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Resistance heaters produce heat by passing an electric current through a resistancea coil, wire, or other obstacle which impedes current and causes it to give off heat. Heaters of this kind have an inherent efficiency of 100% in converting electric energy into heat. Devices such as electric ranges, ovens, hot-water heaters, sterilizers, stills, baths, furnaces, and space heaters are part of the long list of resistance heating equipment.

The transfer of energy, such as heat or an electric charge, through a substance. In heat conduction, energy is transferred from molecule to molecule by direct contact; the molecules themselves do not necessarily change position, but simply vibrate more or less quickly against each other. In electrical conduction, energy is transferred by the movement of electrons or ions. Heat is a form of energy that manifests itself in the motion of molecules and atoms, as well as subatomic particles. Heat energy can be transferred by conduction, convection, or radiation. In conduction heat spreads through a substance when faster atoms and molecules collide with neighboring slower ones, transferring some of their kinetic energy to them. This is how the handle of a teaspoon sticking out of a cup of hot tea eventually gets hot, though it is not in direct contact with the hot liquid. When a fluid is heated, portions of the fluid near the source of the heat tend to become less dense and expand outward, causing currents in the fluid. When these less dense regions rise, cooler portions flow in to take their place, which are then themselves subject to heating. INFRARED RADIATION HEATING Infrared radiant heat is a form of electromagnetic energy (like light) that directly warms objects and people in its path, without heating the air in between. Radiant energy strikes the floor or objects and is converted into heat and absorbed into the floor or objects surface. The floor than becomes a heat storage reservoir, re-radiating heat at the work level. This reduces the amount of heat that is wasted at the ceiling level. IR heat is generally used in areas with high ceilings and potentially high infiltration or, in large spaces with spot heating needs such as warehouses, garages, enclosed storage spaces or gymnasiums DIELECTRIC HYSTERESIS HEATING Dielectric heating involves the heating of electrically insulating materials by dielectric loss. A changing electric field across the material causes energy to be dissipated as the molecules attempt to line up with the continuously changing electric field. This changing electric field may be caused by an electromagnetic wave propagating in free space (as in a microwave oven), or it may be caused by a rapidly alternating electric field inside a capacitor. In the latter case there is no freely propagating electromagnetic wave, and the changing electric field may be seen as analogous to the electric component of an antenna near field. In this case, although the heating is accomplished by changing the electric field inside the capacitative cavity at radio-frequency (RF) frequencies, no actual radio waves are either generated or absorbed. In this sense, the effect is the direct electrical analog of magnetic induction heating, which is also near-field effect (and also does not involve classical radio

waves). Because lower frequency electrical fields penetrate nonconductive materials far more deeply than do microwaves, heating pockets of water and organisms deep inside dry materials like wood, it can be used to rapidly heat and prepare many non-electrically conducting food and agricultural items, so long as they fit between the capacitor plates. In agriculture, RF dielectric heating has been widely tested and is increasingly used as a way to kill pests in certain food crops after harvest, such as walnuts still in the shell. Because RF heating can heat foods more uniformly than is the case with microwave heating, RF heating holds promise as a way to process foods quickly PLASMA HEATING In RF heating, wave energy is transferred to particle motion exploiting the wave-particle resonances in a plasma, selectively heating electrons or ions. By providing external heating the Hugill disruption limit may be extended allowing for higher densities and fusion rates. Rf current drive transfers organized momentum to the plasma in order to induce toroidal currents that generate the poloidal containment field. This can be accomplished by landau damping or by selectively heating electrons or ions traveling an a specific direction, reducing their cross section and inducing a net current. The temperature and density of a given plasma can be determined by probing the plasma with RF waves, and subsequently determining resonances, cutoffs and phase shift, or by passively observing the emitted RF radiation due to oscillations in the plasma. Such an understanding can be gained by working the derivations to gain insight into the fundamental nature of plasma waves and understanding the limits of resonance and cutoff for each type of wave. ELECTRIC ARC An electrical arc can be created under many circumstances and by several methods. An arc is most commonly created when the potential difference (Voltage) is increased to the point that air has the ability to conduct electricity. Typically this is only possible when the voltage exceeds the KV range (>1000 Volts). And is extremely dangerous depending on the amount of current available supplying the voltage. An electrical arc is also created when a flowing current is interrupted (A light switch or contactor opening). In this event, the arc will allow the flow of electrons through free air only until the distance between the two contact points prevents the free air to conduct electricity. The effect or duration of the arc can be increased by the creation of Ozone gas that is generated from the heat of the electricity heating the air. The presence of more current will increase the amount of heat, and also the amount of Ozone, so the arc will be larger. ELECTRON BEAM HEATING Electron beam melting is distinguished by its superior refning capacity and offers a high degree of fexibility of the heat source. Thus, it is ideal for remelting and refning of metals and alloys under high vacuum in water-cooled copper molds. Today the process is mainly employed for the production of refractory and reactive metals (tantalum, niobium, molybdenum, tungsten, va-nadium, hafnium, zirconium, titanium) and their alloys. It plays an important role in manufacturing of ultra-pure sputtering target materials and elec-tronic alloys and the recycling of titanium scrap.