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Chics Chemistry 1st semester Final Chapter one 1) Define a. b. c. d. e.

Hypothesis- one or more assumptions put forth to explain an observation Experiment- preformed to test the hypothesis Natural law-statement that summarizes generally observed behavior Theory-set of tested hypotheses that gives an overall explanation. Scientific method- systematic process for studying nature that involves observation, hypotheses and experiments

Chapter two 2) Differentiate states of matter a. Solid- has fixed shape and volume b. Liquid- has definite volume but takes shape of its container c. Gas- no fixed volume or shape 3) Classify changes of matter as physical or chemical(pg.45 #13) a. Physical- change that does not change the composition of a substance b. Chemical- change in which a substance becomes a different substance 4) Distinguish between physical and chemical properties a. Physical properties- characteristics of a substance that can change without becoming a new substance i. Example- oder, color change, volume, state(liquid to gas, solid to liquid etc.) density, melting point, boiling point b. Chemical properties- characteristics that describe the ability of a substance to change to a different substance i. Example- wood burning in a fire place, rusting steel, and digestion of food 5) Define a. Element- cannot be decomposed into simpler substances by chemical and physical means. Consists of atoms b. Compound- two or more elements joined together in a specific way c. Homogeneous mixture- a mixture that is different throughout d. Heterogeneous mixture- a mixture that is the same throughout 6) Classify Mixtures(pg 46 #17) a. Homogeneous- same throughout i. Ex. Salt dissolved in water, air b. Heterogeneous- different throughout i. Ex. Sand in water. Chapter 3 7) Daltons Atomic Theory

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a. Elements are made of small particles called atoms b. All atoms in an element are identical c. Atoms of one element are different then another elements atoms d. Atoms of one element combine with another elements atoms to make a compound e. Atoms are not created or destroyed Law of constant composition- a givin compound always has the same composition Rutherfords experiment Identify elements and number of elements in the formula a. Ca(OH)2 i. Calcium- 1 atom ii. Hydroxide- 2 atoms b. Mg(CO3) i. Magnesium- 1 atom ii. Carbonate- 3 atoms Define a. Isotopes- atoms with same number of proton but different number of neutrons b. Mass number- total number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of a given atom c. Atomic number- number of protons in the nucleus of a given atom a. Calculate the number of protons, electrons and neutrons i. 24494PU- neutrons- 150, electrons- 94, protons 94 1. (top number protons+neutrons, bottom number protons, subtract top and bottom number to find #of protons and neutrons)[# of protons and electron are the same]) b. Which two particles have a similar mass? i. Proton and neutron c. Which particle is the smallest? i. Electrons

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13) a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. i. j. k. Periodic table chart of all elements known. Organized in periods and groups Mendeleev- first person to arranged elements in the periodic table. Group- vertical columns on the periodic table Periods- horizontal rows on the periodic table Noble gas- group 8, (helium, neon, argon, krypton, xenon, radon) Metels- has metallic properties, takes up most of the periodic table(ex. Aluminum etc.) Nonmetals-lacks properties of metels, many are gases ( ex. Oxygen & nitrogen) Halogens- Group 7( fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine, astatine) Alkali metels- 1st group (lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium, cesium, francium)(not hydrogen) Alkaline earth metels- 2nd group ( beryllium, magnesium, calcium, strontium, barium, radium)

Chapter 4 14) Define a. Type 1 compounds- metel forms only one type of cation b. Type 2 compounds- metel present can form 2 or more cations with different charges c. Type 3 compounds- contain only non metals 15) Write names: pg 118, #6,8,12,21 a. NaI Calcium Iodide b. CaF2- calcium diflouride c. Al2S3- Aluminum trisulfide d. FeI3- Iron (III) iodide 16) Right formulas pg199 #29 a. Lithium Chloride- LiCl b. Copper(I)Carbonate Cu2CO3 Chapter 5 17) Convert measurements into scientific method a. 0.00045- 4.5x10-4 b. 150000= 1.5x104 c. 501.00=5.01x102 d. .0036210=3.6210x10-3 18) Number of sig figs a. 75- 2 b. 1300- 2 c. 201- 3 d. 5300- 2 e. 100.-3 f. 1.0900- 3 g. 0.0025- 5 19) Determine correct number of sig figs with addition/subtraction, multiplication/divison a. 3x17= 1 sig fig b. 1.0+2.32= 2 sig figs c. 1.35/2.0- 2 sig figs 20) Prefixes pg.164 #10 a. Mega- 1,000,000 or 106 b. Kilo- 1000 or 103 c. Deci- 0.1 or 10-1 d. Centi- 0.01 or 10-2 e. Milli- 0.001 or 10-3 f. Micro-0.000001 or 10-6 g. Nano-1.000000001 or 10-9 21) Calculate density pg 167 #57, 62( density= mass/volume)

a. 89.2mL(volume) 75.2g(mass) i. 75.5/89.2= 0.84304933 Chapter 6 22) 23) 24) 25) Mole- 6.022x10 Define molar mass- mass in grams of one mole Calculate molar mass p210 #19 Calculate number of moles, grams, and #of particles a. Calculate mass in grams i. 1.27x10-3 mol of carbon dioxide (Oxygen x 2+ Carbon) 1.27x10 mol
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Grams to moles Grams given 1 mole Atomic # of element given Moles to Particles Moles given 6.022x1023

44.0095 1 mol

= 0.05589207 grams of carbon dioxide

1 mol Moles to grams

b. Numbers of molecules i. 6.37 mol of carbon monoxide 6.37 mol 6.022x1023 =5.4723818 1 mol

# of moles

Atomic# of element given 1 mol

Particles to mols # of particles given 1 mol

6.022x1023 26) Calculate percent mass pg 211, #27 a. Sodium sulfate- Na2SO4 i. Step 1- Sodium- 2 atoms, sulfer- 1 atom, oxygen- 4 atoms ii. Step 2- multiply number of atoms by atomic mass of each element 1. Sodium- 2x22.98977=45.97954 2. Sulfer- 1x32.065= 32.065 3. Oxygen- 4x15.9994=63.9976 iii. Step 3 add up all highlighted numbers above 1. 45.97954+32.065+63.9976=142.04214

iv. Step 4- to find percent of each element take each yellow highlighted number and divide it by the blue number then multiply by 100 to get the percent 1. 45.97954/142.04214=0.3237x100= 32% of sodium 2. 32.065/142.04214=0.2257x100=22% of sulfer 3. 63.9976/142.04214=0.4505x100= 45% of oxygen v. To check add up all percents and they should be close to 100% 27) Calculate empirical formulas p212 #36 a. Calcium= 2.514 g b. Oxygen= 1.004g c. Find atomic number of each element i. Calcium- 40.078 ii. Oxygen- 15.9994 d. Divide the number given by the atomic number then times by one mole i. 2.514/40.078=0.0627x1mol ii. 1.004/15.9994= 0.0627x1mol e. Numbers highlighted both divided by Smallest number highlighted above i. 0.0627/0.0627= 1 atom of calcium ii. 0.0627/0.0627=1 atom of oxygen f. Empirical formula = CaO Chapter 7 28) List signs of chemical reaction a. Heat, bubble formation, solid formation, color change and flame 29) Balancing equations a. CaF2 +H2SO4 - CaSO4 +HF i. CaF2+H2SO4-CaSO4+ 2HF b. TiCl4+Na- NaCl+Ti i. TiCl4+4Na- 4NaCl+ Ti