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EC 405 VLSI System Design

4/4 EEE, I Semester Elective-I Session 1 Introduction to VLSI Design Part 1/2
Instructor: Dr. Moorthy Muthukrishnan Professor, ETM Dept. GNITS, Hyderabad
1 Dr. Moorthy M., ETM Dept, GNITS, Hyderabad

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Unit I

Syllabus

Review of Semiconductor Devices


Passive components Device Structures BJT, JFET, MOSFET Depletion and enhancement type Basic logic (gates) circuits with BJTs, MOSFETs (NMOS, PMOS), BiCMOS Sequential Circuits Flip-Flops, Latches

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Unit I

Syllabus

Concept of Sheet Resistance


Resistor Design Capacitor Design Considerations for the Design of BJT, MOSFET

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Session Overview

Introduction to IC History of IC Design IC Complexity What is VLSI ? EDA Tools VLSI Terminologies

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Session Objectives

To understand the concepts of


VLSI Design Need for VLSI Design History of VLSI Design

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Introduction to Integrated Circuits


More complex functions for telecom and data processing - Need small system/package Increased demand sophisticated tools and advanced technology Number of gates per chip rising for 3 decades Session Objective : Learn and understand the concept of IC

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Integrated Circuit (IC) Definitions


Integrated circuit is a collection of electronic circuits made by simultaneously forming individual transistors, diodes and resistors on a small chip of semiconductor material, typically silicon that are interconnected to one another with a metal, such as aluminum, deposited on the chip surface. Miniature, low-cost electronics circuits whose components are fabricated on a single, continuous piece of semiconductor material to perform a high-level function is usually referred to as a monolithic IC.

- First introduced in 1958


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Integrated Circuit (IC)


Types
There are two types of ICs 1. Analog 2. Digital A combination of both on one chip is hybrid or mixed signal IC

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Why Integrated Circuits


IC Design

Applications Requirements Specifications

Design Methodology and CAD tools

Fabrication Physics Chemistry Electronics Mechanical

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Why Integrated Circuits


High performance (speed, high throughput, small delay) High reliability High complexity (large number of devices) High applicability Fast design time Simple design process Low power dissipation Low power consumption Low cost
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Why Integrated Circuits


3Ps

Power (Power consumption, dissipation) Performance (Speed) Price (Cost)

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What is on an Integrated Circuit?


Conducting layers which form the wires on the IC. * Many layers of Metal. From 1 to > 8 * Requires insulators and contacts/vias between layers Transistors * Mainly MOS ICs * Voltage controlled switch * Voltage on one terminal determines whether other two terminals are connected or not. .
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Advantages of ICs over the discrete components


Size ( Price = cost) Much smaller transistors and wires. Leads to smaller parasitic resistances, capacitances and inductances Speed (= Performance) Communication within the chips is much faster than between chips on PCB. High speed of circuits on-chip due to smaller size. Power Consumption

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Logic operation within the chip consumes much less power. Smaller size

Smaller parasitic capacitances and resistances


Require less power to drive the circuit.
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Advantages of IC at System Level


Smaller Physical Size

Can make a small electronic appliances. i.e. portableTV, handheld cellular telephone, notepad,
Lower Power Consumption Reduced total power consumption on a whole electronic circuit.

Cheaper power supply which leads to a simpler cabinet for power supply.
Less heat, Cooling Fan may no longer be necessary.
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Advantages of IC at System Level


Reduced Cost

Reduction in number of components.


Power Supply requirement. Cabinets The cost of building a whole system is reduced even though ICs cost more.

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Types of ICs (Functions) Processors


MPU(x86, PowerPC), DSP(TI, ADI), C(8051, PIC)

Memory
SRAM, DRAM, ROM, EEPROM, Flash, OTP

Mixed Signal
ADC, DAC, PLL, Transceiver, RF circuits

ASSP (Application Specific Standard Part/Product)


Same IC used by many companies (TV, Modem, etc.)

ASIC (Application Specific Integrated Circuit)


IC specifically designed for a particular product/company
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IC Examples

Microprocessors:
Personal computers Microcontrollers

DRAM/SRAM. Special-purpose processors DSP, GPU (Graphics Processor Unit).

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IC Quality Parameters Area (Cost) = Price Speed (Value) = Performance Power Consumption (Energy Efficiency) Manufacturability Testability Reliability Time-to-market (TTM); Time-to-profit (TTP) Know your boundary conditions
Dr. Moorthy M., ETM Dept, GNITS, Hyderabad

3 Ps

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Cost factors in ICs For large-volume ICs:


Packaging is largest cost Testing is second largest cost

For low-volume ICs, design costs may swamp all manufacturing costs. Current cost of Fabrication Plant: > $2-3 billion. Typical fab line occupies about 1 city block, employs a few hundred people. Most profitable period is first 18 months-2 years.

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History of IC Design
1906 1947

Audion (Triode), 1906 Lee De Forest

First PPoint contact transistor (germanium), 1947 William Shockley, John Bardeen and Walter Brattain Bell Laboratories

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Birth of Modern Electronics 1947


AT&T Bell Laboratories -- Invention of Point Contact Transistor William Shockley, Walter Brattain, and John Bardeen Awarded Nobel Prize in Physics in 1956

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Birth of Modern Electronics 1947


AT&T Bell Laboratories -- Invention of Point Contact Transistor

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John Bardeen, William Shockley and Walter Brattain at Bell Labs, 1948.
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Microelectronic Revolution -- 1958


The First Integrated Circuit Jack Kilby, Texas Instruments 1 Transistor and 4 Other Devices on 1 Chip Awarded Nobel Prize in 2000

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The Planar Process -- 1959


A More Efficient Way to Make Transistors Fairchild Electronics -- Jean Hoerni and Robert Noyce The Company still exists!

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First Commercial Planar IC


Fairchild - One Binary Digit (Bit) Memory Device on a Chip 4 Transistors and 5 Resistors (Resistor-Transistor Logic SR Flip-flop) BEGINNING OF SMALL SCALE INTEGRATION TECHNOLOGY

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Inventors of IC
Robert Noyce Fairchild Electronics Jack Kilby Texas Instruments

(Courtesy of Intel and Texas Instruments)


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A New Form of Transistor -- 1962


Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor (MOSFET) Radio Corporation of America (RCA) Sarnoff Laboratories

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First Linear IC -- 1964


The A 702 OPAMP Fairchild

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First IC Created with Computer-Aided Design (CAD) -- 1967


MOSAIC Fairchild

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First 1,024 Bit Memory Chip -- 1970


Intel Corporation DRAM

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First 256-Bit Static RAM -- 1970


The Fairchild 4100

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First EPROM -- 1971


The INTEL 1702

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Birth of the Microprocessor -- 1971


The Intel 4004 2,300 Transistors THE FIRST COMPUTER ON A SINGLE CHIP BEGINNING OF LARGE SCALE INTEGRATION TECHNOLOGY

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First General-Purpose Microprocessor -- 1974


8-Bit Intel 8080, Intel Corporation 4,500 Transistors

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Driver of the Late 1970s Minicomputer Revolution -1975

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Advanced Micro Devices 2901 4-BIT-SLICE MICROPROCESSOR WELL INTO THE MEDIUM SCALE INTEGRATION ERA

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First 65,536 Bit (64 Kb) Dynamic Memory Chip -- 1977


IBM Corporation

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One of the Most Powerful 16-Bit Microprocessors -1979


The Motorola 68000 WELL INTO THE LARGE SCALE INTEGRATION ERA

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First 294,912 Bit (288 Kb) Dynamic RAM Memory - 1981


IBM Corporation

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A Very Early 32-Bit Microprocessor -- 1981


The HP Focus Chip, Hewlett-Packard Co. 450,000 Transistors THE VERY LARGE SCALE INTEGRATED CIRCUIT ERA BEGINS

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Gate Array, Semi-Custom, and Full-Custom ICs


VLSI Technology

Gate Array

Chip Area Ratios 3:2:1

Standard Cell

Full Custom
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History of IC Design

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History of IC Design
1999 1958

With 3.1 million transistors and super-scalar architecture First integrated circuit, 1958 Jack S. Kilby, Texas Instruments Contained five componentsthree types: transistors resistors and capacitors Memory capability with 4 Gbytes of addressable memory and 64 Tbytes of virtual memory. Uses 0.8 micron photolithography techniques to fabricate the 262-square-millimeter processor
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IC Designation
SSI: Small Scale Integration ICs that contain individual gates. MSI: Medium Scale Integration ICs that contain counters, shift registers, etc LSI and VLSI: Large and Very Large Scale Integration ICs that can perform large logic functions. ASIC: Application Specific IC ICs that are custom built for specific functions, and are vendor-specific. Example: T.V. remote control may contain a single IC that is ASIC.

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IC Complexity

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Moores Law

The number of transistors that can be integrated on a single IC grows exponentially with time. Integration complexity doubles every two years Gordon Moore Fairchild Corporation - 1965
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Trends in transistor count


Number of transistors doubles every 2.3 years (acceleration over the last 4 years: 1.5 years) 42 M transistors

Increase: ~20K

2.25 K transistors

(From: http://www.intel.com)

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Trends in transistor count

Source : wikipedia.org
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Trends in transistor count

Source : intel.com
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Trends in clock frequency

2 GHz

Intel Labs Sub-ps switching transistor P clock > 20 GHz Gate length: 20nm Gate oxide: 3 atomic layers In production: 2007 !

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Trends in feature size

Intel Labs Sub-ps switching transistor P clock > 20 GHz Gate length: 20nm Gate oxide: 3 atomic layers In production: 2007 !

0.13 m in production

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Trends in feature size - Memory

Source : wikipedia.org
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2002 and beyond ?


Semiconductor Industry Association (SIA) Road Map, 1998 Update Technology (nm) Minimum mask count Wafer diameter (mm) Memory-samples (bits) Transistors/cm2 ( P) Wiring levels (maximum) Clock, local (MHz) Chip size: DRAM (mm2) Chip size: P (mm2) Power supply (V) Maximum Power (W) Number of pins ( P) 1999 180 22/24 300 1G 6.2M 6-7 1250 400 340 1.5-1.8 90 700 2002 130 24 300 4G 18M 7 2100 560 430 1.2-1.5 130 957 2014 35 IEEE Spectrum, July 29/30 1999 450 Special report: The 100-million transistor 1T IC 390M 10 10000 2240 901 0.37-0.42 183 3350
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These scaling trends will allow the electronics market to growth at 15% / year Dr. Moorthy M., ETM Dept, GNITS, Hyderabad

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Is there a limit?
High volume factory: Total capacity: 40K Wafer Starts Per Month (WSPM) (180 nm) Total capital cost: $2.7B Production equipment: 80% Facilities: 15% Material handling systems: 3% Factory information & control: 2%

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Is there a limit?
Worldwide semiconductor market revenues : ~$180 Billion in year 2000, $301 Billion in year 2012 Semiconductor market growth rate: ~15% per year before year 2000 ~ 7% in year 2012 Equipment market growth rate: ~19.4% per year By 2010 equipment spending will exceed 30% of the semiconductor market revenues!

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How to cope with complexity? Need short chip development time to allow the maturing of chip and timely delivery to customers. Level of actual logic integration less than that achievable with the current processing technology. CAD tools and methodologies to manage increasing design complexity.

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How to cope with complexity?

By applying:
Rigid design methodologies Design automation
Rigid Design Methodologies

Design Automation (CAE Tools)

Successful Design

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Why Electronic Design Automation?


Intel micro processor having 1.5 million to Billion transistors. Can we design this with help of truth table and K-maps? Obviously Impossible. Electronic Design Automation (EDA) necessary
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EDA - Tools

Synopsys
Cadence Design Systems

Mentor Graphics
Magma

Tanner

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VLSI Design Requirements

Transistors + Interconnects

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What is on an IC/DIE

N+

N+

N+

N+

Transistor + Interconnect

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DIE/IC on a Wafer
Millions of Transistors and interconnects

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Silicon - Wafer

Individual chips fabricated on a wafer.


Many chips are manufactured simultaneously in this way. The wafer is 75mm, 150mm, 300mm, or 450 mm in diameter. Wafer: 75mm to 450mm (~3" to ~18" ) dia 0.25mm to 1mm thickness

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VLSI Design Process

On a die - Transistors and interconnects - Areas with various levels of doping Masks required to define the areas on the chip. Design of masks with CAD tools LAYOUT DESIGN

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Layout Design - Design Rules

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Layout Design - Design Rules

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Layout Design - Foundry Interface

Designer

Layout (Mask Set)

Foundry

Design Rules Process Parameters

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VLSI Design Phase


SYSTEM

MODULE

GATE

CIRCUIT

G S n+

Layout
D n+

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Four Phases in Creating a Chip

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Summary

Need for VLSI design Challenges VLSI design concepts Design phases

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Session Summary

Introduction to IC History of IC Design IC Complexity What is VLSI ? EDA Tools VLSI Terminologies

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