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TOPIC ON GENERAL DESCRIMINATION

Submitted to: PROF RAFIQ HASSAN

Submitted by: KHALID AMIN Roll No. 5631

CITY UNIVERSITY OF SCIENCE AND INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY

CONTENTS

1. 2. 3.

Introduction Statement of the Problem Methodology (a) (b) (c) (d) Objectives of the study Sources of the data Carrying out of the project Hypothesis

4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Data Collection Data Analysis Data Interpretation Solution Conclusion

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

"Words are often too weak to express one's inner feelings of indebtedness to one's benefactors". It is a matter of great pleasure for me to acknowledge my indebtedness to my advisor 'MR RAFIQ HASSAIN, Professor of ENGLISH, Department of BBA. of CITY UNIVERSITY OF SCIENCE AND

INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY, for leading a helping hand in the completion of my assignment. Really, I cannot find words to express my 'Thanks' and gratitude to him. he helped me and provided with his valuable guidance at each and early step.

INTRODUCTION
. "Discrimination" derives from Latin, where the verb discrimire' means "to separate, to distinguish, to make a distinction". Discrimination is the prejudicial or distinguishing treatment of an individual based on their actual or perceived membership in a certain group or category, such as their race, gender, sexual orientation, ethnicity, national origin, or religion. It involves the group's initial reaction or interaction, influencing the individual's actual behavior towards the group or the group leader, restricting members of one group from opportunities or privileges that are available to another group, leading to the exclusion of the individual or entities based on logical or irrational decision making. Discriminatory traditions, policies, ideas, practices, and laws exist in many countries and institutions in every part of the world, even in ones where discrimination is generally looked down upon. In some places, controversial attempts such as quotas have been used to redress negative effects of discriminationbut have sometimes been called reverse discrimination themselves. The term "discrimination" began to be used as an expression of derogatory racial prejudice in the 1830s from Thomas D. Rice's performances as "Jim Crow". Since the American Civil War the term "discrimination" generally evolved in American English usage as an understanding of prejudicial treatment of an individual based solely on their race, later generalized as membership in a certain socially undesirable group or social category.

Moral philosophers have defined discrimination as disadvantageous treatment or consideration. This is a comparative definition. An individual need not be actually harmed in order to be discriminated against. He or she just needs to be treated worse than others for some arbitrary reason. If someone decides to donate to help orphan children, but decides to donate less, say, to black children out of a racist attitude, he or she will be acting in a discriminatory way even the people he discriminates against are actually benefitted by having some money donated to them. Based on realistic-conflict theory and social-identity theory, Rubin and Hew stone have highlighted a distinction among three types of discrimination:

Realistic competition is driven by self-interest and is aimed at obtaining material resources (e.g., food, territory, customers) for the in-group (e.g., favoring an ingroup in order to obtain more resources for its members, including the self). Social competition is driven by the need for self-esteem and is aimed at achieving a positive social status for the in-group relative to comparable out-groups (e.g., favoring an in-group in order to make it better than an out-group). Consensual discrimination is driven by the need for accuracy and reflects stable and legitimate intergroup status hierarchies (e.g., favoring a high-status in-group because it is high status). The United Nations stance on discrimination includes the statement: "Discriminatory behaviors take many forms, but they all involve some form of exclusion or rejection." International bodies United Nations Human Rights Council work towards helping ending discrimination around the world.

Types of Discrimination
1) Age discrimination Ageism or age discrimination is discrimination and stereotyping based on the grounds of someone's age. It is a set of beliefs, norms, and values which used to justify discrimination and/or subordination based on someone's age. Ageism is most often directed towards old people, or adolescents and children. 2) Caste discrimination According to UNICEF and Human Rights Watch, caste discrimination affects an estimated 250 million people worldwide. Discrimination based on caste, as perceived by UNICEF, is prevalent mainly in parts of Asia (India, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Nepal, Japan) and Africa.[Currently, there are an estimated 160 million DLits or Scheduled Castes (formerly known as "untouchables") in India. In India the Ambedkar controversial cartoon issue rocked the parliament in May 2012 since it symbolized discrimination against castes. 3) Disability discrimination Discrimination against people with disabilities in favor of people who are not is called albinism or diabolism. Disability discrimination, which treats non-disabled individuals as the standard of normal living, results in

public and private places and services, education, and social work that are built to serve 'standard' people, thereby excluding those with various disabilities. In the United States, the Americans with Disabilities Act mandates the provision of equality of access to both buildings and services and is paralleled by similar acts in other countries, such as the Equality Act 2010 in the UK.

4) Employment discrimination Ethiopian Jews protest in Israel over non-employment of Ethiopian academics. Denying someone employment, or disallowing one from applying for a job, is recognized as employment discrimination when the grounds for such an exclusion is not related to the requirements of the position, including such elements as age, disability, ethnicity, gender, gender identity, height, nationality, religion, sexual orientation, skin color, and weight. The United States federal laws that protect against: Race, color and national origin discrimination include the Civil Rights Act of 1964, Executive Order Number 11478 among other numerous laws that protect people from race, color and national origin discrimination. Sex and gender discrimination include the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and Equal Pay Act of 1963. Age Discrimination includes the Age Discrimination in Employment Act of 1967. Physical and mental disability discrimination includes the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990. Religious discrimination includes the Civil Rights Act of 1964. Most other western nations have similar laws protecting these groups. 5) Language discrimination Diversity of language is protected and respected by most nations who value cultural diversity. However, people are sometimes subjected to different treatment because their preferred language is associated with a particular group, class or category. Commonly, the preferred language is just another attribute of separate ethnic groups. Discrimination exists if there is prejudicial treatment against a person or a group of people who speak a particular language or dialect. Language discrimination is suggested to be labeled linguicism or logocism. Antidiscriminatory and inclusive efforts to accommodate persons who speak different

languages or cannot have fluency in the country's predominant or "official" language is bilingualism such as official documents in two languages, and multiculturalism in more than two languages. 6) Discrimination on the basis of nationality Discrimination on the basis of nationality is usually included in employment laws. It is sometimes referred to as bound together with racial discrimination although it can be separate. It may vary from laws that stop refusals of hiring based on nationality, asking questions regarding origin, to prohibitions of firing, forced retirement, compensation and pay, etc., based on nationality. Discrimination on the basis of nationality may show as a "level of acceptance" in a sport or work team regarding new team members and employees who differ from the nationality of the majority of team members. 7) Racial or ethnic discrimination An African-American child at a segregated drinking fountain on a courthouse lawn, North Carolina, 1938. Racial discrimination differentiates individuals on the basis of real and perceived racial differences and has been official government policy in several countries, such as Papua New Guinea in the apartheid era. In the United States, racial profiling of minorities by law-enforcement officials has been called racial discrimination. As early as 1866, the Civil Rights Act provided a remedy for intentional race discrimination in employment by private employers and state and local public employers. 8) Religious discrimination Religious discrimination is valuing or treating a person or group differently because of what they do or do not believe or because of their feelings towards a given religion. For instance, the indigenous Christian population of Balkans (known as "rayah" or "protected flock") lived under the Ottoman KanuniRayah. The word is sometimes translated as 'cattle' rather than 'flock' or 'subjects' to emphasize the inferior status of the rayah. Restrictions upon Jewish occupations were imposed by Christian authorities. Local rulers and church officials closed many professions to Jews, pushing them into marginal roles considered socially inferior, such as tax and rent collecting and moneylending, occupations only tolerated as a "necessary evil". The number of

Jews permitted to reside in different places was limited; they were concentrated in ghettos and were not allowed to own land. 9) Reverse discrimination Students protesting against racial quotas in Brazil: "Quer Uma vaga? Passe no vestibular!" ("Do you want a university place? Be successful in the entrance exam!") Some attempts at antidiscrimination have been criticized as reverse discrimination. In particular, minority quotas (for example, affirmative action) discriminate against members of a dominant or majority group. In its opposition to race preferences, the American Civil Rights Institute's Ward Connery stated, "There is nothing positive, affirmative, or equal about 'affirmative action' programs that give preference to some groups based on race. 10) Sex, gender, and gender-identity discrimination

Though gender discrimination and sexism refers to beliefs and attitudes in relation to the gender of a person, such beliefs and attitudes are of a social nature and do not, normally, carry any legal consequences. Sex discrimination, on the other hand, may have legal consequences. Though what constitutes sex discrimination varies between countries, the essence is that it is an adverse action taken by one person against another person that would not have occurred had the person been of another sex. Discrimination of that nature is considered a form of prejudice and in certain enumerated circumstances is illegal in many countries. Sexual discrimination can arise in different contexts. For instance an employee may be discriminated against by being asked discriminatory questions during a job interview, or by an employer not hiring or promoting, unequally paying, or wrongfully terminating, an employee based on his or her gender.

DEFINITION OF COMMUNITY: Community is a way of relating to other persons as brothers and sisters who share a common origin, a common dignity, and a common destiny. Community involves learning to live in terms of an interconnected "we" more than an isolated "I'. It involves making choices which reinforce the experience of relatedness and foster the sense of belonging and interdependence. Community begins, but does not end, in our face to face relationships with the persons who are closest to us. A community is best defined as a group of people who, regardless of the diversity of their backgrounds, have been able to accept and transcend their differences, enabling them to communicate effectively and openly and to work together toward goals identified as being for their common good. A community is a group of two or more people who have been able to accept and transcend their differences regardless of the diversity of their backgrounds (social, spiritual, educational, ethnic, economic, political, etc.) This enables them to communicate effectively and openly and to work together toward goals identified as being for their common good. The word community can refer to a specific group of people (a geographical community, a church congregation) or it can describe a quality of relationship based on certain values and principles. Reaching community is both intentional and challenging. The group process requires that an individual give up learned defenses and habitual way of behaving. Through increased responsibility, risk and vulnerability of its members,

a group develops into a "safe place" providing an environment of acceptance, appreciation of human diversity, and nurturance of personal growth, healing and self-discovery. Emptiness is a central to the community building process. A challenging place to enter and inhabit emptiness is fertile ground for the growth of personal insights and deeper relationships. Community Building is a powerful process - a technology and a discipline -which helps us, learn about ourselves and relate to others in new ways. CAUSES OF GENERAL DISCRIMINATION Educational backwardness Caste Religious beliefs Culture On the name of family history Customs and beliefs Races Low income Unemployment Society Family situation and Attitudes

Like male or even above them female plays important role in the family and national development. But her contribution is not recognized by the male dominant society. More susceptible than boys to disease and infections, leading to poor health and a shorter lifespan. It is this life-long discrimination in nurturing and care that is the real killer of girls less traditional lives in rural areas. Religious laws and traditions still determine the lives of many people, particularly women. Even if women are formerly entitled to own land and resources social and religious factors make many women refrain from this right in order not to cause distortions within the family. The preference for having sons permeates all social classes in India, which sets the standard for girls throughout their entire lives. GOI Planning Commission (2008) indicated that discrimination against women and girls impinges upon their right to health and manifests itself in the form of worsening health and nutrition indices. Julie Mullin (2008) indicated that the developing world is full of poverty stricken families who see their daughters as an economic predicament. That attitude has resulted in the widespread neglect to baby girls in Africa, Asia and South America. In many communities, its a regular practice to breastfeed girls for a shorter time than boys so that women can try to get pregnant again with a boy as soon as possible. As a result, girls miss out on life-giving nutrition during a crucial window of their development, which stunts their growth and weakens their resistance to disease.

IMPORTANCE OF WOMEN IN DEVELOPMENT


Females are nearly 50 per cent of the total population but their representation in public life is very low. Woman continues to bear the major load of the household work. Her primary role is often viewed by the society as housewife. In cardinal goals of democracy of the people, by the people and for the people cannot be optimically accomplished if the female population remains out of political empowerment. Subordination of women in society acts a structural constraint to their participation in political activities. This constraint operates more or less for all classes and communities of women. Prevalent culture which is very complicated and often decisions are taken behind the scene may be regarded as another constraint in this regard. Recognising womens rights and believing their ability are essential for womens empowerment and development. Females should realize their own capabilities and potentials which will strengthen their self image and foster them with confidence to take action in life. Political empowerment does not imply just a right to role silently but to discuss, share and empower politics by knowing its pros and cons and thereby to influence policies and decision making. Empowering women is the basic to the basics of human rights where she wants neither to beg for power nor search for power hierarchy to exercise power against others. On the contrary she demands to be accepted as human first of all. She as a person in command of herself and for that necessarily all the resources physical, social, economical, political, cultural and spiritual to be equally accessible to her, are prerequites for considering the whole question of empowerment. Pakistani society is inherited with male chauvinism but now the society has started to realize womens importance and has being accepted womens empowerment, women as an active agent for development, participation in and guiding their own development.

Legislation for Women


In Pakistan, several laws, legislations (lawmaking), policies and institutional reforms have been enacted to carry out the gender action plan for the development of women. Legislation is an important instrument for bringing about a change in the unequal economic and social status in Pakistan. In pre-independent Pakistan, few laws were passed in response to social demands and on the basis of humanitarian consideration. They are Bengal Sati Regulation Act of 1829 and similar Anti-Sati laws in Madras and Bombay, Hindu Widow Remarriage Act 1856, the Hindu Womens Right to Property Act in 1937, (The Muslim Personal Law) the Shariat Act 1937 and the Dissolution of Muslim Marriages Act 1939. After Independence, there have been important changes in legislation and litigation which have facilitated the increased participation of women in political activities as well as in the socio-economic development activities and the increase appear to be more likely at the lower level than at the highest centers of decision making. Article 14 of pakistan Constitution says that the state shall not deny to any person equality before or equal protection of the law, Article 15 says that no women can be discriminated against on the ground of sex, Article 15 (3) emphasis that the state shall make special provisions for women and children and Article 16 provides equality of opportunity in matters relating to employment by the state. In Article 39(a) emphasis that the citizens men and women equally, have the right to an adequate means of livelihood, in Article 39(d) it says that the state should secure equal pay for equal work for both men and women and in Article 34 it provides that the state shall make provision for securing just and humor humane for work and for maternity relief.

The 73rd and 74th Amendments of Pakistan Constitution in 1993 are the milestone in the history of Pakistan, which provides lot of powers for the local bodies. It paves the way for decentralization, empowers the poor people as well as women. According to these amendments not less than one third of the seats, meant for direct election of members at each tier of Panchayats are to be reserved for women and not less than one-third of the seats of chairperson at any level reserved for women. Sex-Based Discrimination Sex discrimination involves treating someone (an applicant or employee) unfavorably because of that persons sex. Sex discrimination also can involve treating someone less favorably because of his or her connection with an organization or group that is generally associated with people of a certain sex. Sex Discrimination & Work Situations The law forbids discrimination when it comes to any aspect of employment, including hiring, firing, pay, job assignments, promotions, layoff, training, fringe benefits, and any other term or condition of employment. Sex Discrimination Harassment It is unlawful to harass a person because of that persons sex. Harassment can include sexual harassment or unwelcome sexual advances, requests for sexual favors, and other verbal or physical harassment of a sexual nature. Harassment does not have to be of a sexual nature, however, and can include offensive remarks about a persons sex. For example, it is illegal to harass a woman by making offensive comments about women in general.

Both victim and the harasser can be either a woman or a man, and the victim and harasser can be the same sex. Although the law doesnt prohibit simple teasing, offhand comments, or isolated incidents that are not very serious, harassment is illegal when it is so frequent or severe that it creates a hostile or offensive work environment or when it results in an adverse employment decision (such as the victim being fired or demoted). The harasser can be the victim's supervisor, a supervisor in another area, a co-worker, or someone who is not an employee of the employer, such as a client or customer. Sex Discrimination & Employment Policies/Practices An employment policy or practice that applies to everyone, regardless of sex, can be illegal if it has a negative impact on the employment of people of a certain sex and is not job-related or necessary to the operation of the business. National Origin Discrimination National origin discrimination involves treating people (applicants or employees) unfavorably because they are from a particular country or part of the world, because of ethnicity or accent, or because they appear to be of a certain ethnic background (even if they are not). National origin discrimination also can involve treating people unfavorably because they are married to (or associated with) a person of a certain national origin or because of their connection with an ethnic organization or group.

Discrimination can occur when the victim and the person who inflicted the discrimination are the same national origin. National Origin Discrimination & Work Situations The law forbids discrimination when it comes to any aspect of employment, including hiring, firing, pay, job assignments, promotions, layoff, training, fringe benefits, and any other term or condition of employment.

National Origin & Harassment It is unlawful to harass a person because of his or her national origin. Harassment can include, for example, offensive or derogatory remarks about a persons national origin, accent or ethnicity. Although the law doesnt prohibit simple teasing, offhand comments, or isolated incidents that are not very serious, harassment is illegal when it is so frequent or severe that it creates a hostile or offensive work environment or when it results in an adverse employment decision (such as the victim being fired or demoted). The harasser can be the victim's supervisor, a supervisor in another area, a co-worker, or someone who is not an employee of the employer, such as a client or customer. National Origin & Employment Policies/Practices The law makes it illegal for an employer or other covered entity to use an employment policy or practice that applies to everyone, regardless of national origin, if it has a negative impact on people of a certain national origin and is not job-related or necessary to the operation of the business.

An employer can only require an employee to speak fluent English if fluency in English is necessary to perform the job effectively. An Englishonly rule, which requires employees to speak only English on the job, is only allowed if it is needed to ensure the safe or efficient operation of the employers business and is put in place for nondiscriminatory reasons. An employer may not base an employment decision on an employees foreign accent, unless the accent seriously interferes with the employees job performance.

A.

STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM:


To study the problems of General Discrimination in Education and

Work Place in case of women on their lives.

B.

METHODOLOGY:
We analyses all the problems by reading of the happenings from day

to day magazines as well as the newspapers. Even we got the information of miserable condition of women from the net, we went into the backward area, where we got to know the problems they faced in their education and at their work place.

OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY:


1) 2) 3) 4) What problems are faced by the women in their lives? How they service in this type of environment? Are they being helped from any of the source? What is the basis cause for variable conditions of women in different Areas?

Source of Data: The sources of data are of two types:1. 2. Primary Data Secondary Data

1.

Primary Data: The data is personally corrected from investigation is called primary data. It is the first hand information fetched from the sources.

2.

Secondary Data: The data which is collected from published or unpublished sources of information is called secondary data. The choice between primary data and secondary data depends upon the nature of the problem, financial resources, time availability.

C.

CARRYING OUT THE PROJECT:

We personally collected the information about women education and working environment from them. We used interview method and questionnaire was designed keeping in mind objectives of the study.

D.
1.

HYPOTHESIS
It is hypothesized that problems on women are prevalent in society. They are particularly prevalent in work areas; (sexual harassment) down trodden.

2.

Miserable conditions of women-biggest hindrance for the proper development of the country.

3.

It is also hypothesized that if the miserable condition of the women, or the tortures done on women, in any way, will not be stopped, the society in which we live will not be a prosperous society in future.

DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION


Q.1Reasons why you are not working?

Reasons for not working Have to take care of my family Bad economy or recession Health Problem Still Studying Your family doesnt support you Total

No. of Respondents 12 1 2 4 1 20

%age 60% 5% 10% 20% 5% 100%

Reason for not working


Have to take care of my family Bad economy or recession
60%

5%
20% 10%

Health Problem Still Studying

5%

Your family doesnt support you

INTERPRETATION: It is interpreted that mostly the respondents gave the reason that they have to take care of their family.

Q.2

What problem do you face at your work place? Problems faced No. of Respondents 3 8 4 2 3 20 %age 15% 40% 20% 10% 15% 100%

Lower salary Gender discrimination Unequal work place treatment Lower chance of promotion Sexual harassment Total

Problem Faced
Lower salary 10% 15% 15% Gender discrimination 40% Unequal work place treatment Lower chance of promotion Sexual harassment

20%

INTERPRETATION: Out of 20 respondents, 8 respondents are facing problems due to gender discrimination.

Q.3

Your family is mainly supported by:Options No. of Respondents 9 2 5 4 20 %age 45% 10% 25% 20% 100%

Your father / husband / brother/ mother You only Equally supported Other specify Total

20% 45%

Your father / husband / brother/ mother


You only Equally supported 10% Other specify

25%

INTERPRETATION: The above pie chart shows that most of the respondents are supported by other family members.

Q.4

Are co-curricular activities or educational programmes designed to attract equally to boys and girls? Options No. of Respondents 8 12 20 %age 40% 60% 100%

Yes No Total

40% Yes No

60%

INTERPRETATION: It is interpreted that, 12 respondents are not in favor that co-curricular activities or educational programmes are designed towards attract equally to boys or girls.

SOLUTION FOR GENERAL DISCRIMINATION


Various movements, programs are being carried out by the Government, voluntary organizations and by lot of social activities for womens development and against the gender discrimination. To solve the gender discrimination problem the following points should be given due consideration:1.

Education:
Education develops the skills, imparts knowledge, changes the attitude

and improves the self confidence. It provides employment opportunity and increases income. Hence educating women is the prime factor to combat gender discriminate and for the upliftment of women. Not only the female, the society must be educated to give equal right for female. 2. Employment Employment gives the income and improves the economic position of the women. Employed women are given importance by the family members. Employment gives the economic independence for the women. 3. Economic Independence In India, mostly, women in the young age depends her father, in the middle age- she depends on her husband and in the older age depends on her son. Woman always depends on somebody for her livelihoods hence, independent in economical aspects are imperative for womens development. Economic

independence will free the women from the slavery position and boost the self confidence. Economic independence of women also helps in the national economic development.

4.

Empowerment Empowering women with the help of laws, education and

employment will make the society to accept the women as an equal gender like male. Female also has all the potential and empowering women will help to use her full capability and mitigate the economic dependency of women. 5. Self-confidence Due to prolonged suppression, Indian women, an especially uneducated and unemployed woman hasnt had the self-confidence. Women need self confidence to fight against all the atrocities against her and to live self esteemed life. Hence, boosting the morale and self confidence of the women, is the key to eliminate the inferior complex of her. 6. Decision Making Even in the family as well as in the society the decision making power of women is denied. Mostly males make the importance decision in the family and in the society. This makes women as voice less and destroys herself confidence and she feels less important in the family as well as in the society. So, to end gender discrimination women must empower with decision making power.

CONCLUSION
A nation or society, without the participation of women cannot achieve development. If we eliminate gender discrimination, women will deliver all the potentials, skills, knowledge to develop the family, the The most significant factor in continued use of law to enforce patriarchal privilege is that men still control not only the legal process and the interpretation of laws, but also the subject matter and vantage point of law. If the subject matter of law is male concerns and if the perspective employed within the legal process are those of men, then women should actually have no reason to expect that mere reform of existing law will materially improve the condition of women. This is particularly true when attempts to improve the statutes of women are made through incremental reforms that are not grounded in an understanding of how womens oppressions are constructed. Reforms of rape law will not materially improve the status of women when the point of rape laws is their no enforcement. It has been shown that law is strictly restricted in it capacity to deliver gender justice, which in itself is contingent on the nature of law and its functioning. In this connection it is worthwhile to recall that the law itself is not a monolithic entity, which simply progresses or regresses. Historically, the development of law has been an uneven one. That is to say, more than not, what law promises on paper cannot carry through in reality. That is why law-as-legislation and law-in-practice are most of the time in contradiction with each other. To cite an example, the Indian constitution explicitly enshrines formal equality for women. However, the lives and experiences of India women relentlessly continue to be characterized by substantive inequality, inequity and discrimination. Gender justice may not be then that much of a caste in the sky. Finally, one must at least clearly suggest what ought to be done. The present feminist analysis is such a modest endeavor which not only attempts to understand

the reality but also tries to explain how to change it.Fight for gender equality is not a fight against men. It is a fight against traditions that have chained them a fight against attitudes that are ingrained in the society it is a fight against system a fight against proverbial laxshman Rekha which is different for men and different for women. The society must rise to the occasion. It must recognize & accept fact that men and women are equal partners in life. They are individual who have their own identity.