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Michael J. Schwaebe P.E.

, BBEC
760.753.7752
mjschwaebe@gmail.com


EMF Assessment for El Camino Christian Fellowship, 510 S. El
Camino Real, Encinitas, CA. 92024



Purpose: EMF Assessment for El Camino Christian Fellowship and Encinitas
Innovations Charter School

Scope: An EMF assessment was conducted at the school on November 27th, 2012, between
3-5 pm.

Electromagnetic fields (EMF) and electromagnetic radiation (EMR) are synonymous terms and
consist of electric fields, magnetic fields and radio frequency (RF) waves. These were
measured in the parking lot, playgrounds and in the classrooms. The measurements were
recorded in measurement tables in the attachments.

Electric fields measured in volt/meter (V/m), emanate from the utility power lines
and from the home wiring and power cords. This is because of the energy potential difference
with the surroundings, including humans in their homes.

Magnetic fields, measured in milligauss (mG) or nanotesla (nT) (1 mG = 100 nT), are caused
by the flow of current in the power lines and house circuits and devices. Power lines emanate
magnetic fields because the individual lines are separated by several feet up on the pole, and
therefore the fields do not cancel out. In the house wiring, the hot wire and the neutral return
run in the same cable jacket and the fields are equal and opposite and cancel out. The
exception here is when there is a multiple path return, which can be caused by crossing
neutrals between circuits, or when the 3-way switch does not have the traveling wire.
1/11
Radio frequency (RF) for this assessment is an EMF wave that emanates from home wireless
devices, smart meters, and a host of external systems (radio, TV, mobile phone, etc.). RF
waves are used to convey information from one place to another through the air. They are
waves that have electrical and magnetic properties traveling at the speed of light, capable of
traveling many miles and penetrating concrete depending upon the frequency. For compliance
purposes, RF is measured in microwatts/meter squared (W/m2) or micro watts/centimeter
squared (W/cm
2
). (10,000 W/m
2
is equivalent to 1 W/cm
2
). RF is also measured in
volt/meter (V/m) and decibels (dB).

EMF is measured outside of the structure to identify external factors that could elevate levels
inside, and then inside to characterize the EMF environment. The readings are recorded in
tables on data sheets that include Building Biology guidelines for sleeping areas. The
guidelines originate from BAU Biologie in Germany, 30+ years of research, practical
experience and observations with sensitive people. These guidelines are believed to be
appropriate for all of us, and especially children in continuously occupied areas. These are
very conservative with respect to government limits, see discussion below.

See Appendix A for instruments used.

Electromagnetic Radiation (EMR) Exposure Limits: The FCC RF guidelines are defined in
FCC OET, and can be found at this link, http://www.fcc.gov/encyclopedia/oet-bulletins-line
The FCC limit at mobile phone frequencies is 1,000 W/cm
2
. This limit has been set to
prevent thermal damage. This limit does not protect from biological effects that have been
documented in the research literature at tiny fractions of this level. See appendices.

The Bioinitiative Report, Precautionary Guidelines (2007), Dr. Martin Blank -
Columbia University, specified 1,000 W/m
2
or 0.1 W/cm
2
as a safe limit. See
http://www.bioinitiative.org/ . Note that the FCC limit is 10,000 times greater than this
precautionary limit.

The Australian Medical Association and Building Biology Precautionary Guidelines for (SBM -
2008) For Sleeping Areas define power density in W/cm
2
in four categories:

No Concern, < 0.1;
Slight Concern, 0.1 - 10;
Severe Concern, 10 - 1,000;
Extreme Concern, > 1000.

The levels for slight concern are 1,000,000 times less than the FCC limits.










2/11
This figure is shown on page 5 of Magda Havas San Francisco Wi-Fi Environmental Report
and illustrates guidelines for many countries.
http://www.powerwatch.org.uk/pdfs/20061232_havas.pdf



Site Description: This is a two story, wood frame construction, stucco sided, multi- purpose
building. There is a church sanctuary, some offices, and the building also houses two schools.
The church bell tower stands adjacent to the structure and houses an assortment of
mobile antennas. There are mobile antennas on light posts in the parking lot. There is a
patio area and a playground area to the south side of the building. There is a playground area
for the smaller children on the north side of the building. There is a preschool at the Lutheran
Church immediately adjacent on the south side, an assisted living facility on the north side, and
residences immediately behind the church property.

This location is one of the largest single antenna sites in the Encinitas area. See link for
description of BRAG rating.

Summary of Measurements:

1. The AC electric (potential free) fields within the building were found to vary from .03 to 4
V/m in the classrooms and are of no or very slight concern.

2. The magnetic fields were found to vary from 12 to 60 NT and are in the range of no to slight
concern.

3. The RF fields were found to vary from 200 to greater than 20,000 W/m
2
and are in the
severe to extreme concern range in most of the classrooms and playground areas according to
the guidelines explained above. The RF source was observed to be primarily mobile antenna,
with a very small contribution from other sources. A BRAG Report for the Encinitas schools
3/11
showed that this location was rated in the black across the board with a BRAG rating of 22%,
and the worst of six schools rated. This report is shown in Attachment 2.

The general RF levels observed in the playground areas and in the classrooms are equivalent
to being within arms length from typical personal devices that are continuously operating, e.g.,
a Wi-Fi router, laptop or PC set up for Wi-Fi, bluetooth keyboard, mouse and printers, cordless
phone handset and/ or base station, baby monitor, microwave oven, cell phone, wireless video
game controls. See this link for more information on emission from personal devices.
http://s158336089.onlinehome.us/TelusDocs/19%20Sep%202010%20Testing%20Results.pdf

Recommendations:

1. Implement changes to the antenna system in a way that reduces exposure in the classroom
and playground areas to less than 200 W/m
2
. This could be accomplished by reducing the
antenna power levels and / or by re-orienting the antennas away from the building classrooms
and the playgrounds. Install shielding materials on the building and windows that will reflect
and / or ground the RF waves from the antennas.

2. Alternately, re-locate the school to a site that has low RF radiation.

3. All the children here need to have a low EMF home environment, especially during sleep
time so that their bodies can recover from having been in this radiation environment.


Appendices

Appendix A Equipment Used

Appendix B Review of the Bushberg Report dated November 1, 2012. Subject: RF Power
Density associated with the AT&T Wireless Facility at the El Camino Community
Church.

Appendix C Possible Health Effects, Electromagnetic Hypersensitivity and Electrical
Sensitivity

Appendix D References


Attachments

Attachment 1 Electromagnetic Radiation Measurements for El Camino Christian Fellowship

Attachment 2 BRAG Antenna Ranking Report for Encinitas, CA

Attachment 3 Bio for Michael Schaebe, PE, BBEC

Attachment 4 Preface of the International Journal of Pathophysiology, 2009 Special EMF Issue

Attachment 5 Governments and Organizations that Ban or Warn Against Wireless Technology
4/11
Appendix A

Equipment Used

RF Meter: Broadband RF Analyzer - Gigahertz Solutions eHFE59B - Displays power density
values as the sum of all the RFR sources in the band of the antenna.
Antenna: UBB27 Broadband Isotropic 27 MHz - 3.3 GHz
See this link for more information on this equipment: http://www.slt.co/Products/RFMeters/

Electric and Magnetic Field Meter: Gigahertz Solutions NFA1000
Displays the level of magnetic and electric fields in single or 3 axis mode.
See this link for more information about this meter: http://www.slt.co/Products/EMFMeters/




































5/11

Appendix B

Review of the Bushberg Report dated November 1, 2012. Subject: RF Power Density
associated with the AT&T Wireless Facility at the El Camino Community Church.

1. A Narda Meter Probe Set was used to measure RF in the frequency range of 300 KHz - 3
GHz. The dynamic range of the instrument is between 0.6% and 600% of the maximum
permissible exposure (MPE) standard. The readings obtained were below the instruments
sensitivity of 0.6% MPE (6 W/cm
2
).

In the EMF assessment documented in the report, the RF levels were found to be on the order
of 20,000 W/m
2
, 2 W/cm
2
, which is consistent with the observation in this report.

2. There is a statement that the radiation levels in the schools are safe, along with
considerable discussion regarding the derivation of the MPE safety limit. The FCC safety limit
is based upon thermal heating of tissue in a rat. It does not address biological effects.

The American Academy of Environmental Medicine issued a report earlier this year (2012) that
states that the FCC limits do not protect us from the biological effects. In its report
Electromagnetic and Radiofrequency Fields Effect on Human Health, found at this link
http://aaemonline.org/emf_rf_position.html, AAEM is calling for:

An immediate caution on Smart Meter installation due to potentially harmful RF exposure.

Accommodation for health considerations regarding EMF and RF exposure, including exposure to
wireless Smart Meter technology.

Independent studies to further understand the health effects from EMF and RF exposure.

Recognition that electromagnetic hypersensitivity is a growing problem worldwide.

Understanding and control of this electrical environmental bombardment for the protection of
society.

Consideration and independent research regarding the quantum effects of EMF and RF on
human health.

Use of safer technology, including for Smart Meters, such as hard-wiring, fiber optics or other
non-harmful methods of data transmission.

The Bioinitiative Report, issued in 2007 and updated in 2011, is a mega analysis of hundreds
and hundreds of EMF research studies. Clearly, if one looks at these studies from the
perspective of rat epidemiology, it follows easily that EMF, in all the frequencies, is detrimental
to life. See this link for the full report: http://www.bioinitiative.org

The report Biological effects from exposure to electromagnetic radiation emitted by cell tower
base stations and other antenna arrays, B. Blake Levitt and Henry Lai, is a mega review of
current research that lists references and power density along with biological effects that
provides compelling evidence that RF radiation, at levels measured at the school, has health

6/11
effects. http://www.magdahavas.com/wordpress/wp-content/uploads/2010/11/Blake_Levit-
Henry_Lai.pdf

3. The establishment of public policy that protects us from environmental hazards often lags
the science and the medicine that shows that there are health effects. Case in point, it was
roughly 100 years after the health effects were clearly observed for asbestos, lead and
tobacco smoke that our government initiated regulations to protect the general public. There
are ample anecdotal data, animal research and epidemiology studies that show that there are
significant biological effects at RF power densities well below the FCC MPE based on thermal
heating. It is common knowledge that the Telecomm industry is manipulating research, public
opinion and public policy in order to protect their business interests.






































7/11
Appendix C

Possible Health Effects, Electromagnetic Hypersensitivity and Electrical
Sensitivity

Technology is changing at a staggering pace. We are now exposed to forces and energies
that did not exist decades ago. Many new diseases and sicknesses have developed since our
parents generation including Electromagnetic Hypersensitivity EHS and radio-frequency
waves RF. EMF is a man made pollutant that consists of AC Electric Fields and AC
Magnetic Fields. It is produced from electrical wiring, electric appliances and electronic
devices. RF waves are produced by all wireless communication products.

Symptoms of EHS

Neurological: headaches, dizziness, nausea, difficulty concentrating, memory loss, irritability,
depression, anxiety, insomnia, fatigue, weakness, tremors, muscle spasms, numbness,
tingling, altered reflexes, muscle and joint pain, leg/foot pain, Flu-like symptoms, fever. More
severe reactions can include seizures, paralysis, psychosis and stroke.
Cardiac: palpitations, arrhythmias, pain or pressure in the chest, low or high blood pressure,
slow or fast heart rate, shortness of breath.
Respiratory: sinusitis, bronchitis, pneumonia, asthma.
Dermatology: skin rash, itching, burning, facial flushing.
Opthalmologic: pain or burning in the eyes, pressure in/behind the eyes, deteriorating vision,
floaters, cataracts.
Others: digestive problems, abdominal pain, enlarged thyroid, testicular/ovarian pain, dryness
of lips, tongue, mouth, eyes, great thirst, dehydration, nosebleeds, internal bleeding, altered
sugar metabolism, immune abnormalities, redistribution of metals within the body, hair loss,
pain in the teeth, deteriorating fillings, impaired sense of smell, tinnitus and ringing in the ears,
sensitivity to sounds and light, and infertility.




















8/11


Frequency of Electromagnetic Hypersensitivity Symptoms Based on
Distance to Cell Phone Base Station (Santini et al, 2002).

Long Term Health Effects

Adult cancer, tumours, childhood leukemia, breast cancer, DNA strand breakage,
abnormal cell division, nerve damage, MS, ALS, Alzheimer and Parkinson disease, brain
damage, melatonin reduction, miscarriages, and inflammatory conditions.

Prognosis

The severity of the symptom usually indicates the degree or stage of EHS. The stages vary
from slight discomfort to debilitating long term effects. Once diagnosed, the complete
elimination of electromagnetic radiation is necessary for relief. Recovery is possible but
requires fortification of the immune system. This has proven to be a multi-step process unique
to each individual and assistance from medical professional (Naturopathic or Environmental
Doctor) is suggested.






9/11
Appendix D

References

http://www.magdahavas.com/wordpress/wp-content/uploads/2010/11/Blake_Levit-
Henry_Lai.pdf Biological effects from exposure to electromagnetic radiation emitted by cell
tower base stations and other antenna arrays, B. Blake Levitt and Henry Lai, a mega review
of current research that lists the research references and includes a table of RF frequency,
power density and biological effects. This reference is found on many websites.

http://ci.encinitas.ca.us/modules/showdocument.aspx?documentid=352 Wireless
communication facility requirements for the city of Encinitas, CA. The code requires that all
antennas be aesthetic in their appearance, though most antennas in this city are aesthetic,
which means they are not obvious visually. Typical examples are like the antenna structure at
the church and many churches here in Encinitas, the facade at La Paloma Theater, fat flag
poles and fat light poles, and rooftops mountings behind facade.
http://microondes.files.wordpress.com/2010/03/robert_c_kane_cellular_telephone_russian_rou
lette.pdf Download the complete e-book Cellular Telephone Russian Roulette by Robert C.
Kane. This book, written by a telecommunications scientist, documents the early research on
microwave communication and illustrates that this form of radiation has been known to have
biological effects from the very beginning.
http://www.iarc.fr/en/media-centre/pr/2011/pdfs/pr208_E.pdf The World Health Organization
classifies radiofrequency electromagnetic fields as a class 2B possible carcinogen.
http://electromagnetichealth.org/wp-content/uploads/2010/04/BRAG_Schools.pdf The BRAG
Antenna Ranking of Schools Report by Dr. Magda Havas.
http://antennasearch.com This site is a database of mobile antennas. Enter any address and
follow the instructions for a map and list of towers and antennas within 4 miles of that location.
Please note that the antenna site at the church is not listed in this database.
http://wildmonkeysects.com/data/20050207_israel.pdf Wolf et al (2004) found that within 350
meters of cell phone antennas there was a 300% increased incidence of cancer among men
and women and a 900% cancer increase among women alone.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16621850 Hutter et al (2006) found symptoms such as
headaches, cold hands or feet, difficulty concentrating, tremors, loss of appetite and feelings of
exhaustion experienced from exposure to cell phone base station emissions
http://www.gezondheidsraad.nl/sites/default/files/GSMenUMTSengels.pdf TNO Study (2003)
found significant effects on well being, such as headaches, muscle fatigue/pain, and dizziness
from exposure to cell phone base station emissions.
http://www.tetrawatch.net/papers/naila.pdf H. Eger at al. (2004) found that the proportion of
newly developing cancer cases is significantly higher among patients who live within 400
meters of a cell phone transmitter. The relative risk of getting cancer in the study increased by
200% after 5 years operation of the transmitter.

10/11
Websites with extensive information on this subject:

The epidemiologist Dr. Magda Havas, http://www.magdahavas.com , has a wealth of current
news, links to research and reports and health effects, BRAG antenna report for schools.

http://electromagnetichealth.org Interviews with doctors and scientists, news, links to research,
EMF safety tips.

http://www.bioinitiative.org The Bioinitiative Report is a mega analysis of hundreds and
hundreds of EMF studies worldwide.

http://www.powerwatch.org.uk Compelling EMF news and research in the UK.

http://www.icems.eu A non-profit, international institution with information on news and
resolutions of different organizations for RF safety.

http://hbelc.org/about/objectives.html Current news and research citations.


















11/11
El Camino Christ ian Fellowship ( Encinit as Chart er School)
510 El Camino Real

Elect romagnet ic Radiat ion Measurement s


Locat i on Pat io Blackt op
west
Sout hwest
corner
Nort hwest
corner
Sandbox
AC El ect ri c
( Pot ent i al
Free) V/ M
0.9 0.1 0.3 0.1 0.1 0.1
Body
Vol t age
mV

Magnet i c
nt
5 2 3 5 7
RF
W/ m
2

5,000
10,000
13,000 7,000 220 400 - 800



Building Biology Guidelines for Sleeping Areas


Fi el d Type

Uni t s

No
Concern
Sli ght
Concern
Severe
Concern
Ext reme
Concern
AC El ect ri c ( Pot ent i al Free) V/ M < 1 1- 5 5- 50 > 50
Body Vol t age mV < 10 10- 100 100- 1000 > 1000
AC Magnet i c mG < 0.2 0.2- 1 1 5 > 5
RF ( wi reless radi o freq) W/ m
2
< 0.1 0.1- 10 10- 1000 > 1000

Magnet ic Field Conversion
100nT = 1mG
Radiofrequency Conversion
10,000 W/m
2
= 1 W/cm
2

1/ 4
El Camino Christ ian Fellowship ( Encinit as Chart er School)
510 El Camino Real

Elect romagnet ic Radiat ion Measurement s


Locat i on Sout hside
of t he
belfry
Sout hwest
corner
Middle of
parking lot

AC El ect ri c
( Pot ent i al
Free) V/ M
0.2 30 0.1
Body
Vol t age
mV

Magnet i c
nT
7 170 5
RF
W/ m
2

200
1,200
500 1,000 5,000
20,000




Building Biology Guidelines for Sleeping Areas


Fi el d Type

Uni t s

No
Concern
Sli ght
Concern
Severe
Concern
Ext reme
Concern
AC El ect ri c ( Pot ent i al Free) V/ M < 1 1- 5 5- 50 > 50
Body Vol t age mV < 10 10- 100 100- 1000 > 1000
AC Magnet i c mG < 0.2 0.2- 1 1 5 > 5
RF ( wi reless radi o freq) W/ m
2
< 0.1 0.1- 10 10- 1000 > 1000

Magnet ic Field Conversion
100nT = 1mG
Radiofrequency Conversion
10,000 W/m2 = 1 W/cm2
2/ 4
El Camino Christ ian Fellowship ( Encinit as Chart er School)
510 El Camino Real

Elect romagnet ic Radiat ion Measurement s


Locat i on Nort heast
corner
Kindergarden 2
nd
grade
classroom
1
st
grade
classroom
Creat e
room
( second
floor)
AC El ect ri c
( Pot ent i al
Free) V/ M
3.2 2- 4 1 0.3 0.4
Body
Vol t age
mV

Magnet i c
nT
12 32 27 26 32
RF
W/ m
2

> 20,000 50 - 100
Pul sing t o 300
500 - 1,000 100 - 500 5,000 -
7,000



Building Biology Guidelines for Sleeping Areas


Fi el d Type

Uni t s

No
Concern
Sli ght
Concern
Severe
Concern
Ext reme
Concern
AC El ect ri c ( Pot ent i al Free) V/ M < 1 1- 5 5- 50 > 50
Body Vol t age mV < 10 10- 100 100- 1000 > 1000
AC Magnet i c mG < 0.2 0.2- 1 1 5 > 5
RF ( wi reless radi o freq) W/ m
2
< 0.1 0.1- 10 10- 1000 > 1000

Magnet ic Field Conversion
100nT = 1mG
Radiofrequency Conversion
10,000 W/m2 = 1 W/cm2
3/ 4
El Camino Christ ian Fellowship ( Encinit as Chart er School)
510 El Camino Real

Elect romagnet ic Radiat ion Measurement s


Locat i on
Second
Fl oor
3
rd
grade
classroom
5
t h
and 6
t h

grade
classrooms
Special Ed
room
4
t h
grade
classroom
2
nd
grade
classroom
AC El ect ri c
( Pot ent i al
Free) V/ M
3.4 1.3 1.2 - 1.5 1.1 2.9
Body
Vol t age
mV

Magnet i c
nT
46 - 50 26 60 45 12
RF
W/ m
2

1,000
3,000
3,000
15,000
10,000
20,000
15,000
20, 000
2,000
5,000



Building Biology Guidelines for Sleeping Areas


Fi el d Type

Uni t s

No
Concern
Sli ght
Concern
Severe
Concern
Ext reme
Concern
AC El ect ri c ( Pot ent i al Free) V/ M < 1 1- 5 5- 50 > 50
Body Vol t age mV < 10 10- 100 100- 1000 > 1000
AC Magnet i c mG < 0.2 0.2- 1 1 5 > 5
RF ( wi reless radi o freq) W/ m
2
< 0.1 0.1- 10 10- 1000 > 1000

Magnet ic Field Conversion
100nT = 1mG
Radiofrequency Conversion
10,000 W/m2 = 1 W/cm2
4/ 4
The BRAG Antenna Ranking of Schools Report

The BRAG Antenna Ranking of Schools report is the result of a multi-year study of school childrens
potential exposure to cell phone antennas and base stations in U.S. state capitols prepared by Professor
Magda Havas, PhD, and students of Trent University, Canada. Exposure metrics for approximately 6,000
public and private schools were assessed. A composite grade was generated for each school based on how
close the nearest antenna was to the school, how many antennas were located within 0.25 miles (the
distance within which scientific research documents mental, emotional and physical symptoms in adults),
and within 0.6 miles from the school.

Each school evaluated is categorized with a Color Code: Black (for the most antennas near the school and
the highest potential microwave exposure, i.e. BAD), Red, Amber and Green (BRAG).

A composite grade reflecting antenna density near schools in each is calculated using a weighted average
of schools in the area ranked Black, Red, Amber and Green, giving a grade range of 0-100%.

Professor Havas, PhD, says, Symptoms people experience near cell phone antennas, within a 0.25 mile
radius include: fatigue, headaches, difficulty concentrating, memory loss, irritability, dizziness, depression,
visual disruptions, hearing disruptions and much more. Since we know children are more vulnerable to
microwave radiation than adults, putting cellular antennas near schools, or on school premises, is a
mistake. If we want children to do their best academically, emotionally, physically and socially, schools
should be microwave-freefree from ambient radiation from neighborhood antennas, as well as free from
wireless internet.

A BRAG Report was created comparing 6 Encinitas, CA grade schools and is attached.


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Michael Schwaebe

Professional Background

1) Education

Graduated from Oregon State University in 1969 with a Bachelor of Science degree in Mechanical Engineering (BSME). I
was privileged to have a Navy scholarship for my schooling and upon graduation I was commissioned directly into the US
Navy as an Ensign.

2) US Navy ('69-'74)

The first year in the Navy was nuclear engineering and nuclear propulsion prototype training. Then submarine school, with
specialty classes for the submarine assignment. I qualified in nuclear power and in submarines (gold dolphins) aboard
the Casimir Pulaski (SSBN633). This assignment included a major overhaul, two shake down cruises and two FBM
patrols in the north Atlantic and Arctic oceans. The next assignment was to the Tunny (SSN682), which was in new
construction. This assignment included initial sea trials and extensive shake down cruises in the Caribbean and Atlantic
oceans. The context of the work is the supervision of the ships crew and the operation and maintenance of the ships
systems, including the nuclear propulsion plant.

3) Solar Gas Turbine Corp. ('75-'77)

Program administrator for a nationwide emergency gas turbine preventive maintenance project.

4) Planning Research Corp (PRC) ('78-'80)

Director of pre-overhaul test, inspection and planning US Navy non-combatant surface ships.

5) Southern California Edison, San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station (SONGS) ('81-'09)

Systems engineer for many secondary systems and systems important to the safe shutdown of the nuclear reactor.
Thermal performance engineer, with the literal objective to find lost megawatts and get them back in the grid. The context
for the work here was engineering support for the operations and maintenance staff at the station that included initial plant
startup, system design / redesign, maintenance practices, operations procedures, root cause evaluations, engineering
paramedic, all with the intended purpose of operating within the design basis of the plant.

I completed my certification as a Professional Engineer at SONGS in the mid 80s.

Applicable Experience Base

Building Biology Environmental Consultant:

In 1993 I had a God knock at the power plant, a head injury where forward motion, as I had known it, stopped. A physical
and mental condition arouse of sensitivity to chemical, electrical, sound and subtle energies. In circa 2000, I undertook
the study of Biogeometry, a tool set that empowered me to remediate the powers of nature around me so that I could be
more comfortable. About 2006 remediation of the energy qualities associated with electrical was no longer enough for me
to be comfortable in my skin. And it was at this time that I embarked in the Building Biology training. I did the three basic
courses that year, purchased instruments, was mentored by Larry Gust, now chairman of the board of directors for the
Building Biology Institute and Martine Davis, an indoor air quality specialist. I started the work in my home, in my work
place and in the homes of friends. In 2011, I reviewed the basic classes and completed a special project (I had actually
completed the project in 2008, however the certification requirements had been changed so it didn't get submitted until
2011). All along, from the start of my training, I have sought out my personal sensitivities and their causes and to
measure / quantify these.

As a Building Biology Environmental Consultant, I bring to the task my personal instrument, honed through years of self
awareness, insight and augmented by a host of instruments. I, for the most part, feel what my clients feel. I can assess
the living or work space and know when I enter what is amiss, where it acts in the body for me and for the client,
determine it's source and the remediation.

I was awarded a certificate as a Building Biology Environmental Consultant in mid 2011.


Pathophysiology 16 (2009) 6769
Preface
There is an old joke with a well-known punch line about
a man who has just fallen from the 86th oor of the Empire
State Building in New York. As he passes the 30th oor, he
is heard saying to himself so far, so good. . .
Most of us laugh because we know where the man is
headed, and that he must know too. But, our laughter usu-
ally has a guilty edge. We know that many of us are guilty
of occasionally displaying a so far, so good attitude in our
own lives. We think of the smoker who says that about the
possibility of getting lung cancer or heart disease and who
counts on beating the odds because he feels healthy at the
moment. That smoker will not nd out if he won the bet until
many years later, and by then it is often too late. The so far,
so good attitude to health is so common that people even
kid themselves about it. One smoker told me that smoking
would only cut a few years off his life, and that he did not
mind losing the last few years because they are usually not
much fun anyway.
Unlike the optimist in the joke, whose end is virtually
certain, many of us live like the smoker, playing the odds
and reassuring ourselves so far, so good. Diseases like
cancer usually take many years to develop, and we try not to
think how some of the things we do casually can affect the
long-term odds by compromising the natural processes that
protect us. We rely on our bodies to be strong and resilient
all the time. Yet, we know there are limits to the bodys
natural ability to reverse damage to cells. We also know that
there may be gaps in the ability of our genetic endowment
to cope with damage. At some level, we all know it is just
common sense to try to minimize damage to our bodies and
maximize the ability to repair.
These opening paragraphs provide a quick introduction
to the theme of this issue of Pathophysiology and a summary
of the point of view of its authors. The public is currently
interested in possible hazards from radio frequency (RF) due
to cellphones, towers, WiFi, etc. The concern is certainly
warranted, but we are surrounded by electromagnetic elds
(EMFs) of many frequencies, and there are also signicant
biological effects and known risks from low frequency
Abbreviations: EMF, electromagnetic elds; Hz, hertz (cycles/s the
unit of frequency); ELF, extremely low frequency (33 10
3
Hz) power
frequency is 5060 Hz; RF, radio frequency (band width 3 10
3
to
3 10
11
Hz); UHF, ultrahigh frequency band the RF sub-division used for
cell phones (3 10
8
to 3 10
9
Hz).
EMF. The scientic problem is to determine the nature
of EMF interaction with biological systems and develop
ways of coping with harmful effects in all frequency
ranges, as well as their cumulative effects. The practical
problem is to minimize the harmful biological effects of all
EMF.
The technical papers in this issue are devoted to an exam-
ination and an evaluation of evidence gathered by scientists
regarding the effects of EMF, especially RF radiation, on
living cells and on the health of human populations. The
laboratory studies point to signicant interactions of both
power frequency and RF with cellular components, espe-
cially DNA. The epidemiological studies point to increased
risk of developing certain cancers associated with long-term
exposure to RF. Overall, the scientic evidence shows that
the risk to health is signicant, and that to deny it is like
being in free-fall and thinking so far, so good. We must rec-
ognize that there is a potential health problem, and that we
must begin to deal with it responsibly as individuals and as a
society.
Table of contents
PathoPhysiology papers Dates
Received
EMF Effects on DNA
Blank, Goodman 9/30
Phillips, Singh, Lai 10/14
Rudiger 12/22
EMF Effects on the Brain
Nittby, Brun, Eberhardt, Malmgren, Persson, Salford 12/17
Hardell, Carlberg, Mild 10/16
Kundi, Hutter 9/1
Morgan 11/21
EMF in the Environment
Davanipour, Sobel 11/1
Johansson 8/23
Pourlis 8/24
Balmori 7/21
Hutunnen, Hnninen, Myllyl 1/4
Blackman 11/13
Science as a Guide to Public Policy
Gee 12/17
Sage, Carpenter 11/13
EMF effects on DNA
M. BlankandR. Goodman(USA): Electromagnetic Fields
Stress Living Cells
0928-4680/$ see front matter 2009 Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
doi:10.1016/j.pathophys.2009.02.002
68 Preface / Pathophysiology 16 (2009) 6769
J.L. Phillips, N.P. Singh and H. Lai (USA): Electromag-
netic Fields and DNA damage
H.W. R udiger (Austria): Genotoxic effects of electromag-
netic exposure in vitro
EMF effects on the brain
H. Nittby, A. Brun, J. Eberhardt, L. Malmgren, B.R.R.
Persson and L.G. Salford (Sweden): Increased bloodbrain
barrier permeability in mammalian brain seven days after
exposure to the radiation from a GSM-900 mobile phone
L. Hardell, M. Carlberg and K Hansson Mild (Sweden):
Epidemiological evidence for an association between use of
wireless phones and tumor diseases
M. Kundi and H-P. Hutter (Austria): Mobile phone base
stations effects on wellbeing and health
L.L. Morgan: Estimating the risk of brain tumors from
cellphone use: published casecontrol studies
EMF in the environment
Z. Davanipour and E. Sobel: Long-term exposure to elec-
tromagnetic elds and the Risks of Alzheimers disease and
breast cancer: Further biological research
O. Johansson: Disturbance of the immune systemby elec-
tromagnetic elds: Apotentially underlying cause for cellular
damage and tissue repair reduction which could lead to dis-
ease and impairment disturbance
A.F. Pourlis: Reproductive and developmental effects of
EMF in vertebrate animal models
A. Balmori: Electromagnetic pollution fromphone masts:
Effects on wildlife
P. Huttunen, O. Hnninen and R.Myllyl: FM-radio and
TV tower signals can cause spontaneous hand movements
near moving RF reector
C. Blackman: Cell Phone Radiation: Evidence from ELF
and RF studies supporting more inclusive risk identication
and assessment
Science as a guide to public policy
D. Gee: Late Lessons from early warnings: Towards real-
ism and precaution with EMF?
C. Sage and D.O. Carpenter: Public Health Implications
of Wireless Technologies
Special Issue on EMF
Bioelectromagnetics, the study of biological effects of
electromagnetic elds (EMF), is an interdisciplinary science
with a technical literature that is not easily accessible to
the non-specialist. To increase access of the public to the
technical literature and to the health implications of the sci-
entic ndings, the Bioinitiative Report was organized by
an international group of scientists and published online at
www.bioinitiative.org on August 31, 2007. The report has
been widely read, and was cited in September 2008 by the
European Parliament when it voted overwhelmingly that the
current EMF safety standards were obsolete and needed to
be reviewed.
This special issue of Pathophysiology includes scientic
papers on the EMF issue by contributors to the Bioiniative
Report, as well as others, andis preparedfor scientists whoare
not specialists in bioelectromagnetics. Each paper is indepen-
dent and self-contained. To help the reader appreciate how
the different subjects contribute to an understanding of the
EMF issue, the papers are arranged in groups that emphasize
key areas, and the role of science in analyzing the prob-
lem and evaluating possible solutions. The subject headings
are:
DNAtoshowbiological effects at the sub-cellular level that
occur at very low EMF thresholds and across frequency
ranges of the EM spectrum. Interactions with DNA may
account for many of the effects of EMF, and they raise the
possibility that genetic damage due to EMF can lead to
cancer.
The Brainis exposedtoradiationfrommobile phone anten-
nas, and laboratory studies show that the radiation causes
leakage of the protective bloodbrain barrier, as well as the
death of neurons in the brain. Radiation emitted from base
stations can affect all who are in the vicinity. Epidemio-
logical studies have shown a relation between exposure
to mobile phones, base-stations and the development of
brain tumors. Some epidemiological studies have signi-
cant aws in design, and the risk of brain cancer may be
greater than reported in the published results.
In addition to the risk of brain cancer, EMF in the environ-
ment may contribute to diseases like Alzheimers dementia
and breast cancer in humans, as well as reproductive
and developmental effects in animals in the wild. EMF
affect the biochemical pathways andimmunological mech-
anisms that link the different organ systems in our bodies
and those of animals. The human body can act as an
antenna for RF signals, and a small percentage of the pop-
ulation appears to be so sensitive to EMF that it interferes
with their daily lives. In addition to the growing presence
of EMF signals in the environment, the complexity of the
signals may be important in altering biological responses.
These are among the many factors that must be considered
in approaching EMF safety issues.
Science as a guide to public policy
Four centuries ago, when Francis Bacon envisioned a
course for modern science, he expressed the idea that knowl-
edge is power that should be applied for the benet of
mankind. It is in keeping with that ethical standard that the
nal papers in this issue show how knowledge gained from
scientic research can help solve problems arising fromEMF
in our environment. The rst of these papers discusses the
Precautionary Principle, its growing acceptance as a rational
approach to environmental issues, and how past experience
can help us deal with the EMF issue. The second paper, by
the editors of the original BioInitiative Report, is an update
on howbest to deal with the challenge of EMF in the environ-
ment and, specically, the problems accompanying wireless
technologies. The last paper describes the most recent in a
Preface / Pathophysiology 16 (2009) 6769 69
series of petitions by scientists demanding that society use
our knowledge to deal effectively with the EMF issue.
We trust that the reviews and original research papers will
increase awareness of the growing impact of EMF in the
environment, and the need for modern society to deal expe-
ditiously with the potential health problems brought to light
by EMF research.
Guest Editor
Martin Blank
Physiology and Cellular Biophysics,
Columbia University, New York, USA
E-mail address: mb32@columbia.edu
22 January 2009
GOVERNMENTS AND ORGANI ZATI ONS THAT
BAN OR WARN AGAI NST WI RELESS
TECHNOLOGY
1993: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA): The FCCs exposure standards
are seriously flawed.
Official comments to the FCC on guidelines for evaluation of electromagnetic effects
of radio frequency radiation, FCC Docket ET 93-62, November 9, 1993.
1993: Food and Drug Administration (FDA): FCC rules do not address the issue
of long-term, chronic exposure to RF fields. Comments of the FDA to the FCC,
November 10, 1993.
1993: National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH):The
FCCs standard is inadequate because it is based on only one dominant
mechanismadverse health effects caused by body heating.
Comments of NIOSH to the FCC, January 11, 1994.
1994: Amateur Radio Relay League Bio-Effects Committee: The FCCs
standard does not protect against non-thermal effects. Comments of the ARRL Bio-
Effects Committee to the FCC, January 7, 1994.
2000: UK Department of Education: Children under 16 should not use cell phones
except in an emergency. http://www.cellular.co.za/news_2000/news-
08052000_uk_schools_warned_over_radiation.htm
2002: Interdisciplinary Society for Environmental Medicine (3000 physicians
in Germany) recommends banning cell phone use by children and banning cell
phones and cordless phones in preschools, schools, hospitals, nursing homes, events
halls, public buildings and
vehicles.http://www.powerwatch.org.uk/pdfs/20021019_englisch.pdf
2003: American Bird Conservancy and Forest Conservation Council:Brought a
lawsuit against the FCC because millions of migratory birds were being disoriented
by microwave radiation and crashing into cell
towers.http://www.ewire.com/display.cfm/Wire_ID/1498
2004: International Association of Fire Fighters opposes communication
antennas on fire stations. http://www.iaff.org/HS/Facts/CellTowerFinal.asp
2005: Salzburg, Austrias Public Health Department bans WLAN and DECT
phones in public schools. http://www.safeinschool.org/2011/01/wi-fi-is-removed-
from-schools-and.html
August 2005: Austrian Medical Association: Warns against Wi-Fi, cordless
phones, and cell phone use by
children.http://www.thepeoplesinitiative.org/Wifi_and_Schools.html
August 2005: Vienna Medical Association warns against Wi-Fi, and cell phone
use by children up to age
16. http://www.mastsanity.org/index.php?option=com_docman&task=doc_download
&gid=2&Itemid=64
2006: Frankfurt, Germanys government states it will not install WiFi in its
schools until it has been shown to be
harmless.http://www.icems.eu/docs/deutscher_bundestag.pdf
2006: UK schools remove their wireless networks: Prebandal Preparatory School,
Chichester, West Sussex; Ysgol Pantycelyn School in Carmarthenshirem, Wales; and
Stowe School, in Buckinghamshire, England. London Times, November 20,
2006.http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/life_and_style/education/article642575.ece
2007: Ballinderry Primary School, Ireland: Removed Wi-Fi to protect young
children. http://www.safeinschool.org/2011/01/wi-fi-is-removed-from-schools-
and.html
2007 Bavaria, Germanys Parliament recommends against Wi-Fi in
schools.http://www.icems.eu/docs/deutscher_bundestag.pdf
2007 Australian Democrats: The explosion in wireless communications
technology is causing widespread
illness.http://www.democrats.org.au/docs/2007/Joining_the_Dots_ExecSummary.pd
f
2007: European Environmental Agency, Europes top environmental watchdog,
calls for immediate action to reduce exposure to radiation from Wi-Fi, mobile phones
and their
masts.http://www.nzherald.co.nz/world/news/article.cfm?c_id=2&objectid=1046387
0
2008: International Commission on Electromagnetic Safety (comprised of
scientists from 16 nations): Recommends limiting cell phone use by children,
teenagers, pregnant women and the elderly.http://www.icems.eu/resolution.htm
return to top of page
2007: Therold, Ontario closes down its citywide Wi-Fi pilot
scheme.http://www.glastonburynaturalhealth.co.uk/WhyWi-Fi.html
2008: Lakehead University, Ontario bans Wi-Fi on
campus.http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/toronto/story/2010/08/15/ontario-wifi.html
2008: Madhya Pradesh, India: Bans cell phones in schools by both students and
teachers. http://www.indiaedunews.net/Madhya_Pradesh/Teachers,
students_unhappy_with_mobile_phone_ban_in_schools_5241/
2008: National Library of France: Removes Wi-Fi because of health concerns and
limits installation to cable connections. http://www.next-
up.org/pdf/FranceNationalLibraryGivesUpWiFi07042008.pdf
2008: Paris, France removes Wi-Fi from four public libraries because of health
concerns. http://www.accessmylibrary.com/coms2/summary_0286-35451555_ITM
2008 Sainte-Genevive University, Paris: Removes Wi-Fi from its library because
of health concerns. http://www.next-
up.org/pdf/AnalysisWiFiHotSpotsDeactivationSainteGenevieveLibraryParis24052008.
pdf
2008: Progressive Librarians Guild recommends against wireless technology in
libraries. http://libr.org/plg/wifiresolution.php
2008: Russian National Committee for Non-Ionizing Radiation
Protectionwarns that cell phones are unsafe even for short conversations. Children
under 16, pregnant women, epileptics, and people with memory loss, sleep disorders
and neurological diseases should never use cell
phones.http://www.radiationresearch.org/pdfs/rncnirp_children.pdf
2008 Sebastopol, California: Reneges on its contract to install citywide Wi-
Fi. http://www.boingboing.net/2008/03/24/town-of-sebastopol-c.html
2008: University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute: Children should never use a
cell phone except in an emergency. http://www.post-
gazette.com/pg/08205/898803-114.stm
2008: Voice (UK Teachers Union) calls for a ban on Wi-Fi in
schools.http://www.voicetheunion.org.uk/index.cfm/page/_sections.content.cfm/cid/
1326/navid/434/parentid/330
2009: Hrouville Saint-Clair, France: Bans Wi-Fi in public
schools.http://www.wifiinschools.org.uk/4.html
2009: Irish Doctors Environmental Association: Warns that current safety
guidelines are not appropriate. http://www.ideaireland.org/
2009: Karnataka State, India: Bans cell phones in all schools and pre-university
colleges.http://www.hindu.com/2009/09/14/stories/2009091454460500.htm
May 2009: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service urges Congress to focus on the
potential connection between electromagnetic fields and Bee Colony
Collapse. http://electromagnetichealth.org/electromagnetic-health-blog/emf-and-
warnke-report-on-bees-birds-and-mankind/
December, 2010: French Parliament passes a law prohibiting advertising cell
phones to children under 14; prohibits children up to age 14 from using cell phones
in pre-schools and public schools; requires cell phones to be labeled with SAR values
and a recommendation to use headsets.http://www.enviroblog.org/2010/12/french-
cell-phone-radiation-disclosure-at-point-of-sale.html
May 27, 2011: Council of Europe passes a resolution recommending wired
Internet connections in schools, and the creation of radiation-free zones to protect
electrosensitive
people.http://assembly.coe.int/Documents/AdoptedText/ta11/eRES1815.htm.
August 30, 2011: The Israeli Ministry of Education publishes guidelines strictly
limiting the use of mobile phones on all school grounds, citing childrens and youths
increased risk of malignant tumors and the passive exposure experienced by
children who do not use phones.
http://norad4u.blogspot.com/2011/09/israeli-ministry-of-education-is-going.html
September 8, 2011: Pretty River Academy in Collingwood, Ontarioremoves
WiFi from campus as a precaution, joining Roots and Wings Montessori school in
Surrey, British
Columbia.http://www.safeschool.ca/uploads/CTV_School_cuts_WiFi.pdf;http://www.
safeschool.ca/School_Bans_WiFi.html
DOCTORS AND SCIENTISTS CALLING FOR STRICTER
REGULATION AND/OR A MORATORIUM ON WIRELESS
TECHNOLOGY
http://international-emf-alliance.org/index.php/appeals, http://www.ralf-
woelfle.de/elektrosmog/redir.htm?http://www.ralf-
woelfle.de/elektrosmog/allgemein/appelle.htm,http://www.avaate.org/IMG/doc/Alcal
aci.doc
Vienna Resolution 1998
Salzburg Resolution 2000
Declaration of Alcal 2002
Catania Resolution 2002
Freiburger Appeal 2002
Bamberger Appeal 2004
Maintaler Appeal 2004
Coburger Appeal 2005
Oberammergauer Appeal 2005
Haibacher Appeal 2005
Pfarrkirchener Appeal 2005
Freienbacher Appeal 2005
Lichtenfelser Appeal 2005
Hofer Appeal 2005
Helsinki Appeal 2005
Parish Kirchner Appeal 2005
Saarlander Appeal 2005
Stockacher Appeal 2005
Benevento Resolution 2006
Allguer Appeal 2006
WiMax Appeal 2006
Schlchterner appeal
Brussels Appeal 2007
Venice Resolution 2008
Berlin Appeal 2008
Paris Appeal 2009
London Resolution 2009
Porto Alegre Resolution 2009
European Parliament
EMF Resolution 2009
Dutch Appeal 2009
Intl Appeal of Wrzburg 2010
Copenhagen Resolution 2010
Seletun Consensus Statement 2010