile steels due to its effect in raising the limit of proportionality and resistance to tempering. Up to 4% in heat resisting steels improves scale resistance owing to the formation of a protective layer (see also Ihrigizing). The higher the silicon, the higher the temperature at which protection against further atmospheric oxidation is given. Water vapour and carbon dioxide, however, attack the layer. Alloys of iron and silicon, containing 15% of the element, are used as acid-resisting materials, but have the properties of cast irons rather than of steels. Carbon-free alloys with up to 4% silicon have a high electrical resistance and low hysteresis loss, and are used as transformer steels. In cast iron, silicon not only serves as a deoxidizer but also has a marked graphitizing effect, thus improving machinability. Sulphur (S) A non-metal, which combines with iron to form iron sulphides, in which form its effect is to make the steel red short but combined with manganese its influence is less injurious. In steel the sulphur content is usually specified as less than 0.05 % but it may be added deliberately to improve machinability. Tantalum (Ta) This metal is associated with niobium and is very similar to it chemically. As an alloying addition to steel, niobium is preferred. Tellurium (Te)

Tellurium is added to steel either alone or together with selenium to promote machinability. It is a powerful carbide stabilizer and has been also added to cast iron where it is said to increase the depth of chill and to prevent shrinkage. It may be added in small amounts to the molten iron or by the use of cores dipped or painted with washes containing tellurium in suspension. Tin (Sn) Owing to its good resistance to corrosion in many conditions, the major use of tin is in the form of coatings for steel and copper alloys. It is an undesirable impurity in steel giving rise to temper brittleness, but is less harmful than phosphorus. Titanium (Ti) The principal use of titanium is to stabilize carbon by forming titanium carbide. In austenitic stainless steels it is used in this way to prevent inter crystalline corrosion, the titanium addition being at least four times the carbon content. It is also added to low carbon steels to prevent blistering during vitreous enameling. Titanium carbide is used with tungsten carbide in the manufacture of hard metal tools. Tungsten (W) The effect of the addition of this metal to steel is to increase the strength at normal and elevated temperatures. Owing to the hardness of tungsten carbide and its influence on secondary hardening, tungsten is used as the main alloy addition in high speed tool steels, molybdenum being its only substitute. In addition, tungsten finds considerable application in general tool steels, die and precipitation hardening steels. It has found a useful application in valves and other steels required for use at high temperatures. Tungsten is an essential constituent in the sintered hard metals.

Vanadium (V) The presence of vanadium in steel raises the temperature at which grain coarsening sets in and under certain conditions increases the hardenability. It also lessens softening on tempering and confers secondary hardness on high speed and other steels. Vanadium carbide is intensely hard and as much as 5% vanadium may be added to high speed and high chromium tool steel where it improves abrasion resistance. Vanadium is an important constituent in many types of steel, for widely varying applications, e.g., nitriding, heatresistance, tools, wearing plates and other fully hardened parts. In conjunction with molybdenum, vanadium has a marked effect in enhancing creep resistance. Zirconium (Zr) Zirconium acts as a deoxidizing element in steel and combines with the sulphur.

What do we need to make iron?


Making iron is the first step in the production of steel. Iron is usually made from iron ore, coal and limestone - although some plants around the world have developed alternative methods of iron manufacture.These newer methods require slightly different raw materials but iron ore, coal and limestone remain the starting point for most steel manufacture in the UK. The original centres of the steel industry in the UK were on inland coalfield sites. They used iron ore, limestone and coal mined locally. As the demand for high quality steels increased, local ore and coal became less suitable, so these raw materials were increasingly imported from overseas. This led to a shift of the industry away from many of its original sites. The map shows the current sites of iron and steelmaking in the UK.

The question was:


a) What do the present sites of iron and steel making plants in the UK have in
common? b) Why has the iron and steel industry moved away from its original coalfield sites?

Much of the ore that comes to the steelworks is in a finely ground state. In this condition, the ore is difficult to handle without creating dust that can be wasteful and polluting. Heating a mixture of this loose material with fine coke from the ovens makes a much coarser material called sinter. Sinter is fed into the top of the Blast Furnace as well as coarse lumps of coke, limestone and iron ore.

The question was:


What are the advantages of sintering the raw materials?

Our experts view is:


Sintering avoids losses which would occur if the raw materials were in a loose or powdered state

DOLOMITE

Chemistry: CaMg(CO3)2, Calcium Magnesium Carbonate Class: Carbonates Group: Dolomite Uses: in some cements, as a source of magnesium and as mineral specimens. Specimens

Dolomite, which is named for the French mineralogist Deodat de Dolomieu, is a common sedimentary rock-forming mineral that can be found in massive beds several hundred feet thick. They are found all over the world and are quite common in sedimentary rock sequences. These rocks are called appropriately enough dolomite or dolomitic limestone. Disputes have arisen as to how these dolomite beds formed and the debate has been called the "Dolomite Problem". Dolomite at present time, does not form on the surface of the earth; yet massive layers of dolomite can be found in ancient rocks. That is quite a problem for sedimentologists who see sandstones, shales and limestones formed today almost before their eyes. Why no dolomite? Well there are no good simple answers, but it appears that dolomite rock is one of the few sedimentary rocks that undergoes a significant mineralogical change after it is deposited. They are originally deposited as calcite/aragonite rich limestones, but during a process call diagenesis the calcite and/or aragonite is altered to dolomite. The process is not metamorphism, but something just

short of that. Magnesium rich ground waters that have a significant amount of salinity are probably crucial and warm, tropical near ocean environments are probably the best source of dolomite formation. Dolomite in addition to the sedimentary beds is also found in metamorphic marbles, hydrothermal veins and replacement deposits. Except in its pink, curved crystal habit dolomite is hard to distinguish from its second cousin, calcite. But calcite is far more common and effervesces easily when acid is applied to it. But this is not the case with dolomite which only weakly bubbles with acid and only when the acid is warm or the dolomite is powdered. Dolomite is also slightly harder, denser and never forms scalenohedrons (calcite's most typical habit). Dolomite differs from calcite, CaCO3, in the addition of magnesium ions to make the formula, CaMg(CO3)2. The magnesium ions are not the same size as calcium and the two ions seem incompatible in the same layer. In calcite the structure is composed of alternating layers of carbonate ions, CO3, and calcium ions. In dolomite, the magnesiums occupy one layer by themselves followed by a carbonate layer which is followed by an exclusively calcite layer and so forth. Why the alternating layers? It is probably the significant size difference between calcium and magnesium and it is more stable to group the differing sized ions into same sized layers. Other carbonate minerals that have this alternating layered structure belong to the Dolomite Group. Dolomite is the principle member of the Dolomite Group of minerals which includes ankerite, the only other somewhat common member. Dolomite forms rhombohedrons as its typical crystal habit. But for some reason, possibly twinning, some crystals curve into saddle-shaped crystals. These crystals represent a unique crystal habit that is well known as classical dolomite. Not all crystals of dolomite are curved and some impressive specimens show well formed, sharp rhombohedrons. The luster of dolomite is unique as well and is probably the best illustration of a pearly luster. The pearl-like effect is best seen on the curved crystals as a sheen of light can sweep across the curved surface. Dolomite can be several different colors, but colorless and white are very common. However it is dolomite's pink color that sets another unique characteristic for dolomite. Crystals of dolomite are well known for their typical beautiful pink color, pearly luster and unusual crystal habit and it is these clusters that make very attractive specimens.

PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS:

Color is often pink or pinkish and can be colorless, white, yellow, gray or even brown or black when iron is present in the crystal. Luster is pearly to vitreous to dull. Transparency crystals are transparent to translucent. Crystal System is trigonal; bar 3 Crystal Habits include saddle shaped rhombohedral twins and simple rhombs some with slightly curved faces, also prismatic, massive, granular and rock forming. Never found in scalenohedrons.

Cleavage is perfect in three directions forming rhombohedrons. Fracture is conchoidal. Hardness is 3.5-4 Specific Gravity is 2.86 (average) Streak is white. Other Characteristics: Unlike calcite, effervesces weakly with warm acid or when first powdered with cold HCl. Associated Minerals: include calcite, sulfide ore minerals, fluorite, barite, quartz and occasionally with gold. Notable Occurrences include many localities throughout the world, but well known from sites in Midwestern quarries of the USA; Ontario, Canada; Switzerland; Pamplona, Spain and in Mexico. Best Field Indicators are typical pink color, crystal habit, hardness, slow reaction to acid, density and luster. slaked lime

Inden witten Hasewint For parchment prepared according to mediaeval recipes. Preparations

To begin with we must know the material used in the preparation: slaked lime (calcium carbonate). Indeed the definition of parchment is: a skin treated with slaked lime which is dried in a stretched way. The slaked lime is obtained as follows. Limestone (in Europe from France, Belgium and elsewhere) is burnt in limekilns. The slag is seperated from the quicklime. The chalk pieces are ground to a powder and taken in sealed tankers to factories where it is slaked. This is a chemical process whereby the chalk is mixed with water and becomes a temperature of around eighty five degrees Celcius. Should untreated lime come into contact with damp skin it will burn into it. The hot wet chalk is poured into large open containers and when cooled is ready for use in for example, building construction, such as in the making of cement mix. The company is a Leading manufacturer of High Purity Hydrated Lime / Slaked Lime / Calcium Hydroxide. The advantages of using high purity Hydrated Lime V/s Low purity are enlisted to make our esteemed customers aware of the real fact.

Advantage of using Hi-grade Hydrated Lime having higher percentage of Calcium Hydroxide (+90%) over low grade (65% Purity) Hydrated Lime : 1) REDUCED REACTION TIME : The rate of chemical reaction depends upon the degree of purity of the Chemical being used. Higher the purity , lesser would be the reaction time .

2) REDUCED CONSUMPTION : By Quantitative Analysis it is established that 1 M. T. of 90% grade Hydrated Lime is equivalent to 1.378 M. T. of 65% purity Grade . Thus there is a reduction of 37.8% in consumption. 3 ) REDUCED HANDLING COST ETC : By using this high purity material , handling charges inclusive manpower can be reduced by 37% due to reduction in consumption . This is a direct saving in labour cost by the same proportion. 4) REDUCED TRANSPORTATION COST: Total transportation cost for carrying Low Grade (65% Purity) Hydrated Lime = Cost of Carrying 65% Pure material + Cost of Carrying 35% impure material.

Total transportation Cost for carrying High Grade (90% Purity) Hydrated Lime = Cost of carrying 90 % Pure material +Cost of carrying 10% impure material. Thus it's clear that with same transportation Cost 25% more pure material / utilizable material can be transported .

5 ) LESS STORAGE SPACE : As there will be reduction in consumption ,less Godown space would be required for storage purpose , there by, reducing storage problem & Inventory cost.

6 ) MINIMIZED DISPOSAL PROBLEM : Due to less consumption less sludge would be generated, resulting in reduced disposal cost.

It is evident from above facts that by using High-grade Hydrated Lime containing higher percentage of Calcium Hydroxide (90%) , the consumption can be reduced by around 38% , there by minimizing the storage and sludge disposal problem. Ultimately resulting in Over all Cost Reduction by 40 % to 45% Applications : Hydrated Lime or Calcium Hydroxide is extensively used in the following Industrial Applications :

Manufacturing of Bleaching Powder . Process Water Demineralization . Waste Water Neutralization . Neutralization of Acidic effluents . Fluxing or Clarifying. Drying of mud or sludge. Stabilization of hazardous waste . Dehairing of Hides in Tanneries. Flue gas Desulphurisation. Calcium Hypochlorite Bleaching of Paper pulp.

Garima Calcium Products is a Pvt. Ltd. Company

incorporated in 1990,

having it's office in Pinkcity , Jaipur, Rajasthan. The Company is a leading manufacturer of High purity Hydrated Lime / Slaked Lime / Calcium Hydroxide. The product is manufactured as per Indian standards and manufactured as per the specific requirement of the Consumer too. We are registered with NSIC , Jaipur. The Garima- Hydrated Lime is manufactured from purest Lime stone available in Rajasthan, using State of the art Three - Tier - Hydration Technology. The Company's product finds extensive Industrial applications . We have very prestigious Clientage both in Public as well as Private sector .We have efficient transportation facility through out the country .The consistency in Quality and can be

Delivery Time , gives us cutting edge over competitors . We have registered 45% annual growth in the last two years . The company's present turn over is Rs.1.5 crore . The targeted turn over for financial year 2000-2001 is Rs. 2.5 crore( 67% increase over previous year) Contact Us At :

GARIMA CALCIUM PRODUCTS PVT. LTD. 341, Ganpati Plaza ,M.I. Road , Jaipur -302001 Rajasthan(India). Phone-- 0141-363231, 363264 Fax-- 0141- 363281 , 367808 E-Mail :support @garimachemical.com, sales@garimachemical.com

Iron And Steel Manufacturing Processes


Steel making is a complicated processes involving many stages and yielding thousands of by-products. Steel can be produced either from steel scrap or iron. The process used for the manufacturing of iron& steel has a bearing on the cost of production & the quality of the steel produced. The Iron Making process The first step in the steel making process is producing iron from iron ore. The process is called the iron-making process. Three different methods can be used for the production of iron from Iron ore. They are: 1. Coke-Ovens -Sinter-Blast Furnace (BF) Route

2. 3.

Direct Reduction Technique Smelting Reduction Technologies

1. Coke-oven-Sinter-BF route Coke-oven-Sinter-BF route is used by integrated steel plants that produce steel from iron ore. In this process, the iron ore is first subjected to a sintering process. Sintering is the technology for agglomeration of iron ore fines into useful Blast Furnace burden material. Simultaneously coke is prepared in coke ovens from coal. The treated iron from the sintering plant is fed in to the Blast furnace along with coke. The blast furnace basically does the function of converting iron oxide in to liquid iron. Coke is used as a reducing agent as well as fuel. The output from the furnace is the pure iron in molten stage, which is called hot metal. The hot metal output from the Blast furnace is either directly fed in to the Basic Oxygen Furnace or used for producing pig iron. Pig iron- definition- Liquid iron from blast furnace solidified in moving metal moulds of a "Pig Casting Machine". Named long ago when molten iron was poured through a trench in the ground to flow into shallow earthen moulds and arrangement looked like newborn pig sucklings. 2. Direct Reduction Technique The Direct reduction technique is an alternative to the Blast furnace technique. Iron ore is first crushed and reduction agents remove the impurities and oxygen. The reduction agents used in this process are coal and gas. Reducing gases used here are carbon monoxide, hydrogen and their mixture, which are generally found in natural gas. This produces 97.0 percent pure iron, which is called, solid Sponge Iron or direct reduced iron or hot briquetted iron. It is used as substitute for steel scrap in Electric Arc Furnaces.

3. Smelting Reduction Technique Smelting reduction technique is the third technique used for the production of iron from iron ore. Here the hot metal (liquid iron) is produced from iron ore in two steps. Ores are partly reduced in the first step and then final reduction and melting, takes place in the second stage. Different processes are used for smelting. COREX technique is the latest process used for smelting. Here coal is directly used in a melter gesifier as an energy carrier & reducing agent, thereby eliminating the need for a Blast Furnace, Sinter Plant & Coke Ovens. The other smelting techniques are Hismelt, Ausmelt, Romelt, Plasmasmelt and The Direct Iron Smelting Reduction (DIOS)

The Steel Making Process The second stage in iron and steel making is the steel making process. Generally two types of techniques are adopted for steel making. They are the Basic Oxygen Furnace (BOF) type and Electric arc furnace (EAF) type. Basic Oxygen Furnace Technique (BOF) The Basic oxygen furnace is used for producing steel from the refined iron. Hot metal from the Blast furnace, which is a pear shaped furnace or reduced iron from the smelting plant is fed in to the Basic Oxygen Furnace (BOF) after pre-treatment to remove undesired elements like sulfur, silicon or phosphorous. Molten Steel in liquid form is obtained. Impurities go out in gaseous form and as slag. The liquid steel produced here is called crude steel. Electric Arc Furnace (EAF) Steel scrap or Pig iron or Sponge iron is used as the raw material in this process. Here the raw material is melted using heat generated with the aid of an electric arc produced by graphite electrodes. Here again the output is crude steel. The crude steel produced from the above said processes are either used for producing ingots or fed in the continuous casting

process cycle. Ingot-definition- Molten steel cast in vertical cast iron moulds intended for rolling after heating in two stages i.e. in a primary mill and then in a finishing mill.

Crude Steel To Finished Steel In the Continuous Steel Casting process, liquid steel is directly cast into semi-finished products, which eliminates the need for primary rolling of ingots. The crude steel or liquid steel is poured into a reciprocating refractory-lined receptacle, called a Tundish. Below the Tundish are water-cooled copper moulds of desired size. The steel solidified in the moulds is slowly pulled out to produce an "endless" strand, which is gas-cut to desired lengths. This steel is called semi-finished steel. The semi-finished steel is fed in to re-rolling mills to get finished steel products. Finished steel products are classified in to two types: 1. Finished Carbon Steel As per the International Iron & Steel Institute (IISI), Finished Carbon steel is defined as steel that has properties made up mostly of the element carbon, and which relies on the carbon content for structure. Finished Carbon steel can be further classified in to three types: a) Long products b) Flat products and c) Other carbon steel products. Long products are Bars, rods, channels, angles and other structural materials. They are used in the construction and engineering industry and, to some extent, in the manufacturing sector.

Flat products consist mainly of sheets, coils and plates. They may be hot-rolled, cold-rolled or galvanized and find use mainly in automobile, shipbuilding and the white goods/consumer durables sectors. 2. Finished Alloy Steel Alloy steel is defined as a material containing Iron, carbon (less than 2.0 percent), Silicon, Manganese plus Alloy elements like Chromium, Vanadium, Molybdenium, Tungsten, Nickel, Lead, Naboium, Copper etc. Alloy steels can be further classified into two categories: a) Stainless Steel And b) Alloy Steels. Stainless steel is alloy steel that contains more than 10.0 percent chromium, with or without other alloying elements. Stainless steel has special properties like high level of corrosion resistance and the ability to maintain its strength at high temperatures.

The Steel Making Industry


Background
Steel is an alloy of iron usually containing less than 1% carbon. It is used most frequently in the automotive and construction industries. Steel can be cast into bars, strips, sheets, nails, spikes, wire, rods or pipes as needed by the intended user. Based on statistics from The 1992 Census of Manufacturing, 1,118 steel manufacturing facilities currently exist in the United States. Steel production is a $9.3 billion dollar industry and employs 241,000 people. The process of steelmaking has undergone many changes in the 20th century based on the political, social and technological atmosphere. In the 1950s and 1960s, demand for high quality steel encouraged the steelmaking industry to produce large quantities. Large, integrated steel mills with high capital costs and limited flexibility were built in the U.S.

(Chatterjee, 1995). Integrated steel plants produce steel by refining iron ore in several steps and produce very high quality steel with well controlled chemical compositions to meet all product quality requirements. The energy crisis of the 1970s made thermal efficiency in steel mills a priority. The furnaces used in integrated plants were very efficient; however, the common production practices needed to be improved. The large integrated plants of the 1950s and 1960s tended to produce steel in batches where iron ore was taken from start to finish. This causes some equipment to be idle while other equipment was in use. To help reduce energy use, continuous casting methods were developed. By keeping blast funraces continually feed with iron ore, heat is used more efficiently. As environmental concerns have gained importance in the 1980s and 1990s, regulations have become more stringent, again changing the steelmaking industry. In 1995, compliance with environmental requirements was estimated to make up 20-30% of the capital costs in new steel plants (Chatterjee, 1995). Competition has also increased during the period do to decreasing markets and increasing foreign steel production plants. The competition has forced steelmaking facilities to reduce expenses and increase quality. To meet these changing needs, just-in-time technology has become more prominent and integrated steel plants are being replaced with smaller plants, called mini-mills, that rely on steel scrap as a base material rather than ore. Mini-mills will never completely replace integrated steel plants because they cannot maintain the tight control over chemical composition, and thus cannot consistenly produce high quality steel. Mini-mills have a narrower production line and cannot produce the specialty products produced by integrated plants. Although technology continues to improve, in the mid 1990s, minimills captured less than half of the quality steel market.

Steel Production from Iron Ore


Steel production at an integrated steel plant involves three basic steps. First, the heat source used to melt iron ore is produced. Next the iron ore is melted in a furnace. Finally, the molten iron is processed to produce steel. These three steps can be done at one facility; however, the fuel source is often purchased from off-site producers.

Cokemaking
Coke is a solid carbon fuel and carbon source used to melt and reduce iron ore. Coke production begins with pulverized, bituminous coal. The coal is fed into a coke oven which is sealed and heated to very high temperatures for 14 to 36 hours. Coke is produced in batch processes, with multiple coke ovens operating simultaneously. Heat is frequently transfered from one oven to another to reduce energy requirements. After the coke is finished, it is moved to a quenching tower where it is cooled with water spray. Once cooled, the coke is moved directly to an iron melting furnace or into storage for future use.

Ironmaking
During ironmaking, iron ore, coke, heated air and limestone or other fluxes are fed into a blast furnace. The heated air causes the coke combustion, which provides the heat and carbon sources for iron production. Limestone or other fluxes may be added to react with and remove the acidic impurities, called slag, from the molten iron. The limestoneimpurities mixtures float to the top of the molten iron and are skimmed off, see Figure 1, after melting is complete. Sintering products may also be added to the furnace. Sintering is a process in which solid wastes are combined into a porous mass that can then be added to the blast furnace. These wastes include iron ore fines, pollution control dust, coke breeze, water treatment plant sludge, and flux. Sintering plants help reduce solid waste by combusting waste products and capturing trace iron present in the mixture. Sintering plants are not used at all steel production facilities.

Steelmaking with the Basic Oxide Furnace (BOF)


Molten iron from the blast furnace is sent to a basic oxide furnace, which is used for the final refinement of the iron into steel (Figure 1). High purity oxygen is blown into the furnace and combusts carbon and silicon in the molten iron. The basic oxide furnace is fed with fluxes to remove any final impurities. Alloy materials may be added to enhance the characteristics of the steel. The resulting steel is most often cast into slabs, beams or billets (USEPA, 1995). Further shaping of the metal may be done at steel foundries, which remelt the steel and pour it into molds, or at rolling facilities, depending on the desired final shape. BOF Pollution Sources and Prevention Opportunities Different types of pollution result from the different steps in steel production. Below, the pollution sources and the possible pollution prevention opportunities are discussed for each process.

Pollution Sources and Prevention for Cokemaking


Coke production is one of the major pollution sources from steel production. Air emissions such as coke oven gas, naphthalene, ammonium compounds, crude light oil, sulfur and coke dust are released from coke ovens. Emissions control equipment can be used to capture some of the gases. Some of the heat can be captured for reuse in other heating processes. Other gases may escape into the atmosphere. Figure 1: The Steel Making Process (EPA, 1995) Water pollution comes from the water used to cool coke after it has finished baking. Quenching water becomes contaminated with coke breezes and other compounds. While

the volume of contaminated water can be great, quenching water is fairly easy to reuse. Coke breezes and other solids can usually be removed by filtration. The resulting water can be reused in other manufacturing processes or released. Reducing Coke Oven Emissions Pollution associated with coke production is best reduced by decreasing the amount of coke used in the iron melting process. The smaller the volume of coke produced, the smaller the volume of air and water emissions. However, process modifications in actual coke production are not widely available and are very expensive. One fairly economical method of reducing coke oven pollution is to reduce the levels of coke used in blast furnaces. A portion of the coke can be replaced with other fossil fuels without retrofitting the furnace. Pulverized coal can be substituted for coke at nearly a 1:1 and can replace 25 - 40% of coke traditionally used in furnaces (USEPA, 1995). Pulverized coal injection is used worldwide to reduce coke use and, thus, coke emissions (Chatterjee, 1995). Pulverized coal injection may affect the final steel products. Pulverized coal may reduce gas permeability of the metal and unburnt coal particles may accumulate in the furnace, decreasing efficiency. Thus, it may not be possible to substitute pulverized coal for coke in the production of high quality steel. Other alternative fuels such as natural gas, oil or tar/pitch can be used to replace coke using similar process modifications. The reduction in emissions is proportional to the reduction in coke use. Air and water emissions may also be reduced by using a non-recovery coke battery. In traditional plants, by-products are recovered from the blast furnace. In non-recovery batteries, coke oven slag and other by-products are sent to the battery where they are combusted. This technique consumes the by-products, eliminating much of the air and water pollution. Non-recovery coke batteries do require replacement or retrofitting of traditional coke ovens. This process modification does reduce pollution, but can be expensive. A third method for reducing coke oven emissions is the Davy Still Autoprocess. The process uses water to remove ammonia and hydrogen sulfide from coke oven emissions prior to cleaning of the oven.

Cokeless Ironmaking
Cokeless ironmaking procedures are currently being studied and, in some places, implemented. One such procedure is the Japanese Direct Iron Ore Smelting (DIOS) process (Figure 2). The DIOS process produces molten iron from coal and previously melted ores. In this process, coal and other ores can produce enough heat to melt ore, replacing coke completely (USEPA, 1995).

In addition to reducing coke use, the DIOS process could cut the costs of molten iron production by about 10%, reduce emissions of carbon dioxide by 5 - 10% and increase flexibility by improving the starting and stopping capabilities of the steel mill (Furukawa, 1994). However, the DIOS process remain very expensive and requires extensive process modification. In 1995, this method was still being tested and economic feasibility will be determined from those tests. The HISmelt process, named after the HISmelt Corporation of Australia, is another cokeless iron melting process being tested. In this process, ore fines and coal are manipulated to melt iron ore. In 1993, the process could produce eight tons of iron ore per hour using ore directly in the smelter. Process modifications are expected to increase the efficiency to 14 tons per hour. Commercial feasibility studies were performed in 1995. Midrex is expected to be the U.S. distributor of the process. A final cokeless iron melting process is the Corex or Cipcor Process. This process also manipulates coke to produce the heat required to melt iron. A Corex plant is operational in South Africa. Posco of Korea has a Corex plant operating at 70% capacity in 1996 and is expected to continue progress (Ritt, 1996). India is also expected to build a plant in 1997. The process integrates coal desulfurization, has flexible coal-type requirements, and generates excess electricity that can be sold to power grids (USEPA, 1995). Further testing is being conducted to determine actual commercial feasibility in the U.S. Figure 2. The DIOS Process (Furukawa, 1994)

Iron Carbide Steel Production Plants


Iron carbide production plants can be an alternative to the Basic Oxide Furnace. These plants use iron carbide, an iron ore that contains 6% carbon rather than 1.5-1.8% of regular iron ore . The additional carbon ignites in the presence of oxygen and contributes heat to the iron melting process, reducing energy requirements (Ritt, 1996). While these types of plants do not reduce pollution on site, they do reduce the electricity requirement for steel production, reducing polution from the power plant.

Pollution Sources and Prevention in Ironmaking


Slag, the limestone and iron ore impurities collected at the top of the molten iron, make up the largest portion of ironmaking by-products. Sulfur dioxide and hydrogen sulfide are volatized and captured in air emissions control equipment and the residual slag is sold to the construction industry. While this is not a pollution prevention technique, the solid waste does not reach landfills. Blast furnace flue gas is also generated during ironmaking. This gas is cleaned to remove particulates and other compounds, allowing it to be reused as heat for coke furnaces or other processes. Cleaning gas for reuse can produce some air pollution control dust and water treatment plant sludge, depending on the method used. The dust can be reused in sintering processes or landfilled.

Pollution Sources and Prevention in the BOF


Slag is a major component of the waste produced in BOFs. Because of its composition, this slag, unlike that from the blast furnace, is best used as an additive in the sintering process. As its metallic content is lower, it does not make a good raw material for the construction industry. Hot gases are also produced by the BOF. Furnaces are equipped with air pollution control equipment that contains and cools the gas. The gas is quenched and cooled using water and cleaned of suspended solids and metals. This process produces air pollution control dust and water treatment plant sludge.

Steel Production from Scrap Metals


Steelmaking from scrap metals involves melting scrap metal, removing impurities and casting it into the desired shapes. Electric arc furnaces (EAF) are often used (Figure 1). The EAFs melt scrap metal in the presence of electric energy and oxygen. The process does not require the three step refinement as needed to produce steel from ore. Production of steel from scrap can also be economical on a much smaller scale. Frequently mills producing steel with EAF technology are called mini-mills.

Pollution Sources and Material Recovery


Gaseous emissions and metal dust are the most prominent sources of waste from electric arc furnaces. Gaseous emissions are collected and cleaned, producing EAF dust or sludge. The remaining gas contains small quantities of nitrogen oxide and ozone and is usually released. The EAF dust or sludge composition varies depending on the type of steel being manufactured. Common components include iron and iron oxides, flux, zinc, chromium, nickel oxide and other metals used for alloys. If the dust or sludge contains lead or cadmium, it is listed as a hazardous waste (RCRA K061) (USEPA, 1995). In 1996, 500kg of EAF dust were produced for each tonn (UK weight measurements) of crude steel production. In the United Kingdom, 70% of that dust is sold to other companies, 20% is recycled in-plant and 10% is landfilled. Although it is a relatively small proportion of the total volume of waste, the landfilled EAF dust amounts to 50 kg per tonne of crude steel produced (Strohmeier, 1996). Recycling and recovery of EAF dust can be difficult because of the alkalinity and heavy metal (zinc and lead) content. The dust can be landfilled, but, because of the fine nature, it may leach into ground water. Several processes have been developed to recover the zinc, lead and other heavy metals from EAF dust. Although not pollution prevention, metal recovery is almost always profitable if the zinc content of the dust is 15 - 20% of the total volume. It can be marginally profitable with lower levels of zinc. Other metals such as chromium and nickel can also be reclaimed and sold.

After the heavy metals have been removed, the dust is composed primarily of iron and iron oxides and may be remelted. If the metal content is sufficient, the dust can be reused in the blast furnaces. If it is not sufficient, the dust can be sold to other industries for use as raw materials in bricks, cement, sandblasting or fertilizers.

Energy Optimizing Furnaces (EOF)


EOF was developed to replace the electric arc and other steelmaking furnaces. The EOF is an oxygen steelmaking process. Carbon and oxygen react to preheat scrap metal, hot metal and/or pig iron. These furnaces reduce capital and conversion costs, energy consumption and environmental pollution, while increasing input flexibility (Chattergee, 1995).

Steel Forming and Finishing


After the molten metal is released from either the BOF, EAF or EOV, it must be formed into its final shape and finished to prevent corrosion. Traditionally, steel was poured into convenient shapes called ingots and stored until further shaping was needed. Current practices favor continuous casting methods, where the steel is poured directly into semifinished shapes. Continuous casting saves time by reducing the steps required to produce the desired shape. After the steel has cooled in its mold, as further detailed in Chapter 3, continued shaping is done with hot or cold forming. Hot forming is used to make slabs, strips, bars or plates from the steel. Heated steel is passed between two rollers until it reaches the desired thickness. Cold forming is used to produce wires, tubes, sheets and strips. In this process the steel is passed between two rollers, without being heated, to reduce the thickness. The steel is then heated in an annealing furnace to improve the ductile properties. Cold rolling is more time consuming, but is used because the products have better mechanical properties, better machinability, and can more easily be manipulated into special sizes and thinner gauges. After rolling is completed, the steel pieces are finished to prevent corrosion and improve properties of the metal. The finishing process is detailed in the Pollution Prevention and the Metal Finishing Industry manual.

Pollution Sources and Prevention from Steel Forming


The primary wastes produced in the metal forming process include contact water, oil, grease, and mill scale. All are collected in holding tanks. The scale settles out and is removed. It can be reused in sintering plants or, if the metal content is sufficient, may be sold as a raw material elsewhere. The remaining liquid leaves the process as waste treatment plant sludge. As the waste results in a small portion of pollution produced by

steelmaking, pollution prevention and process modification opportunities are not a priority.

References
Chatterjee, Amit. "Recent Developments in Ironmaking and Steelmaking." Iron and Steelmaking. 22:2 (1995), pp. 100-104. Frukawa, Tsukasa. "5000 Daily Tons of Direct Iron-Ore Smelting by 2000." New Steel. 10:11 (November, 1994), pp. 36-38. McManus, George, ed. "Replacing Coke With Pulverized Coal." New Steel. 10:6 (June, 1994), pp. 40-42. Ritt, Adam. "DRI comes to the Gulf Coast." New Steel. January, 1996, pp. 54-58. Strohmeier, Gerolf, and John Bonestell. "Steelworks Residues and the Waelz Kiln Treatment of Electric Arc Furnace Dust." Iron and Steel Engineering. April, 1996, pp. 87-90. U.S. Department of Commerce. 1992 Census of Manufacturers Blast Furnaces, Steel Works and Rolling and Finishing Mills. 1992. USEPA. "Profile of the Iron and Steel Industry." EPA/310-R-95-010, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Washington, D.C., September 1995.

Annotated Bibliography
Andres, A. and J.A. Irabien. "The Influence of Binder / Waste Ratio on Leaching Characteristics of Solidified / Stabilized Steel Foundry Dust." Environmental Technology. 15 (1994), pp. 343-351. This article discusses effective methods for steel dust stabilization. Andres, A., et al. "Long-term Behavior of Toxic Metals in Stabilized Steel Foundry Dust." Journal of Hazardous Waste Materials. 40 (1995): pp. 31-42. This study describes the leaching properties of heavy metals in steel dust. Berry, Brian. "Hoogovens Means Blast Furnaces And Clean Air." New Steel. December, 1994. pp. 26-30. Pulverized coal injection, particularly in Holland, are discussed. McManus, G.J. "The Direct Approach to Making Iron." Iron Age. July, 1993. pp. 20-23. Direct ironmaking, Corex plants and other alternatives to the BOF are discussed.

Mohla, Prem. "New Ductile Iron Process Meets the Challenge of the 1990's Head On." Foundry Management and Technology. 121:4 (April, 1993), pp. 52-56. Discusses alternative production processes to help reduce pollution. Schriefer, John. "Hot Iron Without Coke - And Blast Furnaces." New Steel. August, 1995, pp. 50-52. Corex, direct iron-ore smelting and HISmelt processes are all alternatives to the coke oven and blast furnace. Examples are discussed in this article.

Case Study Metal Recovery from Electric Arc Furnace Dust Case Study: CS616 North Carolina Department of Natural Resources and Community Development, July, 1989
The Florida Steel Company of Charlotte, North Carolina produces significant amounts of baghouse dust with a high zinc from their steel smelting operations. The air pollution control system on their electric arc furnaces capture the zinc-rich dust. Rather than disposal, the furnace dust is sent directly to a zinc smelter for metal recovery. At this writing, 2700 tons per year were sent to the zinc smelter for recovery at a cost of $61 per ton. By allowing the zinc to be reused, Florida Steel saves $130,000 per year over the cost of landfilling.

REUSING THE BYPRODUCTS OF THE STEEL INDUSTRY

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Coal Face to Coke Ovens | Water Treatment | Sinter Plant | Iron-making | Steel-making | Rolling and Tin Mills | The Future

BlueScope Steel's operations have created a significant by-products industry, in line with the company's commitment to reusing materials rather than adding them to the waste stream. Around 360 kilograms of by-products are produced per tonne of crude steel. These by-products are produced in the different stages of the production process including:

the coal face cokemaking

sinter plant water

ironmaking steelmaking

treatment

and in rolling mills

During each of these phases, there is a conscious effort made to minimise waste and to utilise by-products efficiently. The table below shows some of the by-products and their uses:
PROCESS
Coal mining

PRIMARY PRODUCT BY-PRODUCT


Coal Methane

Coal washery

Clean coal

Coal wash middlings

Coke ovens

Coke

Coke ovens gas BTX Naphthalene Tar Ammonium Sulphate

Sinter plant

Sinter

Sinter fines

Blast furnace

Molten iron

Blast furnace slag Blast furnace gas Blast furnace dust Thickener slurry

Basic oxygen steelmaking

Molten steel

Steel furnace slag BOS dust Flue gas Slag rake/kish

Slab caster

Steel slabs

Tundish skulls Crop ends Mill scale

Rolling mills

Rolled steel

Steel offcuts Mill scale

Tin mill

Tinplate

Oil Pickle liquor

Coal Face to Coke Ovens


Coal and coke production are not processes common to all integrated steelmakers. However, BlueScope Steel's Australian integrated steelworks does have its own cokemaking facilities. The modern, integrated steelworks depends on coal as a source of carbon for chemical reduction of iron ore, and as a primary source of energy. Various marketable by-products become available as the coal is processed into coke. Using these fuel by-products of coal in the major steelmaking processes contributes significantly to limiting the cost of steel.
Methane Appin Colliery, located on the South Coast of NSW, produces high quality coking coal. A naturally occurring by-product of the mining process is methane gas.

At Appin, methane is now being converted to electricity. Ninety-four one megawatt gas turbine engines have been installed and the electricity generated is sold into the NSW electricity grid to create power. The methane is drained from the coal seams before, during and after mining, with additional methane taken from exhaust ventilation air. This power is sufficient to service homes.

Coal middlings -

In order to minimise the level of ash that reaches the blast furnaces, coal is washed and then blended with coal from different coal seams. The small size, high ash coal content is separated from the main coal stream fed to the coke ovens, and is instead burnt in the boilers to generate steam and electricity or exported as part of an energy coal blend.

Coke ovens gas -

During the coking process, coke ovens are heated by gases recovered from operations further down the line. But the gas produced by the coke ovens is itself also captured, cooled, cleaned and recycled back into the system as energy for heating and electricity generation, replacing the need to purchase natural gas.

Of the energy required to run the steelworks, up to 40 per cent may be provided by coke ovens gas (and up to an additional 40 per cent by blast furnace gas). When the coke oven gas is cleaned, the process creates some valuable by-products that provide raw materials necessary for other industries:

Ammonium sulphate is a well-known fertiliser used in both broadacre farming and in nurseries. BlueScope Steel exports the ammonium sulphate produced at Port Kembla.

BTX (a liquid consisting of benzene toluene and xylene) goes to the Chemplex plant in Melbourne, where it is turned into styrene monomer. This is used for plastic products like telephone handsets and is a vital ingredient of styrene cups and beads.

Tar and naphthalene are used to manufacture pencil pitch, which in turn is used to manufacture electrodes for the aluminium refining industry, plastics, paints and wood preservatives.

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Water Treatment
A biological effluent plant, designed to treat waste water from the coke ovens, was constructed at Port Kembla in 1991. Using bacteria which thrive on a diet of cyanide, ammonia and hydrocarbons, the 'bug plant' removes 99 percent of cyanide, 90 percent of ammonia, 99 percent of phenols and 99 percent of thiocyanate found in the waste water. The bacteria are contained in tanks into which the water is pumped. Oxygen, phosphorus, lime and sulphuric acid are added. When the wastes are broken down by the bacteria, they are removed as a sludge that is squeezed dry and recycled to the coke ovens. The remaining water is filtered before being recycled or discharged safely. Back to top

Sinter Plant
Iron ore contains a high percentage of very fine material which is unsuitable for feeding directly into the blast furnace. In order to make use of this product, it is first agglomerated by mixing with fine lime and coke. It is then passed through a flame chamber where it 'sinters' (or fuses) together. The sinter plant is also used to recycle other

iron or lime dusts generated by other processes. Recycling by-products through the sinter plant is one way of recovering some of the fines produced in other parts of the steelmaking process. Back to top

Ironmaking
Slag is the basis for a multi-million dollar industry in Australia, and is a major byproducts success story. BlueScope Steel's Port Kembla Steelworks generates slag from two sources - blast furnace slag and steelmaking slag. Slag flows from the iron and steel furnaces as a molten mixture of limestone and the earthy components of iron ore coke that have separated from the molten iron and steel in the furnace. It is then processed in two forms:
Rock slag is produced by allowing the molten material to cool slowly and solidify. It is then crushed, making it suitable for road base and aggregate.

Granulated slag -

is produced by the instant quenching of molten slag. The result is a sand-like product that can be ground and used as a cement replacement in the concrete industry. In this application, it is favoured for its durability, particularly in marine environments. It can also be used as a sand substitute.

Slag in this form has been used in projects such as the Sydney Harbour Tunnel, the third runway at Sydney Airport, the North West Shelf project, in the sea wall of the Sydney Opera House forecourt, and as road paving for sections of Sydney's F4 Freeway (because of its anti-skid attributes). More recently, it has been used in the construction of the concrete walls, floors, columns and beams in many of the Sydney 2000 Olympic Games venues, including the Equestrian Centre and Velodrome.
Blast furnace gas and dust - Gas from the blast furnaces is sent into a gas cleaning plant where dust and fumes are removed. The cleaned gas is reused as fuel and the dry dust fed back to the sinter plant.

In addition to coke ovens gas, a major part of the steelworks energy requirement is fuelled by the cleaned blast furnace gas. The remaining slurry, which contains zinc content too high to directly recycle, is put into a settling tank. Water is pressed out of the slurry, cleaned and put back into the harbour. The remaining fraction is stockpiled. BlueScope Steel is looking at a process to economically retrieve the zinc and iron units. Back to top

Steelmaking
Steel furnace slag - Slag from the basic oxygen steel (BOS) furnace has the metals removed and recycled back into the steelmaking process. This slag is used in road pavement, bottom ballast and aggregate in asphaltic concrete, and as landfill.

BOS dust -

This is removed from the exhaust gas of the BOS process in a slurry (or wet) form. It is mixed with the blast furnace slurry and treated the same way.

Flue gas -

It is not economically viable to recycle gas from the BOS furnace, so the gas is cleaned and then flared.

Slag rake/kish -

Fine graphite flakes are freed in small amounts from the slag-raking of ladles at the BOS. This material is not currently recycled.

Caster scale -

The continuous slab casting process produces caster scale, a fine iron oxide that flakes off the surface of steel. This is recycled back into the process by routes such as the sinter plant as a source of iron units. It is also useful in exothermic powders.

Back to top

Rolling and Tin Mills


Mill scale Mill scale is a by-product of the rolling process, and is recycled in a similar fashion to caster scale.

Pickle liquor -

Pickle liquor is an hydrochloric or sulphuric acid solution used to clean strip steel after it has been rolled.

These solutions have been used by manufacturers of wire to clean the surface of rod and wire prior to wiredrawing or metal coating operations. In some mills, spent pickle liquor is passed through a recovery unit, returning the clean acid to the work baths, and generating a marketable ferrous sulphate product.

In 1992, BlueScope Steel joined with Orica and the NSW Water Board to convert some of this spent pickle liquor into a chemical that would greatly improve the quality of effluent from sewerage plants. It is used in sewerage treatment to break down detergents, washing powders and fertilisers that can otherwise cause excessive blue-green algae growth in the water system. The waste liquor (ferrous chloride) is converted to iron salts (ferric chloride) by Orica and is then used by the Water Board to bind and more easily remove solids from sewerage. As part of the arrangement, BlueScope Steel uses hydrochloric acid at Packaging Products' tin mill pickle line, in Port Kembla. Using hydrochloric acid also provides the by-product of caustic soda, which can be marketed to displace imported caustic soda. Spent pickle liquor is also used at the Royal Australian Mint in Canberra, where it reduces the chromium (used to manufacture and clean coins) in waste water. BlueScope Steel's Western Port Works in Victoria, Australia, converts most of its pickle liquor to hydrochloric acid at a regeneration plant. Here ferric oxide and hydrogen chloride gas are chemically produced and separated. The latter is absorbed in the rinse water from the pickle line and returned to the pickle line. Ferric oxide powder is sold for use in a variety of industries, including for the manufacture of audio and visual tapes and electric motor cores. Back to top

The Future
A number of other uses for by-products are in planning, or still in their infancy. These include:
Coal wash Coal wash is the dirt and shale washed out of coal before it is sent to the coke ovens. It is currently used as landfill and as an ingredient in the BlueScope Steel soil substitute. Other potential uses are being investigated, including application as a construction material.

Oils -

Increasingly stringent requirements on the disposal of wastes to landfill has prompted a search for suitable treatment options.

In the past, BlueScope Steel has used a process in which waste oily sludges removed from steel rolling mill coolants are treated biologically to produce a product that can be successfully incorporated in soil mixes, and also enable the coolant to be recycled. The solids in the coolant are removed by centrifuge and magnetic separations. The resulting waste sludge contains high levels of tallow and mineral oils, solids and water. By mixing the sludge with granulated slag in a bioreactor, the oil and grease content can be reduced to the extent that the resulting material has a soil-like consistency. It can then be used as a component of the substitute soil mix.

The tallow oil purchased by BlueScope Steel for use as a rolling lubricant is itself a recycled product of the fast food industry - cooking oil. Recycled oil is also returned to the plant through the coal preparation area, where it is added in the coal grinding process at the hammer mill as a means of increasing the bulk density of coal charged into coke ovens.