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Study Guide

Chemistry
(Paper 6) -0620-

By: TooMuch1995
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Contents of the book


General Information.............................................................................................................................03 Test for Water......................................................................................................................................04 Basic knowledge of .Electrolysis...........................................................................................................04 Chemical Analysis.................... ............................................................................................................06 Labelling of Apparatus..........................................................................................................................08 Salt Preparation: Soluble Salts.............................................................................................................10 Salt Preparation: InsolubleSalts...........................................................................................................15 Rates of reaction..................................................................................................................................16 Fermentation .......................................................................................................................................18 Frequent questions ..............................................................................................................................18

General Information
As Per the syllabus of Cambridge IGCSE (0620) for Chemistry its your third Paper which you have chosen to appear for instead of the coursework or the practical test.

Its Called Alternative to practical paper (ATP) Its duration is for one hour only Its weighted at 20% of total available marks

Test for Water


Not all Colourless liquids are water; therefore there is a test for identification and purity. It can be detected by using: Anhydrous copper(II) Sulphate Anhydrous cobalt (II)Chloride Water will turn anhydrous copper (II) Sulphate from white to blue Water will turn anhydrous cobalt (II) Chloride from blue to pink Cobalt chloride paper contains blue anhydrous cobalt chloride which turns pink with presence of water To decide if water is pure or not, you would need to test that the boiling is 100oC exactly A Solid pure substance has a Sharp Melting point (as in Ice form of water)

Electrolysis
Electrolysis is the process of electrically inducing chemical changes in a conducting melt or solution example: splitting an ionic compound into the metal and non-metal.

Electrons flow from the battery to the cathode Positive ions ( Metallic or Hydrogen ) in the liquid are attracted to this negative electrode The positive ions accept electrons from the cathode, and metals or hydrogen are formed at

the cathode. Electrons flow from the anode to the battery or power supply Negative ions (non- metals except hydrogen) are attracted to this positive electrode When the electrode is inert ( carbon or platinium ) the negative ions lose electrons to the anode

Electrolysis separates an ionic compound back to the elements that form it. For example by electrolysis we can obtain sodium and chlorine from sodium chloride. When the current is turned on, the negative ion in the electrolyte gets attracted to the positive electrode because they are oppositely charged. When this happens, the negative ion loses the electrons it gained from the positive ion during bond formation and becomes an atom. The electrons lost are transferred through the wire in the outer circuit from the anode to the cathode. At the same time, the positive ion from the electrolyte is attracted to the cathode, where it gains the electrons lost by the negative ion and becomes an atom too.

In ionic compounds the positive ion is a metal and it is collected at the cathode. And the negative ion is a non-metal and collected at the anode. The electrons are transferred from the anode to the cathode through the wires.

The electrolyte is an ionic compound either in its molten or aqueous form. Ionic compounds conduct electricity only when they are in these forms because they contain free mobile ions which can carry the current but they dont in solid form.

Chemical Analysis
The following Test Analysis Should be learnt by heart as they are asked frequently in the exam. Flame test colour Test for gases Test for positive ions (Cations) Test for negative ions (anions)

Some flame test Colours Metal Ions


Sodium Potassium Calcium Lithium Copper Barium

Formula
Na K+ Ca2+ Li+ Cu2+ Ba2+
+

Colour of flame
Yellow Lilac Brick red crimson Blue-green Apple green

Test for gases Gas Description


Ammonia (NH3) Colourless and pungent smell Colourless and odourless Pale green, chocking smell Colourless, odourless Colourless, odourless Carbon dioxide (CO2)

Test
Hold damp red litmus paper (or universal indicator) in gas Bubble gas through lime water (calcium hydroxide solution) Hold damp litmus paper ( or universal indicator) in gas Hold a lighted splint in gas Hold a glowing wooden splint in gas

Test result
Indicator paper turns blue White precipitate of calcium carbonate formed (solution turns milky) Indicator paper is bleached white (blue litmus will turn red first) Hydrogen burns with a pop squeaky sound The splint re-lights

Chlorine (Cl2)

Hydrogen (H2) Oxygen (O2)

Test for negative ions (anions) Negative ion Test Test results
Carbonate (CO32-) Add dilute hydrochloric acid to solid Acidify solution with dilute nitric acid, then add aqueous silver nitrate Acidify solution with dilute nitric acid, then add silver nitrate Acidify solution with dilute nitric acid, then add aqueous silver nitrate Acidify solution with dilute hydrochloric acid , then add barium chloride solution Make solution alkaline with sodium hydroxide solution then add aluminium foil and warm carefully Chloride (in solution) (Cl-) Bromide (in solution) (Br-) Iodide (in solution) (I-) Sulphate (in solution) (SO42-) Nitrate (in solution) (NO-3) Effervescence (fizzes), carbon dioxide produced ( test with lime water) White precipitate of silver chloride formed, precipitate soluble in ammonia solution Cream precipitate of silver bromide, only slightly soluble in ammonia solution Yellow precipitate of silver iodide formed insoluble in ammonia solution White precipitate of barium sulphate formed Ammonia gas given off (test with moist red litmus)

Test for positive ions (Cations)


Positive ion (in solution)
Ammonium (NH+4) Copper(II) (Cu2+)

Effect of adding Sodium Hydroxide


Ammonia produced on warming (test with damp red litmus paper) Light blue gelatinous precipitate of copper hydroxide, insoluble in excess sodium hydroxide Green gelatinous precipitate of Iron (II) hydroxide insoluble in excess Rust-brown gelatinous precipitate of Iron (III) hydroxide, insoluble in excess White precipitate of calcium hydroxide, insoluble in excess White precipitate of magnesium hydroxide, insoluble in excess White precipitate of zinc hydroxide, insoluble in excess White precipitate of aluminium hydroxide, soluble in excess giving a colourless solution

Effect of adding ammonia solution

Light blue gelatinous precipitate; dissolves giving a deep blue solution Green gelatinous precipitate, insoluble in excess Rust-brown gelatinous precipitate, insoluble in excess No precipitate ( or only very slight precipitate) White precipitate , insoluble in excess White precipitate , soluble in excess White precipitate , insoluble in excess

Iron (II) (Fe2+)

Iron (III) (Fe3+)

Calcium (Ca2+) Magnesium (Mg2+) Zinc (Zn2+) Aluminium (Al3+)

Apparatus you will have to name and Describe #


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Name
Beaker Bottle Bunsen Burner burette Crucible Erlenmeyer Flask

Description
Used to hold and heat liquids. Multipurpose and essential in the lab. Bottles can be used for storage, for mixing and for displaying. Bunsen burners are used for heating and exposing items to flame. They have many more uses than a hot plate, but do not replace a hot plate. The burette is used in titrations to measure precisely how much liquid is used. Crucibles are used to heat small quantities to very high temperatures. The Erlenmeyer Flask is used to heat and store liquids. The advantage to the Erlenmeyer Flask is that the bottom is wider than the top so it will heat quicker because of the greater surface area exposed to the heat. The Evaporating Dish is used to heat and evaporate liquids. The Florence Flask is used for heating substances that need to be heated evenly. The bubbled bottom allows the heat to distribute through the liquid more evenly. The Florence Flask is mostly used in distillation experiments. Food Colouring is used in many experiments to show colour change and to make the experiment more exciting. The Funnel is a piece of equipment that is used in the lab but is not confined to the lab. The funnel can be used to target liquids into any container so they will not be lost or spilled. The Micro spatula, commonly called a spatula, is used for moving small amounts of solid from place to place. The Mortar and Pestle are used to crush solids into powders for experiments, usually to better dissolve the solids.

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Evaporating Dish Florence Flask

Food Colouring Funnel

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11 Micro spatula 12

Mortar and Pestle

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Paper Towels Pipet Ring Stand

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Stir Rod Stopper

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Test tube Brush 19 The holder is used to hold test tubes when they are hot Test tube and untouchable. Holder 20 Test tube Rack The test tube rack is used to hold test tubes while
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Paper Towels are essential to the lab environment. They will be used in almost every lab. The pipet is used for moving small amounts of liquid from place to place. They are usually made of plastic and are disposable Ring stands are used to hold items being heated. Clamps or rings can be used so that items may be placed above the lab table for heating by bunsen burners or other items. The stir rods are used to stir things. They are usually made of glass. Stir Rods are very useful in the lab setting. Stoppers come in many different sizes. The sizes are from 0 to 8. Stoppers can have holes for thermometers and for other probes that may be used. The test tube brush is used to easily clean the inside of a test tube.

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Tongs Triangle

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Volumetric Flask Watch Glass

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The Volumetric flask is used to measure one specific volume. They are mostly used in mixing solutions where a one litter or one half a litter is needed. The watch glass is used to hold solids when being weighed or transported. They should never be heated.

Salt Preparation
Here are a few general points on Salts: Salts are ionic Compounds A Salt compound is formed from an acid by the replacement of hydrogen in the acid by a metal How is salt produced? Salt deposits were formed by the evaporation of ancient seas millions of years ago therefore Solid rock salt is directly mined from those areas. Another technique known as solution mining in which the salt is dissolved underground and the solution. This solution is known as the brine solution and its pumped to the surface Preparing Salts Number 1: you should know that there are two types of salts Soluble Salts Insoluble Salts Number 2: you should know that each has a different way of producing Number 3: When preparing a Salt, you should keep two things in your mind Is the salt soluble or insoluble in water? Do crystals of the salt contain water of crystallisation? These points influence the preparation method chosen and how crystals are handled at the end of the experiment Preparing Soluble Salts Number 4: Soluble Salts can be made by either Characteristic Reaction ( with base or carbonate or metal) Titration Method (involves neutralisation) The three Characteristic Reactions Soluble Salts are prepared using a Insoluble Solid Dilute Acid The Insoluble solid can be one of those three A Metal A Base A Carbonate Number 5: Remember that the acid you use (parent acid) affects what type of salt you get

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To make chloride Salts use Hydrochloric Acid To make Nitrate Salts use Nitric Acid To make Sulphate Salts use Sulphuric Acid To make Ethanoate Salts use Ethanoic Acid Reacting dilute acid with fairly reactive metal Dilute Acid + Metal Metal Salt + Hydrogen gas

Reacting dilute acid with insoluble base Dilute acid + Insoluble base Metal Salt + Water

Reacting dilute acid with insoluble Carbonate Dilute acid + Insoluble Carbonate Steps of Preparing Step 1: Add Excess of the insoluble Solid to the dilute acid in a beaker until reaction stops (no fizzing) Metal Salt + Water + Carbon dioxide

(using Characteristic Reactions Method)

Step 2: The Excess Solid is filtered out and collect the filtrate

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Step 3: The Filtrate is gently evaporated to concentrate the Salt solution This can be done using a water bath

Step 4: When Crystals are seen Forming, heating is stopped Step 5: The concentrated solution is left to cool to from crystals completely Step 6: The crystals are filtered off and washed with distilled water Step 7: Dry crystals between filter papers The Titration Method Reacting dilute Acid with soluble Base (Alkali) Dilute acid + Alkali Metal Salt + Water

This involves the neutralisation of acid with an alkali (to produce a soluble Salt) Number 6: Since both the reactants are colourless an indicator should be used

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Steps of Preparing (using the titration method)

Step 1: Fill the Burette with the dilute acid till the zero mark

Step 2: A known value of an alkali is placed in a conical flask using a pipette

Step 3: Add few drops of indicator to the conical flask of alkali (Methyl orange will be used as an example here) Step 4: The acid solution is run from the burette to the flask conating alkali until indicator colour changes

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(Methyl orange will turn pink here) Step 5: The Volume of acid used to neutralise the alkali is noted

Step 6: The process is repeated with the volume noted from the acid and same volume of alkali but this time without the addition of the indicator Step 7: Evaporate most of the solution using a water bath

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Step 8: When crystals are seen stop heating, and leave it to cool then dry between filter paper Preparing Insoluble Salts Insoluble salts are prepared by mixing 2 soluble salts together, each containing half the needed salt. This process is called precipitation. Example: Preparation of insoluble lead sulphate (PbSO4): Step 1: Choose 2 suitable soluble salts, e.g. lead nitrate and sodium sulphate. Make aqueous solutions of both. Step 2: Mix the two aqueous solutions together. An insoluble precipitate of lead sulphate is formed. Step 3: Filter the solution formed to get lead sulphate in filter paper. Step 4: Wash the filter paper with distilled water to remove trace of soluble salt. Step 5: The filter paper is dried in a warm oven. The salt is then scraped off it.

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Rates of reaction

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Fermentation
You should know about Fermentation fully (only Definition is provided here)

Definition: It is an anaerobic process. It takes place under condition where there is no air or oxygen available. Therefore, there is no oxygen (O2) present in the equation for the reaction taking place. Carbon dioxide is the gas produced in the reaction.

Separation Techniques
The most common ones are: Filtration Distillation (fractional and normal one) Chromatography Precipitation

You should know about the above all too

Frequent Questions
In this Section, there will be a collection of 60 questions from the past paper exams of paper 6 which are repeated every year. It would be a great help for you if you try to read and understand them because they also might come in a different way (Indirectly) They are numbered for you from 1-60 to make it easier for you Question 1: What is the purpose of ice or cold water? Answer: To cool down the gas so that it condenses and turns into a liquid. Question 2: When the gas collecting tube is upside down, give a property of this gas.

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Answer: It is less dense than air. Question 3: Why is a pencil used in drawing the origin line in chromatography? Answer: because pencil will dissolve as it will not give collies which makes the experiment more accurate Question 4: When using ethanol, give a better apparatus arrangement, and why? Answer: Cover apparatus with a lid, because ethanol is volatile. Question 5: In the tests and observation tables, when in the first row, they tell you that upon heating condensation occurred, there will be a question asking What does this show about the solid? Answer: It is hydrated. Question 6: When copper is used in the test and the answer is four marks, (the best answer is...) Answer: light blue precipitate (ppt.) which is soluble in excess to form dark blue solution. Question 7: Why is this experiment done in a fume cupboard? Answer: It releases harmful gases that are poisonous. It is toxic. Question 8: Which result appears to be inaccurate? ( In graph drawing) Answer: It is the point not appearing on the drawn graph, you read its x-axis and write it with a reason indicating that it doesn't occur in the graph. Question 9: Why should the solid be crushed? Answer: It increases surface area for a faster rate of reaction. Question 10: Why is the experiment made in a well-ventilated room?

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Answer: To prevent the burning of the substance. Question 11: Explain the term (decant) Answer: Filter/Pour the liquid leaving the solid alone. Question 12: Why is concentrated sulphuric acid not used to dry ammonia? Answer: because it will reach the base ammonia, which is neutralization reaction. Question 13: Why should samples be taken from different parts of the field? Answer: to get more accurate results. Question 14: Suggest why it is important to know the pH of the soil. Answer: to see which is a better place for growing, and what kind of base to use for neutralizing it. Question 15: What is necessary for rusting? Answer: water (humidity) and oxygen (air). Question 16: Suggest why in an experiment for rusting the water level increases. Answer: Oxygen is used up, and water is used to take its place. Question 17: For electrolysis, state the observations. Answer: The bulb will light - A metal is formed on the cathode - Fizz of gases produced. Question 18: Suggest a suitable material for electrodes. Answer: Graphite - Carbon Steel- Platinum. Question 19:

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When copper oxide is reacted with hydrogen, what is the colour change? Answer: black to brown, because copper oxide is reduced to copper. Question 20: How can you distinguish between water and ethanol? Answer: use cobalt chloride paper, it turns from pink to blue with water, but there will be no change with ethanol. Question 21: How can you distinguish between sulphuric acid and aqueous sodium sulphate? Answer: there are three tests, you can use a metal carbonate in which carbon dioxide will be produced with sulphuric acid but there will be no change with sodium sulphate. You can add a metal, in which hydrogen is produced with sulphuric acid, but no change in sodium sulphate. Finally, you could use an indicator like litmus paper, it will change to red with sulphuric acid, but there will be no change with sodium sulphate.. Question 22: How can you distinguish between hydrochloric acid and nitric acid? Answer: add silver nitrate, in which white ppt. will be formed with hydrochloric acid, but there will be no reaction with nitric acid. Question 23: What is the purpose of the mineral wool? Answer: to absorb and hold the liquid. Question 24: When there is a delivery tube involved in a question, what precaution should be taken in the experiment when the heat is removed? Answer: remove the delivery tube from water to prevent suck-back. Question 25: In rate of reactions, always include the word "collisions between particles". Question 26 How can you distinguish between alkanes and alkenes? Answer: Use bromine water, in which the alkene will decolourise it to colourless, but nothing, happens with an alkane,

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Question 27 How can you distinguish between chlorine and sodium chloride? Answer: add litmus paper, it will bleach with chlorine, but nothing happens to it with sodium chloride. Question 28 How can you distinguish between copper sulphate and copper carbonate? Answer: acidify with hydrochloric acid, and add barium chloride, there will be white ppt with sulphate, but no white ppt. with carbonate. OR just add hydrochloric acid, in which nothing happens with sulphate, but a fizz or effervescence of carbon dioxide will occur with carbonate. Question 29: When a measuring cylinder is used, and they ask for a change in apparatus to get more reliable results, Answer: you should say that a biuret can be used instead as it is more accurate. Question 30: Why Volume of reagent is used? Answer: volume of reagent used decreases if it is more concentrated. Question 31: In an experiment observation of pH value, and they ask what type of acid/base is used, your Answer: should be weather weak or strong. A strong acid lies between pH values of 0 and 2, and a weak one lies between 3 and 6. 7 are neutral. A weak base lies between 8 and 11, while a strong one lies between 12 and 14. Question 32: What is a concentrated acid? Answer: a concentrated acid is an acid that contains a large number of H+, hydrogen ions. Vice versa with dilute acid. Question 33: What is a concentrated base? Answer: a concentrated base is a base that contains a large number of OH-' hydroxide ions. Vice versa with dilute base. Question 34

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What is a strong acid? Answer: a strong acid is one that ionizes completely giving H+ in solutions. Vice versa with a weak one. Question 35: What is a strong base? Answer: a strong base is one that ionizes completely giving OH- in solutions. Vice versa with a weak one. Question 36: What is meant by the term Concentrated? Answer: concentrated: is a solution that contains a large number of solute or little amount of water is involved. Question 37: How can you make crystals? Answer: 1) heat till point of crystallization. 2) Leave to cool gradually. 3) Filter, dry and collect the crystals! Question 38: How can you detect the point of crystallization? Answer: Place a stirring rod in the solution and see the formation of the first crystals on it. Question 39: What is used to crush a substance? Answer: when you crush, you use a pestle and mortar. Question 40 Why ethanol is used but not water? (grass) Answer: grass is ground with ethanol rather than water because chlorophyll is more soluble in ethanol. Note 41: Colour of rusty iron fillings is brown (orange and red are I think accepted) Note 42: If pure oxygen was used instead of air, rusting will be faster.

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Note 43: You can speed up the drying process by using a fan or by increasing temperature or by using a hair-drier if you have one) NOT a catalyst. Note 44: The action of a lie big condenser is to change steam to water. Note 45: To check for the purity for a collected solvent, test it's melting or boiling point. Note 36: The chromatogram needs to be sprayed with locating agent is amino acids are investigated because they are colourless. Note 37: If water contained salt, this will have no effect on rusting, however if a bigger substance is being rusted, it will be slower. Note 38: Hydrated copper sulphate will turn from whit to blue upon heating. 49) Saturated: no more solute can be dissolved in a solvent AT A CONSTANT TEMPERATURE. 50) An excess amount of reactant is used to make sure all the other reactant will be used. 51) Sometimes, crystals are dried using filter paper instead of heating to prevent the complete loss of water from crystals, and to prevent crystals from breaking. 52) How could you know which reactant is in excess? At the end of the reaction, the excess reactant will be visible. 53) Excess means more than what is needed. 54) When lead bromide is used, you can use a fume cupboard or use goggles, lab coat, gloves because it is toxic. 55) To separate two different solutions with different boiling point, use fractional distillation. 56) Physical test of water: heat, it will boil at 100 degrees Celsius, or heat ice and it will melt at 0 degrees Celsius.

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57) Chemical test of water: Add blue cobalt chloride paper, it turns pink OR add anhydrous copper sulphate, it turns blue. Question 58 Why is it dangerous to heat alcohol directly? Answer: fire will be produced if alcohol is touched with lighted splint, therefore a water bath should be used when heating it. Lagging or cloth can be used to control temperature for accurate results. Question 59 What is the name given to unreacted material? Answer: unreacted reactant is called excess. Question 60 What happens to the particles when they get heated? Answer: the particles gain energy, move faster, and their kinetic energy increases therefore there will be more collisions and rate increases.

DONE Pray for me

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