Sie sind auf Seite 1von 15

Energy Balances and

Thermodynamics

Florabel R. Toro-Rodríguez, Esq, PE

Agenda

I. Terminology Associated with the Energy Balances and Thermodynamics

II. Types of Energy

A. Work (W)

B. Heat (Q)

C. Kinetic Energy (KE)

D. Potential Energy (PE)

E. Internal Energy (U)

F. Enthalpy (H)

G. Entropy (S)

Agenda (cont.)

III. Energy Balances for Processes without Reaction

A. Closed, Unsteady-State Systems

B. Energy Balances for Closed, Steady-State Systems

C. Energy Balances for Open, Unsteady-State Systems

D. Energy Balances for Open, Steady-State Systems

E. Summary

I. Types of Energy

Energy is the capacity to do work.

Types of Energy

A. Work (W)

Mechanical work

Electrical work

Shaft work

Flow work

Path function

B. Heat (Q)

Conduction

Convection

Radiation

Path function

I. Types of Energy (cont.)

C. Kinetic Energy (KE)

KE =

1

2

2

mv

State function

D. Potential Energy (PE)

PE = mgh State function

I. Types of Energy (cont.)

E. Internal Energy (U)

Takes into account all of the molecular, atomic, and subatomic energies

   U T    dT  

U

  V

dU  

dV

T

V

T

2

ΔU C dT

V

T

1

State function

I. Types of Energy (cont.)

F. Enthalpy (H)

H = U + PV

H

  T

H   dP

  P

T

dH  

dT  

P

T

2

ΔH C dT

P

T

1

State function

For an ideal gas

C P = C V + R

C

k

p

C

V

I. Types of Energy (cont.)

G. Entropy (S)

Unusable

energy

or

the

material’s disorder

measure

of

a

∆S = ∆Q/T

∆S = C P ln(T 2 /T 1 ) - Rln(P 2 /P 1 ), for ideal gases

State function

II. Energy Balances for Processes without Reaction

The principle of conservation for any system states

in out = accumulation - generation

II. Energy Balances for Processes without Reaction (cont.)

The principle of the Conservation of Energy states that the total energy of the

system plus the surroundings can be

neither created nor destroyed.

II. Energy Balances for Processes without Reaction (cont.)

The

macroscopic

general

energy

balance of a system becomes

(H + PE + KE + Q + W) in - (H + PE + KE + Q

+ W) out = ΔE accum

Where ΔE = ΔU + ΔKE + ΔPE. only used before state variables.

The symbol Δ is

II. Energy Balances for Processes without Reaction (cont.)

A. Closed, Unsteady-State System

Closed does not interchange mass with the surroundings. W and Q can be interchanged.

Unsteady-state the state of the material changes inside the system.

Examples batch processes used to manufacture

specialized pharmaceuticals and polymer products

Low production quantities

II. Energy Balances for Processes without Reaction (cont.)

B. Energy Balances for Closed, Steady-State Systems

Closed does not interchange mass with the surroundings. W and Q can be interchanged.

Steady-state - the state change inside the system.

All W done on a closed, steady-state system must be

does not

of the material

transferred out as Q. However, the reverse is false.

II. Energy Balances for Processes without Reaction (cont.)

C. Energy Balances for Open, Unsteady-State Systems

Open does interchange mass with the surroundings.

W and Q can also be interchanged.

Unsteady-state the state of the material changes inside the system.

PV work work done by the surroundings to put a

mass of matter into or out of the system.

Enthalpy

(H)

the form of energy related to mass

includes the PV work term.

Examples

filling of a fixed volume tank, batch

distillation without replacement of feed

II. Energy Balances for Processes without Reaction (cont.)

D. Energy Balances for Open, Steady- State Systems

does interchange mass with the

be

interchanged. Steady-state - the state of the material does not change inside the system. Examples refining and chemical industries

Open

surroundings.

W

and

Q

can

also

High-volume products