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Condenser performance is one of the important factors for efficient operation of the plant. Higher the Rankine cycle efficiency if lower is the temperature at which heat is rejected. Hence maintaining condenser back pressure at design value is important. Condenser design is based on expected values of Heat load, C. W. Inlet temperature and quantity of insoluble gases. If any one or more of these values exceed the design value, higher than expected back pressure may result. Objective of the Condenser performance test is to know whether condenser is performing as per the design expectations at operating parameters. Deviations are then analyzed for finding out the causes and actions for improvement are initiated. Analysis of condenser performance is based on following indices, which are evaluated from test results. Performance Indices : Absolute pressure deviation from expected/ design. Terminal temperature Difference (TTD) Cleanliness Factor. Sub-cooling of condensate and air / steam mixture Heat Transfer Coefficient Effectiveness of tube cleaning Circulating water velocity in tubes Circulating water temperature rise Flow rate of air / steam mixture Dissolved Oxygen in condensate Effect of condenser performance on heat rate These indices are computed from the test results in following ways. Condenser Duty : It is the measure of heat load on condenser. Based on test data, this parameter is computed and deviation from design value is found out. Condenser Duty = (Heat added in Main Steam + Heat added in HRH steam) 860 (Gross Generator output in KW + Generator losses in KW + Heat lost by radiation) Where Heat added in Main Steam = M.S. Flow in Kg/ Hr (Enthalpy of Main Steam Enthalpy of Feed Water) Kcal / Hr Heat added in Reheat Steam = HRH Steam Flow in Kg/ hr (Enthalpy of HRH steam Enthalpy of CRH steam) Kcal / Hr Radiation Loss = 0.1% of Gross Generation in KW Generator Losses = (Mechanical Losses + Iron Losses + Stator Current losses) KW, These Values taken from Generator Loss Curve 860 = Equivalent heat energy for 1 KWh electrical energy.

Condenser Duty (Kcal /hr) Condenser cooling water Flow = m3 / hr Cp (Tout Tin) D Where Cp D Tout Tin = = = = Specific Heat of Water = 1 Kcal / Kg deg C Density of water = 1000 Kg / m3 Average C W outlet temperature, deg C Average C W inlet temperature, deg C

Alternate Method : C W flow can be found out from cooling water pumps Head Vs Discharge flow characteristics. Head developed by the pump is measured during the test. It is then corrected for design speed as follows. Head Developed (Nd) Computed Head = (N) Where Computed Head Head developed by the pump Pump Running speed N Pump Design speed Nd Water Velocity in Condenser Tubes : C. W. Flow Rate 106 Velocity = 3600 Tube area (Number of tubes No. of tubes plugged) Where Tube velocity is in m/s C.W. Flow rate is in m3/ hr Tube area is in mm2 Log Mean temperature Difference : Tout - Tin LMTD = Tsat - Tin Ln Tsat Tout Where LMTD is in Deg C Tsat is in deg C, (Saturation temperature corresponding to condenser pressure) Cleanliness Factor : U actual (Actual Heat Transfer Coefficient) Cleanliness Factor = U theoretical (Theoretical Heat transfer coefficient)

= in mwc = in mwc = rpm = rpm

Condenser flow Cp (Tout Tin) Density of water U actual = A condensing LMTD U actual Density of water A condensing = kcal/ hr m2 0C = 1000 Kg/ m3 = (Tubes surface area No. of tubes ) in m2 Velocity

U theoretical = C1 C2 C3 C4

Values of Constants C1 through C4 are known from the tables given below Values of constant C1 Tube diameter in inches C1 (V in m/s and U in W/(m -K)

3/4 2777

7/8 2705

1.0 2582

Values of constant C2 Water temp C C1 21.11 1.00 26.66 1.04 32.22 1.08 37.77 1.10

Values of constant C3 Tube Material Admiralty Brass Arsenical Copper Copper Iron 194 Aluminum Brass Aluminum Bronze 90-10 Cu-Ni 70-30 Cu-Ni Cold rolled low Carbon Steel Stainless Steel Type 304/ 316 Titanium Tube wall Gauge - BWG 24 1.06 1.06 1.06 1.03 1.03 0.99 0.93 1.00 0.83 0.85 22 1.04 1.04 1.04 1.02 1.02 0.97 0.90 0.98 0.79 0.81 20 1.02 1.02 1.02 1.00 1.00 0.94 0.87 0.95 0.75 0.77 18 1.0 1.0 1.0 0.97 0.97 0.90 0.82 0.91 0.69 0.71 16 0.96 0.96 0.96 0.94 0.94 0.85 0.77 0.86 0.63 14 0.92 0.92 0.92 0.90 0.90 0.80 0.71 0.80 0.56 12 0.87 0.87 0.87 0.84 0.84 0.74 0.64 0.74 0.49 -

Values of constant C4 C4 0.85 for clean tubes, less for algae covered tubes.


Expected LMTD for Deviation from design value : Correction for C W Inlet temperature, Ct: Ct = Saturation Temp Test LMTD test Saturation Temp design LMTD design 1/4

Correction for C.W. Flow, Cf : 1/2 Tube Velocity test Ct = Tube velocity design Correction for condenser heat load Cq : Condenser Duty design Cq = Condenser Duty test Expected LMTD = LMTD test Ct Cf Cq deg. C Expected Saturation temperature : | Tin Tout Expo [ Z ] | Expected Saturation temperature = | 1 Expo [ Z ] | Z = (Tout Tin) / Expected LMTD Where Tout = Temperature of C.W at condenser outlet Tin = Temperature of C.W at condenser inlet Feed Water Heater Performance : Feed Water heater performance indices are : 1. Terminal Temperature Difference, also called TTD 2. Drain Cooler Approach, DCA, 3. Extraction steam flow rate to the heater. These indices are computed from the Extraction Steam Parameters, Feed water Inlet/ outlet parameters and Drain or drip parameters. These indices are then compared with design / expected values and actions are planned to correct the deviations. Following discussions explain how these indices are evaluated. Terminal temperature Difference, TTD : TTD = (Saturation temperature of extraction steam Temperature of Feed Water at Heater outlet) Drain Cooler Approach, DCA : DCA = (Temperature of Heater Drip Temperature of feed water at Inlet)

Extraction Steam Flow : The heat balance around the heater is given by Heat Energy released from extraction steam = Heat energy absorbed by feed water Heat Energy released from extraction steam = Extraction steam flow rate (sp. enthalpy of steam specific enthalpy of drip water) Heat energy absorbed by feed water = Feed flow rate through heater (Sp. Enthalpy of Feed water at heater outlet - Sp. Enthalpy of Feed water at heater inlet) + Drain flow from cascaded heater (Enthalpy of Drain from cascaded heater Enthalpy of drain in the heater under analysis) Heat energy absorbed by feed water Extraction steam flow rate = (Enthalpy of steam Enthalpy of drip water) Measured values are 1) Extraction steam pressure and temperature 2) Feed water temperature and pressure at inlet and outlet of heater 3) Drip temperature 4) Feed Flow rate Typical Feed Water Heater : Extraction Steam Inlet Drain From cascaded heater Feed Water O/ L


Drain Cooling

FW I/L Drain Outlet

Shell Steam Temperature


Condensing Zone



Profile of Heat Gain by feed water in Heater Poor performance of the heater results in Low feed water temperature at Heater outlet. Probable reasons can be found out from the performance indices as per following guidelines. Reasons for Low Feed Water Temperature are 1) Excessive makeup 2) Poor performance of the heater. High T.T.D. or High D.C.A. temperature results in Poor performance. Reasons for high TTD are : 1) Excessive Venting because of worn out vents, vent malfunction 2) High water level in heater shell due to Tube leaks or improper setting of Heater level control 3) Leak in the partition of the header for feed water inlet / outlet 4) Noncondensible gases in shell side 5) Excessive tube bundle pressure drop because of tubes internal fouling ro excessive no. of tubes plugged Reasons for high DCA temperature are : 1) Drain cooler inlet not submerged in the drip 2) Low water level in the heater due to improper setting of the set point or Control valve bypass left open or it is passing 3) Excessive tube bundle pressure drop because of tubes internal fouling or excessive no. of tubes plugged Low feed water temperature also result due to passing of the Heaters Feed side bypass valve.



In thermal power plant, Chemical Energy of fuel is converted to electrical energy. The conversion cycle is based on Thermodynamic Vapor Cycle, called Rankine Cycle. Conversion takes place through various stages and different processes are involved for the purpose. Due to the various limitations nature has imposed, such as Irreversibility in the process, heat losses to atmosphere, Friction losses, Heat Transfer losses, to name a few, efficiency of conversion is always less than 100%. In addition to these losses, some heat energy is rejected because, steam temperature and pressure drop to such low values (after doing work in Turbine), that further conversion to useful work is not possible. Due to all these reasons, energy input is much more for one kWh electrical energy output from the Generator. If the Chemical / Electrical conversion process should have been 100% efficient, 860 Kcal heat energy input should have given one kWh electrical energy out put at Generator terminals. This ratio of Electrical Energy Output over a certain period of time to Chemical Energy input to the Plant over the same period is called Heat rate. In modern plants, designed for High temperature and pressure Steam admission to Turbine, efficiency and heat rate can be around 36% and 2400 Kcal/ KWh respectively. The term Heat rate is defined in many ways as follows: Net Unit Heat rate: It is the ratio of energy input to Boiler in terms of Heat energy of fuel, for one kWh of electrical energy output at Bus Bars, i.e. after UAT. If the out put and input is considered for a period of an hour, then it is Net Unit Heat rate for one Hour. Similarly, it can be calculated over a period of a Day, a Week, a Month or a Year. In this case, it is the sent out energy that is considered, hence, consumption of electrical energy for driving the plants auxiliaries is also accounted for. Gross Unit Heat rate : It is the ratio of energy input to Boiler in terms of Heat energy of fuel, for one kWh of electrical energy output at Generator Terminals. In this case, auxiliary consumption is NOT accounted for. Net Turbine Cycle Heat rate : It is the ratio of heat energy contained in steam admitted to Turbine for one kWh of electrical energy output at Generator Terminals. In this case, auxiliary consumption and losses in Boiler are NOT accounted for. Operating Heat rate : It is the heat rate calculated by considering the inputs and outputs from the plant only when it is synchronized with the grid. In this case, the fuel input required for steam conditioning, from light up to synchronization is not considered. Also auxiliaries consumption during the period of plant shut down is not considered. What information does Heat rate give? The plant is designed to generate electricity at certain design heat rate. Deviations from design values give a valuable information regarding the operational and maintenance practices. Also, by comparison with the historical data, decisions can be taken while making investments on the maintenance and renovation. Also, problem area can be identified and analyzed for improvements. A deviation in Gross Turbine Cycle heat rate tells us about energy conversion scenario in turbine, including condenser and regenerative feed heating process. If Net average unit heat rate deviates from that of design, it tells us how much extra amount of energy is put in and how much money is wasted.

Now a days, tariff for supply of electricity to consumers is fixed by Maharashtra Electricity Regulatory Commission. While fixing tariff, MERC has given the benchmark heat rate values for all power plants in MSEB. If actual heat rate is more than the benchmark heat rate, the additional expenditure incurred shall not be considered in Generation cost for fixing tariff. Naturally MSEB will have to absorb the cost of this expenditure. Another important aspect is of conservation of fast depleting natural resources, such as coal and fuel oil. When power is generated at optimum heat rate, minimum possible fuel is consumed. Less fuel consumption also leads to lesser extent of pollutants added to the environment. Hence monitoring and controlling the heat rate to the optimum level has many benefits. Calculations of heat rate : Net Unit Heat rate, for given time period, is calculated by the formula, (Coal Consumption Its Calorific Value + Oil Consumption Its Calorific Value) Generation measured at Bus Bars To measure coal consumption accurately is very difficult. Also the calorific value of coal varies and its continuous, on line measurement is not possible. Hence, in normal practice, unit heat rate is calculated by the simpler method: Unit Heat rate = Turbine Cycle Heat rate / Boiler Efficiency calculated by loss method. Turbine Cycle Heat rate = (Total Heat added to Turbine in Kcal) / (Generation in MU) Total Heat added to Turbine Cycle = ((Sp. Enthalpy of S.H. Steam at Boiler Outlet x Total Steam Flow Rate to H.P.T.) (Sp. Enthalpy of Feed Water at economizer inlet x Feed Water Flow rate at economiser inlet)) + (Sp. Enthalpy of R.H. Steam at Reheater outlet Sp. Enthalpy of C.R.H. steam at Reheater inlet) x Reheat Steam Flow + (Sp. Enthalpy of S.H. Steam at Boiler Outlet Sp. Enthalpy of S.H. spray) x S. H. Attemperator Flow + (Sp. Enthalpy of R.H. Steam at Reheater outlet Sp. Enthalpy of Reheat attemporator) x R. H. Attemperator Flow. Values of temperature, pressure and flow rate are known from instrumentation and specific enthalpy can be known from Steam tables. The value of generation is known from the Energy Meters. If reading of energy meter connected to Generator terminals is considered in this formula, the heat rate obtained is Gross Heat rate and if that from Bus Bar energy meter is considered, then it is the net heat rate. For method of calculation of Boiler efficiency by loss method pl. refer the chapter on the topic. Factors affecting the Turbine Heat rate : 1) Main Steam Temperature at H.P.T Inlet 2) Main Steam Pressure at H.P.T Inlet 3) Reheat Steam Temperature at I.P.T Inlet 4) Reheat Steam Pressure at I.P.T Inlet

5) 6) 7) 8)

Condenser Vaccume Temperature of Feed Water at Economiser Inlet. Boiler efficiency S.H. and R.H. attemperation flow rate.

The effect of individual parameter is discussed below: Rankine cycle efficiency, rankine = 1 (T2/ Tm1) Where; T2 is temperature of heat rejection, Tm1 is Mean temperature of steam admission = (h1 - h4s) / (s1 - s4s). (1) (2) (3)

h1 & s1 are specific enthalpy and entropy of steam at admission temperature and pressure, h4s and s4s are the Sp. Enthalpy & entropy of feed water at Economiser inlet. 1) Temperature and Pressure of steam admission (M. S. as well as H.R.H) : For rankine to be high, Mean temperature of Steam admission (Tm1 in expression 1 above) should be as high as possible. Metallurgical constrains limit these values for the given Turbine. However, by maintaining the steam parameters close to the values specified by the Manufacturer, maximum possible Mean temperature of Steam admission is achieved thus cycle is operated at design efficiency. Effect on heat rate due to Deviation from design values for 210 MW LMW plant is as follows :
Parameter Expected Value Actual Value Heat rate deviation Kcal/kwh 1.648 3.3342 2.417 Excess Coal Consumption /KWh ( C.V. 3500 Kcal/Kg) 0.0048 0.0009 0.0.0006 Excess coal consumption over the year, at 80% PLF Tons 2190Tons 1016 tons

Main Steam temp. H.R. Steam temp. Main Steam Pressure

537 C 537 C 140 Kg/cm

532 C 532 C 138 Kg/cm

2) Condenser Vaccume plays a very important role in efficiency of the Rankine Cycle. If vaccume is less than design value, i.e. if Condenser absolute pressure is more than design value, corresponding saturation temperature is more, thus Heat is rejected at Higher Temperature (T2 in expression 1 is less than design) and cycle efficiency drops. This increases Heat rate. Also the of the L.P.T. backpressure increases, thus reducing the conversion of Heat Energy to work in Turbine. This increases specific steam rate thus increasing fuel consumption. In Condenser, only latent heat is rejected, hence condensate temperature is always at saturation temperature. If condenser pressure is less than design value, temperature of condensate shall also be less. This causes low feed water temperature, thus increasing the heat rate. Following table shows effect of deterioration of condenser vaccume on heat rate.
Parameter Expected Actual Excess Heat rate Kcal / KWh 19 Excess Coal Consumption / KWh ( C.V. 3500 Kcal/Kg) 0.0054 Excess coal consumption over the year, at 80% PLF 7989 Tons


690 mm Hg.

670 mm Hg.

3) Less Temperature of feed water at Economizer inlet causes efficiency of Rankine Cycle to drop, as Mean temperature of steam admission decreases. Values of h4s and s4s in expression 3 above are high, thus reducing Mean temperature.




Excess Heat rate Kcal / KWh

Excess Coal Consumption / KWh ( C.V. 3500 Kcal/Kg)

Excess coal consumption over the year, at 80% PLF 9261 Tons

Feed Water Temp.

253 C

248 C



Reasons for Low Steam temperature and Pressure : In the Power Plant, there can be many reasons for low temperature of Steam at Boiler and Reheater outlet. Passing spray water control valves and motorized valves, inadequately tuned temperature control system, fouled surfaces of the Super Heaters are some of the reasons. These reasons become more dominant when the plant is operating at loads below maximum rating. Throttling of steam flow due to partially shut valves is the major reason for low pressure of steam at Turbine admission. Reasons for poor vaccume in Condenser : 1) Air ingrace in condenser : Air ejection system of the condenser has the capacity to remove non-condensable gases present in the steam in normal operation. As the condenser is operated at less than atmospheric pressure, it is prone for air leaking in to it. Sealing systems, such as Turbine Gland Sealing, Water sealing of the evacuation system Valves, are provided to prevent the air ingrace. If Gland sealing steam pressure and temperature and Valve Gland sealing water pressure are not maintained properly, atmospheric air enters the condenser in large quantity. Evacuation system can not remove the excess air and hence condenser pressure increases. Condensers are also provided with many tapping points for instrumentation. Many of these tapping points are used only for carrying out acceptance tests. Once these tests are over, the temporary instrumentation connected to condenser is removed. If any of such tapping point remains open by oversight, air enters the condenser. There is also a chance of cracks developed on the connection between L.P.T. casing and condenser. Damaged gaskets on flanged joints, leaking vent valves provided on Pressure gauges, cracked impulse lines, passing vaccume breaker valves, atmospheric vent or drain valves on C.E.P. inlet piping, if are open, also cause air ingrace. Evacuation equipment, such as Steam Ejectors, Electrical Vaccume Pumps are provided with airflow measuring devices. Any increase in the flow rate indicates air ingrace. Condenser air leaks can be identified by manual inspection while the plant is on load. Helium Leak Detectors can also check air leaks. When the unit is shut down, condenser leaks can be detected by filling Condenser with D.M. Water up to certain high level. But this test needs lot of prior preparation. 2) High C.W. Temperature, Insufficient Flow rate or Fouled heat transfer surface : Condensers are heat exchangers. Heat transfer takes place from steam to cooling water from the tube surface. Cooling water takes away the Latent Heat from condensing steam. The heat transfer equation is Q = U * A * Tm (1)

Where Q is heat load on condenser, a function of mass rate of steam condensing U is the coefficient of heat transfer, A is the surface area of tubes Tm is Log Mean Temperature Difference,

Ti - Tf Where Tm = Ln (Ti / Tf) Ti = (saturation temperature of steam C.W. inlet temperature) Tf = (saturation temperature of steam C.W. outlet temperature) Also called Terminal Temperature Difference or TTD Relationship between Water flow rate and heat load is given by mw = Q / ( cp * (T2 T1) ) (T2-T1) = (mw * cp) / Q Where mw is Mass flow rate of Water cp is specific heat of water = 4.2 Kcal / Kg / C, T2 is Temperature of Water at condenser outlet T1 is Temperature of Water at condenser inlet,

(2) (3) (4)

(5) (6)

In the installed system, Mass flow rate of water (depends on the C.C.W pumping capacity) and Heat Load (Mass of steam from LPT exhaust) becomes constant. And as per equation 3 above, heat removal capacity solely depends on (T2 - T1). Temperature of Cooling Water, T2, at Condenser outlet can increase only up to the value decided by design T.T.D. for the condenser, Design value for T.T.D. in Condensers is generally 2.5 C, as designing condenser for TTD below this is not viable. Hence, ultimately, the heat removal becomes directly dependent on Cooling Water Inlet temperature (assuming other factors to be constant for the given case). Increase in this temperature will cause reduction in mass of steam getting condensed. In such cases, some steam remains in vapour form, causing Condenser Pressure to increase. Similarly, even if Cooling Water temperature is within design limits, but its mass flow rate reduces, same scenario can be expected. If heat transfer coefficient deteriorates, it again lead to increased Condenser Pressure, as all the steam do not condense because of insufficient cooling. Reasons for High C.W. temperature : In Cooling Towers, evaporative cooling of Hot water takes place. Air, sucked by the C.T. Fan, flows in cross flow direction to water flow, comes in contact with air, causing evaporation of water. The heat energy required is taken from Water, thus cooling it. The rate of evaporation is dependent on Relative Humidity of air and its dry bulb temperature C.T. design is made considering yearly average value of R.H. found from historical data. If the R.H. and Dry bulb temperature of ambient air is high, evaporation is low and hence Water temperature does not drop to the design values. This situation may arise during some periods of the year and is not controllable. The controllable reasons are; 1. Non availability of some of the C.T. fans, 2. 3. 4. 5. Unequal distribution of water to individual cell of the cooling tower, Some of the water not coming in contact with air stream, Reduced surface are of mass of water due to damaged or plugged nozzles, Sensible heat gain by cold water when it flows from C.T. to C.W. Pump sump.


Reasons for Low C.W. Flow rate; 1) C.W. Flow rate required for maintaining Condenser Vaccume at rated generation from the plant are calculated by designers. Accordingly C.W. Pump rating is calculated. Velocity of cooling water through condenser tubes is the controlling factor. The pumps selection is based on calculated values of Hydraulic Resistance of the C.W. Lines, Condenser tubes, elevation to which hot water should reach etc. Hydraulic resistance of the C.W. circuit increases due to following reasons : i. Number of Plugged condenser tubes more than considered while designing the system ii. Reduction in Tube cross sectional area due to scaling in the tube or deposit of mud, algae or organic growth within the tubes iii. Throttling of Flow distribution valves at C.T. Cells iv. Throttled isolating valves in the system v. Deterioration of pump performance due to eroded or corroded impeller. vi. Heavy and undetected leakage from the under ground piping. Reasons for deterioration of Heat transfer coefficient : Scaling and fouling, corrosion, and organic growth on condenser tubes reduces the ability of heat transfer between Steam and cooling water. Ingrace of ambient of air in to the condenser, which blankets the tube surface. Air has very low thermal conductivity and it causes drop in Heat Transfer coefficient. To minimize the problems of scaling, it is extremely necessary that cooling water softness be maintained. Calcium and Magnesium salt precipitates stick to the metal surface forming hard and difficult to remove scales. These salts have very poor thermal conductivity. Commonly encountered scales are i. Calcium Carbonate ii. Calcium Sulphate iii. Silicate Scales iv. Calcium Orthophosphate v. Magnesium salts vi. Iron salts Fouling is caused by deposition of suspended matter, insoluble in water. Foulants are Mud and silt, Natural Organics, Microorganisms, Air borne Dust, Vegetation etc. Preventive Measures : The concentration of salts takes place because of evaporation of water in the cooling towers. Even if softened water is used, concentration of these salts increases in closed circulation system. One of the ways to reduce the concentration is taking fresh water in to the cooling pond to make up for the evaporated water. But by this method, huge quantity of make up water is required. Another way is to softening. But soft water has greater tendency for corrosion. Maintaining pH of water between 6.0 to 8.0 by feeding acid in the system. But there are many disadvantages such as control of pH, safety in handling huge quantity of acid etc. On line circulation of sponge balls through condenser tubes, and occasional acid cleaning of the condenser tubes are other ways to prevent scaling. Microbial Growth : Microorganisms enter cooling towers through air, make up water and dust. The major problems are Algae, Fungi and Bacteria. Chlorine is usually adequate to prevent the growth. But, it is effective only if pH is 8.3 or below. Free chlorine of 0.2 to 0.5 ppm is sufficient. Beyond 8.3 pH Chlorination does not satisfactory results.

Temperature of feed water at Economizer inlet : Feed water temperature is another factor, which decides the efficiency of Rankine Cycle, as is evident from expression 1 above. Tm1 decreases if temperature of feed water at Boiler outlet is low. High availability of feed water heating system and also its optimum performance are important factors. Reasons for poor performance of feed heaters are : 1. Scaling of the tubes 2. Inadequate venting of Feed waters before cutting those in service 3. Passing and leaking heater bypass valves 4. Heater getting bypassed frequently due to High water level of because of inefficient heater level control instrumentation Boiler Losses and efficiency : Boilers are designed to operate at certain efficiency. Typical figures of the losses in the Boiler (designed values) are :
Loss taking place Dry Flue Gas loss H2O and H2 in fuel H2O in air Unburnt Carbon Radiation Unaccounted Manufacturers Margin Total Losses Efficiency % loss 4.64 5.60 0.18 0.60 0.19 0.40 0.50 12.11 87.9

Controllable losses are 1) Dry Flue Gas loss and 2) Unburnt Carbon. Losses due to Moisture in fuel and air are uncontrollable. Ambient air, when introduced in the boiler, also carries with it water vapors. Hydrogen in Coal reacts with Oxygen in air and forms moisture. Along with flue gas, water vapors also receive heat energy produced from combustion of fuel. This energy is lost to atmosphere through Chimney. Flue gas loss and Unburnt Carbon loss are the controllable losses. Effect of deviation of some of the parameters on Heat rate :
Parameter Expected Actual Excess Heat rate Kcal / KWh 3.467 3.782 18.67 2.75 Excess Coal Consumption / KWh ( C.V. 3500 Kcal/Kg) 0.001 0.0011 0.00533 .00078 Excess coal consumption over the year, at 80% PLF 1600 Tons 1700 Tons 7853 Tons 1156 Tons

Excess Oxygen Unburnt Carbon Flue Gas Temp Moisture in coal

3.5 % 1.0% 135 9%

4.0% 1.5 % 145 11%

Flue Gas Loss : Combustion of fuel produces flue gas. Its major constituents are 1. Carbon Di Oxide produced by Carbon & Oxygen reaction,

2. 3. 4. 5.

Nitrogen from air, Fly ash, Oxygen, Water Vapours.

Temperature of flue gas leaving air pre heaters is maintained at 135 to 140 C. Total Heat content in the flue gas is = (Volume of flue gas in m/sec x Sp. Heat of the flue gas x Specific Weight x Flue gas temperature) Specific Heat of the flues gas is 30.6 kJ / Kg / C. Specific weight of the flue gas is 0.796 Kg/ m. When boiler is operated with Optimum air supply and temperature of flue gas at APH outlet must is maintained within the design limits, flue gas loss is at its minimum. Primary Air + Secondary air is the total Combustion air supplied to Boiler. Depending on the Coal Analysis and required velocity of air + coal mixture through coal pipes, manufacturers specify P.A. Flow through coal mill in relation to Coal Feeding. Combustion Air requirement for the Boiler : Requirement of air for combustion of coal varies as per the constituents of coal being fired. If it is less than required, incomplete combustion takes place leading to high unburnt carbon loss. If it is more than required, combustion can be complete but Flue gas quantity increase leading to higher flue gas losses. For Pulverized coal fired Boilers, 20% Excess air supplied under specific conditions, ensure complete combustion. By maintaining 3.5 % Oxygen in flue gas (On dry flue gas basis) at Economizer outlet ensures, that the Boiler if being fed with 20% excess air. It needs to be emphasized that Specific Conditions must be met to ensure minimum losses. These conditions are: 1. Fuel particle size must confirm to specified dimensions. 2. All the coal nozzles must admit equal mass of fuel in furnace and hence , primary air velocity through pipes must be equal and as P.A. flow to mill should be proportional to mill loading as specified by the manufacturer 3. Coal / Air mixture temperature at Pulveriser outlet must be 77 C. 4. Secondary air must enter combustion chamber from pre determined places only. 5. Secondary air must enter the furnace at predetermined velocity from all elevations. 6. Diffusers on the coal nozzles must be in proper condition to ensure that the jet of air/ coal mixture, emanating from nozzle, is well distributed. 7. Furnace must be air tight to eliminate possibility of entry of ambient air. When all these conditions are satisfied, then only efficient combustion in the furnace, supplied with 20 % excess air is ensured. Fuel admission and combustion system has following equipment to ensure these conditions. 1. Oxygen Analyzers : In situ, Zirconia probe Oxygen Analyzers, installed on Economiser outlet ducts, continuously monitor Oxygen in flue gas. Automatic air flow control loop regulates F.D. Fan Inlet Guide Vanes in such a way that 3.5% Oxygen in flue gas is maintained through out the operation of Boiler. 2. Fuel air dampers (named after the coal elevations i.e. A, B, C, D etc) on all the Four Corners should be open only for the elevations that are in service. Position of these dampers must be equal for all the corners. Regulation of these dampers is as per the quantity of coal feeding measured as Coal Feeder speed. Dampers of the elevations AA.








FF, BC and DE should open equally for all Four Corners. These dampers are regulated to maintain Furnace Windbox D.P. to the value specified by the manufacturer. Dampers AB, CD and EF are regulated as per Fuel Oil pressure for Oil elevation in service. For the oil elevation not in service, dampers regulate as per the Furnace Windbox D.P. Orifice plates in Coal Pipes : To ensure that all burners (nozzles) at all coal elevations admit equal mass per sec in the furnace, two requirements should be fulfilled. Primary air flow velocity in each of the pipe must be equal and fuel/ air ratio in all pipes should be the same. Inserting the Orifice plates, thus equalizing the hydraulic resistance of all the pipes equalizes pipe velocity. Cold air flow tests are conducted on coal mills at regular intervals. Results from these tests give valuable information of condition of Orifice plates and partially or fully choked up pipes. If coal mill is operated with Primary air flow rate less than that specified, velocity of coal air mixture drops below 20 mtr/sec, causing separation of coal particles from stream and consequent settlement in pipes, resulting partial choke up. If the temperature of coal / air mixture at coal mill outlet drops below 60 C, there is a possibility of condensation of water vapor which also result in separation of coal particles and its settlement. Mill air flow control dampers : For ensuring the coal / air ratio equal, P.A. flow rate to mill should be as per mill loading and hence regulated by feeder speed. Coal mill manufactures give the P.A. Flow rate and mill loading characteristics. Mill temperature control system: By ensuring coal air mixture at 77 C, adequate dryness of coal is ensured, which is one of the important requirements for proper and efficient combustion. Furnace Windbox DP Control system : Velocity at which secondary air enters the furnace is determined by Furnace Wind box differential pressure. For every boiler, value of Furnace Wind box differential pressure is specified for different loading conditions. By sticking to the specified values, it is ensured that velocity of secondary air is as per the combustion reaction requirement. For this purpose, opening of Secondary Air dampers of the wind box is controlled by automatic control loop for Furnace Windbox DP. Set point for this loop is generated as per the boiler load as indicated in the enclosed Fig.1. Corner Firing : For achieving efficient and sustained combustion at desired rate, Oxygen in Air must reach the Coal particles at that rate. Oxygen molecule reach burning coal particles by a process called Diffusion. Ratio of Concentration of Oxygen at particle surface to that in surrounding gas mixture decides rate of diffusion. This rate is highest when Coal particle is surrounded by air which contains 21 % Oxygen. Furnace atmosphere is made of mixture of Coal, Air, Flue Gases and Ash particles. To ensure that coal particles will always remain surrounded by air, place of air admission, velocity at which air is admitted and turbulence in the furnace are of prime importance. First two requirements are fulfilled as discussed above. Tangential firing fulfills requirement of turbulence. Air tight Furnace: Furnace pressure is always maintained at 4 5 mm W.C. below atmosphere. If furnace is not air tight, ambient air will enter furnace. But, the velocity of this air is very low. This air can not mix with the jets of Secondary air and Primary air / Fuel mixture admitted at very high velocities and hence does not take part in combustion. But, it travels with flue gas, and distorts the Oxygen reading, thus replacing the Secondary air. It is therefore extremely important that tramp air entry be prevented. Pulverization of coal for design particle size : The above discussions deal with the importance of Fuel firing equipment and air supply to boiler. Role of particle size is as

important as that of proper supply and distribution of air in the furnace. As explained, care is taken that coal particles will always be surrounded by air in the furnace. In furnace, very small size air Packets are interspersed in the homogeneous mixture of gases. Total oxygen required for complete combustion of the individual particle depends on mass of particle, which in turn depends on the size to which particle is pulverized. Smaller is the size of particle, smaller the quantity of Oxygen required for its complete combustion. Hence, by ensuring that 70% of Coal passes through 200 Mesh, it will always remain surrounded by air packet which will contain enough Oxygen. But, it is also important that size distribution of balance 30 % coal should be: Passing through 100 mesh; 85% and above Retained by 50 Mesh: Less than 0.5% Resident time of particles in the furnace is generally 1 to 2 seconds. Bigger particles will not burn completely due to lack of Oxygen, within this time and leave the furnace as unburnt Carbon, thus increasing losses. Coarser particles also lead to increase in slagging. Optimization of Combustion Process : Supplying 20% excess air ensures that combustion will be complete. How ever, there is always a possibility that in certain type of Coal and combustion conditions, Excess Oxygen requirements can even go below 20%. It may also be possible that in some conditions, excess Oxygen requirements may be more than 20%. In power plants, where coal from different mines is fired regularly, such conditions may arise very frequently. To ensure that combustion remain efficient in varying condition and Optimum air is supplied to Boiler in all conditions, Carbon Mono Oxide monitoring in flue gas is done. If combustion is not complete, concentration of CO in flue gases increases. Complete combustion is indicated by 100 ppm Co in flue gas at Economizer outlet. If combustion is incomplete due to insufficient air, Co level shot up immediately to very concentration values. Fig. 2 shows the variations in Co with ref to Air supplied to Boiler. Other Factors : Following factors also cause deterioration of plant performance, thus increasing heat rate. Many times, these factors are not measurable directly by plants instrumentation. But, their effect can be known from regular tests. Low efficiency of H.P. Turbines, I.P. Turbine and L.P. Turbine: Turbine cylinder isentropic efficiency is the measure of how efficiently turbine has converted input heat energy in to mechanical work. Isentropic efficiency of Turbine Cylinder is given by : Actual Enthalpy of steam at Inlet Actual Enthalpy of steam at exhaust Efficiency = Actual Enthalpy of steam at Inlet Ideal Enthalpy of steam at exhaust Actual Enthalpy is known from steam parameters at Inlet and Exhaust. If steam expands in turbine without change of Entropy, then it is called ideal expansion. By finding out Temperature for Actual exhaust pressure and actual entropy of steam at Turbine inlet, value of ideal enthalpy is known. Turbine manufacturers give the expected Efficiencies. Any subsequent deviation from expected values indicate deterioration of Turbine and can be corrected in the planned outages.

Air Heater leakage : In Trisector Airheaters, air leakage, through seals, in to flue gas takes place. Due to rotating rotor, the air side and flue gas side sectors are sealed by radial as well as axial seal plates. Deterioration of sealing arrangement increases air leakage increasing I.D. Fans loading. Leakage of ambient air in to flue gas through damaged ducts and through E.S.P. Hoppers is another reason of increased loading fo the I.D. Fans. The extent of both the leakages can be so high that I.D. Fan loading reaches its maximum, leading to either restriction on Generation or in worst case, purposeful reduction of Secondary air. By measuring Oxygen at Air Heater outlet and ESP outlet monitoring of extent of air leakage is possible. Make up water consumption : Consumption of make up water is because of following reasons: 1. Soot blowing 2. Steam ejectors 3. Opening of C.B.D. 4. Passing of drain valves 5. Leakages of steam or feed water. 6. Steam used for Oil heating and steam tracing of oil lines. 7. Operation of auto drain traps to remove condensate from steam pipelines. To certain extent, steam consumed for Soot Blowing, Oil heating and Ejectors and Water lost through C.B.D. can be calculated. If this data is monitored regularly, extent of leakage from system can be guessed. Any leakage from system indicates heat lost and lead to increased heat rate. Sprey Water Flow rate for Steam temperature Control : There is no direct effect of attempartion flow in heat rate deviation. But increased sprey flow rate indicates deterioration of Boiler Conditions. Auxiliary Consumption : Increased Auxiliary Consumption indicates more energy consumed by auxiliaries. It also makes less energy available for distribution to consumers. Closely monitoring these values helps in monitoring of health of the auxiliary. Regular energy audit gives valuable information on repairs to be carried out and planned maintenance. Conclusions : From above discussions, it can be concluded that, operation of the Thermal Power Plant at optimum conditions reduces Gross Unit heat rate. The factors that affect heat rate are: 1) Parameters of steam at HPT, IPT inlets, 2) Condenser Performance 3) Cooling Tower Performance, 4) Combustion of fuel in Boiler with Optimum air supply, thus reducing Dry Flue Gas loss and Unburnt Carbon loss. 5) Auxiliary Consumption 6) Air heater leakage 7) Duct Leakage 8) Ingrace of tramp air in Boiler 9) Make up water consumption 10) Turbine Cylinder Efficiency 11) Feed Water temperature at Economizer Inlet.

Fig. 1, Variation in Furnace Windbox DP control ckt. set point with load

140 mm Wcl. Furnace Windbox DP

40 mm Wcl.

40 % Boiler Load

70 %

Fig. 2, Change in CO in flue gas with combustion air supply

CO in flue gas In ppm Deficient air supply

100 ppm

Optimum Air Supply

Air supply to Boiler




Optimizing Total air supplies : Supplying correct air quantity for combustion is vital for optimization of boiler operation. Too little air will cause unburnt losses and too much air will increase the dry flue gas losses. Carbon mono-oxide monitor can be effectively used for enabling supply of correct air quantity of air for combustion. Flue gasses in a pulverized fuel boiler will normally have a residual quantity of carbon mono-oxide in the vicinity of 100 ppm. If the amount of excess air supplied to the furnace is greater than the design excess air value, then the flue gas flow rate and the amount of heat lost to the atmosphere will increase, causing a decrease in energy efficiency. This situation can occur if the plant control system is defective or there is incorrect plant operation. B) Combustible materials in ash : The amount of unburnt in ash is a measure of effectiveness of combustion process and milling plant. Normally about 1.5% carbon in dust is regarded as optimum. Values higher than this are indicative of the following. 1. Poor grinding. 2. Incorrect combustion air supplies. 3. In correct p.f. classifier setting or mills in need of adjustments. Apart from the milling plant the actual combustion process can lead to high carbon in ash. If the air supplies are badly adjusted, even though grinding is proper, unburnt losses can occur. For the best control of flame all mills should ideally produce the same size of product, and also all mills should be equally loaded as this spreads the fire evenly. Unequal grading produce flames, which have different characteristic and so are insensitive to secondary air adjustments. The air temperature is also important because of influence of the rate of ignition and flame length. The primary air to secondary air ratio is also an important norm, which should not be allowed to deviate too much from the recommended value. C) Air heater gas outlet temperature : Optimum air heater gas outlet temperature recommended by manufacturer should be adhered to. The temperature of the flue gas leaving the air heater (which is the final heat exchange element in the boiler) has a direct influence on the station efficiency. For example, a 22OC increase in this temperature above optimum could result in a 1% decrease in station efficiency. There are many causes of an increase in this temperature, all to do with reductions in energy absorbed from the hot gas in or after the furnace. The most usual problems are : 1. Ineffective air heater soot blowers 2. Holed & torn elements, a particular problem at the cold end plates because of corrosion. 3. Fouling, corrosion/erosion and blocking of air heater elements. 4. Deposits on the external heat transfer surfaces of the furnace, super heaters, re-heaters and economisers - many of these surfaces have to be regularly cleaned using soot blowing for increase in efficiency resulting from cleaner heat transfer surfaces. 5. Fouling of the internal heat transfer surfaces of the furnace, super heaters, re-heaters and economisers caused mainly by incorrect chemistry of the water and steam in these tubes; or by incorrect material selection of the tubes; or by the tube material overheating; or combinations of these

6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. II. A)

Defective or non-availability of Soot Blowers. High Excess Air (This will increase the gas weight and also elevate the temperature, however if excess air is very high, dilution effect may predominate and the flue gas temperature will fall). Low feed water inlet temperature at Economiser inlet. Defective baffles in gas paths. Poor milling and poor combustion resulting in long burn off times and result in higher outlet gas temperature in addition to fouling. Use of higher rows of burners at lower loads. Air leakage before combustion chamber.

TURBINE PERFORMANCE Internal Losses : Nozzle Friction, Blade friction, disc friction, diaphragm gland and blade tip leakage, partial admission, wetness and exhaust. B) The 1. 2. 3. 4. External Losses : Shaft gland leakages. common cause of cylinder efficiency deterioration include, Damage to blades caused by debris getting past the steam strainers. Damage to tip seals and inter stage glands. Deposition on blades, normally start at last few I.P. stages and carry on to the first few L.P. stages. Increased roughness of blade surface.

III. FEED WATER HEATER PERFORMANCE Deterioration of feed water heater performance occurs for the following causes. 1. Air accumulation 2. Steam side fouling 3. Water side fouling. 4. Drainage defects. Once air accumulation occurs it is manifested in the following. a) Reduced heater drain water temperature b) Increased T.T.D. (Terminal Temperature Difference) c) Possible elevation of steam to Heater temperature. d) Reduced temperature rise of feed water or condensate. Steam side fouling : The effect of steam side fouling can be observed by the following a) Progressive increase of T.T.D. b) Drain Temp unaffected c) Reduced feed water temperature rise. Water side fouling : Common cause of waterside fouling is oil. Thermal magnification of the trouble are similar to steam side fouling except that the on-set of increasing T.T.D. is usually sudden and rate of deterioration is rapid. Drainage defects : Apart from passing of valves, the usual troubles are, a) Damaged flash box internals. b) Reduced orifice openings. c) Enlarged orifice openings. d) Drip pumps defective.


Effect of heater fouling : Fouling always causes increase in T.T.D. resulting from lower feed water outlet temperature. Therefore when feed enters the next heater it will be colder than normal and so increases the steam consumption at that heater. Increased steam flow will cause increased velocity and mass flow, which may cause mechanical damage. As a general guide, the turbine generator heat rate will be affected by 0.07% for 10C change in T.T.D. of HP Heaters. It is recommended that feed heater TTD be monitored every day. IV. CONDENSER PERFORMANCE : It is an accepted fact that less than half the heat in fuel is converted into electrical energy and losses in condenser account for more heat than does the electrical output. In other words, at any time in the operation of the unit, more MW is going out through the condenser than which is coming through the generator. Even very small worsening of backpressure is very expensive in terms of extra heat required for a given output. In fact condenser performance is the most important operating parameter on a unit. In fact the condenser performance is the most important operating parameter on a unit, so the factors which worsen condenser back pressure must be clearly recognized so that effective remedial measures can be taken. The factors affecting performance of condenser are : 1. Variation of C.W inlet temperature. 2. Variation of CW Quality 3. Interference with heat transfer. Condenser T.T.D is a measure of interference with heat transfer. A high TTD means a worsened condition. The temperature gradient, which is the main driving force for the heat transfer, is expressed as log mean temp. difference. (LMTD). The main factors affecting the heat transfer in a condenser are 1. Effect of air blanketing on steam side of tubes. The effect of air ingress is the main factor causing poor performance of condensers. Air ingress can be measured by use of orifice plates provided at the ejector outlets. 2. Deposition of oil or oxides of copper or iron on the steam side (Copper Oxide etc.) surface affecting the heat transfer adversely. 3. Deposition on the insides of the tubes due to scale, slime, mud or dirt. OPTIMISATION OF UNIT PERFORMANCE Monitoring just a few parameters, it is possible to get a good idea whether plant is working in optimized condition or not. These parameters are : 1. Condenser Vacuum. 2. Main steam pressure at turbine inlet. 3. Main steam Temperature inlet at turbine inlet. 4. Reheat temperature at turbine inlet. 5. Final feed water temperature after heater block. 6. Boiler excess air. 7. Unburnt / combustible material in ash. 8. Air heater gas outlet temperature. 9. Make up water consumption. If each of these conditions is at optimum value there is a good chance that the unit is

being operated at or near the optimum performance limits. Therefore it is a good practice to record the above parameters regularly, say once per shift and take action on any deviations that are significant. The significance of each of these parameters in optimization of unit is discussed here as under. 1. CONDENSER VACUUM : This is the most important parameter that is required to be monitored. The significance of it can be understood from the fact that a vacuum drop equivalent to 10 mm of Hg would cause a loss of approx. Rs. 415/- hour in terms of fuel cost when running the unit at full load. (The figures are based on performance calculations done at Chandrapur in 1996.) It is therefore necessary that in every shift back pressure should be analysed for deviations from optimum. One of the reasons for the drop in back pressure is the air ingress in the condenser. Checks should be carried out to see if air ingress is excessive. For checking the air ingress, help of Helium leak detector may be taken to identify and / or quantify the air ingress points. The best way to do this is to note the air suction depression. This is a method by which presence of air is determined by measuring temperature of contents of air suction pipe to air ejectors / vacuum pumps. When there is only a little air present, the temperature is very little below the saturated steam temperature say within 4.50C. as more and more air is present the temperature falls the more air the greater depression of air suction compared to saturated steam temperature. Preferable the thermometers are to in direct contact with the contents of air suction pipe. Alternately at regular intervals, say once a week confirm how long it takes for the back pressure to detoriate by a set amount when the air pump suction valves are shut. Comparison with the time taken when condenser was known to be in good condition will indicate the degree of air leakage. 2. MAIN STEAM PRESSURE AT TURBINE INLET : A change in turbine stop valve pressure will result in corresponding change in output. Hence it is the most important that when the unit is on full load, the turbine stop valve pressure is kept at correct value. In general the effects of change in Turbine Stop Valve pressure are : a) Steam flow will change. b) Changed flow will cause the pressure through the turbine to change, including bleed steam pressure. c) Because of (b) the feed heater outlet water temperature will change. d) Total Heat of TSV steam, R/H steam and final feed water flow will change. e) Boiler feed pump output will change to cope-up with changed flow. f) Because the flow through turbine has altered so the volumetric flow to condenser will change. Thus it is seen that a simple change in TSV pressure reflects throughout the cycle. It can be seen from the calculation that 5 Kg/cm2 pressure drop at turbine inlet would result in a loss of Rs 185/- per hour approximately. Based on calculations done in 1996. 3. MAIN STEAM TEMPERATURE AT TURBINE INLET : Variations in the TSV steam temperature result in variations in the specific volume of the steam and this results in a change of steam flow. Other results are : a) Change of total heat to TSV Steam. b) Change of total heat to HP cylinder exhaust steam.

c) The change of flow will alter the pressure throughout the turbine and this will change the bleed steam flow to heaters. Calculations indicate that a 50C drop in the main steam temperature could result in a loss of around Rs. 100/- per hour at full load. 4. REHEAT OUTLET STEAM TEMPERATURE : Variations in the Reheat Outlet Steam temperature will cause: a) Change in total heat of the steam. b) Change of steam flows to the condenser for a given loading. 50C drop in the Reheat Outlet Steam temperature would result in a loss around Rs. 154/- per hour at full load. 5. FINAL FEED WATER TEMPERATURE AFTER HEATER BLOCK : The final feed water temperature should be measured after the HP Heater block bypass has joined the feed line and deviations from optimum should be investigated. Water flows through the bypass will cause the final feed heater outlet temperature to be higher than final feed. Variations of feed flow from optimum will cause changes of output and heat rate. In addition there can be deviations from optimum at individual heaters. Whatever is the trouble at a heater it must affect one or more of these parameters. a) Heater Terminal Temperature Difference. b) Drain outlet terminal temperature difference. c) Bleed steam pipe pressure drop. d) Steam temperature at heater inlet. 6. BOILER EXCESS AIR : Boiler combustion efficiency is largely dependent upon supplying correct quantity of excess air at right place. Supplying too much of excess air will increase dry flue gas losses. This is because the quantity of gas will increase and so will the heat content as excess air will absorb heat more readily than the heat exchange surface, thus increasing the Air heater gas outlet temperature. 7. COMBUSTIBLE MATERIALS IN ASH : The permitted values for the carbon in ash are 0.8 % in fly ash and 4.8% in bottom ash as per the design. Values greater than above are indicative of: a) Poor grinding b) Incorrect combustion air supplies. c) Incorrect pulveriser fineness classifier settings. It is calculated that 1.5% carbon in ash is equivalent of about 0.5% boiler losses amounting to around Rs. 236/- per hour approximately at full load. 8. The a) b) c) d) e) AIR HEATER GAS OUTLET TEMPERATURE : causes of high air heater gas outlet temperature are : Ineffective A/H soot blowing. Holed and torn elements. Deposits on boiler heat transfer surface. Defective soot blowers resulting in reduced heat transfer in discrete location and result will be as in (c). High excess air increases the gas weight and also elevates the temperature. However if the excess air is very high dilution effect may predominate and the gas temperature will fall.


Low final feed water temperature has to be remedied by extra firing in the boiler and this will result in high exit gas temperature. g) Poor milling and poor combustion results in long burn off times and result in high gas temperature at furnace exit in addition to fouling. h) Using upper rows of burners on low loads. Generally speaking a final gas temperature of about 200C above optimum will result in boiler efficiency loss of about 1%, which amounts to a loss of Rs. 472/- per hour at full load. 9. MAKE UP WATER CONSUMPTION : Makeup water is replacing water and steam, which has been lost from system and contains considerable quantities of heat. There are four usual sources of loss: a) Passing of valves / leaks. b) Boiler blow downs. c) Drains going to waste d) Soot blowing. Of the above four sources of loss, the first three can be controlled by good house keeping. As regards the soot blowing losses if it is carried out too often heat is wasted whereas if it is not carried out often enough the heat transfer may become heavily coated and heat transfer will be reduced and thus the final gas temperature will rise. Hence there must be optimum interval between soot blowing, but just that may be difficult to determine. The basic problem is that soot blowing affects boiler efficiency and boiler availability. An expression for heat loss due to carrying of soot blowing is : Heat loss to soot blowing steam Loss = Heat given to TSV Steam + Heat given to RH steam Loss = 0.25Qs + Where Qs (h1-h5) (h2 h5) + QR (h4 h3)

Qs = Soot blowing steam as a percent of TSV steam flow. QR = Reheat steam flow as fraction of TSV steam flow. h1 = Total heat of steam at A/H gas outlet temperature & pressure. h2 = Total Heat of Steam at TSV conditions. h3 = Total Heat of Steam before Re-heater. h4 = Total Heat of Steam after air heater. h5 = Heat in final feed water.

The term 0.25 Qs is the approximate loss due to raising the temperature of the cold make up water to final feed water temperature. For operational purposes it is convenient to determine some reference temperature (say gas temperature leaving primary super heater) and commence soot blowing when it reaches a certain value, allowance being made for boiler loading. The alternative of blowing out at preset times (say once per shift) has little to commend except convenience. One of the main parameters that determine the frequency of soot blowing is the ash content of coal. The above explanations are given to bring home the importance of maintaining the few vital parameters to their optimum values for bringing down the operating losses. If each of the above conditions is maintained at the optimum it can be assured that the unit will be running at minimum losses and maximum efficiency and consequently the coal rate per HWH generation will also come down appreciably.


Turbine performance plays a major role in Turbine Cycle Heat rate. Isentropic Efficiency of turbine is the important parameter that indicates performance of the Turbine. In impulse stages of the turbine, steam expands thorough nozzles, causing increase in its kinetic energy. The high velocity steam jet is then made to impinge on the moving blades fixed on the rotor, causing blade and rotor to move. Thus the heat energy is converted to mechanical work. As a result of the conversion, steam temperature and pressure drop over the stages of turbine. Amount of heat energy converted to work, by applying first law of thermodynamics, = (Heat Energy contained by steam at admission Heat Energy contained by steam at exhaust.) = (Enthalpy of steam at Admission Enthalpy of steam at exhaust) If the expansion of steam had taken place ideally, the isentropic efficiency of the Turbine cylinder would have been 100%. In such case Entropy of steam at exhaust and at admission should have remained the same. But, due to the irreversibility in the process of expansion, all the heat energy is not available for conversion to work. Isentropic efficiency of turbine is thus expressed as a ratio of Actual change in Enthalpy across the turbine, compared to Theoretical change (At constant entropy) expressed as percentage. Method of Calculation : The method of calculating the efficiency is demonstrated for HPT as follows. Isentropic efficiency of HP Turbine = (Enthalpy of steam at HPT Inlet Actual Enthalpy of steam at HPT Exhaust) (Enthalpy of steam at HPT Inlet Ideal Enthalpy of steam at HPT Exhaust) Enthalpy of steam at HPT Inlet : This is known from the steam tables for steam admission pressure and temperature. Actual Enthalpy of steam at HPT Exhaust : This is known from the steam tables for exhaust steam pressure and temperature. Ideal Enthalpy of steam at HPT Exhaust : This is known by first finding out the ideal temperature of exhaust steam at actual exhaust steam pressure and entropy of steam at admission. Then ideal enthalpy is known from steam tables, by considering actual exhaust pressure and ideal exhaust steam temperature. Similarly isentropic efficiencies of IPT and LPT are calculated by considering appropriate steam parameters for these turbines. Effect of Turbine Efficiency on heat rate for 210 MW plant : (Unit heat rate of 2500 Kcal/kWh)
One percent improvement in Efficiency of HP Turbine IP Turbine LP Turbine % Effect on Turbine Cycle heat rate 0.2 % Heat rate 0.2 % Heat rate 0.5 % Heat rate Effect on Unit Heat Rate - 5 Kcal / kWh - 5 Kcal / kWh -12. 5 Kcal / kWh


In addition to the irreversibility of the expansion of steam in turbines, following losses contribute to reduced efficiency : 1) Fluid Friction : This is the biggest cause for losses in the turbines. Fluid friction loss can amount for 10% of the total energy available to turbine. By proper design velocities, these losses are minimized but can not be completely eliminated. Friction losses are present due to i) Friction in steam nozzles ii) Blade friction, which can be minimized by reduction in velocity of steam by compounding etc. iii) Turbulence at blades when blade shape does not posses proper angle of entrance for steam at loads other than design load. iv) Friction between steam and rotor disc on which blades are mounted. v) Rotating blades and rotor produces centrifugal action on steam. Due to which some part of steam flows radially to casing, which gets dragged along the moving blade. vi) Churning of steam in moving blades, especially when the turbine is on part load operation. This loss takes occurs in impulse stages. 2) Leakage loss : Steam leakage can occur within and outside the turbine and amount to 1% loss of the total energy supplied to the turbine. The leaking steam gets throttled and represents unavailable energy. Causes of leakage are as follows. Steam leakage takes place along the blade tips and casing when there is a pressure drop across the blades as in the case of reaction turbines. The loss is greater in high-pressure turbines. Also ratio of blade height to clearance (between the blade tip and casing) also affect this loss. Greater being the ratio, greater is the loss. In pressure compounded turbines, leakage of steam leaks along the shaft at diaphragms on which nozzles are mounted. Some steam also leaks out side the turbine from the shaft glands. Moisture Loss : Some part of steam converts to moisture in the turbine. The droplets are generally move at a low speed. Some droplets strike the moving blades at off-design angles and reduce the mechanical work of the rotor. Other droplets are accelerated to velocity of steam and thus momentum exchange takes place reducing the energy in steam. Usually, the moisture content is limited to 12% at exit steam. Leaving loss : The residual steam velocity at the last row of rotating blades in a turbine is quite high because of decrease in pressure and increase in specific volume. The corresponding kinetic energy represents a loss from the turbine. Magnitude of the leaving velocity is kept to the minimum by proper combination of height of last blades, speed and area of the exhaust duct to the condenser. In large turbines, velocity of steam at exhaust is in the range of 270 to 300 m/s. Provision of double flow paths in IP and LP Turbines, gradually increasing the exhaust duct also reduces the leaving velocity. This loss is to an extent of 2 to 3% in modern turbines. Hence, if the Turbine Performance deviates from the design value, it presents an insight in to the condition of turbine internals, and hence it is monitored in the power plants.


ii) iii) 3)




Financial Accounting is mainly used for an instrument to record transactions of the business to satisfy the requirements imposed by fiduciary relationship between the business and its owners as well as third parties connected with business such as creditors, financial institutes etc. Basic function is limited to recording, classifying & summerising the business transactions of only financial character through Trial Balance, Income Statement and Balance Sheet. Management Accounting covers (i) Financial Accounting, (ii) Cost Accounting (iii) Revaluation Accounting, (iv) Budgetary Control, (v) Inventory Control, (vi) Statistical Methods (vii) Interim Reporting, (viii) Taxation, (ix) office Services (MIS- Management Information Services) and (x) Internal audit system Cost Accounting is the process of accounting for costs. It embraces the accounting procedures relating to recording of all incomes and expenditures and the preparation of periodical statements and reports with the object of ascertaining and controlling the costs. It is, thus, the formal mechanism by means of which the cost of products or services are ascertained and controlled. Objectives of Cost Accounting : Main objectives of cost accounting can be summerised as follows : 1) Determining Selling price : Cost accounting collects costs related to individual product & services connected to such product, which plays main role in deciding selling price. 2) Determining & controlling efficiency : Cost accounting : Cost accounting involves a study of various operations used in manufacturing a product or providing a service. It facilitates measuring of efficiency of organisation, station, unit and section as well as means of increasing efficiency. 3) Facilitating preparation of financial & other statements : The third objective of cost accounting is to produce statements at such short intervals as the management may require. Financial Accounts are prepared only once at the year end and it shall be of no use for current decision-makings by the management. 4) Providing basis for operating efficiency : Cost accounting helps the management in formulating operating policies. These policies may relate to any of following matters i) Determination of cost-volume-profit relationship ii) Shutting down or operating at a loss iii) Making or buying from outside suppliers iv) Continuing with the existing plant and machinery or replacing them by improved & economic ones. Elements of Cost There are three broad elements of cost : Material (Direct material or Indirect material), Labour (Direct Labour or Indirect Labour and expenses (Direct expenses or Indirect expenses) Direct Material comprises of all materials which becomes an integral part of the finished product and which can be conveniently assigned to specific physical units. Similarly Direct Labour comprises of all labours, which takes active and direct part in the production of

particular commodity. Direct Expenses are those, which can be directly allocated to specific cost centers or cost units. The term OVERHEAD includes indirect material, indirect labour and indirect expenses. Thus all indirect costs are overheads. A manufacturing organisation can be broadly divided into three divisions: (i) Factory or Works where production is done, (ii) Office and administration, where routine as well as policy matters are decided and (iii) Selling and Distribution where product is finally sold & distributed to customer. Components of total cost are : Prime Cost : It consists of costs of direct material, direct labour and direct expenses. Factory Cost = Prime Cost + Factory Overhead (It is also known as Works cost, production or manufacturing Cost) Cost of Production = Works Cost + office & administrative Overheads Cost of Sales = Cost of production + Selling & distribution Overheads COST SHEETS The cost sheets are prepared for historical cost data or for estimated cost data. Ascertainment of future costs and making comparisons with the past records help the management in fixing up the selling prices of the products. Several important decisions can also be taken by the management regarding profit planning, production and marketing strategy, etc. The preparation of Cost sheets call for special knowledge of cost accounting and well trained personnel for giving appropriate treatment to computation of profit, raw material stock and also to stock of work in progress while preparing statement of total production cost. CLASSIFICATION OF COSTS Fixed, variable and semi-variable costs The cost which varies directly in proportion to every increase or decrease in the volume of output or production is known as variable cost. The cost, which does not vary but remains constant within given period of time and range of activities in spite of the fluctuations in production, is known as fixed cost. The cost, which does not vary proportionately but simultaneously cannot remain stationary at all times is known as semi-variable cost. Product costs and period costs : Costs, which become part of the cost of the product, are called Product Costs and costs, which are not associated with production, are called Period costs. Direct Costs and Indirect costs : Already explained above. Decision driven costs : Some costs are specifically attributed to particular decision. The decision may lead to either profit or loss. It may result into comparatively better or worst outcomes than those predicted. Abnormal loss or abnormal profit can be associated with specific decision. For example, Koradi TPS has purchase a powder to mix with coal in anticipation to improve heat rate. But after actual use, there is no improvement in heat rate. It is decision driven cost/ loss. Relevant costs and irrelevant costs : Relevant Costs are those, which would be changed by the managerial decision. While irrelevant costs are those, which would not be affected by the decision.


Shut down costs and sunk costs : Due to some temporary difficulties like shortage of raw material, non-availability of labour etc, sometimes operations may have to be suspended for a period. During this period although no work is done, yet certain fixed costs, such as, rents, electricity, insurance, depreciation, maintenance etc for the entire plant will have to be incurred. Such costs are known as shut down costs. Sunk costs are historical costs or past costs. These are the costs, which have been created by a decision made in the past that cannot be changed by any decision that will be made in future. These cost are irrelevant for decision-making. Example : Koradi TPS purchased a machine for Rs. 30,000. The machine has an operating life of 5 years without any scrap value. Soon after making purchase the management of Koradi TPS feels that the machine should not have been purchased since it cannot yield the operating advantage originally contemplated. Of course, it is now expected to result in saving in operating costs of Rs. 18,000 over the period of 5 years. The machine can be sold immediately for Rs. 22,000. In taking the decision whether machine should be sold or be used, relevant amounts to be compared are Rs. 18,000 in a cost saving over 5 years and Rs. 22,000 that can be realized by selling the machine. Rs 30,000 invested in machine is not relevant & is a sunk cost. Opportunity Costs : The Opportunity cost refers to the advantage, which has been foregone on account of not using the facilities in a manner originally planned. Example : If Koradi TPS is to decide whether to provide certain amount of steam at offered cost for some other operations instead of generation of electricity. Then in such decision, the revenue which could fetch by generating electricity by such steam is the opportunity cost which, should be taken into account for evaluating the profitability of using such steam for other purpose. COST REDUCTION AND COST CONTROL Cost Reduction and Cost Control are two different concepts. Cost Control has achieving the cost target as its objective while cost reduction is directed to explore the possibilities of improving the targets themselves. Thus cost control ends when targets are achieved while cost reduction has no visible end. It is a continuous process. AREAS OF IMMEDIATE ATTENTION 1. Daily Declared OLC for Unit and Station 2. Economics of Unscheduled Interchanges 3. Fixed Cost/ Variable Cost/ Consideration 4. Asset / Reliability Concept/ Availability Monitoring 5. Daily Cost of sectional works, processes/ services FOCUS ON LONG RANGE PLANNING Flexible Budgeting, Inventory, Purchase policy Contract Monitoring/ Outsourcing Pricing Strategy/ Transfer Pricing Concepts Merit Order Stack Monitoring/ On Line Bidding Monitoring External Environment & Changes in Internal Environment through SWOT analysis & Strategic Planning


COST REDUCTION TECHNIQUES The following are some important cost reduction techniques. 1. Costing & Value Chain Analysis 2. Standardisation, simplification & Quality Control 3. Job study, work study and Motion study 4. Budgetary Control 5. Inventory Control 6. Value Engineering & Learning curve effect 7. Job evaluation and Merit Rating Costing & Value Chain Analysis The first step is to establish Cost Accounting System and standardize the basic routine functions of cost collection, cost analysis & cost reporting. The Costing System as being practiced in Generating Stations in MAHAGENCO recognizes division of power generation activities in any station into different process centers and service centers. Each process center, which is either unit wise or stage wise, is further divided into sub process centers (SPC). Every SPC has number of systems and area wise locations on which different operation & maintenance activities are done. The data of cost of manpower (direct, indirect & idle), material (Raw Materials, Spares & consumables) and contracts deployed on each of these activities based on defect card raised by Operating staff is collected through entries in PPMS (Power Plant Monitoring System) software in Works Planning System. PPMS is designed to give cost statements of every activity and also to arrange the cost components incurred on every cost centers on daily basis. Broad Divisions into Cost Centers & Service Centers.
PROCESS CENTRE 0110 0210 0310 0410 0510 0610 0710 0810 0910 1010 1110 1210 1310 1410 1510 Coal Handling Plant Raw Water Intake System Pre Treatment Plant Soften Water Plant D.M. Plant Hydrogen Generating Plant Milling Plant Boiler And Auxiliaries Fuel Oil Handling Plant Turbine & Generator CW System Ash Handling Plant Common Technical Services Township Administration SERVICE CENTRE 0001 0002 0003 0004 0005 0006 0007 0008 0009 0011 Boiler Maintenance Turbine Maintenance CHP (Mech. Maint.) CHP (Elect. Maint.) Vehicle Maint Elect. Maint. (Main Plant) Testing Instrumentation Control Civil Maintenance Water Treatment Plant (M)

The reports in three standard formats from each power station are sent to Head Office to compile & compare for inter power station analysis. The above Costing System, which is being practiced in a premature stage, is now to re-mould in expert style for utilisation in competitive


environment to deal with continuously changing business conditions. A sound management Information System is the basic need for such re-orientation of Costing System. It is utmost necessary now to re-examine the Costing System freshly at strategic level and then for attempts to re-establish the basic process of daily cost accumulations in the power plant as a main stream of administrative process. The plan for such implementation needs to be strategically approved by topmost management in MAHAGENCO and responsibility needs to be assigned to such specially constituted team with cost-benefit impacts of such implementation as a special project. Following target steps can be considered for such attempts. 1. Preparation of Flow chart for every process & its SPC. Identifying assets in such process centers and standard systems in each SPC. Calculation of asset for each process center & service center. 2. Covering all activities through job/ defect card system. Establishing daily routines in all operation sections for proper defect card entries & daily monitoring of permits issued & cleared. 3. Establishing of daily routines of work Plan, Job Completion Sheets and Sectional daily Cost analysis. 4. Establishing entries of important machines running, standby, under permit timings through PPMS. 5. Establishing Centralised Purchase/ Work Order on line monitoring process through centralised dispatch information & bills receipt system. 6. Establishing on line inventory/ stores with on line issues against defect cards. 7. Establishing Contract monitoring through daily contract work allotments & on line monitoring of RA Bills through PPMS. 8. Establishing on line time management system & salary linking to costing tasks. 9. Establishment of On Line daily & periodic Costing System and value chain of primary & support activities. 10. Making available full Management Information System for decision making at all levels of management in MAHAGENCO. Standardisation, simplification & Quality Control : Technical Parameters : Generation, Availability Factor, PLF, Heat Rate, Specific Fuel Consumption, Auxiliary Consumption, Annual/ Capital Overhaul outages. Elements of Cost of Generation : Fixed Cost & Variable cost Contribution, Cost contribution by Process centers & Service centers, Variance analysis, Standard cost deviations Station as a Profit Center : Return on asset, Merit Order Stack Position, ABT performance, Technical performance, Liquidity Performance Contribution of Responsibility Centers in Value Chain of Profit Center : Job study, work study and Motion study

Defining all jobs through Work Instructions : Creating environment for scientific analysis of job, Time bound review till satisfactory yield is ensured from job methods. Continuous Process of Job enrichment : Identifying frequency of failures, Minimising repeat works, improving work methods, definining jobs with respect to processes/ individual responsibilities.

Budgetary Control

Resource gap analysis & Capital Budgeting exercise : Identifying resource requirement, resource allocation & measures to bridge resource gap at sub section/ section level, Comparative study of in-house means & outsourcing avenues. Fixed v. Flexible Budgets : Continuous review of budget in changing environmental aspects, linking with Long Range Planning. Scientific Decision Techniques : Use of statistical models, standardizing decision-making process, Study of impact of decision. Budget Control Organisation : Establishment of continuous budget monitoring exercise and internal audit features. Inventory Control

Establishing On Line Purchases, Inventory & Audit trail : Complete on line & totally computerized system of purchase activities, works measurement process and receipt & issue pricing strategies. Scientific evaluation of Inventory Management Quality : The stores at sectional level to be manned by trained staff with internal auditing arrangements, Establishing standard stores practices. Value Engineering & Learning curve effect

Devising means to enrich the value of services & operating practices: Establishing quality control with periodic review at highest level to ensure fruitful results, comparing with standard practices adopted by market leaders and competitors. Considering use of Learning Curve Effects: Planning effective means of on job training, devising means of cashing the effect of learning curve. Job evaluation, Merit Rating & Performance Monitoring

Benchmarking Performance : Establishing organisation for proper benchmarking of performance (There is a separate chapter covering Benchmarking, quality & Reliability aspects).