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INTRODUCTION Definition Application of technology to improve a biological organism The application of the technology to modify the biological function of an organism by adding genes from another organism The techniques used by the biotechnology industry to modify genes and introduce them into transgenic organisms Why is Biotechnology needed? Nature has a rich source of variation; however, nature does not have all of the traits we need Purposeful design and modifications/assembly of bio-oriented materials (proteins/enzymes, microorganisms, plant/animal cells, tissues, stem cells, etc) and unit processes to benefit humans or to make a profit o To produce valuable products at commercial scale and to treat diseases o To discover and understand the underlying mechanisms of behaviors and disorders in living organisms Cost-effectiveness economically feasible Definition of Biotechnology based on the use of techniques and methods Traditional Biotechnology (before 1970) o Broad definition of biotechnology o Using a biological system to make products o Food Processing Fermented foods, brewery, dairy products, etc. Brewing beer: conversion of starch to sugar followed by the addition of a specific yeast o Agriculture Modifications of living plants for improved yield of food crops via artificial selection and hybridization o Simple process Direct use of or isolation from original biological sources Fermentation Modern Biotechnology o Use of recombinant DNA technology since 1973 Stanly Cohen and Herbert Boyer perfected techniques to cut and paste DNA (using restriction enzymes and ligases) and reproduce the new DNA in bacteria o Combined use of different disciplines Biology-based knowledge Knowledge linked with practical applications (Biochem Eng, etc.) o Use of genetically altered organisms Enabling the production of existing medicines or products easily and cheaply Traditional Biotechnology industries o Adopts new approaches and modern techniques to improve the quality and productivity of their products Biotechnology focuses on Development of therapeutics based on underlying mechanisms of diseases Development of new methods to cure diseases o Gene and cell (stem cells) therapies Production of valuable products at commercial scale o Organic acids, antibiotics, amino acids, proteins (enzymes), biofuels, vitamins, hormones, alcohol, fermented food, etc.

Development of tools and methodology o Expression systems, gene synthesis/sequencing, purification process, formulation, bioassays, diagnosis, delivery

Required Disciplines Integration of biology with engineering principles o Cost-effectiveness o Process development/design/optimization Basic biology Mass/energy balance Thermodynamics Physical, organic chemistry/Pharmacology Biochemical engineering Bioreaction engineering
Molecular Biology Biochemi stry


Biotechnology Eng & Compute r Science Other traditiona l discipline s

Microbiol ogy

Major Application Areas Health Care/Diagnostics o Development of therapeutics: efficacy, toxicity o Diagnosis: early detection and prevention Best solution compared to treatments Prediction and treatment based on genomes Invasive or non-invasive analysis or detection of disease biomarkers Agriculture o Crop production with high yield and quality Bio-based processed o Pollution, CO2 emission, global warming Bio-energy o Use of renewable sources Key Technologies and Fields Protein engineering o Design of proteins/enzymes based on structural and mechanistic knowledge, molecular evolution and computational design Metabolic pathway engineering o Design of more efficient metabolic pathways; high yield of target product, low by-product Computational modeling and optimization o Systems biology o Genome-wide analysis Nano-biotechnology o For diagnosis and imaging Cell culture engineering o Microorganisms and mammalian cells o Hybridoma technology Forming hybrid cell lines (hybridomas) by fusing a specific antibody-producing B cell with a myeloma (B cell cancer) cell that is

selected for its ability to grow in tissue culture Separation technology o Recovery and purification of a target product Synthetic biology o Creation of new biosystems o Systematic, hierarchal design of artificial, bio-inspired system using robust, standardized and wellcharacterized building blocks Branches of Biotechnology o Blue biotechnology Marine and aquatic o Green biotechnology Agricultural o Red biotechnology Medical o White biotechnology Industrial

Frozen water is less dense

Organic Molecule Contains carbon Macromolecules Carbohydrates Serve as quick energy and short-term energy storage Play a structural role in plants, bacteria and insects Monomers are monosaccharides o Glucose (C6H12O6) o Fructose o Galactose Disaccharides o Glucose + Fructose = Sucrose o Glucose + Galactose = Lactose o Glucose + Glucose = Maltose Larger polysaccharides are made from linking many monomer molecules together through condensation synthesis o Starch Polysaccharide composed of glucose Predominantly made by plants Oligosaccharides o 3-12 monosaccharides with proteins Polysaccharides o 12 monosaccharides Lipids Serve as long-term energy stores in cells and form membranes Serve as hormones and insulation Do not dissolve in water Fats and oils are formed from a glycerol molecule and three fatty acid molecules Fatty acids long chains of hydrocarbons ending in COOH o Saturated (without double bonds) Animal fats Coconut and palm oil o Unsaturated (with double bonds, low melting point, fluid nature, sensitive to oxidation) Corn, soybean, olive, canola oil

Bio-based Economy: Impact on Global Economy Shift from petroleum-based economy o Exhaustion and soaring price of petroleum o Environmental issue Global warming and pollution Development of renewable source-based Bioprocess Replacement of chemical processes with Bio-based ones Key role of enzymes o Use of enzymes in Biofuel production from renewable biomass Alternative Energy Sources Production of biofuels from natural resources o Increase in the yield and alcohol tolerance Redesign of pathway for the ethanol production in yeast to use raw materials Elucidation of enzyme mechanisms Redesign of pathway to increase the yield and to reduce by-products Design of critical enzymes in the pathway o Process development: fermentation process o Separation and concentration Therapeutic Proteins High specificity and less toxicity high safety and efficacy Therapeutic proteins o Antibodies, proteins, enzymes, peptides, etc. Therapeutic proteins will form the back-bone of future medicinal therapy Perspectives Biotechnology will have an impact on humans health, life-style, and economy. Modern biotechnology constitutes a variety of diverse areas and technologies, requiring interdisciplinary collaborations. II. CHEMICAL COMPONENTS Water Most abundant molecule Has special traits that make it important to life Polar molecule o Oxygen atoms are large and hydrogen are small Characteristics o Liquid at room temperature o Universal solvent for polar molecules o Water molecules are cohesive o Temperature of water changes slowly o High heat of vaporization

Food rich in plant sterols and sterolins o Avocado, walnuts, almonds, soybeans, cold-pressed olive oil, peanuts, sunflower seeds, wheat germ oil, sesame seeds Types of oil o Fixed Palm, soybean, sunflower seed, tuba-tuba, kasuy (cashew), corn o Fats Avocado, cacao o Waxes


Saging butuan, sisal Lavender, pine needle, rosemary, jasminol (jasmine), geraniol (rose), citral (oranges), citronella, camphor (sambong, manzanilla), safrol (cinnamon)

Proteins Functions o Serve as structural proteins o Act as enzymes to speed reactions o Serve as transport carriers o Allow materials to cross cell membranes o Expression of our genes Proteins are polymers of amino acids Peptide bonds join amino acids

Nucleic Acid Polymers of nucleotides o Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) Double-stranded with complementary base pairing Strands are antiparallel G-C pairs have 3 hydrogen bonds A-T pairs have 2 hydrogen bonds One strand is the complement of the other Major and minor grooves present different surfaces Cellular DNA is almost exclusively B-DNA B-DNA has ~10.5bp/turn of the helix

Proteins have levels of organization o Primary structure Peptide bonds o Secondary structure 3D structure 3.6 amino acids per turn Alpha-helix stabilized by hydrogen bonds H bonds between NH and CO o Tertiary structure Formation of domains Functional unit of proteins Made up of about 200 amino acids Stabilized by bonds Disulfide Hydrophobic Hydrogen Ionic interactions o Quaternary structure Several subunits of proteins Held together by hydrophobic bonds, H bonds, ionic bonds Protein denaturation o Unfolding and disorganization of the protein structure o Destroys up to secondary structure o Peptide bonds not hydrolyzed o Heat, organic solvents, mechanical mixing

o III. CELLS Animal cells

Ribonucleic Acid (RNA)

Plant cells o

Water, salts, crystals, starch, protein bodies, granules/fibrous materials

Function Storage of nutrient reserves and waste materials Digestive organelle Impermeable to wastes Ribosomes o Sites of protein synthesis o In plants, only few ribosomes except in legumes and insectivorous plants o A cluster is called a polysome

IV. CELL DIVISION Interphase G1 phase o Period before DNA synthesis o gap between cell division and DNA synthesis o Cell makes ER, ribosomes, and cytosol to make functional cells S phase o DNA synthesis o Replicates its DNA for the next 6-8 hours

Cell wall o Primary wall Microfibrils attached to the cell membrane Polysaccharide Celluloses polymers of glucose Hemicelluloses akali-soluble portion Pectin hot water-soluble portion o Secondary wall Lignin Aromatic polymer that rigidifies secondary cell walls Stained red by phloroglucinol solutions o Mid lamella Pectin

o Goal of replication is to accurately copy the genetic information so that each daughter cell will have an exact copy of the parental DNA Steps

Compartmentalization Eukaryotic cells are full of membrane-enclosed compartments o Separates incompatible chemical and physical conditions o Proteins can be both synthesized and hydrolyzed in a single cell Parts of the cell (incomplete :o) Nucleolus o Holds the genetic information of the cell Endoplasmic Reticulum o Rough and Smooth Ribosomes attached outside = rough Protein synthesis within endomembrane system Protein synthesis for secretion Integral membrane protein syntheshis Protein modification (Golgi also) Membrane assembly Golgi Apparatus o Packages proteins before they are sent to their destination Mitochondria o The cells powerhouse, as it produces ATP Chloroplasts o Contains chlorophyll, which is a catalyst for photosynthesis Central Vacuoles o Tonoplast Single membrane o Contents

G2 phase o Spans the time from the completion of DNA synthesis to the onset of cell division o Spends 2-5 hours making proteins before mitosis Cell performs all of its regular functions and gets ready to divide High metabolic activity DNA is duplicated DNA is in the form of chromatin

Chromosomes Before a cell starts dividing, the chromosomes are duplicated (refer to S phase) o Produces sister chromatids Structure o Homologous chromosomes = identical pairs o One inherited from mother, and one from father o Made of of sister chromatids joined at the centromere

M phase (Mitosis) o Purpose: to make copies of cells and their DNA o Events Replicated chromosomes align at the metaphase plate Sister chromatids separate and move to opposite poles Nuclear membranes form around each new nucleus Division of cytoplasm or cytokinesis o Stages

Cell Cycle Control Checkpoint proteins monitor progression through the cell cycle


Please dont rely on this reviewer alone! This is just a summarized version of the PowerPoints we got from the FIRST HALF of the term. Good luck!