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ACCESS TRANSMISSION NETWORK UPGRADE IN A NATIONWIDE MOBILE NETWORK MODERNIZATION PROJECT FOR EDGE DEPLOYMENT Dr.Attila
ACCESS TRANSMISSION NETWORK UPGRADE IN A
NATIONWIDE MOBILE NETWORK MODERNIZATION
PROJECT FOR EDGE DEPLOYMENT
Dr.Attila HILT, Péter PETRÁS
Dean EMSLEY, Grzegorz RYBARCZYK
Nokia Siemens Networks,
NPO, Network Planning and Optimization
H-1092 Budapest, Köztelek utca 6. Hungary,
attila.hilt@nsn.com
1 © 2008 Nokia Siemens Networks - HILT Attila - Budapest , 1-Oct-2008.
INTRODUCTION • there is a continuous demand for capacity increase : new sites, new services,
INTRODUCTION
• there is a continuous demand for capacity increase :
new sites, new services, deployment of EDGE, UMTS
• microwave access networks become very dense
• most of the networks expanded historically – not optimal
• planning rules were not always kept - planning mistakes
• several access networks are tipically 5…10 years old
• modernization & network optimization projects
• to meet subscribers‘ expectations
• better spectral efficiency – reduced frequency fees
• to adopt changing regulations, stricter standards
• to increase quality and reliability of the network
2 © 2008 Nokia Siemens Networks - HILT Attila - Budapest , 1-Oct-2008.

UNOFFICIAL INTRODUCTION

“real life” project learnings 2 2 2 no complicated equations before coffe break please… E
“real life”
project
learnings
2
2
2
no complicated equations
before coffe break please…
E
+ 2
E
opt
RF
E
R F
( t
)
=
+
EE
cos
ω
t
++
cos 2
ω
t
I P D
RF
opt
RF
R F
2
2
2
E
E
RF
opt
E
R F
+
cos(
2 ωω ±+
)
t
cos 2
ω
t
opt
RF
opt
2
2
N N
− j
*
Ik
(
ω
)
=
∑∑
E
()
ω
E
(
ωω+
k
)
PD
RF
out
, j
opt j
,
out
, j
+
k
opt j
,
RF
j = 1
k =
0
3 © 2008 Nokia Siemens Networks - HILT Attila - Budapest , 1-Oct-2008.
NETWORK MODERNIZATION & OPTIMIZATION • GSM networks developed originally for voice –data was not supported
NETWORK MODERNIZATION & OPTIMIZATION
• GSM networks developed originally for voice –data was not supported
• most of the GSM networks are tipically 5…15 years old
• example of nationwide modernization of operator‘s GSM network
• simultaneous deployment of EDGE (in parallel with UMTS roll-out)
• operator‘s goal was to achive a high speed mobile data network
not technology specific (EGDE or UMTS) but service oriented
• modernization projects offer the possibility of network optimization
• in RF: high mobile data rates (100…120 kbit/s typical), better KPIs
• in TRS: massive capacity upgrades meanwhile:
• adopting changing regulations, stricter standards,
• NW assessment, increasing quality and reliability
• removing “historical” constraints/planning mistakes
•in RF&TRS: less interference, better spectral efficiency
4 © 2008 Nokia Siemens Networks - HILT Attila - Budapest , 1-Oct-2008.
GSM Network Architecture – EGPRS supports data SGSN GGSN Gn Gb BTS A.bis A BSC
GSM Network Architecture – EGPRS supports data
SGSN
GGSN
Gn
Gb
BTS
A.bis
A
BSC
MSC (or MSS)
Access
Transmission
Network
BTS
Core Network
Radio Network
EDGE : Enhanced Data Rates for GSM Evolution
5 © 2008 Nokia Siemens Networks - HILT Attila - Budapest , 1-Oct-2008.
Evolution of Mobile Data Rates : 1997- HSUPA High Speed Downlink/Uplink Packet Access HSDPA 2008
Evolution of Mobile Data Rates : 1997-
HSUPA
High Speed Downlink/Uplink
Packet Access
HSDPA
2008
Universal Mobile Telecommunication Services
Enhanced Data Rates for GSM Evolution
UMTS
2007
General Packet Radio Service
2003 3.6 Mbit/s
EDGE
High Speed Circuit Switched Data
Wireless Application Protocol
2002 384 kbit/s
GPRS
2000 236.8 kbit/s
WAP,
HSCSD
Short
(MCS.9)
Message
1999 48 kbit/s
Service
(CS.2)
~40 kbit/s
GSM
SMS
1998
Evolution
1997
6 © 2008 Nokia Siemens Networks - HILT Attila - Budapest , 1-Oct-2008.
EDGE – Modulation and Throughput GPRS EDGE Modulation method GMSK 8-PSK Number of bits [bit/symbol]
EDGE – Modulation and Throughput
GPRS
EDGE
Modulation method
GMSK
8-PSK
Number of bits
[bit/symbol]
1
3
Symbol rate
[ksymbol/s]
270.833
270.833
Air IF burst size
[bits]
114
348
Gross rate/air-TSL
[kbit/s]
22.8
69.6
User TP/air-TSL
[kbit/s]
14
59.2
Max.user TP/air-4TSL [kbit/s]
56
236.8
GMSK
8 PSK
(0,1)
(0,1,0)
(0,0,0)
(0,1,1)
(0,0)
(1,1)
(0,0,1)
(1,1,1)
(1,0,1)
(1,1,0)
(1,0)
(1,0,0)
7 © 2008 Nokia Siemens Networks - HILT Attila - Budapest , 1-Oct-2008.

EDGE upgrade : SW activation or HW swap

1.) Software upgrade/activation of existing, EDGE capable TRXs in existing UltraSites

of existing, EDGE capable TRXs in existing UltraSites 2.) TRX upgrades in existing UltraSites (EDGE capable
2.) TRX upgrades in existing UltraSites (EDGE capable TRXs) 3.) Swap of entire BTS cabinet:
2.) TRX upgrades
in existing UltraSites
(EDGE capable TRXs)
3.) Swap of entire BTS cabinet:
Citytalk→ UltraSite and
Flexitalk→ EDGE capable MetroSite
UltraSite and Flexitalk→ EDGE capable MetroSite 8 © 2008 Nokia Siemens Networks - HILT Attila -

8 © 2008 Nokia Siemens Networks - HILT Attila - Budapest , 1-Oct-2008.

UltraSite and Flexitalk→ EDGE capable MetroSite 8 © 2008 Nokia Siemens Networks - HILT Attila -
UltraSite and Flexitalk→ EDGE capable MetroSite 8 © 2008 Nokia Siemens Networks - HILT Attila -
UltraSite and Flexitalk→ EDGE capable MetroSite 8 © 2008 Nokia Siemens Networks - HILT Attila -
Network Modernization Example : Site Swaps/Upgrades more than 2000 BTS were swapped and/or upgraded red
Network Modernization Example : Site Swaps/Upgrades
more than 2000 BTS were swapped and/or upgraded
red dots :
EDGE deloyment
on existing
TRS NW (D1)
green squares :
TRS NW upgrade
was necessary
(D2…D7)
9 © 2008 Nokia Siemens Networks - HILT Attila - Budapest , 1-Oct-2008.
Swap/Upgrade of the Base Stations for EDGE 80 70 Sites swapped per week 60 50
Swap/Upgrade of the Base Stations for EDGE
80
70
Sites swapped
per week
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
5/
5/
5/
5/
5/
5/
5/
5/
5/
5/
5/
5/
5/
5/
5/
5/
5/
5/
5/
5/
5/
5/
5/
5/
5/
5/
6/
6/
6/
6/
6/
6/
6/
6/
6/
6/
6/
6/
6/
6/
6/
6/
6/
6/
6/
6/
6/
6/
6/
6/
6/
6/
6/
6/
6/
6/
6/
6/
6/
5/
6/
6/
6/
6/
6/
6/
6/
6/
6/
6/
6/
Week No
2
2
2
2
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
5
5
5
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
4
4
4
4
2
4
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
6
7
8
9
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
0
1
2
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
0
1
2
3
4
6
7
8
9
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
0
1
2
3
5
4
Sites Swapped
0
1
0
1
2
2
8
11
23
23
22
16
21
13
39
25
38
40
29
42
52
51
71
62
61
58
28
0
0
0
5
13
18
17
20
19
15
20
12
29
32
21
24
29
34
33
42
24
37
35
31
42
45
27
27
15
11
4
10
16
26
37
41
35
37
33
42
41
44
39
39
very fast roll-out : 800 Sites in Phase 1, 1200 Sites in Phase 2
10 © 2008 Nokia Siemens Networks - HILT Attila - Budapest , 1-Oct-
Concept of Dynamic A-bis Pool (EDAP) Two sites of 2+2+2 configuration groomed into 1 E1
Concept of Dynamic A-bis Pool (EDAP)
Two sites of 2+2+2 configuration
groomed into 1 E1
BTS1 ungroomed, space for
future TRX upgrade, 6 TSL EDAP
BTS2 ungroomed, space for
future TRX upgrade, 6 TSL EDAP
2 BTS sharing
1E1 (2Mbit/s)
1 BTS per 1E1, 1 new 2 Mbit/s
A-bis channel required
11 © 2008 Nokia Siemens Networks - HILT Attila - Budapest , 1-Oct-2008.
Classification of possible problems in EDGE upgrade of sites • D1 : “Easy swap” site.
Classification of possible problems in EDGE upgrade of sites
• D1 : “Easy swap” site.
Existing TRS capacity is sufficient to activate EDGE after the site is swapped or
upgraded. No additional E1 required.
• D2 : New 2 Mbit/s path must be patched.
Patching means remote electrical or local physical cross connections via cables
on sites. Existing physical TRS capacity is sufficient, but the entire 2Mbit/s path
must be estabilished and checked between BSC and BTS (A-bis) before EDGE
activation. Typical example is “un-grooming” of sites, where sites sharing the
same E1, but there is no available A-bis TSL for EDAP (EDGE Dynamic A-bis Pool)
•D3 : SDH upgrade is required.
A-bis path contains SDH section, where 2 Mbit/s upgrade is needed for the BTS.
SDH upgrade require activation of existing physical interfaces or insertion of
new cards may be required
• D4 : MW link must be swapped or upgraded.
• D5 : Leased Line upgrade required.
• D6 : BSC problem :
No more free ET card available in actual BSC, PCU full-up,
frozen BSC : BSC rehoming or BSC SW upgrade.
• D7 : Core NW upgrade is required
E.g. SGSN, or Gb interface capacity upgrade.
12 © 2008 Nokia Siemens Networks - HILT Attila - Budapest , 1-Oct-2008.
Statistics of TRS problems/upgrades – required for EDGE 500 400 300 200 100 3.5% 2.4%
Statistics of TRS problems/upgrades – required for EDGE
500
400
300
200
100
3.5%
2.4%
0
D2
D3
D4
D5
D6
TRS problems
Total
% of sites
patching
SDH
MW
LL
BSC
D1
1486
74.2%
D2
427
21.3%
D3
267
13.3%
D4
219
10.9%
D5
48
2.4%
D6
70
3.5%
No of problems
2517
125.7%
13
© 2008 Nokia Siemens Networks - HILT Attila - Budapest , 1-Oct-2008.
21.3%
13.3%
10.9%
Statistics of TRS problem sites 150 TRS problem Sites Total D2 81 4.0% D2D3 110
Statistics of TRS problem sites
150
TRS problem Sites
Total
D2
81
4.0%
D2D3
110
5.5%
D2D3D4
97
4.8%
100
D2D3D4D6
7
0.3%
D2D3D5
22
1.1%
D2D3D6
30
1.5%
50
D2D4
26
1.3%
D2D4D6
7
0.3%
D2D5
25
1.2%
D2D5D6
1
0.0%
0
D2D6
26
1.3%
D4
84
4.2%
TRS Problem sites
Sites without TRS problem
516
25.8%
1486
74.2%
Total
2002
100%
Conclusions : Number of sites are not equal with the number of TRS problems.
One single site may suffer several TRS problems
Solution of a single TRS problem can solve the TRS problem
of several sites ☺
14 © 2008 Nokia Siemens Networks - HILT Attila - Budapest , 1-Oct-2008.
D2 D2D3
D2D3D4
D2D3D4D6
D2D3D5
D2D3D6 D2D4
D2D4D6 D2D5
D2D5D6 D2D6
D4
Network Modernization Example : Topology, MW links (D4) 15 © 2008 Nokia Siemens Networks -
Network Modernization Example : Topology, MW links (D4)
15 © 2008 Nokia Siemens Networks - HILT Attila - Budapest , 1-Oct-2008.
Modernization of MW Access Networks 23 GHz example : double capacity in same bandwidth Nokia
Modernization of MW Access Networks
23 GHz example :
double capacity in
same bandwidth
Nokia Radio Type
FlexiHopperPlus
FlexiHopper
DynaHopper
Capacity
8x2
16x2
8x2
16x2
8x2
16x2
Mbit/s
Bandwidth
7
14
14
28
14
28
MHz
Pout (nominal TX power)
VHP2-220A (60 cm) antenna
VHLP2-220 (60 cm) antenna
18
18
18
18
17
17
dBm
40.1
40.1
dBi
40.1
40.1
dBi
VHLP2-23
(60 cm) antenna
40.4
40.4
dBi
BER=10-3 threshold, guaranteed
BER=10-6 threshold, guaranteed
System Gain, (BER=10-3)
System Gain, (BER=10-6)
System & 2xAnt.Gain, (BER=10-3)
System & 2xAnt.Gain, (BER=10-6)
-82
-79
-86
-83
-79
-76
dBm
-79
-76
-83
-80
-75
-72
dBm
100
97
104
101
96
93
dB
97
94
101
98
92
89
dB
180.8
177.8
184.2
181.2
176.2
173.2
dB
177.8
174.8
181.2
178.2
172.2
169.2
dB
Gain increase compared to DH
Gain increase compared to DH
4.6
4.6
8
8
0
0
dB
5.6
5.6
9
9
0
0
dB
increased
system gain
better
antenna gain
16 © 2008 Nokia Siemens Networks - HILT Attila - Budapest , 1-Oct-2008.
Basic Rules of Dense MW Access NW Design proper use of frequency bands avoid High-Low
Basic Rules of Dense MW Access NW Design
proper use of
frequency bands
avoid High-Low
conflict on sites
set transmit power
as low as possible
use high gain
antennas
select proper
link polarization
balance Received Signal
Levels at sites
use high quality
MW radios
monitor
the results
17 © 2008 Nokia Siemens Networks - HILT Attila - Budapest , 1-Oct-2008.
30
70
Polarization and Distance Rule • always select the proper frequency band : • long links
Polarization and Distance Rule
• always select the proper frequency band :
• long links → lower frequency bands (e.g. 13 or 15 GHz),
• short links → as high frequencies as possible (23, 26, 38 or 58 GHz).
• in several countries there are local regulations forcing all network
operators for efficient band selection.
• Swiss regulation is shown as an example:
Distance(km)
0.15
1
3
5
6
7.5
10
12
15
52 or 58 GHz
Vertical
38
GHz
Horizontal
Vertical
23
GHz
Horizontal
Vertical
13
GHz
Horizontal
Vertical
18 © 2008 Nokia Siemens Networks - HILT Attila - Budapest , 1-Oct-2008.
High and Low TX Radios ETSI defines RF channel raster and duplex distance in each
High and Low TX Radios
ETSI defines RF channel raster and duplex distance in each frequency band.
(In some bands e.g. 15 GHz more duplex distances are standardized.)
Low sub-band
High sub-band
1A
2A
3A
4A
5A
6A
7A
1B
2B
3B
4B
5B
6B
7B
f
Duplex (go-return) distance
Tx=4B
Rx=4B
Rx=4A
H (High TX)
Tx=4A
L (Low TX)
19
© 2008 Nokia Siemens Networks - HILT Attila - Budapest , 1-Oct-2008.
Avoiding High - Low Conflicts (near field interference) High / Low TX channel allocation, all
Avoiding High - Low Conflicts (near field interference)
High / Low TX channel allocation,
all links are in the same band
new link must be added :
H
L
e.g. 23 GHz
H
L
H
L
H
L
H
near interference
should be avoided
H/L
Solution 1 :
Solution 2 :
add one more site into the loop
introduce new frequency band
L
H
H
L
new freq. band
e.g. 32 or 38 GHz
H
L
H
20 © 2008 Nokia Siemens Networks - HILT Attila - Budapest , 1-Oct-2008.
Setting Transmit Power Properly high output high output high output high output high output high
Setting Transmit Power Properly
high output
high output
high output
high output
high output
high output
interference path
interference path
interference path
interference path
interference path
interference path
• only high
power
power
power
power
power
power
H H H H H H
L L L L L L
high output
high output
high output
high output
high output
high output
high output
high output
high output
high output
high output
high output
output power
power
power
power
power
power
power
L L L L L L
power
power
power
power
power
power
H H H H H H
low output
low output
low output
low output
L L L L L L
power
power
power
power
• high and low
high output
high output
high output
high output
low output
low output
low output
low output
H H H H
L L L L
output power
power
power
power
power
power
power
power
power
L L L L
H H H H
Preferably try to use low output power
but high gain antennas, if possible.
L L L L
21 © 2008 Nokia Siemens Networks - HILT Attila - Budapest , 1-Oct-2008.
Selecting High Gain and High Performance Antennae Standard antenna High Standard Performance Interfered site 5-15
Selecting High Gain and High Performance Antennae
Standard antenna
High
Standard
Performance
Interfered site
5-15 dB
High Performance antenna
high performance antenna
has better gain in main direction
and smaller sidelobes in
unwanted directions
Un-interfered site
22 © 2008 Nokia Siemens Networks - HILT Attila - Budapest , 1-Oct-2008.
OSS Monitoring of the Link Parameters •Pout •RSL •frequency •modulation mode •2Mbit/s cross connections
OSS Monitoring of the Link Parameters
•Pout
•RSL
•frequency
•modulation mode
•2Mbit/s cross
connections
•IDU configuration
23 © 2008 Nokia Siemens Networks - HILT Attila - Budapest , 1-Oct-2008.
Roll-Out Speed of Access Network Modernization MW Link Swaps, Upgrades & New Links 500 500
Roll-Out Speed of Access Network Modernization
MW Link Swaps, Upgrades & New Links
500
500
links
PLANNED MW LINKS
PLANNED MW LINKS
PLANNED MW LINKS
planned
FREQUENCY APPROVED LINKS
FREQUENCY APPROVED LINKS
FREQUENCY APPROVED LINKS
links
400
400
IMPLEMENTED MW LINKS
IMPLEMENTED MW LINKS
IMPLEMENTED MW LINKS
frequency
licenced
LINKS TO BE BUILT / SWAPPED
LINKS TO BE BUILT / SWAPPED
LINKS TO BE BUILT / SWAPPED
300
300
links
swapped
or
upgraded
200
200
100
100
links
to be
swapped
or
upgraded
0
0
1.
1.
29.
29.
27.
24.
22.
19.
16.
16.
13.
11.
8.
6.
3.
31.
28.
26.
23.
Sep.
Sep.
Oct.
Nov.
Dec.
Jan.
Feb.
Mar.
Apr.
May.
Jun.
Jul.
Aug.
Aug.
Sep.
Oct.
Nov.
2005
2006
2006
2006
2006
24
© 2008 Nokia Siemens Networks - HILT Attila - Budapest , 1-Oct-2008.
Number of microwave links
Topology of Repeater “VS803” Optimized for Access Capacity Increase 25 © 2008 Nokia Siemens Networks
Topology of Repeater “VS803”
Optimized for Access
Capacity Increase
25 © 2008 Nokia Siemens Networks - HILT Attila - Budapest , 1-Oct-2008.
Repeater Optimization for Access Capacity Increase Site name Ollon Chavalon Chavalon VD954 Territet Chavalon Gion
Repeater Optimization for Access Capacity Increase
Site name
Ollon
Chavalon
Chavalon
VD954
Territet
Chavalon
Gion
Chavalon
La Chiesaz
Chavalon
Sully
Chavalon
Legier
Chavalon
Corseaux
Chavalon
Pelerin
Chavalon
Mollie Margo Chavalon
Site ID
VD431
VS803
VS803
VD954
VD422
VS803
VD454
VS803
VD406
VS803
VD417
VS803
VD411
VS803
VD881
VS803
VD804
VS803
VD801
VS803
Link number
Link 1
Link 2
Link 3
Link 4
Link 5
Link 6
Link 7
Link 8
Link 9
Link 10
hop length [km]
11.03
9.4
9.11
11.33
14.49
11.29
13.25
14.7
17.25
26.08
interference
no
no
no
no
no
no
no
no
no
no
new capacity
4x2
8x2
4x2
4x2
8x2
4x2
8x2
16x2
32x2
16x2
22417.5
22382.5
22403.5
22431.5
22452.5
22396.5
22375.5
22421
H:12 12912/13178
12898
new channel [MHz]
59
54
57
61
64
56
53
30
11
23425.5
23390.5
23411.5
23439.5
23460.5
23404.5
23383.5
23429
V:13 12926/13192
13164
new polarization
Vertical
Horizontal
Vertical
Horizontal
Vertical
Horizontal
Vertical
Horizontal
X-polar
Vertical
new fr. band
23
GHz
23
GHz
23
GHz
23
GHz
23
GHz
23
GHz
23
GHz
23
GHz
13
GHz
13 GHz
new radio
FH
FHP
FH
FH
FHP
FH
FHP
FHP
FHP X-polar
FHP
old radio
FH
DH
FH
FH
DH
FH
FHP
FH
FH
FH
old fr. band
23
GHz
23
GHz
23
GHz
23
GHz
23
GHz
23
GHz
23
GHz
23
GHz
23
GHz
13
old polarization
Vertical
Vertical
Vertical
Vertical
Vertical
Vertical
Vertical
Vertical
Vertical
Vertical
22375.5
22368.5
22403.5
22459.5
22347.5
22417.5
22466.5
22386
22442
12905
old channel [MHz]
53
52
57
65
49
59
66
14
16
6
23383.5
23376.5
23411.5
23467.5
23355.5
23425.5
23474.5
23394
23450
13171
old capacity
4x2
4x2
4x2
4x2
4x2
4x2
8x2
16x2
16x2
16x2
Interference
yes
no
no
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
no
• links marked with yellow had interference (all links were Vertical)
• some links were out of channel range preferred by Authority
• several links arriving to the repeater in a narrow angle
• by systematic order of swapping link polarizations between
Horizontal and Vertical (H, V, H, V, …) and by swapping out 5 links :
• access capacity increased from 80x2 Mbit/s up to 104x2 Mbit/s
26
© 2008 Nokia Siemens Networks - HILT Attila - Budapest , 1-Oct-2008.
OLD
NEW

How shouldn’t we plan microwave links ?

How shouldn’t we plan microwave links ? 27 Strong wind may “influence” the network quality… e.g.

27

Strong wind may “influence” the network quality…

e.g. by changing polarization from vertical to horizontal

e.g. by changing polarization from vertical to horizontal © 2008 Nokia Siemens Networks - HILT Attila

© 2008 Nokia Siemens Networks - HILT Attila - Budapest , 1-Oct-2008.

How shouldn’t we plan microwave links ?

How shouldn’t we plan microwave links ? 28 Sometimes the problem may arise when the wind

28

Sometimes the problem may arise when the wind does not blow…

© 2008 Nokia Siemens Networks - HILT Attila - Budapest , 1-Oct-2008.

problem may arise when the wind does not blow… © 2008 Nokia Siemens Networks - HILT

Try to keep the first Fresnel zone clear…

Try to keep the first Fresnel zone clear… The link was implemented first…building reconstruction came later

The link was implemented first…building reconstruction came later

29 © 2008 Nokia Siemens Networks - HILT Attila - Budapest , 1-Oct-2008.

first…building reconstruction came later 29 © 2008 Nokia Siemens Networks - HILT Attila - Budapest ,
first…building reconstruction came later 29 © 2008 Nokia Siemens Networks - HILT Attila - Budapest ,
CONCLUSION • several GSM networks are typically 5…15 years old • modernization with EDGE deployment
CONCLUSION
• several GSM networks are typically 5…15 years old
• modernization with EDGE deployment in GSM networks
• results of a successful EDGE deployment for a Swiss mobile operator
• due to mobile systems microwave access networks became very dense
• continuous demand for capacity increase
• statistics of the required TRS network upgrades were presented
• several rules of dense access network design
• modernization projects give opportunity also for network optimization
• network optimization example of a repeater showed 24x2 Mbit/s
capacity increase for a microwave transmission node
Thank You for Your Attention !
30 © 2008 Nokia Siemens Networks - HILT Attila - Budapest , 1-Oct-2008.

High altitude FlexiHopper radio : JungfrauJoch

FHP radio at 3571 m
FHP radio
at
3571 m
FlexiHopper radio : JungfrauJoch FHP radio at 3571 m 31 © 2008 Nokia Siemens Networks -

31 © 2008 Nokia Siemens Networks - HILT Attila - Budapest , 1-Oct-2008.

radio : JungfrauJoch FHP radio at 3571 m 31 © 2008 Nokia Siemens Networks - HILT