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FEDERAL URDU UNIVERSITY OF ARTS, SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, ISLAMABAD

PROJECT MANAGEMENT: SMALL AND MEGA PROJECT Zarai Taraqiati Bank Limilted

Submitted to: Mr M Waseem Submitted by: Hassan Ahmad Atif Mehmood

BBA 7th Date of Submission: 14th January 2013

Preface

This report holds some basic information on the given topic project management: small and mega project. I had to go through some organizational study, surf through the internet to get this project done and going through these stuffs was really interesting and informative. I have tried to include much information about the topic.

This report consists of an introduction to small and mega projects, their issues and implementation in real life projects. I hope the contents of this report will give the readers a quick look of the small and mega project and will be informative to them.

Acknowledgement
This report has only been successful because of the help of some people. First and foremost, I would like to thank my teacher, Mr. M Waseem, for giving me this task from which I could learn many things and also for guiding me whenever his guidance was necessary. This project would not even have been started without his help and support.

Next, I would like to thank the following without whose help and support this project would not have been possible.

AVP Abdul Qadeer Javaid (credit policy department)

SVP Ali Hasan (research and planning department) SVP Naveed Ahmad (data bank) AVP Mujahid (project manager) Junior Manager Atif Ranjha (accounts)

CONTENTS
Small Project Management ........................................................................................................... 10 Managing Small Projects Resources:........................................................................................ 10 Project Proposal Template .................................................................................................... 10 Project Business Plan Template ............................................................................................ 10 Review & Closure Report Template ..................................................................................... 10 Accept the Project Manager Role ............................................................................................. 10 Methodologies........................................................................................................................... 11 Defining objectives and scope .............................................................................................. 11 Defining deliverables ............................................................................................................ 12 Project Planning ........................................................................................................................ 12 Instructions for Project Plan.......................................................................................................... 13 Identify all the players or stakeholders ..................................................................................... 13 The sponsor ........................................................................................................................... 13 The customer ......................................................................................................................... 14 Other executives.................................................................................................................... 14 The end users ........................................................................................................................ 14 Team Members ..................................................................................................................... 14 Communication ......................................................................................................................... 15 Instructions for Communication Management: .................................................................... 15 Tracking and reporting progres ................................................................................................. 16

Change management ................................................................................................................. 16 Risk management ...................................................................................................................... 17 Instructions for Risk Management: ....................................................................................... 18 Instructions for Scope Statement: ............................................................................................. 18 1) Customer Requirements: ................................................................................................ 18 2) Deadline: ........................................................................................................................... 19 3) Budget Cap: ...................................................................................................................... 19 4) What is not in this project's scope? ................................................................................... 19 Determine Required Project Results: .................................................................................... 19 Organize the requirements into logical groups or phases ..................................................... 20 Get stakeholder agreement on the required project results ................................................... 21 Define the Project Work Plan ....................................................................................................... 21 Requirement list to define project work plan ............................................................................ 21 You decide how the work is broken down............................................................................ 22 Use the project work plan to build the task list ..................................................................... 22 Assign a preliminary duration to the tasks ............................................................................ 22 Indicate important task relationships and sequencing issues ................................................ 23 project management software with caution .......................................................................... 23 Develop the Project Risk Plan ...................................................................................................... 24 Corrective Actions .................................................................................................................... 25 Compensate for tasks that are taking too long ...................................................................... 26

Compensate for tasks costing too much................................................................................ 26 Check resources and precursors ............................................................................................ 26 Check on skills and obstacles ............................................................................................... 27 Correct issues where unscheduled tasks are being worked. ................................................. 27 Correct Inadequate Tasks and Deliverables .......................................................................... 27 Report Project Status................................................................................................................. 28 Communicate accurately and often ....................................................................................... 28 Focus on schedule, cost, achievement, and changes ............................................................. 28 Highlight budget reevision .................................................................................................... 29 Report project status ............................................................................................................. 29 Use variances to forecast future performance ....................................................................... 29 Present an action plan to correct or improve progress .......................................................... 29 Sometimes negotiation is your only option .......................................................................... 29 Perform a Formal Project Close ................................................................................................ 30 Conduct the official turnover ................................................................................................ 30 Gather and file the project documentation ............................................................................ 31 Issue an announcement ......................................................................................................... 31 Hold a final meeting with the team ....................................................................................... 31 Reward the team members .................................................................................................... 31 Organizational Setup ..................................................................................................................... 32 Credit operations Department (Project Management Unit) ...................................................... 33

Aim ....................................................................................................................................... 33 Objectives ............................................................................................................................. 33 Credit Operations Unit .......................................................................................................... 33 Credit Planning and Monitoring Unit ................................................................................... 34 Projects Management .................................................................................................................... 34 Small Project Management: ...................................................................................................... 35 Project Initiation: .................................................................................................................. 35 Project Planning: ................................................................................................................... 35 Project Execution: ................................................................................................................. 35 Project Monitoring & Control:.............................................................................................. 36 Project Closure: ..................................................................................................................... 36 Different small Projects: ............................................................................................................... 37 MEGA PROJECT ......................................................................................................................... 38 THEORETICAL ASPECTS ......................................................................................................... 38 The Traditional View of Project Controls ................................................................................ 38 Some Emerging Views of Projects ........................................................................................... 40 Chaos Theory and Complexity ............................................................................................. 40 Projects as Temporary Knowledge Organisations (TKOs) & Social Networks6 ................. 40 Attributes of a Good Schedule The document .................................................................... 40 Understanding the purpose of the Project Schedule ............................................................. 41 Designing the Project Schedule ............................................................................................ 41

Developing the scheduling framework ................................................................................. 41 Developing the Baseline schedule ........................................................................................ 41 Maintaining the schedule ...................................................................................................... 41 Attributes of an Effective Scheduler The person ................................................................... 42 Pre-initiation (commitment / feasibility planning) ............................................................... 42 Initiation and Planning (execution scheduling) .................................................................... 42 Executing and monitoring & controlling (performance control) .......................................... 42 ORGANIZATIONAL VIEWS ................................................................................................. 43 The Unexpected Challenge ................................................................................................... 43 A Different Breed ................................................................................................................. 43 Size........................................................................................................................................ 44 Complexity............................................................................................................................ 45 Complex Procurement Contracting....................................................................................... 45 Controversy ........................................................................................................................... 45 Time ...................................................................................................................................... 45 Scope Creep .......................................................................................................................... 46 Human and Environmental Impacts...................................................................................... 46 Risk and Uncertainty............................................................................................................. 47 Megaprojects Need to Maintain Public Support ....................................................................... 47 Requirement for Project Proponents ..................................................................................... 47 Managing in a Fishbowl........................................................................................................ 48

Potential for Waste, Fraud, and Abuse ................................................................................. 48 Defining Megaproject SuccessThere Is A "Bigger" Picture ................................................. 48 PRACTICAL ASPECTS .............................................................................................................. 50 Corporate Objectives ................................................................................................................ 50 Transformation of ZTBL to R.F.I of the country and road to excellence ................................. 51 project types .............................................................................................................................. 51 project loans .......................................................................................................................... 52 General loans ........................................................................................................................ 53 Term wise loans .................................................................................................................... 53 Green revolution project ........................................................................................................... 53 White revolution project ........................................................................................................... 54 Establishment Of Model Village by ZTBL .............................................................................. 56 energy saving PROJECT (Bio Gas Units) ................................................................................ 56 Project manager ........................................................................................................................ 57 project management .................................................................................................................. 57 issues in project management ............................................................................................... 57 Success rate ............................................................................................................................... 59

SMALL PROJECT MANAGEMENT


A small project is one where there is a project team of 2 or less, the projects schedule is flexible, of internal interest only, has a budget of less than $25K, impacts a single business unit, and has no major dependencies or inter-related projects.

MANAGING SMALL PROJECTS RESOURCES:


Resources that are specifically designed to assist in managing small projects have been developed. These include:
PROJECT PROPOSAL TEMPLATE

It is usually the first document outlining what change is proposed. It is the document that converts an idea or policy into the details of a potential project.
PROJECT BUSINESS PLA N TEMPLATE

It is the management document for the project. It is owned, maintained and utilized by the Project Sponsor/Line Manager to ensure the delivery of project outputs and the realization of project outcomes. It is also the management document for the Project Manager. Risk and Issues Registers, and Status Report Templates.
REVIEW & CLOSURE REPORT TEMPLATE

It is the final document produced for the project and is used by senior management to assess the success of the project, inform future projects, tidy up any loose ends and formally close the project.

ACCEPT THE PROJECT MANAGER ROLE


The first thing to do is to accept the Project Manager role by making yourself known to the stakeholders and diplomatically letting them know you're on the job

A Project Manager is every bit a manager even though the project manager role may only last for the life of the project. You're given a goal and a team of people and the mission of achieving the goal successfully. You, the people you work for, and your team are all players in the project and will determine its success or failure. If you're going to live up to the project manager role, you have to begin by taking control of the project.

METHODOLOGIES
It can seem that project management methodologies are all about the process and not about getting things done. Sometimes its tempting to make it simpler, make it lighter, or skip a step or two. Project management methodologies are intended as a tool to make you successful, not as a means to an end. Its okay to simplify for a small project and deepen for a large complex project, or even a program.
DEFINING OBJECTIVES AND SCOPE

Even on the smallest project there will be objectives which must be achieved. As a project manager, it is in your interest to define what these objectives are since you are likely to be assessed on whether the project meets those objectives. It is your responsibility to ensure the project meets those objectives and you are accountable for this. In short, the book stops with you

Now suppose you don't define and write down what the objectives are, you are always going to be at the mercy of any boss who decides he's got it in for you. The defined and documented set of objectives is your insurance policy against your manager later coming along and saying you didn't meet the objectives. However, there is another reason why you still need to define and document the objectives even on a small project. You want to satisfy the needs of the stakeholders since that is what you are paid to do as a project manager. If the objectives aren't defined, then you won't be able to meet those needs through your project. Similarly with defining the scope. The scope forms the boundary of your project. If you don't define what it is, the likelihood is that it will grow and grow as the project progresses and

although you might have started managing a very small project, before long your project could become very much bigger than when you set out. You still need to document who are the stakeholders on a small project as well. By defining who these are, you can ensure that you cover all of their needs when you define the objectives and deliverables.
DEFINING DELIVERABLES

Somebody is going to have to carry out the actual work to produce whatever is delivered from your project. Even if the deliverables might be small and don't take much time to produce, they should still be written down. By documenting these things and then having them reviewed by others allows errors to be found. Your aim should be to document a detailed enough set of descriptions of the products to be delivered. These descriptions will then be used by the people who will produce the deliverables. Even if these descriptions take no more than a page of text, it is important to write them in a clear and unambiguous way. If you don't write down a description, it means that the person making the deliverable can interpret what is required in unexpected ways which will only result in work being done later to correct the mistakes. So, always define and document the deliverables.

PROJECT PLANNING
If you were to walk up Mount Everest, you would never do it without a considerable amount of planning. Even if you walk up the hill at the back of your house, there is probably some planning involved - what time do you go? What should you take with you? It is the same on even the smallest project where you will still need to work out which activities are required to produce a deliverable, estimate how long the activities will take, work out how many staff and resources are required and assign activities and responsibilities to staff. All of these things need to be written down and communicated effectively to the project team members. I've seen lots of people become unstuck because they think they need to use some kind of project management planning software such as Microsoft Project. This is an unnecessary overhead. I've noticed that people tend to waste too much time making their Microsoft Project

Gantt charts look pretty, so that they lose sight of the reason why they are using the tool.

Instead, for small projects I find that creating a bar chart in Microsoft Excel is the best. It is simple and more than adequate for small projects. Just make each column a sequential date, write your tasks in the first column, and fill in the cells to represent the time the activity takes.

In addition to the bar chart, you will need to document the milestones on the project. Milestones are the dates by which you need to deliver certain things, or may be the date on which a major activity ends. The responsibilities of each project member must also be documented in the project plan.

INSTRUCTIONS FOR PROJECT PLAN


IDENTIFY ALL THE PLAYERS OR STAKEHOLDERS
Stakeholders are people who have an interest in the outcome of the project, and anyone with whom you will have to interact to get the job done. They may include: The sponsor Other executives The customer The end users Your team members
THE SPONSOR

is the one who decided to put you in charge -- in a sense, sponsoring you as Project Manager. He or she is the one that had confidence in you and your abilities and is probably the one who is paying your salary. This person will share the credit or the blame for the project depending on

how it turns out -- and is also the one who could reverse the decision and put someone else in the project manager role instead of you.
THE CUSTOMER

Customer is the one who can pull the plug on the project. This is the person or group that is paying for the services and project deliverables. The customer may be paying your salary, possibly your sponsors salary, and perhaps the salaries of one or more team members. This is the one who receives your services -- the person or group that you must keep satisfied. The customer will be the ultimate judge of success or failure. If the customer requests a change, you'll have to accommodate it. If the customer is dissatisfied, it will be up to you to fix the problem. The customer is the one you have to keep happy
OTHER EXECUTIVES

Executives may be in charge of the end users that will be the beneficiaries of your efforts. They may be in charge of your team members, or they may own or control other resources you will need to get the work finished. Your project and its successful completion may depend on your relationship with them.
THE END USERS

People who will be affected by the project. This group is made up of those whose lives will be changed by the project or its implementation. They could include the sponsor and the customer, but may include others who will feel an impact. This group may provide resources during the project or after its completion. They may provide input to the planning process. This is the group whose job or procedures may be changed by the project, and if training is needed, they will probably be the ones who are trained.
TEAM MEMBERS

Team members make up the group that will be doing the work. These are the people that you will be managing. They'll be involved in the kick-off meeting, in the planning meetings, and in the status review meetings. They'll receive your assignments and respond to your requests. They

are the ones you'll monitor, and whose performance you'll be judging. You will want to keep them motivated and on track. All of these people can have an impact on your reputation and credibility. If the project is successful and they feel good about having you in the project Manager role, your reputation will be secure. Be sure you make contact early and often. Make sure they know who you are and that you are in charge of the project. Remember, communication is your most important tool. Keep these people as informed as possible and give each one plenty of opportunity for input. When communicating, remember that you should be listening for at least the same amount of time as you spend talking, if not more. Establish yourself and your communication channels early, it will go a long way toward making your project successful.

COMMUNICATION
Even in the smallest project team comprised of just a project manager and one other person, the project manager will still need to assign tasks and responsibilities to the other person. It can't be assumed that they will know what they should do without it being effectively communicated from the project manager. If the project manager doesn't assign them specific activities, then the chances are they will go ahead and work on things which are not needed by the project. So, either the project will end up delivering the wrong things, or the project will get delayed since time will need to be spent later on doing the activities which should have been done earlier.

You can communicate the plans via email, or give a print out of the plan to your project team member(s), or better still, call a meeting and run through the plan with the project team members. Remember, if the plan changes, you will also need to communicate the changes to your team as well.
INSTRUCTIONS FOR COM MUNICATION MANAGEMEN T:

1) COMMUNICATION GRID:

Ninety percent of your job as a project manager is communication. Go down your list of project

customers and stakeholders to determine who you need to communicate with about what. Consult with them on how often they would like to be contacted ("when") and how they want to be contacted (email, phone call, text, etc.). For your own purposes note why you need to communicate with then on a regular basis and any notes that will help you communicate better with that person or group.
2) STATUS REPORTS:

As a general rule- your project team and project sponsor receives the most detailed report while project customers should receive more of a progress report on the project product or results and stakeholders should receive a high-level summary.
3) MEETING CALENDAR:

Use this to plan regular face-to-face or synchronous meetings. The project sponsor always has a standing meeting as well as your core project team members.

TRACKING AND REPORTING PROGRES


If we still consider our two person project team - the project manager and one other person - the project manager will need to know the progress of the activities which the other person is working on. This can be done in a variety of ways: a short daily email detailing the work completed, the work still left to do, and a list of any issues/problems. In most cases this will be sufficient.

Alternatively a short 15 minute face to face catch up can accomplish the same thing. Or a combination of the two things might be best. In any event, the project manager still needs to be fully aware of the progress that is being made so that progress can be tracked effectively.

CHANGE MANAGEMENT
Even on our two person project, changes are likely to occur. Requests for change usually come from stakeholders and it is your responsibility as project manager to assess the impact of accepting these into the project. To do this, you need a good estimate of the impact the change

will have in terms of the extra effort and cost involved. This will often impact the schedule as well, so by having a clear understanding of how the schedule and budget will be affected you can make the decision as to whether or not you will accept the change into your project.

On a small project there shouldn't be any need for any fancy change control board to decide if the change is accepted. A quick discussion with the key stakeholder(s) should be sufficient for you to come to a decision providing you have worked out the impact on cost and schedule.

One thing you should never do is simply accept the change. Even if you think the change is small, you should never accept any change(s) without fully understanding what its impact will be on cost and schedule. That is a recipe for what we call 'scope creep' where the project grows bigger and bigger as more and more changes are added into the project. Before you know it, your small project has become a much larger one and you will inevitably fail to deliver your project to your original budget and schedule.

RISK MANAGEMENT
There will be risks even on a small project. Make sure you have thought through all the potential risks at the beginning of the project, monitor the top ten risks each week (or top five if the number of risks is small) and keep looking out for new risks. Failing to manage risk properly is one the main causes for projects to fail. The overhead in managing risks is very low. On a recent project, I drew up a list of what I considered to be all the risks on the project. It came to about 10 risks in all. Of these, five were serious risks. I worked out a plan to avoid or minimise each risk. In all, it took me little over a couple of hours to do this. Then, each week on the project, I would spend say half an hour reviewing all the risks and thinking of any new ones. At the end of the project, whilst some risks actually had materialised, because I'd identified a plan at the start of the project to minimise the impact of these risks, the impact of these risks on the project ended up being minimal.

INSTRUCTIONS FOR RISK MANAGEMENT:

1) RISK REGISTER:

A risk is an event that either harms or benefits your project. Most forget that not all risk events are bad but it is the bad events that can hurt or kill your project. Spend the time brainstorming with your team to identify the bad events and give each event an ID and enough of description to help you plan your response to it. Then, go through your list and decide on the most likely probability of the event occurring in increments of 20s. This doesn't have to be exact but err on the worst-case scenario side. Also determine what the impact would be to the project if the event does happen. Assign "1" to events that would have a negligible impact on the project all the way to "5" for events that would make the project fail. These are the risks that you want to continually monitor. Continue to add to the risk register as the project progresses.
) RISK RESPONSES:

Of course your risk response plan can be more detailed and in a separate document but it is good practice to have a ready reference so that you and your team can act quickly. It is also good practice to examine your detailed risk response plans on a regular basis.

So, with little up front and ongoing effort, you get a big pay back if you manage the risks throughout the project.

INSTRUCTIONS FOR SCOPE STATEMENT:


1) CUSTOMER REQUIR EMENTS:

The best way to handle this aspect is to have a meeting with all of your project customers and your project sponsor. The fewer customers the better for the project in reaching a consensus on the project product or results requirements. It may be helpful to list the requirements as: "Must Haves" and "Nice to Haves." Keep the list as short as possible by thinking of the first iteration of the project as a proof-of-concept and keeping other requirements back for future versions of this project.

2) DEADLINE:

The actual date that the project product or results must be delivered or the project will be cancelled. You should also negotiate for milestone dates so that the customer and/or sponsor can decide if the project's progress warrants it going further.
3) BUDGET CAP:

What is the maximum amount that you can spend on the project? You will not know the true project budget until you actually start the project plan and begin the work so this figure will be a ballpark estimate. This is also a good point to discuss having contingency planning for

unexpected expenses.
4) WHAT IS NOT IN TH IS PROJECT'S SCOPE?

Scope creep is the biggest threat to the small project because the project already has severelylimited time, resources, and budget.
DETERMINE REQUIRED PROJECT RESULTS:

What you need to accomplish or deliver in order to make good on the project's goals and objectives will make up the required project results. You are ready to list the requirements of your project when you have completed the project definition with fully-described goal, objectives, boundaries and constraints -- and after you have obtained complete buy-in from sponsor, customers, and other stakeholders.

Translate the project scope definition into requirements. Start with the list of objectives and, for each one, create a list of project results that satisfy that objective. This is simply a list, as detailed as possible, that describe conditions or deliverables that are needed to meet the objectives. The items should represent actions of one kind or another. A required project result

should be stated as a condition that has already been met -- for example, all employees trained, documentation delivered, fully-assembled widget or framing completed.
ORGANIZE THE REQUIRE MENTS INTO LOGICAL GROUPS OR PHASES

These groups will be used in defining the workload. Each group or phase will become a work package that will be further broken down into tasks for fulfilling the requirements or producing the deliverables for that work package. For example, in a new home project you might have the following requirements: Site prepared Foundation completed Framing completed Roofing completed Windows and doors installed Electrical roughed in Plumbing roughed in Heating & cooling ductwork installed

The site preparation work package could be broken down further into: 1) Trees and boulders cleared, 2) basement excavation completed, 3) final grading completed. The plumbing work package might include 1) kitchen rough-in complete, 2) first floor half-bath complete, 3)exterior taps installed etc.

These groups are not the same thing and not as detailed as tasks. A task grouping could be "doors and windows installed". The tasks associated with the grouping will include individual tasks for each door or window and will be defined in the next step.
GET STAKEHOLDER AGREEMENT ON THE REQUIRED PROJECT RES ULTS

This is a critical planning step that should be done carefully and deliberately. Failure to get consensus could mean there are errors in the plan and errors that occur here will be compounded as the project moves forward and will be difficult to correct once things have been underway for awhile. When you've finished listing requirements for the project you're ready to create the work breakdown structure and work packages , and start building your task list.

DEFINE THE PROJECT WORK PLAN


The tasks you have to complete to fulfill the requirements and deliverables of the project constitute the project work plan Keep in mind, that in this and all project planning activities, you should not be working alone. You should involve stake holders and team members as early and as often as possible.

REQUIREMENT LIST TO DEFINE PROJECT WORK PLAN


The work plan definition is made up of one or more work packages, each of which is in support of a project requirement or deliverable. Each package identifies tasks that make up the actions needed to fulfill those requirements. The collection of work packages is also known as a work breakdown structure(WBS). A formal WBS is a separate document used to focus planning efforts on deliverables and requirements and the work packages needed to achieve them. A work package is simply a breakdown of work into categories and task groupings that can be more easily assigned and managed, and that can be more easily estimated in terms of time, effort, and cost.

YOU DECIDE HOW THE W ORK IS BROKEN DOWN.

You can use a time-phased approach. You can break it down by skills or by contractor specialty. You can break it down by component or by location or by combinations of the above. The goal is simply to make the workload easier to manage by grouping things that are related. No matter how you break it down, you'll use the same format: Categories, sub-categories, and task groups. You can use an outline layout, a tree diagram or an organization chart diagram. You may want to use numbering on each category for easy identification of workpackages.

USE THE PROJECT WORK PLAN TO BUILD THE TA SK LIST

From the work plan you'll produce a task list. The task list should refer back to the Work Package by number and should include the categories under which the tasks are listed. It will be an expansion of the task groupings that were part of the work packages. For example, the task grouping "doors and windows installed" could break down into the following tasks: Install garage door Install front and rear entrance doors Install large decorative glass over door Install standard windows Install interior doors Install skylights

The task list should be made up of tasks and activities that can be completed by one person.
ASSIGN A PRELIMINARY DURATION T O THE TASKS

If you have access to information about similar projects that have been done before you can use actual durations from previous tasks. If you have knowledgeable help in planning the project you can get practical estimates for how long the tasks will take.

INDICATE IMPORTANT TASK RELATI ONSHIPS AND SEQUENCING ISSUES

After you have the list of tasks, you can identify relationships and dependencies between them. Look for tasks that can't occur at the same time or that can't start until another task is started or completed. This information will be an input to the project schedule. There are two common tools used to layout the task schedule. Task relationships and dependencies are often portrayed with a network diagram. Some tasks may not be able to begin until one or more other tasks are started or finished. This chart will help later when determining task sequences.

Task Dependency Chart In the chart tasks 2 and 3 both depend on task 1, so task 1 is predecessor of 2 and 3. Task 9 is a predecessor of tasks 10, 11 and 12. A task is said to be on the critical path if delaying or lengthening it will cause the end date of the project to slip. A numbered task table can be used to show relationships by including a column with the numbers of predecessors. The table below comes from Microsoft Project, but you can just as easily use a spreadsheet program like Excel or 1-2-3.
PROJECT MANAGEMENT S OFTWARE WITH CAUTION

If you start using a project management tool too early you could wind up spending a lot of time working in the software just trying to finish your planning. Programs like Microsoft Project are comprehensive and are capable of doing a lot more than what you need for managing small projects. With all that power they become more difficult to use and oddly, the more training wheel features that are added, the more difficult and unpredictable they become.

Most new project managers are better off if they first build the project work plan on paper or in a spreadsheet and then transcribe it to the Project Management software. The software can then be used to track and report progress and variances.

DEVELOP THE PROJECT RISK PLAN


By developing a project risk plan, you prepare for the possibility that errors, omissions or miscalculations will occur and will have an adverse impact on costs or schedules Clearly, if projects always went according to plan, there would be no need for project management. We would simply plan and initiate them. But things don't always go according to plan. In fact, more often than not, things are overlooked, ignored, misunderstood, neglected, unavailable, problematic or unresponsive. Hence the need for project management and, more specifically, the project risk plan and the process of managing risk. Even when managing small projects, things can go catastrophically wrong; so it is always a good idea to spend some time at least thinking about the possibilities, and putting some contingency plans into place. Risk is a problem, and the best way to address any problem is to ask the right questions. The first question a project manager should ask about risk is, "What could possibly go wrong?" As it turns out, there is a fairly standard set of issues that contribute to project risk. You can easily get a leg up on the whole risk management process by successfully addressing the following questions: Do we fully understand the goals and objectives for this project? How detailed and accurate are our cost and effort estimates for tasks? On which tasks are our estimates most likely to be wrong? Do we have enough committed resources to do the job? What kind of resource availability problems could we have? Do we understand the requirements and deliverables of the project? Do our resources have the skills to do the job? What changes might the customer or sponsor want that would effect the project scope?

How likely will non-team members be able to live up to their commitments and deadlines? What kind of technical problems could we have? What could cause the project deadlines to change? With any risk you need to consider two variables -- the probability that the risk will occur, and the impact the risk will have on the project. Both of these are usually represented as low, medium, or high and are often presented in matrix form. If you list and number all the risks and fit them into the matrix, you'll be in a position to make intelligent decisions about how to handle them. Obviously, you can avoid all the risks by cancelling the project. That is not usually an allowable choice, so the next best thing is to determine the action to take for each risk element based on where it falles in the risk assessment matrix. In some cases either cost or schedule risks can out weigh the other, in which case a separate matrix is often used -- one each for cost and schedule -and decisions are made based on which is most important. Low to medium impact and probability risks are often just accepted, tracked and handled ad hoc. High probability and high impact risks are usually included and budgeted in a project risk plan. Of course you'll need to deal with these risks in a manner consistent with how your organization or your customer's organization deals with risk. In some cases, you can transfer the risk to someone else by using insurance or special language in contracts. Of course, then you're dependent on someone else fulfilling their part of the bargain -- which can be another risk in itself.

CORRECTIVE ACTIONS
Take corrective action whenever the project goes off track. Prompt and decisive action is the best way to bring the project back on track in terms of cost, schedule and delivery quality Take corrective action promptly to head off adverse impact. If your status reports indicate schedule slippage, cost overrun, quality problems or scope creep, you'll want to take prompt action to curb the problems and get things back on track. There are a number of things you can

do, when managing small projects, to correct various types of issues. Naturally, the action you take will depend on the type of issue you want to correct.
COMPENSATE FOR TASKS THAT ARE TAKING TOO LONG

You can speed up a task by adding a resource, by working additional overtime hours, or by replacing a resource with one that performs faster. There is often a cost tradeoff when you add a resource. Additional resources or overtime will cost more, and a more skilled or higher-powered resource may come at an increased rate. If the task is not on the critical path or if it has no dependencies, it may not be necessary to take corrective action, especially if it looks like the task will eventually complete satisfactorily. But if the task has dependencies or will cause the project to slip, you will need to take action quickly.
COMPENSATE FOR TASKS COSTING TOO MUCH

If a purchased or fixed fee item has been impacted by a price increase, often the best thing to do is to adjust the overall cost plan for the project, rather than trying to compensate. Otherwise, you can look for cost tradeoffs elsewhere, like using cheaper purchased items, lower cost resources and so on. Sometimes there are conflicts between trying to compensate for cost and schedule impacts. That's where your decision-making skills come in. You'll have to make a tradeoff and rely on your knowledge of the management climate and the goals and requirements of the project.

CHECK RESOURCES AND PRECUR SORS

If a task should have started but has not, it is generally an indication of a problem in resource availability or tasks upon which this one is dependent. You may need to address the problems in precursor tasks or substitute an unavailable resource with one that is available. It may be too late too deal with precursor tasks, in which case the correct approach may be to simply recalculate the schedule based on the new information.

CHECK ON SKILLS AND OBSTACLES

When all the hours allocated to a task are gone, but the task is not yet finished, it indicates a problem. But a better time to catch the problem might be when 25% of the hours are used, but the task is not 25% completed. That's when you still have an opportunity to take corrective action. Prompt reporting can help, but you'll need to pay close attention to tasks that are shorter than your reporting cycle. If you have a daily or weekly reporting cycle, it's possible for a twoday task to double and go unreported until it's too late.

CORRECT ISSUES WHERE UNSCHEDULED TASKS AR E BEING WORKED.

You can avoid this, for the most part, by advising your team to notify you when out-ofscope requests are received. This type of activity always occurs at the request of someone, most often a stakeholder. You can head off these issues by having a change request and approval process, and advising the requester and approvers of the impact on the project's cost and schedule. If the change is approved, you simply recalculate the project to accommodate it and keep track of it.

CORRECT INADEQUATE TASKS AND D ELIVERABLES

The most difficult problem to deal with is the one where the task is completed and materials are ready for delivery, but they just don't meet requirements. This shouldn't happen in a welldocumented project, but it does -- often because resources just don't read the project documentation. The only solution is rework. Rework is costly and can be prevented by incorporating inspection points during the development of a deliverable. Incorporating a quality control process into the project itself should prevent this type of problem especially if you inspect the deliverable as it is being produced instead of waiting until it is being delivered. Closely monitoring the status of tasks and the quality of deliverables can often eliminate the need for taking corrective action.

REPORT PROJECT STATUS


The best ways to report project status on the projects include comparing actual cost and schedule against the planned cost and schedule, indicating corrective actions taken and forecasting adjustments if needed In the same way that you expect your team members to be accurate and timely in reporting task status to you, you must report project status in a timely way to your sponsor, customers, and stake holders. In doing so, you have an opportunity to take credit for the things you and your team have done well and get direction on situations where help is needed.
COMMUNICATE ACCURATE LY AND OFTEN

Your sponsor, customer and stakeholder will take bad news more easily if it's presented to them in time to provide direction or make suggestions to correct them. If you report project status in time to take action, you make your stakeholders partners in decision-making for the project, even if the decision is to pull the plug. The worse thing you could do would be to wait until most of the budget has been spent before letting them know that the project is hopelessly behind schedule and consuming funds twice as fast as expected. Give them the opportunity to help and offer suggestions.
FOCUS ON SCHEDULE, COST, ACHIEVEMENT, AND CHANGES

When you report project status to the decision-makers you'll want to emphasize progress against the schedule for the entire project, and for tasks with exceptional variances. You'll want to report on expenditures for the whole project, and for tasks with exceptional cost variances. Run down the list of deliverables, indicating those that were delivered on time, delivered late, or behind schedule. Finally, identify any changes that have been made to the project like additional tasks and deliverables, or resources pulled for use elsewhere. Indicate where the changes affected the project. The best way to accomplish the reporting is to use baseline and actual comparisons.

HIGHLIGHT BUDGET REEVISION

Show changes that have been made to the project, by comparing your revised budget or baseline to the original baseline you saved when the scope was approved. Compare Costs and tasks against the schedule timeline and identify any tasks that were changed due to requirements or resource changes. This comparison should only be showing changes that have been approved.
REPORT PROJECT STATU S

By comparing actual progress to the most recent budget revision you show how things stand that have occurred since the revisions were approved and since the last reporting session. Here's where you will want to talk about tasks that are going according to plan, as well as those that are falling behind or concuming budget too quickly.
USE VARIANCES TO FORECAST FUTURE PERFORMANCE

You'll want to give them an idea of the project outcomes based on events and progress so far, and on projections of current trends in cost and schedule variances. Where possible, indicate schedule trends like tasks appear to be averaging 20% longer than anticipated. Obviously, only one delayed task out of 50 wouldn't indicate a trend. You can show trends in costs either on a task by task basis or as an overall project spending rate, also known as the burn rate. For example, we're spending about $150 more per week than planned.
PRESENT AN ACTION PLAN TO CORRECT OR IMPROVE PROGRESS

You should never make the sponsor, customer and stakeholders come up with a plan. They will resent having to do it and you will rarely be satisfied with what they suggest. Instead, develop your own plan and present it to them. Then give them the opportunity to accept it, change it, or suggest alternatives.
SOMETIMES NEGOTIATION IS YOUR ONLY OPTIO N

When you have problems that are uncorrectable, often your only choice is to adjust the project's cost, schedule, or requirements to compensate or accommodate the changes. When you need to

do that, you'll need the approval of the sponsor, the customer, and perhaps the stakeholders. To get that approval you may need to negotiate the changes. Be prepared to communicate progress and talk about solutions. In some cases it may be advisable to have two or three possible solutions or scenarios up your sleeve. Remember to report project status often and whenever significant events occur. It's easier to make course corrections if you do it right away. Wait too long, and you could be too far off course to recover.

PERFORM A FORMAL PROJECT CLOSE


Take formal steps to complete a project close process when the project is finished One of the most common failings is not recognizing that the project is finished. I remember a couple of projects that were overdue and over budget simply because the customer and stakeholders kept asking for revisions and changes long after all the requirements had been met. We called it "last-minute scope slide". Having a formal project close process will help keep this from happening. You'll want to have a clear definition of what finished means for your project and make sure that you call a halt to the proceedings when you reach it. You can even close a project with work still on the table. You transfer the issues to a punch list or checklist and end the project. Work on the punch list becomes post-project support. During this time, you stick to the punch list. Anything new that is requested goes onto a wish list and waits on the next project.
CONDUCT THE OFFICIAL TURNOVER

No matter what you call it -- Final Hand-off, Production Turnover, and Customer Acceptance -you need to designate a milestone in your project close process where you officially turn the project over to its owner. A brief meeting and a customer sign off sheet comprise the the only bit of ceremony you need. Even if there are a few items remaining to be taken care of, put these on a checklist and conduct the turnover. Then take care of the items promptly.

GATHER AND FILE THE PROJECT DOCUMENTATIO N

You'll need to get the original scope, any change requests, materials used in status reporting, communications from and to anyone on the team and in the list of sponsors, customers and stakeholders. Label and file the documentation. If you've maintained a project journal, include that as well.
ISSUE AN ANNOUNCEMENT

You should issue an announcement that the project is officially concluded and that no more expenses can be charged against it. If the project went well, you should include a brief description of the project and what it accomplished. You should also include the list of sponsors, customers and stakeholders as well as the team members. If any team member in particular performed in an exemplary fashion, you may want to single the person out as a team VIP.
HOLD A FINAL MEETING WITH THE TEAM

Regardless of the outcome of the project, examine and discuss the events. Brainstorm ideas on improvement, problem avoidance, improved risk management and so on. The goal is to extract as much process improvement material as possible. Thank the team. Single out exemplary members.
REWARD THE TEAM MEMB ERS

If the project had a positive outcome, you should plan some type of reward for the team members. Typical rewards include: An outing of some kind A party A trophy or other artifact A certificate or customer sign off sheet encase in Plexiglas Even if it isn't part of the formal project close process, rewarding the team is always seen as good form and will make them more likely to want to work with you again.

ORGANIZATIONAL SETUP

Board of Directors Audit committee President Chief internal Auditor

Internal Audit Zones (7) Head Office Divisions (10) Departments (36) ( Staff Office (1) Field Zonal Offices (25+9 Area Offices) Branches (348) MCOs (1243)

CREDIT OPERATIONS DEPARTMENT (PROJECT MANAGEMENT UNIT)


AIM

To prepare banks annual credit plan and support business development of bank through establishing, maintaining and improving system and process for delivery of all goods and services through network of branches.
OBJECTIVES

Introduction of new and continuous review, monitoring of credit operation through network of branches Draw annual credit plan ensuring emphasize on small farmers expanding outreach through innovative packages of customer, friendly products and priority items Follow-up monitoring / implementation of credit plan Facilitate the approval of loan cases referred to Head office credit committee

CREDIT OPERATIONS UNIT

FUNCTIONS

1. Direct and coordinate implementation of system related studies / project 2. Support user in application of system, attending to and resolving system problems in conjunction with system specialists. 3. Ensure that procedure system stationery. Documentation ect. Related to COD are in place and incompliance with external and internal rules for all present and new products and services of bank. 4. preparation of operating procedure manual 5. identify all operational and transactional risks to develop key risk indicators for function 6. develop and adopt early warning system to proactively mitigate these risks 7. ensure implementing the system in all the branches/ field office related to credit operations

8. Prepare summary of loan cases referred to Head office credit committee for consideration of committee and issuance of sanction letters on approval of loan proposal. 9. Deal with loans already sanctioned by Head office under general credit. 10. Manage all administrative meters of the departmental, including employees training and development, ACRs, departmental budget and sanctioning of leaves and tour programs etc.

CREDIT PLANNING AND MONITORING UNIT

1. Formulation and monitoring of annual / future leading plans with emphasize on coverage of small farmers and priority items and poverty alleviation. 2. Analysis and monitoring of disbursements of Zones and persuasion for achievement of disbursement targets. 3. Completion of periodical data on disbursement covering various angles for use of Division Head of operation Division and department under Division 4. Preparation of agenda on operational performance of the bank for Board of Directors. 5. Reply to National Assembly/ Senate questions and other queries from GOP regarding disbursement and credit programs of the Bank. 6. Provide of feedback to information system division being major user of computerized data. 7. Control parameters, system access, safeguard data integrity and direct contingency actions in emergency. 8. Perform any other assignment given by higher management from time to time.

PROJECTS MANAGEMENT
Like other companies, managing the plans and projects in the ZTBL is different to very extent, Although it includes all partial parts of managing the projects, but it has On-going projects, some of them are seasonal, some are regional, some are on criteria based. Seasonal based are crops cultivating and new crops season. Regional based are area wise and may differ from each area. And Criteria based are regarding the targeting the customer. For example, there is a scheme Asaan Qarza which is specifically for youth.

SMALL PROJECT MANAGEMENT:


If we consider the 5 process group for managing the small projects in the ZTBL, then we can include all the step by step with details. This is not a construction type company, it is a financial institute, who lend money. And their resources are the cash, and they get this resources from State Bank, which is approved in the Budget of Pakistan. This is the allocation of resources.

PROJECT INITIATION:

ZTBL initiates its projects with the instructions of President, Prime Minister, Chief Minister or by State Bank of Pakistan. This is the state institute, so they follow the instructions. And they select the best option project after a analyst panel study of that project.
PROJECT PLANNING:

There is COD division for the planning and policy. That stands for Credit Operation Department, there are 2 departments in this Division. One is regarding the operations and the other is policy and planning. This Division make planning of all projects including the new and existing projects.
PROJECT EXECUTION:

After the planning and make policies for new project, the COD department plan for disbursement of the money to each zone in Pakistan. ZTBL have 31 Zones and 351 branches, the head of each Zone have specific branches under himself. The head then further allocate the disbursement amount to the branch manager, and This branch manager then have further make it for MCO. MCO stands for Mobile Credit Officer, this is the project manager for small projects. Each MCO is in charge for 25-30 villages, all disbursement to those villages and recovery are the main duties of that MCO.

PROJECT MONITORING & CONTROL:

MCO is not authorize only for disbursement of cash to borrower, but he is also responsible for recovery. MCO continuously monitor the borrowers financial condition. And there are different agencies include internal and external audit who can monitor this process thoroughly or partly but this is the strict process from the view of Audit side. Form the COD division, AVPs and even SVP can choose a sample field for inspection of the process of small projects. If MCO practice wrong, make some corruption, there are different departments based on zonal level and on Head Quarter Level. For example, Inspection and Complain Department, Audit Teams, Monitoring teams of zones, commercial audit teams etc. Insurance of dispersion process is also monitor. The edge officer is MCO who is responsible for this process as well, but MCO is practicing wrong, then the branch manager is authorized for inspection the report. The Audit Team never relies the reports of MCO and Mangers, they inspect themselves. Then audit team can recommends for termination of responsible persons.
PROJECT CLOSURE:

Project closure is different in the small projects management in ZTBL. There are two ways for closure. One is project closure, which may differ from project to project and from zone to zone. This is also on the bases of season. For example, in the cultivation of wheat, it will close after end of the April, but will again in December, so these are not closed permanently. There are very few projects which were closed permanently, most of closed projects start again after the season/limited duration. The other closure is from the farmers side. This depends on season as well. When the farmer (borrower) have paid all the lending amount, it will be also called closure. So for the Small Project Management in the ZTBL, this is the basic process for lending the money to borrowers. There are different limits of lending amount for each project. These projects are dairy, poultry, crops, tractor, tube well, Solar energy, Bio gas energy etc. All these have different time durations. Basic mark-up rate is 14.5%. plus 1% relaxation for timely paying.

All about the departments performance, ZTBL is performing very well. There arrangements and management is very good, and staff is professional and most of them are experienced. ZTBL works for the farmers, and provides full relaxations for the disasters area. There mark-up rates are also very competitive and there are lot of schemes for farmers starting from short time to long time.

DIFFERENT SMALL PROJECTS:


Fruit grader Garden waste chipper MESCERO Modern agri machinery implements FLAIL MOWER Agro based industries Irrigation machinery Crops orchard Cut flower crops High tech cheaper Technologies Offset rotavator Groundnut thresher Potato grader Potato planter Pruning equipment SALUSTIANA Self Propelled rotary hoe Solar devices Stubble shaver Tunnels Water reel sprinkler Yanmar combine harvester Fertilizer spreader Inter row rotary cultivator

MEGA PROJECT
Megaproject activity is increasing across the globe. This means highly skilled project managers will be needed to manage these newer more demanding assignments. Megaprojects are large scale, complex projects valued at US$1 billion or more, dwarfing the size and scale of typical industrial projects. These complex projects are commonly found in petroleum, minerals, chemicals, and power industries, and are reported to be highly problematic with an alarmingly high failure rate. According to the studies most project teams simply lack the experience to manage projects of this size. Some specific contributing factors to megaproject failure include: Clear objectives for the team are not set All key owner functions are not involved in development of the megaproject Instability in leadership of the megaproject Incomplete project definition work (front-end loading) prior to sanction

THEORETICAL ASPECTS
THE TRADITIONAL VIEW OF PROJECT CONTROLS
The Scientific Management view of the world suggests that understanding a complicated entity can be achieved by taking it to bits and studying the parts. Once understanding has been achieved, and because for every action, there is a predictable and equal reaction, a sufficiently developed schedule model should be capable of accurately predicting the future. When the predictions fail to materialize, more investigation is needed; from a scheduling perspective, this translates to the assumption that accuracy is increased by adding detail. This foundation then allows the assumption that a well developed schedule can, with proper supervision, control workers actions. The ultimate expression of these ideas is embedded in the legal view of the contract schedule. A contract schedule is assumed by law to represent the way

the contract will be executed by the contractor. Some schedule clauses in contracts actually prohibit the modification of the schedule or make the process of changing the schedule difficult. Some of the problems with this line of reasoning are bullet pointed below: To quote the late Douglas Adams I can imagine Newton sitting down and working out his laws of motion and figuring out the way the Universe works and with him, a cat wandering around. The reason we had no idea how cats worked was because, since Newton, we had proceeded by the very simple principle that essentially, to see how things work, we took them apart. If you try and take a cat apart to see how it works, the first thing you have in your hands is a non-working cat. (Adams, 1998). The way complex entities work cannot be understood by breaking them down into parts. Even at the simplest level, studying a fish cannot explain how a shoal of fish work; at a complex level understanding a project task in isolation will not explain the dynamics of a major project and its team of resources. If the future was predictable, there would be no need to lose money during stock market crashes and bookmakers would be extinct. The inherent uncertainty about predicting the future has been understood for at least 300 years! As Leibniz wrote in a letter to Bernoulli in 1703 Nature has established patterns originating in the return of events, but only for the most part (Bernstein, 1996). In summary, the past is a useful guide to what may happen in the future but there are no guarantees. The paradox of knowledge workers! Scientific management produced huge productivity gains through the first part of the 20th century. Its focus was on the worker as a part of the productive machinery of business (exemplified by Henry Fords production line) and discovering the right way of accomplishing each task to maximise efficiency. These ideas worked well for repetitive manual tasks that typified manufacturing through to the 1960s. Problems with the scientific view of management quickly surfaced as the nature of work changed from making tangible things to creating knowledge (eg, writing software). Despite conventional wisdom and current naming conventions, none of the so-called project control tools actually control anything. Changing numbers in a cost plan will not influence the movement of money into or out of an organizations bank account people writing cheque or processing funds transfers do that. Similarly changing the duration of a scheduled activity has

absolutely no effect on the time the work actually takes to perform. The most these project control tools can achieve is to influence the thinking of workers in a way that may change their future actions. Nothing can change whats already happened! Additionally, from a controls perspective, there is a major difference between time and money. If you do not spend money today, it remains in the organisations bank account to be spent tomorrow. If you do not use time efficiently today, it is gone forever time moves from the present to the past at a rate of 60 seconds per minute, every minute of the day and nothing can control this! Consequently, the value of project schedule is not and never has been as a control tool.

SOME EMERGING VIEWS OF PROJECTS


CHAOS THEORY AND COMPLEXITY

Complexity theory has become a broad platform for the investigation of complex interdisciplinary situations. It developed from and includes the earlier field of study known as chaos theory and can be defined as the study of how order and patterns arise from apparently chaotic systems, and conversely, how complex behaviour and structures emerge from simple underlying rules. Another phenomenon is called the Tipping Point (Gladwell, 2000) where one small additional stimulus can cause a catastrophic and non-reversible change in the whole system.
PROJECTS AS TEMPORAR Y KNOWLEDGE ORGANISATIONS (TKOS) &

SOCIAL NETWORKS 6

Viewing a project as a temporary knowledge organisation (TKO) moves the focus of project management from the observation of the output of the project (its deliverable) to managing the processes needed to transform inputs received by the project team into the project deliverable(s). This is achieved by the gathering, melding, processing, creating and using of knowledge. Operational teams are managed on the assumption they are relatively permanent

ATTRIBUTES OF A GOOD SCHEDULE THE DOCUMENT

Some of the key elements needed to create and maintain a good schedule is:
UNDERSTANDING THE PU RPOSE OF THE PROJECT SCHEDULE

In general terms, the purpose of the project schedule is to provide a useful road map that can be used by the project manager and the project team to assist them in completing the project successfully.
DESIGNING THE PROJEC T SCHEDULE

Once the purpose of the particular schedule is understood, the scheduler can design an appropriate framework taking into account such factors as the level of detail needed, the update cycle, reporting and communication requirements (these influence coding structures).
DEVELOPING THE SCHED ULING FRAMEWORK

The critical element in developing a useful schedule is engaging the key members of the project team in the process; the schedule must be owned by the project manager and project team if it is going to be useful.
DEVELOPING THE BASEL INE SCHEDULE

Transitioning the schedule from the agreed team document to the official project baseline involves two phases. The first is essentially housekeeping where the scheduler checks and validates the schedule is complete, it meets all of the project objectives, is correctly coded, etc. The second phase is obtaining approvals and sign off on the schedule from all of the appropriate stakeholders.
MAINTAINING THE SCHEDULE

The process that keeps a project schedule useful is the regular status and updating of the schedule and the management of schedule changes through the projects change control process.

ATTRIBUTES OF AN EFFECTIVE SCHEDULER THE PERSON


The roles fulfilled by a scheduler change as the project progresses through its life cycle from a concept, to a definite job, to a work in progress. The three phases are:
PRE-INITIATION (COM MITMENT / FEASIBILITY PLANNING)

During this phase information is scarce, the planner works with the project team to paint a time picture of the project, to develop a strategy for delivery and gain consensus.
INITIATION AND PLANNING (EXECUTION SCHEDULING )

The scheduler is now in a facilitating role assembling information from the project team (and frequently sub-contractors) to develop the project schedule model and eventually the baseline schedule. The schedulers role is to integrate and test the information for logic, common sense and completeness by asking the right questions
EXECUTING AND MONITORING & CONTROLLING (PERFORMANCE CONTROL)

During the execution of the project the work the scheduler moves into a support role; maintaining the schedule, testing what-if scenarios, optimizing change outcomes and advises the project team on performance. As the project team members become more familiar with the project, the scheduler is happy to defer to the team members opinions and views, acknowledging it is the project manager and project team who are responsible for delivering the project on schedule. Schedulers also need core technical skills including being: Good with data; Concise and accurate in their work; Capable of learning how to use a scheduling software tool

ORGANIZATIONAL VIEWS
Agencies must be able to plan, program, design, and deliver projects of immense size and complexity effectively. Not only are the resulting projects necessarily large, complex, and costly, but also they attract intense pressure to minimize, if not to avoid completely, their adverse construction and post construction impacts on daily commerce, quality of life, and the environment. The combined effect of these factors is what makes a megaproject a mega challenge. Megaprojects require the management of a complex and sometimes difficult-to-understand set of public dynamics. Without public trust and confidence, the resources will not be made available to address the immense challenges that face us today and will continue to face us in the future.
THE UNEXPECTED CHALLENGE

Discussing project cost overruns on a specific megaproject, former U.S. Department of Transportation (USDOT) Deputy Secretary Mortimer L. Downey said, "I wish we could have learned them [the lessons] a little cheaper . . . On any project there may be problems, but there should never be surprises. Finding out that the magnitude of the megaproject challenge has been underestimated after the "boat has set sail" is the wrong time to make the discovery. Yet based on the cost estimate overruns and the levels of negative press associated with several megaprojects, underestimating the challenge appears often to be the case.
A DIFFERENT BREED

The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) defines megaprojects as major infrastructure projects that cost more than $1 billion, or projects of a significant cost that attract a high level of public attention or political interest because of substantial direct and indirect impacts on the community, environment, and State budgets. "Mega" also connotes the skill level and attention required to manage the project successfully.

Many of the challenges that make megaprojects unique appear obvious, such as the requirement to manage numerous, concurrent, and complex activities while maintaining tough schedules and tight budgets. Other challenges are not so apparent or at least do not initially present themselves as challenging. Yet these other challenges are seemingly not knowable in the early planning stages of the project.
SIZE

Megaprojects are huge undertakings. Not only do they require vast quantities of financial, human, and material resources but also their impacts on the human and physical environments can be enormous. Individually, each impact is of significant interest to a stakeholder groupan environmental organization, a neighborhood group, the business community, or the motorists who drive by every dayso collectively the impacts are sure to attract public attention and involvement. Some megaprojects are so large that they create their own economic environments. When construction is at its peak, a megaproject can fuel a local economic boom. As the project reaches completion and construction activity subsides, the local or regional economy may weaken. Megaprojects also can tax the capacity of a region's construction industry, affecting the bidding climate and cost of other projects. Financially, the numbers involved in megaprojects are large to start with, so any subsequent change in project cost often can have significant direct and collateral impacts. Even a small percentage increase in the cost can have a substantial impact on a State's overall budget and look alarming on the front page of a newspaper. A project's funding requirements also can affect a State's bond rating and thus the State's cost of borrowing. Finally, a megaproject's size creates a perceived, if not real, momentum that is unstoppable. Once a large project is underway, decision makers have found themselves in situations where changing course is not an option no matter how different reality may be from earlier expectations. Because of the investment the project requires and the attention it generates, it is hard to walk away from the project or delay its progress once it is underway. Any cost increases must be covered quickly, most likely at the expense of other State priorities.

COMPLEXITY

Complexity takes more than one form on megaprojects. Most highway agencies recognize that these super-large projects are technically complex undertakings requiring cutting-edge engineering and construction techniques. The management skills required to lead these large undertakings often require an effective combination of the best and most talented of both the public and private sectors. Assembling such a public-private sector management team poses significant challenges in it and requires exceptional experience and foresight. Finally, these large projects often span two or more governing or political jurisdictions, thus complicating the decision making process.
COMPLEX PROCUREMENT CONTRACTING

Megaprojects require innovative approaches to fashioning the contracts that will be used to engage the construction industry. The desire to have one prime contractor responsible for the entire project most likely will not be achievable for any number of good reasons. The mere size of such contracts would significantly limit those who could bid, thus producing a poor bidding climate.
CONTROVERSY

An undertaking that requires such a significant investment of resources inherently creates controversy among various stakeholders over how resources should be invested, how impacts on the human and physical environment should be mitigated, and how success should be defined. Because of their visibility, megaprojects often become targets for political debate. Naturally, anything that captures public attention is important to elected officials. Election outcomes, personal reputations, and successful public careers often can hang in the balance with the success or failure of a megaproject.
TIME

One often-overlooked aspect of megaprojects is the impact of a protracted lifespan. Although some projects take a few years to finish, others go on for 15 or more years. It is important to

consider the changes that could occur during a project's lifespan. How often will change occur in the economy, political landscape, laws and regulations, technology, and composition of the project management team? How could these changes affect the project? How will the public's support and patience be maintained over the long term? The project management team must account for all of the uncertainty associated with the element of time.
SCOPE CREEP

A major source of cost increases on megaprojects is additional scope (or an increase in project size, breadth, or complexity), which can come about in several ways. Some stakeholders believe a megaproject's size enables it to absorb additions without visible impact. Others see it as a cash cow with sufficient resources to handle collateral interests. Still others try to leverage it as a vehicle to get "pet" projects underway without having to deal with otherwise seemingly overly bureaucratic project approval and funding requirements.
HUMAN AND ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS

Because megaprojects affect various communities differently, they present challenges for the project team to work with stakeholders to develop solutions that address their specific needs. At the same time, it is easy to underestimate the impact of environmental protection on project success. Knowledge of environmental issues and the laws governing them can evolve, making environmental mitigation a complicated process requiring significant planning and resources. Public involvement in community and environmental issues is an important aspect. Try to avoid impacts on the project's neighbors and the environment. "But in cases where that are not possible, try to minimize and then mitigate impacts on the natural and human environments." Managers, as part of their ongoing communications efforts, have held biannual meetings with resource agencies, monthly meetings with the officials, and public meetings with various stakeholder groups, sponsored forums for property owners, and made presentations to professional groups. Other communication methods include a Web site, newsletters, and media outreach.

RISK AND UNCERTAINTY

Tied to other factors that make megaprojects challenging is preparation for the unexpected. Although predicting everything that the project will encounter is impossible, expecting all to go as originally planned is not realistic, given the complexity of these projects. The solution is to develop a disciplined risk management process that assesses exposure and builds analysis-based contingencies into areas of the project that demonstrate uncertainty. Effectively managed and not overstated, a contingency can help to ensure that costs adjustments associated with risk can be covered without having to seek additional or new funding. The use of risk-based contingencies will also provide decision makers with a more accurate assessment of what the ultimate project cost will be.

MEGAPROJECTS NEED TO MAINTAIN PUBLIC SUPPORT


In the words of Abraham Lincoln, "With public sentiment, nothing can fail. Without it, nothing can succeed." Because of their size, complexity, and juxtaposition to existing infrastructure, megaprojects affect large numbers of people on a day-to-day basis. Construction activity on transportation megaprojects is necessarily centered in the public's "backyard." And the media will keep the project's progressgood and badin newspapers and on the air. As a result, the project's ultimate ownersthe taxpaying publicare in a position to regularly observe and continually evaluate the project. The public's support, patience, and tolerance for inconveniences are vital for the success of the project. Depending on what they perceive and how they react, they can either extend or withdraw their support for the project. That support is crucial and special attention is required to maintain it.
REQUIREMENT FOR PROJ ECT PROPONENTS

These projects are tough undertakings and absolutely require solid project proponentsproject championswho have the capacity and leadership stature to ensure that the project retains the

required support throughout its life. It is one accomplishment to move a project to construction contract award. It is another to champion a project through to completion. As with other key players, time may see key "faces" change. Yet it is crucial that the project retain individuals or groups who are capable of maintaining the requisite support.
MANAGING IN A FISHBO WL

Central to maintaining megaproject public support is clearly demonstrating that the project is being managed appropriately. The public must be satisfied that public funds are being invested wisely, without waste, fraud, or abuse. The public also must believe that the integrity of the project's management is beyond reproach. And as far as the public is concerned, "perception equals reality." The high visibility of megaprojects heightens the importance of public support. Key to success is an open management style that yields no surprises or hidden issues. Openness requires frequent reporting of all news, good and bad. It also requires establishing a means for the public to interact with the project's management. This interaction is important and can be carefully crafted to remain comfortably separated from "management by public committee."
POTENTIAL FOR WASTE, FRAUD, AND ABUSE

As with any other large public undertaking, misuse of public resources on a megaproject can quickly erode public confidence in management's vital stewardship abilities. The mere size of megaprojects makes them obvious targets for such abuse, and careful and constant vigilance is mandatory.

DEFINING PICTURE

MEGAPROJECT

SUCCESSTHERE

IS

"BIGGER"

Megaprojects needs to center on the importance of defining "success" and keeping the eye on the larger picture. Earning public trust and confidence is basic to any public agency's purpose and existence. Agencies are charged with ensuring that the programs they oversee are conducted in a manner that best meets the public interest. The public expects agencies to maintain the highest

standards of integrity, demonstrate competence, make wise decisions, communicate openly and clearly, and meet commitments. By meeting those expectations, the agency earns the public's trust and confidence. As evidenced by Washington State's experience, the public's willingness to invest resources in any undertaking is directly linked to the quality of that earned trust and confidence. Megaprojects are no different with respect to public agency responsibility, yet they are different and there is "a lot on the line." They provide a unique and exceptional opportunity for members of the public to focus attention on the transportation community and draw conclusions, deserved or undeserved, about its competence. Based upon the perception of the project's success, public trust and confidence in the transportation sector as a whole often lies in the balance. A successful project needs to leave behind a sense of public pride in both the accomplishment and the manner of accomplishment. The public leadership, the project delivery process, and the project management team should have earned the public's trust and confidence as a result of the undertaking. The public should conclude that the project was a necessary and wise expenditure of taxpayers' resources and a worthwhile demand upon the public's patience. The management team that understands what makes megaprojects different, incorporates lessons learned, establishes clear goals, and uses clearly understood metrics to measure success will have set the stage for success. Additionally, maintaining effective contact with both the public and the public leadership and keeping the "larger" picture of success in focus over the project's lifespan will preserve the public's trust and confidence. And when the project is complete, that team will have achieved success by every definition.

PRACTICAL ASPECTS
Zarai Taraqiati Bank Limited (ZTBL) erstwhile Agricultural Development Bank of Pakistan (ADBP) is the premier financial institution geared towards the development of agriculture sector through provision of financial services and technical knowhow. The restructuring of former ADBP is being carried out with the aim to uplift the agriculture and rural sector by raising farm productivity, streamlining the institutional credit and increasing income generating capacity of the farming community. ZTBL was incorporated as a Public Limited Company on 14th December, 2002 through repeal of ADB Ordinance of 1961. The new corporate structure redefines the bank's status as a public limited company registered under companies Ordinance'1984 with an independent Board of Directors which aims at ensuring good governance, autonomy, delivering high quality ZTBL is a key R.F.I of Pakistan providing affordable, rural and agriculture financial/nonfinancial services to the rural Pakistan , comprising 68 % of the total population. The Bank through a country-wide network of 359 branches is serving around half a million clients annually and over one million accumulated account holders with the average loan size of around Rs.162331 serving 68%, 29% & 3 % of subsistence, economic and large growers respectively. The total assets of the Bank stand at Rs.123 billion with authorized capital of Rs.25 billion as of 31.12.2011, with a nation-wide working strength comprises 5789 employees. The share of ZTBL in total national institutional agricultural credit is 23% as on 30.06.2012. ZTBL was incorporated as a Public Limited Company on 14th December, 2002 through repeal of formal Agricultural Development Bank of Pakistan Ordinance of 1961. Thereby transforming the bank as a corporate entity to serve as a R. F.I

CORPORATE OBJECTIVES
Develop and operate as a financially and operationally sustainable R.F.I of the country. Assist rural community, particularly the small farmers, in raising their productivity and income levels through timely delivery of credit, advisory and ancillary services.

Build ZTBL's image as a proactive, client friendly, financially & operationally sustainable with indigenous product deployment. Establish and provide backward and forward linkages to strengthen agri. value added commodity chains. Engage in public - private and wholesale - retail partnership to deepen outreach and reduce operating cost. To function as a rural commercial bank to mobilize rural capital formation and to commercialize the agri. sector by delivering the true value of credit to the client. Provide a wide range of risk insurance products to its clients.

Open up it venues of operation to Domestic & International Banking Industry to avail comparative advantages.

TRANSFORMATION OF ZTBL TO R.F.I OF THE COUNTRY AND ROAD TO EXCELLENCE


Healthy and well-functioning rural finance markets are directly related to achieving the two key national policy objectives of accelerating rural/agriculture growth and reducing poverty. The realization of these objectives depends on the simultaneity of developments in rural finance and non-financial markets to foster the creation of diverse sources of rural finance to build sustainable financial institutions, and stimulate products and capital flows in the rural sector. For this, rural finance must be seen as an integral part of equitable development within a framework of macroeconomic stability. The ongoing corporatize restructuring lays the basis for fundamental reforms for rural finance market development. The recurring financial drain, pursuing the old rural finance paradigm and the narrowing fiscal space have also promoted a shift in Government strategy that now seeks viable intermediaries for enhancing outreach.

PROJECT TYPES
Bank manages its projects in the form of loans and launching small and mega projects. Only purpose of ZTBL is to provide customers with facility of grooming in agriculture sector by nourishing and growing crops in order to boost countrys economy and agricultural sector.

Bank provides with following types of loans

1. Project loans 2. General loans

PROJECT LOANS

Project Loan is the term used for the long term funding of industrial projects and infrastructure projects based upon the projected cash flows from the project. Practically, a project loan also known as project financing, involves equity investors, known as sponsors, as well as banking and other financial institutions that provide loans to the operation. The loans are secured loans, which are secured by the project assets and paid entirely from future generated project cash flow, rather than from the general assets or creditworthiness of the project sponsors. The financing is typically secured by all of the project assets, including the revenue-producing contracts. Project lenders are given a lien on all of these assets, and are able to assume control of a project if the project company has difficulties complying with the loan terms. ZTBL specializes in helping customers grow. Therefore whatever sector, and at whatever stage of growth your business is in, bank have the industry knowledge and financial expertise to optimize your finances, and help your business thrive. Project loan from ZTBL would be tailored to suit needs and business cycles. Long term loans can be structured to finance start up projects, expansions, relocations, management buy outs (MBO's), balance sheet restructuring etc. ZTBL project finance has the capacity and capability to act as a service provider for local and global financial institutions in the area of project evaluation and project implementation by utilizing the highly skilled professional staff of Project Finance Loans above 40 lac is considered as projects loans

GENERAL LOANS

Loans that are below 40 lac are termed as general loans in ZTBL. In 1997 government did capping of loans. Capping was done to facilitate small scale farmers to get more benefits. Capping restricted the amount of loan to maximum of 10 lac to a farmer. Project management of loan provision is done on following basis Small farmers o 70 % provision out of total allocated loans by bank o Farmers with 12.5 acres or less is considered small farmer Subsistence farmers o 20% provision out of total allocated loans by bank o Farmers with 12.5 to 64 acres land Big farmers o 10 % provision out of total allocated loans by bank o Farmers with more than 64 acres land.
TERM WISE LOANS

Short term loans Medium term loans Long term loans

Recoverable in one year Recoverable in 5 years Recoverable in more than 5 years

Following are the project that are being run and managed by bank

GREEN REVOLUTION PROJECT


In order to achieve the aim of providing farm machinery and implements to encourage the mechanized farming for the enhancement of agriculture productivity as compared with traditional tillage system a Memorandum of Understanding between Zarai Taraqiati Bank Ltd. and Department of Agriculture. AJ&K has been signed under title of Green Tractor Scheme. The main features of this scheme are listed hereunder

Operational Jurisdiction: Selection of Borrowers: Delivery Channel : Mark up Rate: Document Required : Collateral: Maximum Credit Limit: Incentive:

Throughout AJ&K Area Bank MCO Selects the Borrowers on the recommendation of Department of Agriculture, AJ&K Branch/Department of Agriculture, AJ&K One year Kibor plus 2% margin- (presently it is 14.3% p.a with 1% rebate on timely repayment. CNIC Photocopy, Loan Case File, Agri. Pass Book & 2 recent photographs of borrower Tangible Properties Rs.1.000 million per borrower/party AJ&K Government would reimburse the amount of mark up charged by the Bank on the basis of receipt issued by ZTBL provided the borrowers repay the loans on due date. The loan will be recoverable within 5 years in 10 equal installments commencing after six month of issuance of DD. Loan Case File Rs.200/ Postal Charge Rs.1000/- for the Development Loanswith 5 year tenure. Appraisal Fee (LA fee @ 1% upto loan of Rs.50,000/- & 2% above Rs.50,000/- to 1.000 Million) 10% of the price of agri. machinery Farm Machinery & Implements

Repayment: Cost of Credit:

Equity Contribution: Lonable Items:

WHITE REVOLUTION PROJECT


Zarai Taraqiati Bank Ltd has been financing Milk Processing Units for UHT as well as pasteurized besides conventional dairy farming in the country since long. Bank has now embarked upon to bring white revolution in the country through integration of dairy farmers and milk processors. In order to increase milk supply, mitigate poverty in the country and improve the living standard of the rural populace, as a first step, modalities of Strategic Partnership of Bank with M/s. Nestl Pakistan Ltd. have been worked out and an agreement to this effect has been executed.

Operational Jurisdiction: Selection of Borrowers:

Delivery Channel: Collateral: Documents Required: Loanable Items/maximum limit:


Throughout Punjab Province M/s Nestl identifies the borrowers (existing as well as new dairy farmers) to recommend concerned ZTBL Branch through Model Branch Lahore. Nestl/ ZTBL Branch Tangible Properties CNIC Photocopy, Loan Case File, IB-7 Agreement , Agri. Pass Book & 2 Photograph & Building Plan (if dairy structure involves). As per prescribed rates Upto Rs. 80,000/- per head Upto Rs.125,000/- per head Upto Rs. 6,000/ per head

Dairy sheds/structure Local Buffalo/Cow Imported Cow with calf Working Capital

Maximum Loan Limit: Cost of Credit:

Insurance of Animals Equity Contribution: Disbursement of Loan:

Rs.1 million per borrower/party. Loan Case File- Rs.200/-, Appraisal Fee: @1% of loan amount upto Rs.50,000/-, @ 2% of loan amount exceeding Rs.50,000/-, Postal Charges Rs.500/- per year Mark-Up Rate is One year Kibor plus 2% margin- (presently it is 14.3% p.a with 1% rebate on timely repayment). Bank arranges insurance of animals through M/s Adamjee Insurance Company Ltd. 10% of the cost of the Project Loans for sheds and working capital will be disbursed in cash in suitable installments. Imported cows through Nestl. Local Cow/Buffaloes through pay order/DD in the name of seller. For the five years 2007-2011 Rs.5 Billion have been allocated to finance 10,000 animals each year. M/s Nestl will carry out monitoring of loan to update the branch periodically. 5 years in monthly/weekly installments with grace period of 1-3 months for local and imported animals respectively.

Allocation of Funds: Monitoring of Loan: Recovery Period:

ESTABLISHMENT OF MODEL VILLAGE BY ZTBL


In order to implement Government's vision to ensure development of Agri. Sector in a phased manner, establishment of one Model Village in each Zone of the Bank is launched. The pilot project will be implemented with the collaboration of Ministry of Food & Agriculture/ Provincial Agriculture Departments. An exclusive Agriculture Officer/Mobile Credit Officer is posted in each selected Model Village who will be responsible for provision of services to the farming community such as: Provision of credit facilities for 100% requirements Improvement of present/existing production level is done by introducing latest technologies among the farmers of the area in collaboration with public and private agencies dealing in farm inputs/agri-technologies. Extend full support to raise income of inhabitants in dairy, poultry, livestock and bee farming etc. Facilitate farmers in marketing of the ir crops/produces on the best prevailing market rates.

ENERGY SAVING PROJECT (BIO GAS UNITS)


In order to help the farmers to overcome energy crisis, this scheme has been introduced to provide an alternate energy resource.
Eligibility Criteria: One or more than one creditworthy borrowers having capacity to repay & possessing technical know how of Bio-Gas Unit can get financing for Bio-Gas Unit. As regards security, tangible properties owned by the borrowers and in case of its non-availability, parents/family member property can be accepted as a co-applicant. Loans for four types of Bio-Gas Units (8m3, 30m3, 50m3 & 100m3) with price ranging from Rs.50,000/-, 200,000/-, 300,000/- & 750,000/respectively can be obtained. The loan will be recovered within five years in half yearly installments. 14.30% per annum with 1 % rebate on timely repayment (subject to change from time to time). The loan up to Rs.250,000/- would be sanctioned by the Manager & up to Rs.750000/- by Zonal Credit Committee The loan would be disbursed by placing supply order in favour of firm to be verified by the Branch Manager

Collateral:

Maximum Limit of Loan:

Repayment Schedule: Rate of Mark Up: Sanction of loan: Disbursement of loan:

Monitoring:

Strict monitoring would be exercised by ensuring checking of utilization by the MCO in 100% cases and sample checking of utilization by the Manager, Zonal Manager Recovery and Internal Auditor of the Bank

PROJECT MANAGER
Project manager is the one who controls, leads and performs function of project management. In ZTBL, senior vice president SVP is responsible for controlling projects and operating it. SVP perform following tasks in bank Policy making Operations ZTBL has 358 branches which are headed by branch manager. Besides local branches bank also ha 31 zonal branches which are headed by zonal chiefs. In all branches, finance manager is responsible for recovery operations.

PROJECT MANAGEMENT
All projects in banks are head by a branch manager which in actual is project manager of that branch. Projects manager has following duties in bank: Allocation of resource Recommendation of project approval to vice president Credit planning o Based on state bank allocation o Distribution of loan o Credit plan approval o Area wise disbursement
ISSUES IN PROJECT MANAGEMENT

Following are the type of issues that are faced in project management

Funds allocation issue Funds disbursement issue Loan recovery issues Misconduct in rules and regulations Government intervention Political influence Multiple project conflict and failures

Following is data of projects that are managed by ZTBL

ZTBL: OPERATIONAL OVERVIEW


S. NO. PARTICULARS JANUARY-DECEMBER'2011 ( RUPEES MILLION ) JANUARY-DECEMBER'2012 GROWTH (%)

A. DISBURSEMENT
1 TOTAL AGRI. CREDIT DISBURSEMENT 2 LOANS TO SMALL FARMERS (25.0 Acs)
SMALL FARMERS AS %AGE OF AGRI. DISB.

3 LOANS TO SUBSISTENCE FARMERS


SUBSISTENCE FARMERS AS %AGE OF AGRI. DISB.

4 PRODUCTION LOANS DISBURSED


PRODUCTION LOANS AS %AGE OF AGRI. DISB.

65451.788 58066.462 88.7 44606.480 68.2 58267.014 89.0 908 431.248 0.7 1745 476.253 0.7 432834 311609 121225 878.375 14751.326 43169.649 70000.000 65451.788 93.5

64132.759 57617.472 89.8 45206.724 70.5 52014.640 81.1 7296 3594.398 5.6 2051 524.817 0.8 406392 341844 64548 1298.491 17551.170 31502.555 4253.251 70700.000 64132.759 90.7

-2.0 -0.8 1.3 -10.7

5 FINANCING OF TRACTORS
- NUMBERS - AMOUNT - SHARE IN AGRI. CREDIT

703.5 733.5

6 FINANCING OF TUBEWELLS
- NUMBERS - AMOUNT - SHARE IN AGRI. CREDIT

17.5 10.2 -6.1 9.7 -46.8 47.8 19.0 -27.0 -2.0

7 NUMBER OF BORROWERS SERVED Old Borrowers New Borrowers 8 SCHEME-WISE DISBURSEMENT


- ONE WINDOW - AWAMI ZARAI SCHEME - SADABAHAR - KISSAN DOST

9 TARGET
- ACHIEVEMENT - ACHIEVEMENT ( % )

SUCCESS RATE

DEPOSITS
AS ON 31-12-2012
PROVINCE/ ZONES ISLAMABAD LAHORE SARGODHA FAISALABAD JHANG GUJRANWALA SIALKOT SAHIWAL OKARA VEHARI MULTAN MUZAFFARGARH D.G.KHAN BAHAWALPUR BAHAWALNAGAR R.Y.KHAN KARACHI HYDERABAD NAWABSHAH ( SBA ) SUKKUR LARKANA MIRPUR KHAS PESHAWAR D.I.KHAN MINGORA ABBOTTABAD QUETTA TURBAT D.M.JAMALI MUZAFFARABAD GILGIT BALTISTAN PAKISTAN:TARGET 2012 1220 2295 605 535 454 425 302 345 290 400 507 339 343 366 525 412 1416 181 125 121 175 153 345 219 658 289 677 32 75 579 592 15000 882 1171 474 480 406 375 257 248 260 378 642 306 307 331 513 468 514 130 67 137 130 154 321 169 614 226 189 23 46 512 414 11144 ACHIEVEMENT ( RUPEES MILLION ) ACHIEVEMENT ( % ) 72.3 51.0 78.3 89.7 89.4 88.2 85.1 71.9 89.7 94.5 126.6 90.3 89.5 90.4 97.7 113.6 36.3 71.8 53.6 113.2 74.3 100.7 93.0 77.2 93.3 78.2 27.9 71.9 61.3 88.4 69.9 74.3

1. http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/publications/publicroads/04jul/01.cfm 2. Challenges of Global Mega Projects Innovations & Creativities For Project ExcellencePatrick Weaver PMP, FAICD, FCIOB, Director, Mosaic Project Services Pty Ltd 3. http://www.skillsportal.co.za/page/training/training_companies/project_management_trai ning/1414454-Megaprojects-require-mega-skilled-project-managers#.UPGHSvKlIlo 4. http://www.ztbl.com.pk/briefOnZTBL.htm 5. http://www.pmi.org/Knowledge-Center/Publications-PM-Network/MegaProjectWatch.aspx 6. http://www.ndbbank.com/corp_serv/project_loans.jsp 7. http://projectloan.in/ 8. References: 9. http://www.projectoffice.co.za/en/project-management/64-managing-small-projects 10. http://www.easyprojects.net/blog/2012/01/16/methodology-for-small-projects/ 11. http://www.projecttimes.com/articles/managing-small-projects-the-critical-steps.html 12. http://managingsmallprojects.com/perform-a-formal-project-close.html 13.